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II.

¹Διὰ τοῦτο δεῖ περισσοτέρως προσέχειν ἡμᾶς τοῖς ἀκουσθεῖσιν, μή ποτε παραρυώμεν. ²εἰ γὰρ ὁyap ό δι'

1 περισσ. δεῖ א vg. Μ₂ om. v. 1. προσέχειν ἡμᾶς אABD₂ vg: ἡμ. προς. S.

ii. The peril of neglecting the new revelation through the Son (ii. 1—4).

After establishing the superior dignity of the Son in comparison with that of angels, the writer of the Epistle pauses for a moment to enforce the practical consequences which follow from the truth before he sets forth the work of the Son for humanity. It is obvious that a revelation given through such a Mediator carries with it more solemn obligations on those who receive it and heavier penalties for neglect than a revelation made through angelic ministry.

Similar hortatory passages are introduced in the argument iii. 7—19, v. 11 ff.

Contrast Gal. i. 6—9.

The line of thought is direct and simple. There is always in men a tendency to forgetfulness of a past message under the influence of new forces. The authority of the message is a measure of the danger of such neglect (1, 2); and the Gospel comes to us with the highest possible attestation in regard to its Author and its messengers (3), and the manifold witness of God by which it was confirmed (4).

¹Therefore we must give the more earnest heed to the things that were heard lest haply we drift away from them. ²For if the word spoken through angels proved stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just requital; ³how shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation? which, having at the first been spoken through the Lord, was confirmed unto us by them that heard; ⁴God bearing witness to it with them by signs and wonders, and by manifold powers, and by various gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His will.

(1). διὰ τοῦτο] For this cause...Therefore..., because of the superiority of the Son over the angels, through whom the Law was given.

δεῖ] The word marks a logical necessity and not a moral obligation: we must rather than we ought. Compare xi. 6, ix. 26, and contrast ὀφείλειν v. 17, v. 3, 12. See 1 John ii. 6 note.

περισσ. προσ.] Vulg. abundantius observare. The adverb expresses, so to speak, an absolute excess (xiii. 19, c. vi. 17, vii. 15), and not simply a relative excess (μᾶλλον ix. 14, x. 25, xii. 9, 25). The connexion of περισσοτέρως with δεῖ is unnatural. The force of the comparative is 'more exceedingly than if there had been no such marked preeminence of the Son.' The form in -ως is not found in the lxx. or Philo.

προσέχειν] The full phrase προσ. τ. νοῦν does not occur in the N.T. (but see Job vii. 17 lxx.). The word is used of things Acts viii. 6; xvi. 14; 1 Tim. i. 4; Tit. i. 14; 2 Pet. i. 19; and of persons Acts viii. 10 f.; 1 Tim. iv. 1. The absolute use occurs as early as Demosthenes. Compare vii. 13 n.

ἡμᾶς] we Christians. The obligation is a special one.

τοῖς ἀκουσθ.] to the things that were heard, to the message received by the apostles (oἱ ἀκούσαντες) when 'God spake in His Son'; or, more simply, to the things we heard (as κατηχούμενοι) when first the Gospel was preached to us (ὁ λόγος τῆς ἀκοῦς c. iv. 2; 1 Thess. ii. 13. Comp. Rom. x. 17).

It is to be noticed that the writer of the Epistle does not use εὐαγγέλιον (the verb occurs iv. 2, 6). In the writings of St John it is found only in Apoc. xiv. 6.

μή ποτε] lest haply, Vulg. ne forte

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ἀγγέλων λαληθεὶς λόγος ἐγένετο βέβαιος, καὶ πᾶσα

(Ο. L. ne casu) and not lest ever. Compare iv. 1.

παραρυῶμεν] The word παραρρεῖν is of considerable interest. It is constantly used of things which slip away, as a ring from the finger (Plut. Amat. p. 754 A), or take a wrong course, as a crumb of food passing into the windpipe (Arist. de part. an. iii. 3), or an inopportune subject intruding upon a company (Aelian, V. II. iii. 30).

It occurs twice in the Greek translations of the Book of Proverbs. It is found in the sense of 'slipping away' in Symmachus' rendering of Prov. iv. 21 μὴ παραρρυησάτωσαν ἐξ ἀφθωλμπων σοῦ for the Hebr. Hebrew: Vulg. ne recedant ab oculis tuis: Ε. V. Let them not depart from thine eyes. And again it occurs of the person in Prov. iii. 21 (lxx.) υἱὲ μὴ παραρυῇς, τήρησον δὲ ἐμὴν βουλὴν καὶ ἔννοιαν, for the similar Hebrew Hebrew: Vulg. Fili mi, ne effluant haec ab oculis tuis: E. V. *Let them not depart from thine eyes.

This latter usage is identical with the usage in the present passage: 'Do not be carried away from my teaching.'

The idea is not that of simple forgetfulness, but of being swept along past the sure anchorage which is within reach. (Compare Hesychius: παραρυῇς, μετεωρισθῇς, παραπέσῃς.) The image is singularly expressive. We are all continuously exposed to the action of currents of opinion, habit, action, which tend to carry us away insensibly from the position which we ought to maintain.

The versions are very vague. The Syriac gives fall as in iv. 11 (μή τις πέσῃ). There are many Latin renderings: Vulg. pereffluamus, O. L. labamur (lebemur) or labemus; and in patristic quotations: supereffluamus (Hier.), defluamus (Aug.), effluamus (Sedul.). Primasius was evidently perplexed by the phrase: ne forte pereffluamus; id est, no forte pereamus et a salute excidamus; vel ne forte evanescamus, transeuntes in perditionem more fluminis currentis in mare...

The Greek Christian writers use the word in the same sense as it has here, and perhaps they derived the usage from the Epistle: e.g. Clem. Alex. Paed. iii. § 58 p. 288 P. διὸ καὶ συστέλλειν χρὴ τὰς γυναῖκας κοσμίως καὶ περισφίγγειν αἰδοῖ σώφρονι, μὴ παραρρυῶσι τῆς ἀληθείας διὰ χαυνότητα.

Orig. c. Cels. viii. 23 'The great mass of simple believers, who cannot keep every day as a divine festival, need sensible patterns in fixed holy days that they may not wholly drift away (ἵνα μὴ τέλεον παραρρυῇ) under popular influences from the observance of regular religious duties.'

2,3a. εἰ γάρ...] The necessity of heedful care is grounded on the certainty of retribution. This certainty is proportional to the authority of the revelation. Comp. 1 Clem. xli. 4 ὅσῳ πλείονος κατηξιώθημεν γνώσεως τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον ὑποκείμεθα κινδύνῳ.

ὁ δι' ἀγγ. λαλ. λόγος] the word—the revelation—spoken through angels, as the organs of the Divine communication, that is the Law. Vulg. qui per angelos dictus est sermo. The title λόγοs (not νόμος) is given to the Law in order to characterise it as the central part of the Old Revelation round which all later words were gathered. So throughout the Epistle the Law is regarded as a gracious manifestation of the divine will, and not as a code of stern discipline. The connexion of the angels with the giving of the Law is recognised elsewhere in the N. T., Gal. iii. 19 διαταγεὶς δι'ἀγγέλων; Acts vii. 53 (comp. v. 38) εἰς διαταγὰς ἀγγέλων. So also Josephus represents Herod as saying that the Jews 'learnt τὰ ὁσιώτατα τῶν ἐν τοῖς νόμοις δι' ἀγγέλων παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ' (Antt.

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παράβασις καὶ παρακοὴ ἔλαβεν ἔνδικον μισθαποδοσίαν, ³πῶς ἡμεῖς ἐκφευξόμεθα τηλικαύτης ἀμέλήσαντες σωτηρίας,

xv. 5, 3). Βy a natural process of interpretation the attendance of the angels at the revelation on Sinai (Deut. xxxiii. 2; Ps. lxviii. 17) was taken to indicate their ministration. The presence of angels is not noticed in Ex. xix., and Philo seems purposely to avoid referring the phenomena at the Lawgiving to their action (de Decal. § 9 (ii. 185 Μ.) κελεύσας...δημιουργηθῆναι...ψυχῆν λογικήν...).

ἐγέν. βέβαιος] proved sure, not only was assured, confirmed (ἐβεβαιώθη v. 3) by some external authority; but, as it were, vindicated its own claims. There is in the divine Law a self-executing power. It confirms itself. Compare the significant variation in the construction in Rom. ii. 6 ff. ἀποδώσει...τοῖς καθ' ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ δόξαν...τοῖς δὲ ἐξ ἐριθίας...ὀργὴ καὶ θυμός...together with Origen's note in Rom. Lib. ii. § 6.

The verb always retains its force in these periphrastic forms c. iii. 14; v. 5, 12; vi. 4; vii. 12, 18, 20, 23; x. 33; xi. 6 f.; xii. 8; 1 Cor. iii. 13; xi. 19.

παράβ. καὶ παρακ.] Vulg. praevaricatio et inobedientia. Παράβασις describes the actual transgression, a positive offence (the overt act); παρακοή describes properly the disobedience which fails to fulfil an injunction, and so includes negative offences (the spirit). Comp. 2 Cor. x. 6; Rom. v. 19 (Matt. xviii. 17 παρακούειν). The word παρακοή is not found in the lxx. (παρακούειν Esth. iii. 3, 8 [iv. 13]; Is. lxv. 12). Praevaricatio est vetita facere, inobedientia vero jussa non facere (Herv.).

In Rom. v. the sin of Adam is described successively as παράβασις v. 14 (the simple fact); παράπτωμα v. 17, 18 (contrasted with the δικαιώμα of Christ: the fact in its relation to the divine order); παρακοή v. 19 (contrasted with the ὑπακοή of Christ: the manifestation of the spiritual character).

παράβ...ἔλαβεν] The punishment meets the transgression, not the transgressor. There is an absolute correspondence. Compare Col. iii. 25 (Eph. vi. 8).

ἕνδικον] The word occurs again in Rom. iii. 8: it is not found in the lxx. As distinguished from δίκαιος it describes that which conforms to, and not that which embodies, a rule. The word δίκαιος is used almost exclusively of persons as possessing the positive quality of righteousness. It is used also of judgment as being not only right, but righteous: John v. 30; vii. 24; Apoc. xvi. 7; xix. 2; 2 Thess., ii. 1. Comp. Luke xii. 57; and of the 'commandment' (Rom. vii. 12) and the 'ways' of God (Apoc. xv. 3).

μισθαποδοσίαν] Vulg. mercedis retributionem, O. L. remunerationem, and so Vulg. elsewhere. The word is found again in the Greek Scriptures only in c. x. 35, xi. 26, and the corresponding personal noun μισθαποδότης in c. xi. 6 for the classical μισθοδοσία, μισθοδότης. As compared with the corresponding words ἀνταπόδοσις (Col. iii. 24), ἀνταπόδομα (Lk. xiv. 12; Rom. xi. 9), the word appears to emphasise the idea of an exact requital of good or evil by a sovereign Judge. The discipline and punishment of the wilderness (c. iii. 16 ff.; 1 Cor. x. 6 ff.) furnished the typical illustration of this teaching which extends to the whole Jewish life: c. xii. 25, x. 28 f.

(3). πῶς...;] The interrogative form is characteristic of the style of the Epistle (c. i. 5 note). Compare 1 Tim. iii. 5; 1 John iii. 17. How shall we escape after neglecting...? The neglect is assumed.

ἐκφευξόμεθα] The word is again used absolutely Acts xvi. 27; 1 Thess. v. 3.

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ἥτισ, ἀρχὴν λαβοῦσα λαλεῖσθαι διὰ τοῦ κυρίου, ὑπὸ τῶν ἀκουσάντων εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐβεβαιώθη, ⁴συνεπιμαρτυροῦντος

4 συνεπιμ.: συνμαρτ. Β.

τηλεκ] so great as has been seen from the nature of the Mediator. Comp. 2 Cor. i. 10. Ἀμελ. Matt. xxii. 5.

σωτηρίας] The character of the new dispensation is placed in contrast with the Law: 'salvation' (i. 14 note) with 'the word.' Comp. Jude 3; Acts xiii. 26. So Theodoret:ὁ μὲν νόμος λόγος ἧν τὸ πρακτέον ὑποδεικνύς, ἡ δὲ τοῦ κυρίου διδασκαλία τῆς αἰωνίου πρόξενος σωτηρίας. And Primasius: Lex promittebat terram...Evangelium regnum crelorum...Illa praestabat vindictam de terrenis hostibus: istud praestat de spiritualibus...Illa promittebat longrevam vitam temporalem; Evangelium concedit vitam sine fine mansuram.

(3) b, (4). The superior authority of the Gospel is shewn in three points, in its original announcement, in its convincing proclamation, and in the manifold divine attestation to its truth.

ἥτις] The pronoun preserves its full force:Seeing that it...was confirmed...Ὅστις as distinguished from ὅς is rightly described as 'qualitative and generic,' a man (a thing) such as..., a class who..., hence very commonly whoever (whatever)... Compare cc. viii. 56; ix. 2, 9; x. 35, 8, 11; xii. 5; xiii. 7, and Moulton on Winer, p. 209 n.

άρχὴν λαβοῦσα λαλ.] Vulg. cum initium accepisset enarrari. This singular mode of expression suggests somewhat more than the simple fact having first been spoken, and implies that the teaching of the Lord was the true origin of the Gospel. The phrase is not found elsewhere in the Ν. T. or in the lxx., but is frequent in late Greek writers (τὴν ἀρχὴν λ.): e.g. Philo, de vita Mos. i. § 14; (ii. 93 Μ.) [σημεῖον] τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ γενέσθαι λαβὸν ἐν Αἰγύπρῳ.

λαλεῖσθαι] i. 1 f.; iii. 5; xii. 25.

The addition of the verb calls attention to the present preaching, and to the fact that this is based on the original preaching of Christ.

διὰ τοῦ κ.] through the Lord as the Messenger of the Father (c. i. 2). Vulg. per dominum. Comp. v. 2 ὁ δι' ἀγγ. λαλ. λ. Contrast λαλεῖσθαι ὑπό Luke ii. 18; Acts xiii. 45; xvi. 14; xvii. 19; and λαλεῖσθαι παρά Luke i. 45.

τοῦ κυρίου] not τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν. Compare c. xii. 14. The idea is of the Sovereign Majesty of Christ in Himself. Contrast vii. 14, xiii. 20, viii. 2.

ὑπὸ τῶν ἀκ.] by the immediate hearers: Luke i. 2. Contrast 1 John i. 1.

Though St Paul was not a hearer of Christ in the flesh, yet it is scarcely conceivable that he should have placed himself thus in contrast with those who were: Gal. i. 12; and if the writer was a disciple of St Paul he must refer to other teachers also.

εἰς ἡμ. ἐβεβ.] was brought unto us—into our midst—and confirmed to us. Vulg. in nos confirmata est. The use of the preposition suggests an interval between the first preaching and the writer's reception of the message. It is to be noticed that the 'salvation' and not merely the message of it (Acts xiii. 26) was 'confirmed': the 'salvation' was shewn to be real in the experience of those who received it.

εἰς ἡμᾶς] Gal. iii. 14; John viii. 26; Rom. viii. 18; Acts ii. 22; 1 Pet. i. 4, 25. Compare Moulton's Winer, p. 776.

ἐβεβαιώθη] Compare (Mk.) xvi. 20; Rom. xv. 8.

(4). The divine witness to the 'salvation' of the Gospel is both continuous and manifold. The writer appeals to a succession of forms in which it was manifested in his experience

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τοῦ θεοῦ σημείοις τε καὶ τέρασιν καὶ ποικίλαις δυνάμεσιν καὶ πνεύματος ἁγίου μερισμοῖς κατὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ

om. τε Μ₂ vg syrr. αὐτοῦ: τοῦ θεοῦ D₂*.

and in that of those whom he addressed.

(1). Miracles (σημεῖα, τέρατα).

(2). Powers, outwardly shewn in action (ποικίλαι δυνάμεις).

(3). Endowments, which might be purely personal and unobserved (πν. ἁγ. μερισμοῖς).

There is a progress from that which is most striking outwardly to that which is most decisive inwardly. The outward phenomenon and the inward experience are both in different ways capable of various interpretations; but they are complementary. The one supplies that element of conviction which the other wants.

The passage is of deep interest as shewing the unquestioned reality of miraculous gifts in the early Church: and the way in which they were regarded as coordinate with other exhibitions of divine power.

Compare 2 Cor. xii. 12; Gal. iii. 5; Rom. xv. 19; c. vi. 4 f.

συνεπιμαρτυροῦντος] God also bearing witness with them to the truth of the word. This witness is present and not past Vulg. contestante [O. L. adseverante] Deo. The word is found here only in the Greek Scriptures. ἐπιμαρτυρεῖν occurs 1 Pet. v. 12; συμμαρτυρεῖν Rom. ii. 15; viii. 16; ix. 1. The word is not uncommon in late writers: Clem. R. 1 Cor. 23, 43.

σημ. τε καὶ τέρ....] The τε, which is not used in the common phrase σημ. καὶ τέρ., shews that all the forms of witness are probably regarded singly, Acts xiii. 1; 1 Cor. i. 30; c. ix. 2; xi. 32. Comp. Acts ii. 22; 2 Thess. ii. 9.

σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα] The combination is found in the Synoptic Gospels (Matt. xxiv. 24; Mk. xiii. 22), St John (iv. 48), in St Paul's Epistles (Rom. xv. 9; 2 Cor. xii. 12; 2 Thess. ii. 9), and most frequently in the Acts (8 times cc. i.— xv.). It is not found in the Catholic Epistles or the Apocalypse. In the Synoptic passages and 2 Thess. ii. 9 the phrase is used of the manifestation of evil powers.

Τέρας is nowhere used by itself in the Ν. T., though it is so used in the lxx. (comp. Acts ii. 19; Joel iii. 3). Σημεῖον and σημεῖα are common alone, and especially in St John in reference to Christ's works.

ποικ. δυν.] by manifold powers (Lat. variis virtutibus) shewing themselves in their characteristic results. Δύναμις expresses here the power itself and not the manifestation of the power. See Mk. vi. 14; 1 Cor. xii. 10; Matt. xi. 20 ff.; c. vi. 4 ff.

πν. ἁγ. μερισμοῖς] Vulg. sp. s. distributionibus (O. L. divisionibus). Comp. 1 Cor. xii. 4, 11 (Acts ii. 3 διαμεριζόμεναι). The Holy Spirit is in one sense the gift and in another the Giver. Here there can be no doubt that the thought is of the divine gift (πν. ἅγ. not τὸ πν.τὸ ἅγ.) as imparted in several measures by God. Compare John iii. 34; 2 Cor. x. 13.

κατὰ τὴν αὐτ. θ.] according to His, God's, not the Spirit's, will [willing] Vulg. secundum suam [O. L. ipsius] voluntatem. The clause refers to all that has gone before. Comp. Eph. iv. 7.

θέλησις] The word, which occurs several times in the lxx., is found here only in the N.T. As distinguished from θέλημα (x. 7, 9, 36; xiii. 21), the definite expression of will, it describes the active exercise of will.

The use of these active verbal nouns is characteristic of the style of the Epistle. Among many others which occur the following are found in the

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θέλησιν; ⁵Οὐ γὰρ ἀγγέλοις ὑπέταξεν τὴν οἰκουμένην

5 ὑπέτ. + ὁ θεός C. (vg).

Ν. Τ. only in this Book: μετάθεσις (vii. 12; xi. 5; xii. 27); ἀθέτησις (vii. 18; ix. 26); ἄθλησις (x. 32); πρόσχυσις (xi. 28); αἴνεσις (xiii. 15).

iii. The fulfilment of the divine destiny of man in the Son of man through suffering (ii. 5—18).

Two main thoughts are brought out in this section.

(1) The promise of sovereignty to man was fulfilled in Jesus ('the Son of man'): 5—9.

(2) The fulfilment of man's destiny, owing to the intrusion of sin, could only be brought about through suffering, made possible for Christ and effective for man through the Incarnation (10—18).

Throughout the section there is a tacit reference to the objections which were raised against the Lord's claims to Messiahship on the ground of the actual facts of His life and sufferings.

(1) The promise of man's sovereignty and its potential fulfilment (5-9).

The writer of the Epistle has already assumed the establishment of a new order corresponding with the fulfilment of the purpose of creation. The sovereignty of this order was not prepared for angels (v. 5). It was promised to man (6 — 8 a); and the promise was fulfilled in 'Jesus' (8b—9).

⁵For not unto angels did He subject the world to come, whereof we speak,

⁶But one testified as we know (somewhere) saying

What is man? that Thou art mindful of him?

Or the son of man? that Thou visitest him?

⁷Thou madest him a little lower than angels;

With glory and honour Thou crownedst him;

And didst set him over the works of Thy hands:

⁸Thou didst put all things in subjection under his feet.

(5). οὐ γάρ...] For not unto angels did He subject...The manifestations of the Divine Presence which have been shewn to attend the proclamation of the Gospel (v. 4) are intelligible both from the Nature of the Son and from the scope of His work. For the greatness of the Son as the Revealer of the New Dispensation and of its preachers, His envoys, is revealed by the fact that (a) the future dispensation, which is, as has been already implied, the fulfilment of the Creator's will, was committed to man; and that (b) man's sovereignty has been gained for him, even after his failure, through the Incarnation of Jesus 'the Son of Man.'

γάρ] For...The particle refers directly to the signs of divine power among believers which were a prelude to the complete sovereignty. The subject (God) is not expressed but naturally supplied from the former sentence.

oὐκ...ἀγγέλοις...] not to angels, to beings of this class, but (as is shewn in the next verses) to man...(comp. c. i. 4 τῶν ἀγγέλων note). It is not said that 'the present world' was subject to angels; but at the same time the writer of the Epistle may well have recalled the belief which found expression in the lxx. Version of Deut. xxxii. 8 that God assigned the nations to the care of angels while Israel was His own portion.

Compare Ecclus. xvii. 17 (14); Daniel xii. 1; x. 13, 20. So too in later Jewish literature, e.g. in the Book of Henoch, angels are represented as having charge over different elements.

ὑπέταξεν] did He subject in the

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τὴν μέλλουσαν, περὶ ἧς λαλοῦμεν. ⁶διεμαρτύρατο δέ πού τις λέγων

eternal counsel (comp. i. 2 ἔθηκεν) made known through the Psalmist. The word is borrowed by anticipation from the Psalm.

τὴν οἰκ. τὴν μέλλ.] Vulg. orbem terra futurum, O. L. saeculum futurum, Syr.

The phrase is not to be understood simply of 'the future life' or, more generally, of 'heaven.' It describes, in relation to that which we may call its constitution, the state of things which, in relation to its development in time, is called 'the age to come' (ὁ μέλλων αἰών), and, in relation to its supreme Ruler and characteristics, 'the Kingdom of God', or 'the Kingdom of heaven,' even the order which corresponds with the completed work of Christ. Compare vi. 5 (μέλλων αἰών), xiii. 14 (ἡ μέλλουσα [πόλις]) notes. Is. ix. 6.

ἡ οἰκουμένη] The word is used for the world so far as it is 'a seat of settled government,' 'the civilised world.' Thus in Greek writers it is used characteristically for the countries occupied by Greeks, as distinguished from those occupied by 'barbarians' (Herod. iv. 110; Dem. de Cor. p. 242; [de Halonn.] p. 85 f.), and at a later time for the Roman empire (Philo, Leg. ad Cai. § 45; ii. 598 M.).

Hence it come to be used even of a limited district defined, as we should say, by a specific civilisation (Jos. Antt. viii. 13, 4 περιπέμψας κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην τοὺς ζητήσοντας τὸν προφήτην Ἠλείαν). Comp. Luke ii. 1; Ex. xvi. 35 ἕως ἦλθον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην [Alex. γῆν οἰκ.] 'to the borders of the land of Canaan': compare Euseb. Η. E. vii. 31, 2 ἐκ τῆς Περσῶν ἐπὶ τὴν καθ' ἡμᾶς οἰκουμένην...And on the other hand it was used to describe the whole world as occupied by man (Luke iv. 5 [D τοῦ κόσμου]; Matt. xxiv. 14; Apoc. xvi. 14); and men as occupants of the world (Acts xvii. 31; xix. 27; Apoc. iii. 10; xii. 9). Comp. Wisd. i. 7 πνεῦμα κυρίου πεπλήρωκε τὴν οἰκουμένην. It was therefore perfectly fitted to describe the Christian order under the aspect of a moral, organised system: comp. c. i. 6.

The word is found in St Paul only Rom. x. 18 (Ps. xix. 5).

περὶ ἧς λαλ.] which is the subject of the whole writing. The thought has been already announced in i. 2 κληρονόμον πάντων.

6—8 a. The promise. The promise of universal sovereignty was confirmed to man in a passage of Scripture (Ps. viii. 5—7) which fully recognises his infirmity. His weakness is first confessed (v. 6); and then his triple divine endowment of nature, honour, dominion (v. 7, 8 a).

The viiith Psalm is referred to by the Lord Matt. xxi. 16 (comp. Matt. xi. 25; 1 Cor. i. 27), and by St Paul 1 Cor. xv. 27. Comp. Eph. i. 22.

It is not, and has never been accounted by the Jews to be, directly Messianic; but as expressing the true destiny of man it finds its accomplishment in the Son of Man and only through Him in man. It offers the ideal (Gen. i. 27—30) which was lost by Adam and then regained and realised by Christ.

Clement speaks of the application of the words of the Psalm to man by some: οὐ γὰρ ἐπὶ τοῦ κυρίου ἐκδέχονται τὴν γραφὴν καίτοι κἀκεῖνος σάρκα ἔφερεν. ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ τελείου καὶ γνωστικοῦ, τῷ χρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἐνδύματι ἐλαττουμένου παρὰ τοὺς ἀγγέλους (Strom. iv. 3 § 8, p. 566).

And so Chrysostom; ταῦτα εἰ καὶ εἰς τὴν κοινὴν ἀνθρωπότητα εἶρηται, ἀλλ' ὅμως κυριώτερον ἁρμόσειεν ἄν τῷ Χριστῷ κατὰ σάρκα (Hom. iv. § 2).

And Theodoret: τὸ δὲ 'τί ἐστιν

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Τί ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος ὅτι μιμνήσκῃ αὐτοῦ, ἥ υἱος ἀνθρώπου ὅτι ἐπισκέπτῃ αὐτόν;

6 τί אABD₂ vg syrr: τίς C* (latt.) me (so lxx A).

ἄνθρωπος;' εἴρηται μὲν περὶ τῆς κοινῆς φύσεως, ἁρμόττει δὲ τῇ ἐξ ἡμῶν ἀπαρχῇ, ὡς οἰκειουμένης τὰ πάσης τῆς φύσεως. τὰ δὲ ἡμέτερα οἰκειούμενος. στόμα τῆς φύσεως γέγονεν. αὐτὸς φὰρ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν ἔλαβε καὶ τὰς νόσους ἐβάστασε (ad loc.).

One peculiar difficulty meets us in the use made of the Psalm by the writer of the Epistle. The thought expressed in the original by the words rendered in the lxx. ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παρ' ἀγγέλους is that of the nobility of man's nature which falls but little short of the divine. The words on the contrary as applied to Christ describe a humiliation. This application is facilitated by the lxx. rendering, but does not depend upon it. The essential idea is that the true destiny of man described by the Psalmist, which experience teaches us that man himself has missed, was fulfilled otherwise than had been expected. Words which were used of man in himself became first true of One Who being more than man took man's nature upon Him. In such a case the description of dignity was of necessity converted initially into a description of condescension.

(6). The thought of man's frailty comes first. According to a remarkable Jewish tradition the words were addressed by the ministering angels to God when 'Moses went up to receive the Law.''O Lord of the world,' they said, 'wilt Thou give to flesh and blood that precious thing which Thou hast kept for 974 generations? (Ps. viii. 5). Give Thy glory rather to heaven' (Sabb. 88, 1).

(5), (6). οὐ φὰρ ἀγγ....διιεμαρτ. δέ...] The form of the construction is expressive. The sovereignty was not indeed designed for angels; but provision was made for it. When there is a direct and sharp opposition, ἀλλά follows a negative not..but. When the negative marks a sentence which is complete in itself; and another statement is added as a fresh thought, this, though it does in fact oppose the former, is introduced by δέ. Comp. vv. 8, 9 οὕπω—δέ; iv. 13; vi. 12; Acts xii. 9, 14.

διεμ. δ. πού τις] In this quotation only in this epistle (iv. 7 is not a case in point) is there a reference to the human author of the words; and here God is addressed directly. At the same time the reference is as general as possible. The form of reference is found in Philo, de temul. § 14 (i. 365 M.) εἶπε γάρ πού τις (Gen. xx. 12). For πού see c. iv. 4 note.

Διαμαρτύρομαι is used absolutely Luke xvi. 28; Acts ii. 40 (viii. 25); 1 Thess. iv. 6.

τί ἐστιν] i.e. how little outwardly, and at first sight, compared with the stately magnificence of Nature.

Comp. Ps. cxliv. 3; Job vii. 17. The interpretation 'how great is man,' i.e. in consequence of God's love shewn to him, is quite foreign to the course of thought. Nor again is there any reference to the fact of the Fall.

άνθρωπος] אנושׁ, man, with the secondary idea of weakness.

υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου] בן–אדם not ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ άνθρώπου (בן–הָאָדָ֖ם).

μιμνήσκῃ...ἐπισκέπτῃ] The twofold regard of thought and action. Ἐπισκέπτεσθαι is used almost exclusively in the lxx., as in the N. T., of a visitation for good. Luke i. 68, 78; vii. 16; Acts xv. 14. The word was especially used of the 'visits' of a physician. Comp. Matt. xxv. 36; James i. 27.

(7), (8) a. In spite of his frailty man recognises his divine affinity. He is more glorious than the world which

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⁷ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παρ' ἀγγέλους, δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ ἐστεφάνωσας αὐτόν. [καὶ κατέστησας αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σου.] ⁸πάντα ὑπέταξας ὑποκάτω τῶν ποαῶν αὐτοῦ. ἐν τῷ γὰρ ὑποτάξαι [αὐτῷ] τὰ πάντα οὐδὲν ἀφῆκεν αὐτῷ

7 ἐστεφ. αὐτόν, + καὶ κατέστησας αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σοῦ אACD₂* M₂ vg (syrr) me (so lxx.): om. Β (syrr). 8 ἐν τῷ γὰρ אBD₂M₂: ἐν γὰρ τῷ SΑC. αὐτῷ (1) om. Β. τὰ πάντα ὑποτάξαι αὐ. D₂ syrr me.

seems to crush him, in nature, endowment, destiny.

(7). ἠλάττ. βρ. τι...] Thou madest him a little lower...Vulg. Minuisti (Old Lat. minorasti) eum paulo minus ab angelis. Βραχύ τι is used here of degree (compare 2 Sam. xvi. 1), and not of time (Is. lvii. 17 lxx. 'for a little while'). The Hebrew is unambiguous; and there is no reason to depart from the meaning of the original either in this place or in v. 9.

παρ' ἀγγέλους] The original מֵאֱלֹהִים, rendered literally by Jerome a deo, is thus interpreted by the Targum and Syr. and by the Jewish Commentators (Rashi, Kimchi, Aben-Ezra), as well as by the lxx.

The original meaning is probably less definite than either 'a little less than angels' or 'a little less than God.' It would more nearly correspond to 'a little less than one who has a divine nature.' 'Thou hast made him to fall little short of being a God' (comp. 1 Sam. xxviii. 13). To our ears 'than God' would be equivalent to 'than the Eternal,' which would have been wholly out of place in the Psalm. And on the other hand 'than angels' obscures the notion of the 'divine nature' which lies in the phrase.

For the wider sense of אֱלֹהִים, see Ps. lxxxii. 1, 6 (John x. 34 f.); xxix. 1 (not Ex. xxi. 6).

δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ] with the essential dignity and with the outward splendour which signalises it: Rom. ii. 7, 10; 2 Pet. i. 7; Apoc. iv. 9. The words occur in opposite order, 1 Tim. i. 17; 2 Pet. i. 17; Apoc. v. 12 f. The combination is common in lxx. e.g.. Ex. xxviii. 2 (τ. καὶ δ. לְכָבוֹד וּלְתִפְאָרֶת).

ἐστεφάνωσας] crownedst as a conqueror; 2 Tim. ii. 5.

(8). πάντα...αὐτοῦ] Man's sovereignty is exercised over a worthy domain. This clause completes the view of man's eminence in nature, glory, dominion. See Additional Note.

(8) b, (9). The divine fulfilment of the promise in the Son of man. The promise to man has not however yet been realised. It assured to him a dominion absolute and universal; and as yet he has no such dominion (v. 8 b). But the words of the Psalm have received a new fulfilment. The Son of God has assumed the nature in which man was created. In that nature—bearing its last sorrows—He has been crowned with glory. The fruit of His work is universal. In 'the Son of man' (Jesus) then there is the assurance that man's sovereignty shall be gained (v. 9). Thus the fact of man's obvious failure is contrasted with the accomplishment of Christ's work which is the potential fulfilment of man's destiny (Humiliation, Exaltation, Redemption).

⁸ᵇFor in that He subjected all things unto him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we see not yet all things subjected to him. ⁹But we behold Him who hath been made a little lower than angels, even Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honour, that by the grace of God He should taste of death for every man.

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άνυπότακτον. νῦν δὲ οὔπω ὁρῶμεν αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα ὑποτεταγμένα. 9τὸν δὲ βραχύ τι παρ' ἀγγέλους ἠλαττωμένον βλέπομεν Ἰησοῦν διὰ τὸ πάθημα τοῦ θανάτου δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ ἐστεφαηωμένον,

(8). ἐν τῷ γἂρ ὑπ.] The 'for,' which is directly connected with the preceding clause, points back to v. 5, so that the connexion is: God did not subject the future world to angels, for He promised man an absolute sovereignty which has still to be assured in that coming order. The nk πάντα takes up the πάντα of the Psalm.

νῦν δὲ...] but at present, as the world is....

αὐτῷ] i.e. to man.

(9).τὸν δέ...] But in spite of the obvious fact of man's failure the promise has not failed: we behold Him that hath been made a little lower than angels, even Jesus,...crowned with glory and honour....The words of the Psalm have an unexpected accomplishment. The man thus spoken of as little less than angels (so great is he) is represented by Jesus, the Son of God become flesh, and so made little less than angels (so full of condescension was He), and in that humanity which He has taken to Himself crowned with glory.

Jesus is not the 'man' of the Psalmist, but He through whom the promise to man has been fulfilled and is in fulfilment; while the revelation of the complete fulfilment belongs to 'the world to come.'

The definite article (τὸν δὲ βρ. τι ἠλ.) does not refer to the Psalm as fixing the original meaning of it, but to the known personality of Christ in whom the promise of the Psalm was fulfilled.

βραχύ τι...] Vulg. qui modico quam angeli minoratus est....O. L. paulo quam angelos minoratum...See v. 7.

ἠλαττωμένον] not ἐλλάττωιἐντα. The human nature which Christ assumed He still retains. Comp. v. 18 πέπονθεν.

βλέπομεν] The change of the verb from ὁρῶμεν in v. 8 cannot be without meaning. βλέπειν apparently expresses the particular exercise of the faculty of sight (comp. John i. 29; v. 19; ix. 7 ff.), while ὁρᾶν describes a continuous exercise of it (c. xi. 27). The difference is not marked by the Latt. (videmus...videmus...).

Ἰησοῦν] The name comes in emphatically as marking Him who, being truly man, fulfilled the conception of the Psalmist of 'one made a little lower than angels.'

The personal name Jesus, which always fixes attention on the Lord's humanity, occurs frequently in the Epistle: iii. 1; vi. 20; vii. 22; x. 19; xii. 2, 24; xiii. 12 (iv. 14; xiii. 20). See Additional Note on c. i. 4.

For the separation of the Name (Him that hath been made...even Jesus) compare c. iii. 1; xii. 2, 24; xiii. 20 (our Lord even Jesus; comp. vi. 20; vii. 22); 1 Thess. ii. 15; iii. 13.

διὰ τὸ πάθ. τοῦ θ.] Vulg. (Latt.) propter passionem mortis. The suffering of death—the endurance of the uttermost penalty of sin—was the ground of the Lord's exaltation in His humanity. Comp. Phil. ii. 9 (Rom. viii. 17).

The words are not to be joined with ήλαττωμένον either in the sense (1) that in this lay His humiliation, or (2) that this was the aim of His humiliation, that death might be possible, 'owing to the fact that death has to be borne by men.' The main thought of the passage is that man's promised supremacy, owing to the fall, could only be gained by sacrifice.

Stress is laid not Upon the single historic fact that the Lord suffered death (διὰ τὸ παθεῖν θ.), but on the

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ὅπως χάριτι θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς γεύσηται θανάτου.

9 χάριτι: χωρίς. See Additional note.

nature of the suffering itself (διὰ τὸ πάθημα).

ἐστεφανωμένον] As in the case of the Lord's humiliation so also in this of His exaltation the writer brings out the permanent effect (not στεφανωθέντα as ἐστεφάνωσας in v. 7).

ὅπως...] The particle is not strictly connected with ἐστεφανωμένον alone, but refers to all that precedes—to the Passion crowned by the Ascension. The glory which followed the death marked its universal efficacy. Thus Christ was made lower than angels that He might accomplish this complete redemption. The particle, which is much less frequent in the Epistles than ἵνα, occurs again c. ix. 15.

Under this aspect the words are illustrated by St John's view of the Passion as including potentially the glorification of Christ (John xiii. 31), a double 'lifting up' (xii. 32). So Oecumenius here says boldly δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν τὸν σταυρὸν καλεῖ.

χάριτι θεοῦ] Comp. 1 John iv. 10; John iii. 17; Rom. v. 8. Chrysostom: διὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν εἰς ἡμᾶς ταῦτα πέπονθεν. For the anarthrous form (as contrasted with ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ xii. 15), 'by grace, and that grace of Him Whose Nature is the pledge of its efficacy,' see c. iii. 4 note. Comp. Lk. ii. 40; 1 Cor. xv. 10; 2 Cor. i. 12.

The reading χωρὶς θεοῦ is capable of being explained in several ways.

(1) Christ died 'apart from His divinity.' His divine Nature had no share in His death.

(2) Christ died 'apart from God,' being left by God, and feeling the completeness of the separation as the penalty of sin. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 46.

(3) Christ died for all, God only excepted. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 27.

(4) Christ died to gain all, to bring all under His power, God only excepted.

But all these thoughts seem to be foreign to the context, while it is natural to bring out the greatness of God's grace in fulfilling His original counsel of love in spite of man's sin. The reference to 'the grace of God' seems to be the necessary starting point of the argument in the next section: For it became...

ὑπὲρ παντός] Vulg. pro omnibus. Syr. for every man. Comp. Mark ix. 49; Luke xvi. 16. The singular points to the effect of Christ's work on the last element of personality. Christ tasted death not only for all but for each. The thought throughout the passage (v. 16) is directed to personal objects; and in such a connexion the phrase could hardly mean 'for everything' (neut. This thought however is included in the masculine. Creation is redeemed in man (Rom. viii. 19 ff.). Comp. v. 11 ἐξ ἑνός.

The notes of the Greek commentators are of considerable interest.

Origen: μέγας ἐστὶν ἀρχιερεὺς οὐχ ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ παντὸς λογικοῦ...καὶ γαρ ἅτοπον ὑπὲρ ἀνθρωπίνων μὲν αὐτὸν φάσκειν ἁμαρτημάτων γεγεῦσθαι θανάτου, οὐκέτι δὲ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἄλλου τινὸς παρὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐν ἁμαρτήμασι γεγεννημένου, οἷον ὑπέρ ἄστρων (Job xxν. 5) (In Joh. Tom. i. § 40).

Theodoret: τὸ μέντοι πάθος ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων ὑπέμεινε. πάντα γὰρ ὅσα κτίστην ἔχει τὴν φύσιν ταύτης ἐδεῖτο τῆς θεραπείας...He then refers to Rom. viii. 19 ff., and supposes that the angels will be gladdened by man's salvation: ὑπὲρ ἁπάντων τοίνυν τ[ο σωτήριον ὑπέμεινε πάθοσ. μόνη γὰρ ἡ θεία φύσις τῆς ἐντεῦθεν γινομένης θεραπείας ἀνενδεής (ad loc.).

Chrysostom: οὐχὶ [ὑπὲρ] τῶν πιστῶν μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς οἶκουμένης 47 ἁπάσνς. αὐτὸς μὲν γὰρ ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν. Hom. iv. 2.

Oecumenius: οὐ μόνον ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων ἀλλὰ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἄνω δυνάμεων ἁπέθανεν, ἵνα λύσῃ τὸ μεσότυχον [μεσότοιχον] τοῦ φραγμοῦ καὶ ἑνώσῃ τὰ κάτω (Eph. ii. 14).

Comp. 1 John ii. 2.

ὑπέρ] not in place of but in behalf of. Comp. v. 1; vi. 20; vii. 25; ix. 24.

γεύσηται θανάτου] Comp. Matt. xvi. 28; John viii. 52 note. Arist. Apol. p. 110, l. 19.

The phrase, which is not found in the Old Testament, expresses not only the fact of death, but the conscious experience, the tasting the bitterness, of death. Man, as he is, cannot feel the full significance of death, the consequence of sin, though he is subject to the fear of it (v. 15); but Christ, in His sinlessness, perfectly realised its awfulness. In this fact lies the immeasurable difference between the death of Christ, simply as death, and that of the holiest martyr. Chrysostom (Theodoret, Primasius) less rightly understands the phrase of the brief duration of Christ's experience of death: Non dixit Apostolus 'Subjacuit morti,' sed proprie gustarit mortem, per quod velocitatem resurrectionis voluit ostendere (Primasius).

Chrysostom (Hom. iv. 2) likens Christ to the physician who, to encourage his patients, tastes that which is prepared for them.

(2) Man's destiny, owing to the intrusion of sin, could only be fulfilled through suffering, made possible for Christ and effective for man through the Incarnation (10—18).

The thought of death, and the fact of Christ's death, lead the apostle to develop more in detail the conditions under which man's destiny and God's promise were fulfilled in spite of sin. The reality of the connexion between the Son and the sons is first traced back to their common source and shewn to be recognised in the records of the Old Testament (10—13). This connexion was completed by the Incarnation with a twofold object, to overcome the prince of death, and to establish man's freedom (14, 15). And such a completion was necessary from the sphere, the scope, the application of Christ's work (16—18).

The course of thought will appear most plainly if it is set in a tabular form:

Sovereignty for man fallen was won through suffering (10—18).

(1) The Son and the sons (10— 13).

The connexion lies in a common source (11 a).

This is shewn in the Old Testament:

The suffering King (12),

The representative Prophet (13).

(2) The connexion of the Son and the sons completed by the Incarnation (14, 15),

with a twofold object:

To overcome the prince of death (14 b),

To establish man's freedom (15).

(3) The Incarnation necessary (16—18), from

The sphere of Christ's work (16),

The scope of Christ's work (17),

The application of Christ's work (18).

10—13. The Son and the sons.

The difficulties which at first sight beset the conception of a suffering Messiah vanish upon closer thought. For when we consider what is the relation between the Son of man and men—the Son and the sons—what man's condition is, and how he can be redeemed only through divine fellowship, we ourselves can discern the 'fitness' of the divine method of redemption. So far therefore from the Death of Christ being an objection to His claims, it really falls in with what deeper reflection suggests.

The connexion of the Son and the sons is first referred to their common source (v. 11 ἐξ ἑνός) and then shown to be recognised in the divine dealings

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¹⁰Ἔπρεπεν γὰρ αὐτῷ, δι' ὅν τὰ πάντα καὶ δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα, πολλοὺς υἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα τὸν ἀρχηγὸν

with representative men under the Old Covenant, the suffering king, the typical prophet (12, 13).

There is throughout the section a reference to the Jewish expectation that Messiah should 'abide for ever' (John xii. 34).

¹⁰For it became Him, for Whom are all things and through Whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the author (captain) of their salvation perfect through sufferings. ¹¹For both He that sanctifieth and they that are sanctified are all of One; for which cause He is not ashamed to call them brethren, ¹²saying

I will declare Thy Name to my brethren.

In the midst of the congregation will I sing Thy praise.

¹³And again: I will put my trust in Him. And again: Behold, I and the children which God gave me.

(10). ἔπρεπεν γάρ...] For it became...'Yes,' the apostle seems to say, '"taste of death by the grace of God," for we, with our poor powers, can say that in this there is supreme fitness.' The suffering of Christ in the fulfilment of His work corresponds with the truest conception which man can form of the Divine Nature.

ἔπρεπεν] Latt. decebat. Comp. c. vii. 26; Matt. iii. 15. The word as applied to God appears perhaps startling but it is not unfrequent in Philo, e.g. Leg. Alleg. i. 15 (i. 53 M.). The standard lies in what man (made in the image of God) can recognise as conformable to the divine attributes. For man still has a power of moral judgment which can help him to the interpretation of the action of God, and also of his own need (c. vii. 26).

The 'fitness' in this case lies in the condition of man. His life is attended by inevitable sorrows; or, to regard the fact in another light, suffering is a necessary part of his discipline as well as a necessary consequence of his state. It was 'fitting' then, in our language, that God should perfect Christ the 'One' Son by that suffering through which the 'many sons' are trained (xii. 5 ff.) because He, in His infinite love, took humanity to Himself. In Christ we can see the divine end of suffering: suffering consummated in glory. Chrysostom: ὁρᾷς τὸ παθεῖν κακῶς οὐκ ἔστιν ἐγκαταλελειμμένων.

This argument from 'fitness' is distinct from that of logical necessity (δεῖ v. 1), and of obligation from a position which has been assumed (ὥφειλε ν. 17).

δι' ὅν...δι' οὗ...] This description of God, as being the final Cause and the efficient Cause of all things, takes the place of the simple title because the fitness of Christ's perfection through suffering appears from the consideration of the divine end and method of life.

δι'οὗ] Compare Rom. xi. 36; 1 Cor. i. 9 (Gal. iv. 7 διὰ θεοῦ; Rom. vi. 4 διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός τον πατρός).

The phrase is commonly used of the work of the Son: c. i. 2; 1 Cor. viii. 6; Col. i 16; (1 John iv. 9); John i. 3, 10; but it cannot be referred to Him here, though Athanasius so uses the whole clause (Ep. ad Episc. Aeg. et Lyb. § 15); and Chrysostom rightly calls attention to this application of δι' οὗ to the Father as shewing that the characteristic use is no derogation from the divine nature of the Son: οὐκ ἄν τοῦτο ἐποίησεν εἴ γε ἐλαττώσεως ἧν καὶ ρῷ υἱῷ μόνον προσῆκον (ad loc.).

πολλοὺς υἱούc] Christ has been spoken of as 'the Son.' Men now are made to share His title (comp. xii. 5). Chrysostom: καὶ αὐτὸς υἱὸς καὶ ἡμεῖς υἱοί. ἀλλ' ὁ μὲν σώζει ἡμεῖς δὲ σωζόμεθα.

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τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν διὰ παθημάτων τελειῶσαι. ¹¹ὅ τε γὰρ ἁγιάζων καὶ οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι ἐξ ἐνὸς πάντες. δι' ἥν

The use of πολλούς brings no limitation to the scope of Christ's work (comp. ix. 28) which has just been described in its universal aspect (ὑπὲρ παντός). It simply emphasises the truth that the pattern of Christ's Life was in this aspect of wide application. Comp. Matt. xx. 28.

εἰς δόξαω ἀγαγόντα...τελειῶσαι] Ο. L. multis filiis in gloriam adductis, Vulg. qui multos filios in gloriam adduxerat These Latin renderings suggest a wrong sense. Though the objects of άγαγόντα and τελειῶσαι are different the two acts which they describe are regarded as synchronous, or rather as absolute without reference to the succession of time. The perfecting of Christ included the triumph of those who are sons in Him. At the same time the work of God and the work of Christ are set side by side. God 'brings' (ἀγαγεῖν) the many sons and Christ is their 'leader' (ἀρχηγός).

The order, no less than the stress which is laid on the completed work of Christ, is fatal to the proposed connexion of άγαγόττα with Christ, who had 'brought many sons to glory' during His ministry, even if Christians, who are called His 'brethren' (v. 11), could in this place be spoken of as His 'sons' (in v. 13 the case is different). And so again the use of δόξα is decisive against the idea that God is spoken of as 'having brought many sons to glory' in earlier times.

For a similar combination of aorists see Matt. xxvi. 44; xxviii. 19 (βαπτίσαντες); Acts xxiii. 35 (κελεύσας); Rom. iv. 20; (Eph. v. 26); Col. ii. 13; 1 Tim. i. 12; c. ix. 12.

τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτ.] The author (or captain) of their salvation, 0. L. ducem v. principem (Vulg. auctorem salutis). Neither word gives the fulness of sense. The ἀρχηγός himself first takes part in that which he establishes. Comp. xii. 2; Acts iii. 15; v. 31; Mic. i. 13 (lxx.); 1 Macc. ix. 61. Comp. Iren. ii. 22. 4 prior omnium et praecedens omnes.

The word, which is common in the lxx., occurs in Clem. R. 1 Cor. c. xiv. ἀρχ. ζήλους, c. li. ἀρχ. τῆς στάσεως, and often elsewhere; e.g. 2 Clem. xx. 5 ὁ σ. καὶ ἀρχηγὸς τῆς ἀφθαρσίας; Jos. Β. J. iv. 5. 2 ὁ ἀρχηγὸς καὶ ἡγεμὼν τῆς ἰδίας σωτηρίας; Ερ. Vienn. 17 (Euseb. Η. E. ν. 1). See also classical examples in Wetstein on c. xii. 2. Compare aXrtot c. v. 9.

διὰ παθ. τελειῶσαι] Latt. per passionem consummare. For consummare some Fathers read and explain consummari (Ruff. Sedul. Vigil.).

The conception of τελειῶσαι is that of bringing Christ to the full moral perfection of His humanity (cf. Luke xiii. 32), which carries with it the completeness of power and dignity. Comp. c. x. 1, 14; xi. 40; xii. 23; Phil. iii. 12 (v. 6).

This 'perfection' was not reached till after Death: v. 9; vii. 28. It lay, indeed, in part in the triumph over death by the Resurrection. Comp. Cyril Alex. ap. Cram. Cat. pp. 396, 399.

The sense of 'bringing to His highest honour,' or 'to the close of His earthly destiny,' is far too narrow. See Additional Note.

διὰ παθημάτων] See c. xlii. 12 note.

Theodoret supposes that 'the Word' perfected the human nature, the source of our salvation: τὸν θεὸν λόγον ἔδειξεν ἥω ἀνέλαβεν τελειώσαντα φύσιν. ἀρχηγός τῆς ἡμετέρας σωτηρίας ή Χηφιϊσα ληφθεῖσα φύσις.

11—13. The title of 'sons' can be rightly applied to Christians as well as to Christ, for, though in different senses, they depend on one Father (v. 11); and this fact is recognised in the Scriptures of the old Covenant (vv. 12, 13).

(11). ὅ τε γὰρ ἁγιάζων] The discipline

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αἰτίαν οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοὺς καλεῖν, ¹²λέγων

11 αὐτοὺς ἀδ. Μ₂ syrr.

through which Christ reached perfection is that through which He brings His people. That which is appointed for them He also accepts (John xvii. 19), for both He and they are of One Father.

The present participles (ἁγιάζων, ἁγιαζόμενοι) mark the continuous, personal application of Christ's work. Comp. John xvii. 17 ff. For ἁγιάζειν see c. ix. 13 note.

oἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι] Vulg. qui sanctificantur. The thought is of the continual process at once in the individual soul and in the whole body of the Church (c. x. 14).

Comp. x. 10 (ἡγιασμένοι), 14 xiii. 12 (ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ). Christians are 'holy' ('saints'): c. vi. 10; xiii. 24; (iii. 1); and the end of their discipline is that they may 'partake in the holiness of God' (c. xii. 10). That which is true ideally has to be realised actually.

ἐξ ἐνός] of One, i.e. God. Comp. Ex. xxxi. 13; 1 Cor. i. 30 (viii. 6 quoted by Chrys.); Lk. iii. 38 Ἀδάμ, τοῦ θεοῦ.

The reference to Adam or to Abraham is partly inadequate and partly inappropriate.

πάντες] The writer regards the whole company of Christ and His people as forming one body, and does not distinguish specially the two constituent parts (ἀμφότεροι).

Some think that the statement in respect of Christ is to be confined to His Humanity. Others extend it to His whole Person. In the latter case, Theodoret (and other Greek Fathers) adds that we must remember that ὁ μέν ἐστι φ΄θσει υἱὸς ἡμεῖς δὲ χάριτι (Oecum. ὁ μὲν γνήσιος ἡμεῖς δὲ θετοί).

It will appear that much is lost by any precise limitation of the words. The Lord both as Son of God and as Son of Man can be spoken of as ἐκ Πατρός, and so men also both in their creation and in their re-creation. At the same time the language used (ὁ ἁγιάζων καὶ οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι) naturally fixes attention on Christ and Christians in relation to the work of redemption and sanctification wrought out on earth.

δι' ἥν αἰτίαν] for which cause, that is, because they spring from the same source, though in different ways. Both in their being and in the consummation of their being the Son and the sons are 'Of One.' For the phrase see 2 Tim. i. 6, 12; Tit. i. 13; (Luke viii. 47; Acts xxiii. 28).

With this specific form of the 'subjective' reason (comp. c. v. 3) compare the general form (διό iii. 7, 10 &c.), and the general form of the 'objective' ground (ὅθεν v. 17 note).

οὐκ ἐπαισχ....καλεῖν] He is not ashamed to call (Vulg. non confunditur...vocare...) in spite of the Fall, and of the essential difference of the sonship of men from His own Sonship. Comp. c. xi 16.

ἀδελφούς] Comp. Rom. viii. 29.

Christians are 'brethren' of Christ (John xx. 17; Matt. xxviii. 10) and yet children (v. 13; John xiii. 33 τεκνία).

(12), (13). The quotations in these verses develops the main idea of the section, that of Christ fulfilling the destiny of men through suffering, by recalling typical utterances of representative men: (1) of the suffering, innocent king; (2) of the representative prophet.

The ground of the application in the first case lies in the fact that the language used goes beyond the actual experience of David, or of any righteous sufferer.

In the second case the prophet

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Άπαγγελῶ τὸ ὄνομά σου τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου,

ἐν μέσῳ ἐκκλησίας ὑμνήσω σε.

¹³καί πάλιν

Ἐγὼ ἔσομαι πεποιθὼς ἐπ' αὐτῷ.

καὶ πάλιν

Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ καὶ τὰ παιδία ἅ μοι ἔδωκεν "θεός.

occupies a typical position at a critical period of national history.

Ruler and prophet both identify themselves with their people. The one applies to them the express term 'brethren': the other takes his place among them as symbolising their true hope.

(12). The quotation is taken from Ps. xxii. 22 and agrees with the lxx. except by the substitution of ἀπαγγελῶ for διηγήσομαι.

The Psalm itself, which probably dates from the time of David's persecution by Saul, describes the course by which 'the Anointed of the Lord' made his way to the throne, or more generally the establishment of the righteous kingdom of God through suffering. In vv. 21 ff. sorrow is turned into joy, and the words of the Psalmist become a kind of Gospel. Hence the phrase quoted here has a peculiar force. Tho typical king and the true King attain their sovereignty under the same conditions, and both alike in their triumph recognise their kinship with the people whom they raise (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς).

The Psalm is quoted not unfrequently: Matt. xxvii. 46; Mk. xv. 34 (v. 1); Matt. xxvii. 39, 43 (vv. 7, 8); Matt. xxvii. 35; John xix. 24 (v. 18); comp. c. v. 7 (v. 24).

τὸ ὄνομά σου] I will declare Thy Name, for Thou hast proved to be what I have called Thee, 'my hope and my fortress, my castle and deliverer, my defender...who subdueth my people under me.' These many titles are summed up in the revelation of the Name of the Father: nomen tuum quod est Pater, ut cognoscant Te Patrem, qui eos paterno affectu ad haereditatem supernae beatitudinis ut filios vocas (Herv.).

ἐν μέσῳ ἐκκλησίας] in the midst of the congregation when the people are assembled to exercise their privilege as citizens of the divine commonwealth.

(13). The thought of 'brotherhood' is extended in the two following quotations and placed in its essential connexion with the thoughts of 'fatherhood' and 'sonship.' Brothers are supported by the trust in which they repose on one above them and by the love which meets the trust.

καὶ πάλιν Ἐγὼ ἔσομαι...] Words nearly identical (πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι ἐπ'αὐτῷ) occur in the lxx. in Is. viii. 17; xii. 2; 2 Sam. xxii. 3. The reference is certainly, as it appears, to Is. viii. 17, where tho words immediately precede the following quotation. The two sentences of Isaiah are separated because they represent two aspects of the typical prophet in his relation to Christ. In the first the prophet declares his personal faith on God in the midst of judgments. In the second he stands forth with his children as representing 'the remnant,' the seed of the Church, in Israel. The representative of God rests in his heavenly Father, and he is not alone: his children are already with him to continue the divine relation.

καὶ πάλιν Ἰδοὺ ἐγώ...] Isaiah with his children were 'signs' to the unbelieving people. In them was seen the pledge of the fulfilment of God's

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¹⁴ἐπεὶ οὖν τὰ παιδία κεκοινώνηκεν αἴματος καὶ σαρκός, καὶ αὐτὸς παραπλησίως μετέσχεν τῶν αὐτῶν, ἵνα διὰ τοῦ

14 αἴμ. καὶ σ. אABCD₂M₂ (vg) §yr hl me: σαρκ. καὶ αἴμ. S (vg) syr vg. τῶν αύτῶν + παθημάτων D₂*.

purposes. Thus, the prophet was a sign of Christ. What he indicated Christ completely fulfilled; for under this aspect Christ is the 'father' no less than the 'brother' of His people. The words are not referred directly to Christ by a misunderstanding of the lxx.

The emphatic ἐγώ in both cases is to be noticed. Comp. i. 5; v. 5; x. 30; xii. 26.

καὶ πάλιν] Contiguous quotations from Deut. xxxii. 35 f. are separated by καὶ πάλιν in c. x. 30.

ὅ μοι ἔδωκεν] which God gave me in the crisis of national suffering as a pledge of hope. The prophet looks back on the moment when light broke through the darkness.

(14), (15). The object of the Incarnation (the completed fellowship of the Son with the sons). The full connexion of 'the Son' and 'the sons' was realised in the Incarnation with a twofold object:

(1) To overcome the prince of death (v. 14), and

(2) To establish man's freedom, destroyed by the fear of death (v. 15).

That which has been shewn before to be 'fitting' (10—13) is now revealed in its inner relation to man's redemption. Christ assumed mortality that He might by dying conquer the prince of death and set man free from his tyranny.

Compare Athanas. de decr. Syn. Nic. § 14; c. Apollin. ii. 8; Greg. Nyss. c. Eunom. viii. p. 797 Migne.

In this paragraph man is regarded in his nature, while in the next (16—18) he is regarded in his life.

¹⁴Since therefore the children are sharers in blood and flesh, He also Himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death He might (may) bring to nought him that had (hath) the power of death, that is the devil, ¹⁵and might (may) deliver all them, who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

(14). ἐπεὶ οὐν...] Since therefore... Christ connects Himself with 'the children whom God had given Him.' These children were men. To complete His fellowship with them therefore it was necessary that He should assume their nature under its present conditions (αἶμα καὶ σάρξ).

For ἐπεί see c. v. 11 note.

τὰ παιδία] The phrase is taken up from the quotation just made. Isaiah and his children foreshadowed Christ and His children.

κεκοινώνηκεν.....μετέσχεν.....] are sharers in...He partook of... Vulg. communicaverunt (pueri)...participavit... O. L. participes sunt...particeps factus. The Syr. makes no difference between the words which describe the participation in humanity on the part of men and of the Son of man. Yet they present different ideas. κεκοινώνηκε marks the common nature ever shared among men as long as the race lasts: μετέσχεν expresses the unique fact of the Incarnation as a voluntary acceptance of humanity. And under the aspect of humiliation and transitoriness (αἶμα καὶ σάρξ) this was past (μετέσχεν).

For a similar contrast of tenses see 1 Cor. xv. 4; 1 John i. 1; Col. i. 16; John xx. 23, 29; and for the difference between κοινωνεῖν and μετέχειν see 1 Cor. x. 17-21; 2 Cor. vi. 14; Prov. i. 11, 18. Comp. c. iii. 1.

αἴμ. καὶ σ.] The same order occurs in Eph. vi 12. Stress is laid on that element which is the symbol of life as subject to corruption (contrast Luke

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θανάτου κατάργηση τὸν τὸ κράτο ἔχοντα τοῦ θανάτου, τοῦτ ἔστι τὸν διάβολον, ¹⁵καὶ ἀπαλλάξῃ τούτους, ὅσοι

θανάτου (1°) + θάνατον D₂*. 15 ἀπαλλ.: ἀποκαταλλάξῃ A.

xxiv. 39). The common order (σὰρξ καὶ αἶμα) is undisturbed in Matt. xvi. 17; 1 Cor. xv. 50; Gal. i. 16.

παραπλησίως] Vulg. similiter (which is also used for ὁμοίως c. ix. 21). The word occurs here only in the Ν. T. (cf. Phil. ii. 27); and it is not found in the lxx. Ὁμοίως seems to express conformity to a common type: πάραπλησίως the direct comparison between the two objects. In ὁμοίως the resemblance is qualitative (similiter): in παραπλησίως both qualitative and quantitative (pariter). The two words are not unfrequently joined together: e.g. Dem. Ol. iii. 27 (p. 36 A). The Fathers insist on the word as marking the reality of the Lord's manhood: σφόδρα δὲ ἀναγκαίως καὶ τὸ παραπλησίως τέθεικεν ἵνα τὴν τῆς φαντασίας διελέγξῃ συκοφαντίαν (Theod.); οὐ φαντασίᾳ οὐδὲ εἰκόνι ἀλλ' ἀληθείᾳ (Chrys.). Comp. Phil. ii. 7 ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος. Rom. viii. 3 ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας.

μετέσχεν] Contrast νii. 13 φυλῆς ἑτέρας μετέσχηκεν. The connexion with humanity remains: the connexion with humanity under the condition of transitoriness (αἶμα) was historical.

διὰ τοῦ θανάτου] by death, not by His death, though this application is necessarily included. Death that is truly death (1 John iii. 14), which was the utmost effect of Satan's power, became the instrument of his defeat: non quaesivit alia arma quibus pugnaret contra mortis auctorem, nisi ipsam mortem (Herv.). Christ by the offering of Himself (c. ix. 15, 28) made a perfect atonement for sin and so brought to nought the power of the devil. Comp. John xii. 31; Col. ii. 15.

It is not said here that he 'brought to nought death' (yet see 2 Tim. i. 10). That end in the full sense is still to come (1 Cor. xv. 26); and it is reached by the power of the life of Christ (1 Cor. xv. 54 ff.).

καταργήσῃ] The word is found in the Ν. T. elsewhere only in St Paul (twenty-five times and in each group of his epistles) and in Luke xiii. 7. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 10; 1 Cor. xv. 26; Barn. v. 6).

Chrysost. ἐνταῦθα τὸ θαυμαστὸν δείκνυσιν, ὅτι δι' οὗ ἐκράτης ὁ διάβολος διὰ τούτου ἡττήθη.

τὸν τὸ κρ. ἔχ. τ. θ.] Latt. qui habebat mortis imperium. The phrase may mean that had or that hath. In one sense the power is past: in another it continues. Comp. Wisd. ii. 24.

The devil, as the author of sin, has the power over death its consequence (Rom. v. 12), not as though he could inflict it at his pleasure; but death is his realm: he makes it subservient to his end. Comp. John viii. 44; 1 John iii. 12; John xvi. 11; xiv. 30 (prince of the world). Death as death is no part of the divine order.

Oecum. πῶς ἄρχει θαωάτου; ὅτι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἄρχων ἐξ ἧς ὁ θάνατος, καὶ τοῦ θανάτου ἄρχει, ἥγουν κράτος θανάτου ἁμαρτία.

τὸν διάβολον] The title is found in St Paul only in Eph., and Past. Epp. The title ὁ Σατανᾶς is not found in this Epistle.

(15). The overthrow of the devil involved the deliverance of men from his power.

ἀπαλλάξῃ] Latt. liberaret. The word is used absolutely ('set free'), and is not to be connected with δουλείας.

τούτους ὅσοι...] all men who had, as we see, come to a perception of their position as men. The unusual phrase vividly presents the picture of human misery as realised by the readers of the Epistle.

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φόβῳ θανάτου διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῃν ἔνοχοι ἧσαν δουλείας. ¹⁶ού γὰρ δή που ἀγγέλων ἐπιλαμβάνεται, άλλὰ

διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῃν] Ο. L. semper vivendo. Vulg. per totam vitam. The verbal phrase expresses the activity of life and not only the abstract idea of life.

ἔωοχοι δουλείας] Vulg. obnoxii servituti. Comp. Mk. xiv. 64. This bondage was to the fear of death. To death itself men are still subject, but Christ has removed its terrors. Comp. Rom. viii. 15, 21. This is the only place In the Epistle in which the familiar image of bondage (δοῦλος, δουλόω, δουλεύω, δουλεία) is used.

In considering the Scriptural view of death it is important to keep the idea of a transition to a new form of being distinct from that of the circumstances under which the transition actually takes place. The passage from one form of life to another, which is involved in the essential transitoriness of man's constitution, might have been joyful. As it is death brings to our apprehension the sense of an unnatural break in personal being, and of separation from God. This pain comes from sin. The Transfiguration is a revelation of the passage of sinless humanity to the spiritual order.

16—18. The necessity of the Incarnation. The Incarnation is further shewn to be necessary from the consideration of

(1) The sphere of Christ's work, man (v. 16);

(2) The scope of Christ's work, the redemption of fallen man (v. 17);

and (3) The application of Christ's work to individual men in the conflict of life (v. 18).

¹⁶For He doth not, as we know, take hold of angels, but He taketh hold of Abraham's seed. ¹⁷Wherefore he was bound in all things to be made like unto His brethren that He might (may) be a merciful and faithful high-priest in the things that pertain to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. ¹⁸For wherein He Himself hath suffered being tempted, He is able to succour them that are tempted.

(16). The necessity of the Incarnation follows from a consideration of the sphere of Christ's work. His purpose is, as is confessedly admitted, to assist men and not primarily other beings, as angels, though in fact they are helped through men. He lays hold of 'a faithful seed' to support and guide them to the end which He has Himself reached.

οὐ γὰρ δή που...] O. L. Nec enim statim... Vulg. nusquam enim... The γάρ gives the explanation of the end of the Incarnation which has been stated in v. 14 b. The combination δή που (not in lxx.) is found here only in the N. T. It implies that the statement made is a familiar truth: 'For He doth not, as we well know...' The Versions fail to give the sense; and Primasius explains the nusquam of the Vulgate: id est nullo loco, neque in caelo neque in terra, angelicam naturam assumpsit.

ἐπιλαμβάνεται] The verb ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι in the middle form has the general sense of laying hold of with the gen. of that which is taken hold of: Matt. xiv. 31; Luke ix. 47; Acts xxi. 30, &c.

In a particular case this may be with the additional notion of 'helping' suggested by the context: Jer. xxxviii. (xxxi. Hebr.) 32 (quoted c. viii. 9).

Hence the verb is used absolutely in the sense of 'helping': Ecclus. iv. 11 ἡ σοφία υἱοὺς ἑαυτῇ ἀνύψωσε καὶ ἐπιλαμβάνεται τῶν ζητούντων αὐτήν. Is. xli. 8, 9 (R. V.). Comp. Const. Apost. vii. 38, I ἐν ταῖς ἑμέραις ἡμῶν ἀντελάβου ἡμῶν διὰ τοῦ μεγάλου σου ἀρχιερέως Ἱησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

55

The versions generally give the sense of 'take hold of' in the sense of appropriating: Syr. he took not from angels ... i.e. he did not appropriate their nature; O. L. adsumpsit, or suscepit. Vulg. apprehendit.

This sense is given, I believe, uniformly by the Fathers both Greek and Latin who understand the phrase of the fact and not of the purpose of the Incarnation:

τί ἐστιν ὅ φησιν; οὐκ ἀγγέλου φύσιν ἀνεδέξατο ἀλλ' ἀνθρώπου (Chrys.).

ἐπειδὴ ἀνθρώπειον ἧν ὁ ἀνέλαβε διὰ μὲν τοῦ πάθους τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπέδωκε χρέος, διὰ δὲ τῆς τοῦ πεπονθύτος σώματος ἀναστάσεως τὴν οἰκείαν ἀπέδειξε δύναμεν (Theodoret).

οὐκ ἀγγέλων φύςεως ἐδράξατο οὐδὲ ἀνέλαβεν ἀλλ' ἀνθρωπίνης (Oecum.).

But at the same time they recognise a secondary thought of 'laying hold of that which endeavours to escape':

ἀπὸ μεταφορᾶς τῶν διωκόντων τούς ἀποστρεφομένους αὐτοὺς καὶ πάντα ποιούντων ὧστε καταλαβεῖν φεύγοντας καὶ ἐπιλαβέσθαι ἀποπηδώντων (Chrysost.).

τὸ ἐπιλαμβάνεται δηλοί ὅτι ἡμεῖς μὲν αὐτὸν ἐφεύγομεν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ὁ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐδίωκε καὶ διώκων ἕφθασε καὶ φθάσας ἐπελάβετο (Oecum.).

Quaro dixit apprehendit, quod portinet ad fugientem? Quia nos quasi recedentes a se et longe fugientes insecutus apprehendit (Primasius).

This sense however is inconsistent with the γᾶρ, and the plural ἀγγέλων, and would be a mere repetition of v. 14 a; while the sense 'taketh hold of to help,' is both more in accordance with the usage of the word and falls in perfectly with the argument. This being so, it is remarkable that this interpretation was not given by any one, as far as I know, before Chatillon in his Latin Version; and it then called out the severe condemnation of Beza: "...exsecranda...est Castellionis audacia qui ἐπιλαμβάνεται convertit opitulatur" (ad loc.). But, in spite of these hard words, this sense soon came to be adopted universally. The present tense brings out the continuous efficacy of the help (v. 18, v. 11 ὁ ἁγιάζων).

σπέρματος Ἀβραάμ] Christ took hold of a seed of Abraham, that is a true seed, those who are children of faith, and not of 'the seed of Abraham,' the race descended from the patriarch. Comp. Lk. i. 55; John viii. 33, 37; Gal. iii. 16, 29; Rom. ix. 7 ff.; xi. 1; 2 Cor. xi. 22 (compare τέκνα 'A, Matt. iii. 9 || Lk. iii. 8; John viii. 39; υἱοὶ 'A. Gal. iii. 7; Acts xiii. 26). The absence of the article shews that a character and not a concrete people ('the Jews') is described. At the same time the phrase marks both the breadth and the particularity of the divine promise which was fulfilled by Christ. Those of whom Christ takes hold have a spiritual character (faith), and they find their spiritual ancestor in one who answered a personal call (Abraham). Sive igitur de Judaeis, sive de gentibus fideles, semen Abrahae sunt quod Christus apprehendit (Herv.).

Nothing is said of the effect of the Incarnation on angels, or other beings than man. Man's fall necessarily affected all creation, and so also did man's restoration. But here the writer is simply explaining the fitness of the Incarnation.

Many however have endeavoured to determine why fallen man should have been redeemed and not fallen angels. Primasius, for example, suggests the following reasons:

(1). Man was tempted by the devil: the devil had no tempter.

(2). Man yielded to an appetite for eating which naturally required satisfaction. The devil as spirit was inexcusable.

(3). Man had not yet reached the presence of God, but was waiting to be transferred thither. The devil was already in heaven.

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σπέρματος 'Αβραὰμ ἐπιλαμβάνεται. ¹⁷ὄθεν ὥφειλεν κατὰ πάντα τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ὁμοιωθῆναι, ἵνα ἐλεήμων γένηται καὶ

It is evident that we have no powers to discuss such a subject.

In this connexion too it may be noticed that the writer says nothing distinctly of the calling of the Gentiles. He regards the whole divine work of Christ under the aspect of typical foreshadowing. Comp. v. 11 note.

(17). The necessity of the Incarnation is shewn further from a consideration of the scope of Christ's work. His purpose to help man involved the redemption of fallen man; and He who helps must have sympathy with those whom He helps. Wherefore He was bound to be made like to His brethren in all things, that He might be a merciful and faithful High-priest... For men are not only beset by temptations in the fierce conflicts of duty: they are also burdened with sins; and Christ had to deal with both evils.

Thus we are introduced to the idea which underlies the institution of Priesthood, the provision for a fellowship between God and man, for bringing God to man and man to God. See Additional Note.

ὄθεν] Whence, wherefore...since it was His pleasure to help fallen man. The word ὄθεν is not found in St Paul's Epistles. It is comparatively frequent in this Epistle, iii. 1; vii. 25; viii. 3; ix. 18. It occurs also (nine times in all) in St Matt., St Luke, Acts, 1 John. It marks a result which flows naturally (so to speak) from what has gone before.

ὥφειλεν] he was bound...Latt. debuit ...The requirement lay in the personal character of the relation itself. Comp, c. v. 3, 12; 1 John ii. 6 note.

Δεῖ (ἔδει) describes a necessity in the general order of things (oportet): ii. 1; ix. 26; xi. 6.

κατὰ πάντα] Vulg. per omnia similari. The 'likeness' which has been shewn in nature before (14) is now shewn to extend to the circumstances of life: ἐτέχθη, φησίν, ἐτράφη, ηὐξήθη, ἔπαθε πάντα ἄπερ ἐχρῆν, τέλος ἀπέθανεν (Chrysost). Id est educatus crevit, osuriit, passus est ae mortuus (Primas.).

ὁμοιωθῆναι] Comp. c. iv. 15 πεπειρασμένος κατὰ τὴν πάντα καθ' ὁμοιότητα (νii. 15 κατὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα Μελχισεδέκ). Phil. ii. 7 ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος. Rom. viii. 3; (Matt. vi. 8; Acts xiv. 11). The use of τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς calls up the argument of the former verses (v. 11).

ἵνα...εἰς τό...] Ἵνα expresses the immediate definite end: εἰ τό (which is characteristic of St Paul) the object reached after or reached. Εἰς τό... occurs vii. 25; viii. 3; ix. 14; xi. 3; xii. 10; xiii. 21.

ἵνα...γένηται] that He might (may) become, shew Himself...Latt. ut fieret ...The discharge of this function is made dependent on the fulfilment of the conditions of human life. Comp. v. 1 ff. The verb γίγνεσθαι suggests the notion of a result reached through the action of that which we regard as a law. Comp. i. 4; ii. 2; iii. 14; v. 9; vi. 4, 12; vii. 18, 26 &c.

ἐλεήμων...καὶ πιστός] It seems to be far more natural to take both these words as qualifying ἀρχιερεώς than to take ἐλ. separately: 'that He might become merciful, and a faithful high-priest.' Our High-priest is 'merciful' in considering the needs of each sinful man, and 'faithful' ('one in whom the believer can trust') in applying the means which He administers. It has been supposed that the one epithet expresses mainly the relation towards men and the other the relation towards God (c. iii. 2, 5); but here the relation towards men is alone in question, so that the faithfulness of Christ expresses that wherein

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πιστὸς ἀρχιερεὺς τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, εἰς τὸ ἱλάσκεσθαι

men can trust with absolute confidence.

The word πιστός admits two senses according as the character to which it is applied is regarded from within or from without. A person is said to be 'faithful' in the discharge of his duties where the trait is looked at from within outwards; and at the same time he is 'trustworthy' in virtue of that faithfulness in the judgment of those who are able to rely upon him. The one sense passes into the other. See c. iii. 2, 5; x. 23; xi. 11.

πιστός] Ἴδιον τοῦ ὅντως καὶ ἀληθῶς ἀρχιερέως τοὺς ὧν ἐστὶν ἀρχιερεὺς ἀπαλλάξαι τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν (Oecumen., Chrysost.). Ministerium sacerdotis...est fidelem esse ut possit eos quorum sacerdos est liberare a peccatis (Primas.). Man gains confidence by the sight of Christ's love.

ἀρχιερεύς] The writer introduces quite abruptly this title which is the key-word of his teaching, and which is applied to the Lord in this Epistle only among the writings of the Ν. T. So also the title ἱερεύς is used of Christ only in this Epistle: x. 21 (ἱερέα μέγαν). Comp. v. 6, &c. (Ps. cx. 4). Yet see also Apoc. i. 13. The title is adopted by Clement: ad Cor. i. c. 36 εὔρομεν...Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν τὸν ἀρχιερέα τῶν προσφορῶν ἡμῶν, c. 58 διὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ προστάτου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. (See Lightfoot ad loc.) Comp. Ign. ad Philad. 9.

The rendering of the sing. in the Vulg. is uniformly pontifex (iii. 1; iv. 14 f.; v. 5, 10; vi. 20; viii. 1; ix. 11); the plur. in vii. 27, 28 is rendered sacerdotes (as O. L.). In the Old Latin pontifex does not appear except in Vigil. Taps. (iv. 15) though there is considerable variety of rendering: sacerdos, summus sacerdos, princeps sacerdos, princeps sacerdotum, princeps (iii. 1). On coins and in inscriptions pontifex generally corresponds with ἀρχιερεύς, while pontifex maximus is represented by ἀρχιερεὺς μέγας or μέγιστος. Comp. Boeckh Inscrr. Gr. 3834, 3878, 3949, 4283 &c.; 2741 (ἀρχιερεύς) note; 5899 (ἀρχ. Ἀλεξανδρείας καὶ πάσης Αἐγύπτου).

τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν] in the things (in all things) that pertain to God. Latt. ad Deum. The phrase expresses more than πρὸς τὸν θεόν and points to 'all man's relations towards God,' all the elements of the divine life (in his quae sunt ad Deum in some old Lat. texts). Comp. c. v. 1; Ex. iv. 16; xviii. 19; Rom. xv. 17. (Lk. xiv. 32; xix. 42; Acts xxviii. 10) Jos. Antt. ix. 11. 2 εὐσεβὴς...τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. The phrase is not uncommon in classical writers: e.g. Arist. Pol. iii. 14 τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς ἀποδέδοται τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν [ἐν τῇ Λακωνικῇ πολιτείᾳα]; Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. init.

εἰς τὸ ἱλάσκ. τὰς ἁμ.] Ο. L. ut expiaret peccata, and ad deprecandum (propitiandum) pro delictis. Vulg. ut repropitiaret delicta. For the construction of ἱλάσκεσθαι (ἐξιλάσθαι) in biblical and classical Greek see Additional Note on 1 John ii. 2. The use of the accus. of the things cleansed occurs Lev. xvi. 16, 20, 33; Ezek. xliii. 20, 22, 26; xlv. 18, 20 (τὸ ἅγιον, τὸ θυσιαστήριον, τὸν οἶκον), and Dan. ix. 24 (ἀδικίας); Ps. lxiv. (lxv.) 4 (ἀσεβείας): Ecclus. iii. 30 (ἁμαρτίας).

The essential conception is that of altering that in the character of an object which necessarily excludes the action of the grace of God, so that God, being what He is, cannot (as we speak) look on it with favour. The 'propitiation' acts on that which alienates God and not on God whose love is unchanged throughout.

So Chrysostom expresses the thought here: ἵνα προσενέγκῃ θυσίαν δυναμένην ἡμᾶς καθαρίσαι, διὰ τοῦτο γέγονεν ἄνθρωπος; and OEcumenius: διὰ τοῦτο γέγονεν (ἄνθρωπος) εἰς τὸ ἐξιλεώσασθαι ἡμᾶς καὶ καθαρίσαι τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. And Primasius:

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τὰς ἁμαρτίας τοῦ λαοῦ. ¹⁸ἐv ὧ γὰρ πειρασθείς, δύναται τοῖς πειραζομένοις βοηθῆσαι.

17 τὰς ἁμαρτ.: ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις Α (so Ρs. lxxvii. 38; lxxviii. 9; xxiv. 11). 18 πέπ. αὐτ.: αὐτὸς πέπ. D₂.

misertus est [generis humani] sicut fidelis pontifex, reconcilians nos Deo Patri, et reconciliando purgans.

The present infin. ἱλάσκεσθαι must be noticed. The one (eternal) act of Christ (c. x. 12—14) is here regarded in its continuous present application to men (comp. c. v. 1, 2).

τὰς ἁμ. τοῦ λαοῦ] the sins of the people, of all who under the new dispensation occupy the position of Israel. The 'seed of Abraham' now receives its fuller title. Comp. Matt. i. 21; Luke ii. 10; and c. iv. 9; xiii. 12; (viii. 10; x. 30; xi. 25). For the original use of the word for the old 'people' see v. 3; vii. 5, 11, 27; ix. 7, 19.

The use of the phrase suggests the thought of the privileges of the Jew, and at the same time indicates that that which was before limited has now become universal, the privilege of faith and not of descent.

(18). Christ's High-priestly work, which has been considered in the last clause of v. 17 in relation to God, is now considered in relation to man. In this respect the efficacy of His High-priesthood, of His mercy and faithfulness, is shewn in the power of its application to suffering men. Propitiation must not only be made for them but also applied to them. He who propitiates must enter into the experience of the sinner to support him in temptation. And this Christ can do; for wherein He Himself hath suffered...He is able to succour....He removes the barrier of sin which checks the outflow of God's love to the sinner, and at once brings help to the tempted (contrast ἱλάσκεσθαι, βοηθῆσαι) by restoring in them the full sense of filial dependence. The whole work of our High-priest depends for its efficacy (γάρ) on the perfect sympathy of Christ with humanity and His perfect human experience.

ἐν ὧ γάρ] Ο. L. in quo enim ipse expertus passus est. The ἐν ὧ may be resolved either into ἐν τούτῳ ὅτι whereas (Rom. viii. 3?), or into ἐν τούτῳ ὅ wherein (Rom. xiv. 22; comp. c. v. 8; Gal. i. 8; 2 Cor. v. 10; 1 Pet. ii. 12). The latter construction is the simpler and more natural (Vulg. in eo enim in quo passus est ipte et tentatus).

Taking this construction therefore we have two main interpretations:

(1). 'For Himself having been tempted in that which He hath suffered...'

(So Vigilius: in eo enim quo passus est illo tentatus est.)

(2). 'For in that in which He hath suffered being tempted...'

According to the first view the thought is that the sympathy of Christ is grounded on the fact that He felt temptation when exposed to suffering.

According to the second view the thought is that the range of Christ's sympathy is as wide as His experience.

The second view seems to fall in best with the context. The region of Christ's suffering through temptation includes the whole area of human life, and His sympathy is no less absolute. The αὐτός is not to be taken exclusively either with πέπονθεν or with πειρασθείς. Though Son Christ Himself keow both suffering and temptation.

Primasius (Atto) interprets very strangely: in eo, id est homine.

ἐν ὧ πέπονθεν] wherein he hath suffered. The tense fixes attention upon the permanent effect and not on 59 the historic fact. Comp. v. 9 ἠλαττωμένον, ἐστεφανωμένον, and iv. 15; xii. 3 notes. For πάσχειν see c. xiii. 12.

The suffering which was coincident with the temptation remained as the ground of compassion. For the general thought compare Ex. xxiii. 9; Deut. x. 19.

πειρασθείς......πειραζομένοις] The temptation of Christ is regarded in its past completeness (cf. μετέσχεν v. 14). The temptation of men is not future only but present and continuous.

βοηθῆσαι] Vulg. auxiliari: Mark ix. 22, 24. c. iv. 16. The aor. expresses the single, momentary, act of coming to help. Compare the use of the pres. inf. v. 7; vii. 25; and contrast iv. 15 μὴ δυνάμενον συμπαθῆσαι with v. 2 μετριοπαθεῖν δυνάμενος.

δύναται...βοηθῆσαι] The phrase expresses more than the simple fact (Βοηθεῖ). Only one who has learnt by suffering can rightly feel with another in his sufferings. The perfect humanity of Christ is the ground of His sympathy. Comp. c. iv. 15; John v. 27 (υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου).

Chrysostom rightly dwells on this point: περὶ τοῦ σαρκωθέντος, ἐνταῦθα φησίν,...οὐ γὰρ ὡς θεὸς αἶδεν μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἄνθρωπος ἔγνω διὰ τῆς πείρας ἧς ἐπειράθη. and again: ὁ παθὼν οἰδε τί πάσχει ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη φύσις.

So also Theodoret: ταῦτα κατὰ τὸ ἀνθρώπειον εἴρηται. αὔτε γὰρ ἀρχιερεὺς ἡμῶν ὡς θεὸς ἀλλ' ὡς ἄνθρωπος, οὔτε ὡς θεὸς διὰ τῆς πείρας μεμάθηκεν, ἀλλ' ὡς θεὸς καὶ δημιουργὸς γινώσκει τὰ πάντα σαφῶς.

The power of sympathy lies not in the mere capacity for feeling, but in the lessons of experience. And again, sympathy with the sinner in his trial does not depend on the experience of sin but on the experience of the strength of the temptation to sin which only the sinless can know in its full intensity. He who falls yields before the last strain. Comp. c. v. 8; vii. 26 notes. Sin indeed dulls sympathy by obscuring the idea of evil.

Under this aspect we can understand how Christ's experience of the power of sin in others (as in the instruments of the Passion) intensified, if we may so speak, His sympathy.

In looking back over the whole section it is important to notice the stress which the writer lays upon the historic work of Christ. Christ is not simply a Teacher but a Redeemer, a Saviour. The Redemption of man and the fulfilment of his destiny is not wrought by a moral or spiritual union with God laid open by Christ, or established in Christ, but by a union of humanity with God extending to the whole of man's nature and maintained through death. While the writer insists with the greatest force upon the transcendental action of Christ, he rests the foundation of this union upon Christ's earthly experience. Christ 'shared in blood and flesh' (v. 14), and 'was in all things made like to His brethren' (v. 17). He took to Himself all that belongs to the perfection of man's being. He lived according to the conditions of man's life and died under the circumstances of man's mortality. So His work extends to the totality of human powers and existence, and brings all into fellowship with the divine. Compare Clem. R. ad Cor. i. 49; Iren. v. 1. 1; ii. 22. 4; iii. 16. 6. The passages of Irenaeus will repay careful study.

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Additional Note on ii. 8. Man's destiny and position.

The view which is given in the quotation from Ps. viii. of the splendour of man's destiny according to the divine idea is necessary for the argument of the Epistle. It suggests the thought of 'the Gospel of Creation,' and indicates an essential relation between the Son of God and men. At the same time it prepares the way for the full acceptance of the great mystery of a redemption through suffering. The promise of dominion given in the first chapter of Genesis is renewed and raised to a higher form. Even as man was destined to rule 'the present world,' so is it the pleasure of God that be should rule 'the world to come.' His dominion may be delayed, misinterpreted, obscured, but the divine counsel goes forward to accomplishment through the sorrows which seem to mar it.

For man, as we have seen (Addit. Note on i. 3), has missed his true end. He is involved in sin and in an inheritance of the fruit of sins. Born for God he has no right of access to God (c. ix. 8). For him, till the Incarnation, God was represented by the darkness of a veiled sanctuary. The highest acts of worship served only to remind him of his position and not to ameliorate it (x. 4, 11). He was held by fear (ii. 15). Yet the primal promise was not recalled. He stood therefore in the face of a destiny unattained and unrevoked: a destiny which experience had shewn that he could not himself reach, and which yet he could not abandon as beyond hope.

For man, as he is, still retains the lineaments of the divine image in which he was made. He is still able to pronounce an authoritative moral judgment: he is still able to recognise that which corresponds with the Nature of God (ii. 10 ἔπρεπεν αὐτῷ), and with the needs of humanity (vii. 26 ἔπρεπεν ἡμῖν). And in the face of every sorrow and every disappointment he sees a continuity in the divine action, and guards a sure confidence in the divine righteousness (vi. 10).

It follows therefore that there is still in humanity a capacity for receiving that for which it was first created. The Son could become true man without change in His Divine Person, and without any violation of the completeness of the Nature which he assumed. The prospect is opened of 'consummation through suffering.'

*Additional Note on the reading of* ii. 9.

The reading of the text χάρετι θεοῦ (by the grace of God) is given with two exceptions by all Greek mss., including אAΒCD₂, by all Latin mss., by Syr hl and me. For these words M₂ and 67** (which has remarkable coincidences with M₂, e.g. i. 3; iii. 6) give χωπὶς θεοῦ (apart from God) with later mss. of Syr vg.

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The mss. of the Syriac Vulgate (Peshito) present a remarkable variety of readings. The text of Widmanstadt, followed by Schaaf, gives: for God Himself (literally for He God) in His goodness tasted death for every man, (So B. M. Rich 7160 a.d. 1203; Rich 7162 saec. xiv.) The important ms. of Buchanan in the University Library, Cambridge, reads: for He in His goodness, God, tasted death for every man; and this was evidently the original reading of Β. M. Rich 7157 (finished a.d. 768). The mss. in the Brit. Mus. Rich 7158 (saec. xi) and Rich 7159 (saec. xii) both give: for He, apart from God, for every man tasted death; and this is the reading of the very late corrector of Rich 7157.

Tremellius gives from a Heidelberg ms.: for He, apart from God, in His goodness tasted death for every man, which combines both readings.

It appears therefore that, as far as known, no text of Syr vg exactly corresponds with either Greek reading. The connecting particle presupposes γὰρ for ὅπως, which has no other authority; and on the whole it is likely that the rendering of χωρίς was introduced after that of χάριτι, and that the earliest reading, which represents χάριτι θεός, is due to a primitive corruption of the Greek or Syrian text which was corrected in two directions11   The Syriac translation of Cyril of Alexandria (in Joh. iii. pp. 432, 513 ed. Pusey) gives by the grace of God..

Both readings were known to Origen; and the treatment of the variants by the writers who were acquainted with them offers remarkable illustrations of the indifference of the early Fathers to important points of textual criticism, and of their unhistorical method of dealing with them.

Origen refers to the two readings several times, but he makes no attempt to decide between them. The ms. which he used when he was writing the first part of his commentary on St John appears to have read χωρὶς θεοῦ. He notices χάριτι θεοῦ as read in some copies: χωρὶς γὰρ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς ἐγεύσατο θανάτου, ὕπερ (H. and R. by conj. ἧ ὕπερ wrongly) ἔν τισι κεῖται τπης πρὸς Ἐβραίους ἀντιγράφοις 'χάριτι θεοῦ' (In Joh. Tom. i. § 40); and in a passage written at a later time he uses the phrase χωρὶς θεοῦ in a connexion which seems to indicate that he took it from the text of this passage: μόνου Ἰησοῦ τὸ πάντων τὴς ἁμαρτίας φορτίον ἐν τῷ ὑπὲρ τῶν ὅλων χωρὶς θεοῦ σταυρῷ ἀναλαβεῖν εἰς ἑαυτὸν καὶ βαστάσαι τῇ μεγάλῃ αὐτοῦ ἰσχυῖ δεδυνημένου (In Joh. Tom. xxviii. § 41; he has said just before: συγχρήσέται τῷ 'ὅπὲρ χἀριτι' ἧ χωρὶς θεοῦ'...καὶ ἐπιστήσει τᾦ 'ὑπὲρ παντὸς' καὶ τῷ 'χωρὶς θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντός'). Both readings seemed to him to give good sense, and he was unwilling to sacrifice either22   It is not possible to lay stress on the sinc Deo, which is found twice in Rufinus' translation of the Commentary on Romans (iii. § 8; v. § 7), but it is most likely that this was taken from Origen's text..

Eusebius, Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria read χάριτι θεοῦ, and do not notice the variation χωρὶς θεοῦ.

Ambrose twice quotes sine Deo without any notice of another reading: de Fide ii. § 63; id. v. § 106; and explains the phrase in the latter place: id est, quod creatura omnis, sine passione aliqua divinitatis, dominici sanguinis redimenda sit pretio (Rom. viii. 21).

The same reading is given by Fulgentius ad Tras. iii. 20 with the 62 comment: sine Deo igitur homo ille gustavit mortem quantum ad conditionem attinet carnis, non autem sine Deo quantum ad susceptionem pertinet deitatis, quia impassibilis atque immortalis illa divinitas...; and by Vigilius Taps. c. Eut. ii. § 5 (p. 17).

Jerome mentions both readings (In Ep. ad Gal. c. iii. 10) Christus gratia Dei, sive, ut in quibusdam exemplaribus legitur, absque Deo pro omnibus mortuus est. Perhaps the use of absque for sine indicates that his reference is to Greek and not to Latin copies, and it may have been derived from Origen.

Theodore of Mopsuestia (ad loc.) condemns severely χάριτι θεοῦ as foreign to the argument: γελοιότατον δή τι πάσχουσιν ἐνταῦθα τὸ 'χωπὶς θεοῦ' ἐναλλάττοντες καὶ ποιοῦντες 'χάριτι θεοῦ' οὐ προσέχοντες τῇ ἀκολουθίᾳ τῆς γραφὴς: while he maintains that it was necessary to insist on the impassibility of the Godhead (χωρίς θεοῦ).

Chrytostom explains χάριτι θεοῦ without any notice of the variety of reading: ὅπως, φησί, χάριτι θεοῦ, κάκεῖνος μὲν γὰρ διὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν εἰς ἡμᾶς ταῦτα πέπονθεν (Rom. viii. 32).

Theodoret, on the other hand, explains χωρίς θεοῦ and takes no notice of any variation: μόνη, φησίν, ή θείa φύσις ἀνενδεής, τἄλλα δὲ πάντα τοῦ τῆς ἐνανθρωπήσεως ἑδεῖτο φαρμάκου.

Theophylact (ad loc.) ascribes the reading χωρίς θεοῦ to the Nestorians: (oἱ δὲ Nεστoριανοὶ παραποιοῦντεσ τὴν γραφήν φασι 'χωρίς θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντός γεύσηται,' ἵνα συστήσωσιν ὅτι ἐσταυρωμένῳ τῷ Xpεστῷ οὐ συνῆν ἡ θεότης, ἅτε μὴ καθ' ὑπόστασιν αὐτῷ ἡνωμένη ἀλλά κατὰ σχέσιν), but quotes an orthodox writer as answering their arguments for it by giving the interpretation 'for all beings except God, even for the angels themselves.'

Οecumenius (ad loc.) writes to the same effect (ἰστέον ὅτι οἰ Νεστοριανοὶ παραποιοῦσι τὴν γραφήν...).

From a review of the evidence it may be fairly concluded that the original reading was χάριτι, but that χωρίς found a place in some Greek copies early in the third century, if not before, which had however only a limited circulation, and mainly in Syria. The influence of Theodore and the Nestorian controversy gave a greater importance to the variant, and the common Syriac text was modified in two directions, in accordance with Eutychian and Nestorian views. The appearance of χωρίς in a group of Latin quotations is a noteworthy phenomenon.

The variant may be due to simple error of transcription, but it seems to be more reasonably explained by the supposition that χωρίς θεοῦ was added as a gloss to ὑπὲρ παντός or οὐδὲν ἀφῆκεν αὐτῷ ἀνυπότακτον from 1 Cor. xv. 27 ἐκτὸς τοῦ ύποτάξαντος αύτῷ τὰ πάντα, and then substituted for χάριτι θεοῦ. χωρίς Χριστοῦ is found Eph. ii. 12. It is scarcely possible that χάριτι θεοῦ can have been substituted for χωρίς θεοῦ, though it is really required to lead on to the fuller development of the thought in v. 10.

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*Additional Note on* ii. 10. *The idea of τελείωσις*.

The idea of τελείωσις — consummation, bringing to perfection — is characteristic of the Epistle. The whole family of words connected with τέλείoς is found in it: τέλείoς (v. 14; ix. 11), τελειότης vi. 1 (elsewhere only Col. iii. 14), τελειoῦν both of Christ (ii. 10; v. 9; vii. 28) and of men (x. 14; xi. 40; xii. 23; elsewhere in the Ν. T. of the Lord only in Luke xiii. 32 (τῇ τρίτῃ τελεoῦμαι) in His own declaration of the course of His work), τελειωτής (xii. 2 unique), τελείωσις (vii. 11, elsewhere only Lk. i. 45).

(1). The words were already in use in the lxx. The adj. τέλειος is there applied to that which is perfect and complete, possessing all that belongs to the 'idea' of the object, as victims (Ex. xii. 5), men (Gen. vi. 2); the heart (1 K. viii. 61 &c.). Compare Jer. xiii. 19 ἀποικίαν τελείαν (a complete removal); Ps. cxxxix. (cxxxviii.) 22 τέλειον μῖσος. Hence the word is used of mature Israelites, teachers: 1 Chron. xxv. 8 τελείων (מֵבִין) καὶ μανθανόντων (v. 7 כָּל-הַמֵּבִין πᾶς συνιών).

The noun τελειότης has corresponding senses. Jud. ix. 16, 19; Prov. xi. 3 (A); Wisd. vi. 15; xii. 17.

The verb τελειοῦν is employed to render several Hebrew words: Ezek. xxvii. 11 (τὸ κάλλος כלל); Chron. viii. 16 (τὸν οἶκον שָׁלֵם); K. vii. 22 (τὸ ἔργον תתם); Neh. vi. 16 (עשה). Comp. Ecclus. 1. 19 (τὴν λειτουργίαν). And in the later books the word is used for men who have reached their full development: Wisd. iv. 13 τελειωθεὶς ἐν ὀλίγῳ ἐπλήρωσε χρόνους μακροούς. Ecclus. xxxiv. (xxxi.) 10 τίσ ἐδοκιμάσθη καὶ ἐτελειώθη;

One peculiar use requires special attention. It is employed several times in the rendering of מלא ין, τελειοῦν τὰς χεῖρας, 'filling the hands,' which describes the installation of the priests in the actual exercise of their office (the making their hands perfect by the material of their work), and not simply their consecration to it: Ex. xxix. 9 (10) τελεώσεις Ἀαρὼν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ; id. v. 29 τελειῶσαι (Ά. πληρῶσαι, Σ. τελειωθῆναι), 33; 35. Lev. viii. 33 τελειώσεως; xvi. 32 ὅν ἄν τελειώσωσι τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ ἱερατεύειν (ἄλλος. οὖ ἐπληρώθη ὁ τόπος ἱερατεύειν); Num. iii. 3: and it is found absolutely in this connexion in Lev. xxi. 10 (some add τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ). The Hebrew phrase is elsewhere rendered by ἐμπλῆσαι (πληροῦν) τὰς χεῖρας (τὴν χεῖρα): Ex. xxviii. 37 (41); Jud. xvii. 5 (Σ. ἐτελείωσαν τ. χ.). The installation (τελείωσις) of the priest was a type of that which Christ attained to absolutely. The priest required to be furnished in symbol with all that was required for the fulfilment of his office. Christ perfectly gained all in Himself.

The usage of the verbal τελείωσις corresponds with that of the verb: Judith x. 9; Ecclus. xxxi. (xxxiv.) 8. It is applied to 'Thummim' (Neh. vii. 65 some copies; comp. Aqu. and Theodot. on Lev. viii. 8 and Field ad loc.); espousals (Jer. ii. 2); the inauguration of the temple (2 Macc. ii. 9; comp. Athanas. Ep. ad Const. § 14); and specially to 'the ram of installation' (איל המלאים κριὸς τελειώσεως): Ex. xxix. 22, 26, 27, 31, 34; Lev. vii. 37 (27); viii. 21, 27, 28, 31, 33.

Comp. Philo, Vit. Mos. iii. § 17 (ii. 157 M.), ὅν (κριὸν) ἐτύμως τελειώσεως* 64 ἐκάλεσεν ἐπειδὴ τὰς ἁρμοττούσας θεραπευταῖς κακὶ λειτουργοῖς θεοῦ τελετᾶς ἔμελλον ἱεροφαντεῖσθαι.

The noun τελειωτής is not found in the lxx.

(2). In the Books of the Ν . Τ. (if we omit for the present the Epistle to the Hebrews) the adj. τέλειος is used to describe that which has reached the highest perfection in the sphere which is contemplated, as contrasted with that which is partial (1 Cor. xiii. 10), or imperfect (James i. 4), or provisional (James i. 25), or incomplete (Rom. xii. 2; James i. 17; 1 John iv. 18), and specially of Christians who have reached full growth in contrast with those who are immature or undeveloped (Eph. iv. 13; Col. i. 28; iv. 12), either generally (Matt. v. 48; xix. 21; 1 Cor. ii. 6; Phil. iii. 15; James iii. 2), or in some particular aspect (1 Cor. xiv. 20).

The noun τελειότης is found in Col. iii. 14, where love is said to be σύνδεσμος τῆς τελειότητος, a bond by which the many elements contributing to Christian perfectness are held together in harmonious unity.

The verb τελειοῦν is not unfrequent in the Gospel and first Epistle of St John. It is used in the discourses of the Lord of the work (works) which had been given to Him to do (iv. 34; v. 36; xvii. 4), and of the consummation of believers in one fellowship (xvii. 23 τετελειωμένοι εἰς ἔν).

The Evangelist himself uses it of the last 'accomplishment' of Scripture (xix. 28); and in his Epistle of love in (with) the believer (ii. 5; iv. 12; 17 μεθ' ἡμῶν), and of the believer in love (iv. 18). Elsewhere it is used of an appointed space of time (Luke ii. 43), of the course of life (Acts xx. 24), of faith crowned by works (James ii. 22), of the consummation of the Christian (Phil. iii. 12). Once it is used by the Lord of Himself: Luke xiii. 32 Behold I cast out devils and perform (ἀποτελῶ) cures to-day and to-morrow, and the third day I am perfected (τελειοῦμαι).

The verbal τελείωσις is once used (Luke i. 45) of the accomplishment of the message brought to the Mother of the Lord.

(3). In ecclesiastical writers the baptized believer, admitted to the full privileges of the Christian life, was spoken of as τέλειος (comp. Clem. Al. Strom. vi. § 60). Hence τελειοῦν (and perficere) was used of the administration of Baptism (Athan. c. Ar. i. 34 οὕτω γὰρ τελειούμενοι καὶ ἡμεῖς...) and τελείωσις of the Baptism itself (Athan. c. Ar. ii. 42 εἰ γὰρ εἰς τὸ ὅνομα πατρὸς καὶ υἱοῦ δίδοται ἡ τελείωσις, c. 41 ἐν τῇ τελειώσει τοῦ βαπτίσματος. Comp. Caesar. Dial. i. 12 ἐν τῇ σφραγῖδι τῆς μυστικῆς τελειότητος). So too the person who administered the Sacrament was called τελειωτής (Greg. Naz. Orat. xl. In bapt. § 44 ἀναστῶμεν ἐπὶ τὸ βάπρισμα. σφύζει τὸ πνεῦμα, πρόθυμος ὁ τελειωτής. τὸ δπωρον ἕτοιμον, comp. § 18). This usage is very well illustrated by a passage in writing falsely attributed to Athanasius: εἰ μή εἰσι τέλειοι χριστιανοὶ οἱ κατηχούμενοι πρὶν ἥ βαπτισθῶσι, βαπτισθέντες δὲ τεέοπῦνται, τὸ βάπτισμα ἄρα μεῖζόν ἐστι τῆς προσκυνήσεως ὅ τῆν τελειότητα παρέχει (Ps.-Ath. Dial. i. c. Maced. 6). Comp. Clem. Al. Paed. i. 6.

In a more general sense τελειοῦσθαι and τελείωσις were used of the death of the Christian, and specially of the death by martyrdom, in which the effort of life was completed (Euseb. Η. E. iii. 35; vii. 15 ἀπαχθεὶς τῆν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ τελειοῦται, and Heinichen's note).

The word τέλειος came naturally to be used of themselves by those who claimed to possess the highest knowledge of the truth, as initiated into its 65 mysteries (Iren. i. 6 τελείους ἑαυτοὺς ἀναγορεύουσι, comp. c. 3 οἱ τελειότατοι. Valent ap. Epiph. Haer. xxxi., § 5); and at the same time the associations of τελείσθαι ('to be initiated') were transferred to τέλειος and τελειοῦσθαι (comp. Dion. Ar. de cael. hier. vi. § 3; Method. de Sim. et Anna 5 [ὁ θεὸς] ὁ τῶν τελουμένων τελειωτής; and 2 Cor. xii. 9 v. l.).

Throughout these various applications of the word one general thought is preserved. He who is τέλειος has reached the end which is in each case set before him, maturity of growth, complete development of powers, full enjoyment of privileges, perfect possession of knowledge.

The sense of the word in the Epistle to the Hebrews exactly conforms to this usage. The τέλειος—the matured Christian—is contrasted with the νήπιος the undeveloped babe (v. 14): the provisional and transitory tabcrnado with that which was 'more perfect' (ix. 11). The ripe perfectness (τελειότης) of Christian knowledge is set against the first elementary teaching of the Gospel (vi. 1). Christ, as He leads faith, so to speak, to the conflict, carries it to its absolute triumph (xii. 2 τελειωτής). The aim of a religious system is τελείωσις (vii. 11), to bring men to their true end, when all the fulness of humanity in power and development is brought into fellowship with God. And in this sense God was pleased to 'make' the Incarnate Son 'perfect through suffering' (ii. 10; v. 9; vii. 28), and the Son, by His one offering, to 'make perfect them that are sanctified' (x. 14; xi. 40; xii. 23).

*Additional Note on* ii. 10. *The τελείωσις of Christ.*

In connexion with the Person and Work of Christ the idea of τελείωσις finds three distinct applications.

(a) He is Himself 'made perfect': ii. 10 ff.; v. 7 ff.; vii. 28.

(b) He 'perfects' others through fellowship with Himself: x. 14; xi. 39 f.; xii. 23.

(c) His 'perfection through suffering' is the ground of absolute sympathy with men in their weakness, and failure, and efforts: ii. 17 f.; iv. 15; xii. 2.

A general view of the distinctive thoughts in these passages will illustrate the breadth and fulness of the teaching of the Epistle. The notes on the several passages will suggest in detail thoughts for further study.

(a) The personal consummation of Christ in His humanity: ii. 10 f.; v. 7 ff.; vii. 28.

These three passages present the fact under three different aspects.

(α) The first passage (ii. 10 ff.) declares the general method by which the consummation was reached in regard to the divine counsel: God perfected His Incarnate Son through sufferings; and Man is able to recognise the fitness (ἔπρεπεν) of this method from the consideration of his own position and needs (πολλοὺς θἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα).

(β) In tho second passage (v. 7 ff.) we are allowed to see the action of the divine discipline upon the Son of man during His earthly life, in its course and in its end (ἕμαθεν ἀφ' ὧν ἔπαθεν τὴν ὑπακοήν). He realised to 66 the uttermost the absolute dependence of humanity upon God in the fulness of personal communion with Him, even through the last issues of sin in death.

(γ) In the third passage (vii. 28) there is a revelation of the abiding work of the Son for men as their eternal High Priest (υἱὸν εἰς τὸν αἰῶvα τετελειωμένον)

In studying this τελείωσις of Christ, account must be taken both (1) of His life as man (John viii. 40; 1 Tim. ii. 5 (ἄνθρωπος); Acts ii. 22; xvii. 31 ἄνήρ), so far as He fulfilled in a true human life the destiny of man personally; and (2) of His life as the Son of man, so far as He fulfilled in His life, as Head of the race, the destiny of humanity by redemption and consummation. The two lives indeed are only separable in thought, but the effort to give clearness to them reveals a little more of the meaning of the Gospel.

And yet again: these three passages are of great importance as emphasising the reality of the Lord's human life from step to step. It is at each moment perfect with the ideal of human perfection according to the circumstances.

It is unscriptural, though the practice is supported by strong patristic authority, to regard the Lord during His historic life as acting now by His human and now by His Divine Nature only. The two Natures were inseparably combined in the unity of His Person. In all things He acts Personally; and, as far as it is revealed to us, His greatest works during His earthly life are wrought by the help of the Father through the energy of a humanity enabled to do all things in fellowship with God (comp. John xi. 41 f.).

(b) From the revelation of the τελείωσις of the Lord we pass to the second group of passages (x. 14; xi. 39 f.; xii. 23) in which men are shewn to receive from Him the virtue of that perfection which He has reached. Those who are 'in Christ,' according to the phrase of St Paul (which is not found in this Epistle; yet see x. 10, 19), share the privileges of their Head. These three passages also present the truth which they express in different lights.

(α) The first passage (x. 14) gives the one sufficient and abiding ground of man's attainment to perfection in the fact of Christ's work. Man has simply to take to himself what Christ has already done for him (τετελείωκεν εἰς τὸ διηνεκές).

(β) The second passage (xi. 39 f.) enables us to understand the unexpected slowness of the fulfilment of our hopes. There is a great counsel of Providence which we can trust (κρεῖττόν τι προβλεψαμένου).

(γ) And in the third passage a glimpse is opened of the righteous who have obtained the abiding possession of that which Christ has won (τετελειωμένων).

(c) In the third group of passages which deal with Christ's 'perfection' in His humanity (ii. 17 f.; iv. 15; xii. 2) we are led to observe how His 'perfection through sufferings' becomes the ground and pledge of His unfailing sympathy with men. The experience of His earthly life (as we speak) remains in His glory.

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Thus we see in succession (α) that Christ's assumption of true and perfect humanity (κατὰ πάντα τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ὁμοιωθῆναι) becomes the spring of His High-priestly work in making propitiation for sins and rendering help to men answering to the universality (ἐν ὧ πέπονθεν) of His own suffering and temptation (ii. 17 f.).

And next (β) that the Assurance of sympathy based on the fellowship of Nature and experience (πεπειρασμένον κατὰ πάντα καθ' ὁμοιότητα) brings confidence to men in their approach to God for pardon and strength (iv. 14—16).

And yet again (y) that Christ Himself in the fulfilment of His work proved from first to last (άρχηγὸν καὶ τελειωτήν) the power of that faith by which we also walk (xii. 11).

No one can regard even summarily these nine passages without feeling their far-reaching significance. And it is of especial importance to dwell on the view which is given to us in the Epistle of the τελείωσις of Christ from its direct practical importance.

(1). It gives a vivid and natural distinctness to our historic conception of the Lord's life on earth.

(2). It enables us to apprehend, according to our power, the complete harmony of the Divine and Human Natures in One Person, each finding fulfilment, as we speak, according to its proper law in the fulness of One Life.

(3). It reveals the completeness of the work of the Incarnation which brings to each human power and each part of human life its true perfection.

(4). It brings the universal truth home to each man individually in his little life, a fragment of human life, and presents to us at each moment the necessity of effort, and assures us of corresponding help.

(5). It teaches us to see the perfect correspondence between the completeness of tho divine work (χάριτί ἐστε σεσωσμένοι), and the progressive realisation of it by man (δι' οὖ καὶ σώζεσθε).

*Additional Note on* ii. 13. *Quotations from the Old Testament in cc*. i., ii.

The passages of the O.T. which are quoted in the first two chapters of the Epistle offer a representative study of the interpretation of Scripture. The main principles which they suggest will appear from the simple recital of the points which they are used to illustrate.

(1). The Divine Son.

(a) His work for man. Ps. ii. 7 (i. 5; comp. v. 5).

My Son art Thou;

I have to-day begotten Thee.

The words are quoted also Acts xiii. 33 (of the Resurrection). Compare also the various readings of D in Luke iii. 22; and the reading of the Ebionite Gospel in Matt. iii. 17.

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For the unique force of the address see note on the passage.

The thought implied is that the universal dominion of the Divine King is founded on His Divine Nature. The outward conquests of Israel can therefore only be earnests and types of something immeasurably higher.

If account be taken of the second reference to the passage (v. 5), it will appear that the foundation and assurance of Christ's work for men, His sovereignty and His priesthood, are laid in His divine character declared by the Father.

(β) His work for God. 2 Sam. vii. 14 (i. 5).

I will be to Him a Father;

And He shall be to Me a Son.

Comp. 2 Cor. vi. 18; Apoc. xxi. 7.

The words are taken from the answer of Nathan to David's desire to build a Temple for the Lord. The whole passage ('iniquity') can only refer to an earthly king; yet no earthly king could satisfy the hope which the promise created. The kingdom was destroyed, and the vision of a new stock of Jesse was opened (Is. xi. 1; Jer. xxiii. 5; Zech. vi. 11 f.; Luke i. 32 f.). The Temple was destroyed and the vision of a new Temple was opened, a Temple raised by the Resurrection (John ii. 19).

In both these passages it will be observed that the Lord is the speaker, the God of the Covenant, the God of Revelation (Ps. ii. 7 The Lord hath said...; 2 Sam. vii. 4 the word of the Lord came to Nathan...; v. 8 thus saith the Lord...).

(γ) His final conquest.

Deut. xxxii. 43 (lxx.)(i. 6).

Comp. Ps. xcvii. (xcvi.) 7; Rom. xv. 10.

The sovereignty of the Son is at last recognised by all created beings.

(2). The Davidic King. Ps. xlv. 6 f. (i. 8 f.).

The Psalm is the Marriage Song of the Sovereign of the theocratic kingdom. The King, the royal Bride, the children, offer a living picture of the permanence of the Divine Son with His Church, in contrast with the transitory ministry of Angels.

(3). The Creator; the manifestation of God (the Lord). Ps. cii. 25 ff. (i. 10 ff.).

The Psalm is an appeal of an exile. The idea of the God of Israel is enlarged. He who enters into fellowship with man, takes man to Himself. The Covenant leads up to the Incarnation. The Creator is the Saviour. See Additional Note c. iii. 7.

(4). The King-Priest.

Ps. cx. 1 (i. 13; comp. x. 12 f.).

Sit Thou at My right hand,

Till I make Thine enemies the footstool of Thy feet.

The Psalm, which probably describes the bringing of the Ark to Jerusalem by David, the new Melchizedek, king at once and fulfiller of priestly offices, describes the Divine King under three aspects as King (1—3), Priest (4), Conqueror (5—7). The opening words of the Psalm 69 necessarily called up the whole portraiture; and one part of it (Ps. cx. 4) is afterwards dwelt upon at length (v. 6, 10; vi. 20; vii. 11 ff.).

(5). The Son of man, as true man fulfilling the destiny of man, and the destiny of fallen man through suffering ('the servant of the Lord').

(α) Man's destiny.

Ps. viii. 5 ff. (ii. 6 ff.).

Comp. Matt. xxi. 16; 1 Cor. xv. 27.

The Psalm, which was never reckoned as Messianic, presents the ideal of man (Gen. i. 27—30), a destiny unfulfilled and unrepealed.

(β) The suffering King.

Ps. xxii. 22 (ii. 11 f.).

The Psalm, which is frequently quoted in the Gospels to illustrate the desertion, the mockery, the spoiling of Christ, gives the description of the progress of the innocent, suffering King, who identifies himself with his people, to the throne. After uttermost trials sorrow is turned into joy, and the deliverance of the sufferer is the ground of national joy. Comp. Prof. Cheyne On the Christian element in Isaiah, § 2.

(γ) The representative prophet

Is. viii. 17 f. (li. 13).

The prophecy belongs to a crisis in the national history. In a period of the deepest distress the prophet teaches in his own person two lessons. He declares unshaken faith in God in the midst of judgments. He shews in himself and his children the remnant which shall preserve the chosen people.

To these passages one other must be added, Ps. xl. 6 ff. (x. 5 ff.), in order to complete the portraiture of the Christ. By perfect obedience the Son of man fulfils for men the will of God.

Several reflections at once offer themselves to the student who considers those quotations as a whole. (1) It is assumed that a divine counsel was wrought out in the course of the life of Israel. We are allowed to see in 'the people of God' signs of the purpose of God for humanity. The whole history is prophetic. It is not enough to recognise that the Ο. T. contains prophecies: the Ο. T. is one vast prophecy.

(2) The application of prophetic words in each case has regard to the ideal indicated by them, and is not limited by the historical fact with which they are connected. But the history is not set aside. The history forces the reader to look beyond.

(3) The passages are not merely isolated phrases. They represent ruling ideas. They answer to broad conceptions of the methods of the divine discipline for the nation, the King, the prophet, man.

(4) The words had a perfect meaning when they were first used. This meaning is at once the germ and the vehicle of the later and fuller meaning. As we determine the relations, intellectual, social, spiritual, between the time of the prophecy and our own time, we have the key to its present interpretation. In Christ we have the ideal fulfilment.

So it is that when we look at the succession of passages, just as they stand, we can see how they connect the Gospel with the central teaching of the O. T. The theocratic Sovereign addressed as 'Son' failed to subdue 70 the nations and rear an eternal Temple, but none the less he gave definite form to a faith which still in one sense wants its satisfaction. The Marriage Song of the Jewish monarch laid open thoughts which could only be realised in the relation of the Divine King to His Church. The confidence with which the exile looked for the deliverance of Zion by the personal intervention of Jehovah, who had entered into covenant with man, led believers to see the Saviour in the Creator. The promise of the Session of Him who is King and Priest and Conqueror at the right hand of God, is still sufficient to bring strength to all who are charged to gather the fruits of the victory of the Son.

In this way the Majesty of the Christ, the Son of God, can be read in the O.T.; and no less the Christian can perceive there the sufferings of 'Jesus,' the Son of man, who won His promised dominion for man through death. The path of sorrow which He hallowed had been marked in old time by David, who proclaimed to his 'brethren' the 'Name' of his Deliverer, when he saw in the retrospect of the vicissitudes of his own life that which transcended them; and by Isaiah, who at the crisis of trial identified his 'children'— types of a spiritual remnant— with himself in absolute trust on God.

On the one side we see how the majestic description of the Mediator of the New Covenant given in the opening verses of the Epistle, is justified by a series of passages in which He is pointed to in the records of the Old Covenant as Son and Lord and Creator and Sharer of the throne of God; and on the other side even we can discern, as we look back, how it was 'becoming' that He should fulfil the destiny of fallen men by taking to Himself, like King and Prophet, the sorrows of those whom He relieved. The greatest words of God come, as we speak, naturally and intelligibly through the occasions of life. In the history of Israel, of the Christ, and of the Church, disappointment is made the door of hope, and suffering is the condition of glory.

*Additional Note to* ii. 17. *Passages on the High-priesthood of Christ*.

The student will find it a most instructive inquiry to trace the development of tho thought of Christ's High-priesthood, which is the ruling thought of the Epistle, through tho successive passages in which the writer specially deals with it

The thought is indicated in the opening verses. The crowning trait of the Son is that, when He had made purification of sins, He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high (i. 3). So the priestly and royal works of Christ are placed together in the closest connexion.

The remaining passages prepare for, expound, and apply the doctrine.

(1) Preparatory.

ii. 17, 18. The Incarnation the foundation of Christ's High-priesthood.

iii. 1, 2. The subject such as to require careful consideration.

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iv. 14—16. Recapitulation of points already marked at a transition to the detailed treatment of the truth. Christ is a High-priest who has fulfilled the conditions of His office, who can feel with men, and who is alike able and ready to succour them.

(2) The characteristics of Christ's High-priesthood.

v. 1-10. The characteristics of the Levitical High-priesthood realised by Christ.

vi. 20; vii. 14—19. The priesthood of Christ after the order of Melchizedek.

vii. 26—28. The characteristics of Christ as absolute and eternal High-priest.

(3) The work of Christ as High-priest.

viii. 1—6. The scene of Christ's work a heavenly and not an earthly sanctuary.

ix. 11—28. Christ's atoning work contrasted with that of the Levitical High-priest on the Day of Atonement.

x. 1—18. The abiding efficacy of Christ's One Sacrifice.

(4) Application of the fruits of Christ's High-priesthood to believers.

x. 19—25. Personal use.

xiii. 10—16. Privileges and duties of the Christian Society.

These passages should be studied in their broad features, especially in regard to the new traits which they successively introduce. The following out of the inquiry is more than an exercise in Biblical Theology. Nothing conveys a more vivid impression of the power of the Apostolic writings than to watch the unfolding of a special idea in the course of an Epistle without any trace of conscious design on the part of the writer, as of a single part in some great harmony.

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