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1. Elders - The senators, and Judges, and rulers. Heads - For each tribe had a peculiar governor. Chief - The chief persons of every great family in each tribe. Jerusalem - Where the temple was built. Bring the ark - To the top of Moriah, upon which it was built; whither they were now to carry the ark in solemn pomp. City of David - Where David had placed the ark, which is called Zion, because it was built upon that hill.
2. All Israel - Not only the chief men, but a vast number of the common people. The feast - The feast of the dedication, to which Solomon had invited them. Seventh month - Which time he chose with respect to his peoples convenience, because now they had gathered in all their fruits, and were come up to Jerusalem, to celebrate the feast of tabernacles. But the temple was not finished till the eighth month, chap. vi, 38, how then could he invite them in the seventh month? This was the seventh month of the next year. For although the house in all its parts was finished the year before, yet the utensils of it were not then fully finished: and many preparations were to be made for this great and extraordinary occasion.
3. The priests - For although the Levites might do this, Num. iv, 15, yet the priests did it at this time, for the greater honour of the solemnity; and because the Levites might not enter into the holy- place, much less into the holy of holies, where it was to be placed, into which the priests themselves might not have entered, if the high-priest alone could have done it.
4. The tabernacle - That made by Moses, which doubtless before this time had been translated from Gibeon to Zion, and now together with other things, was put into the treasuries of the Lord's house, to prevent all superstitious use of it, and to oblige the people to come up to Jerusalem, as the only place where God would now be worshipped.
5. Sacrificing - When the ark was seated in its place: for although they might in the way offer some sacrifices, as David did; yet that was not a proper season to offer so many sacrifices as could not be numbered. This is more particularly related below, ver. 62, 63, 64, which is here signified by way of anticipation.
6. Cherubim - Of Solomon's new made cherubim, not of the Mosaic cherubim, which were far less, and unmovably fixed to the ark, Exod. xxxvii, 7, 8, and therefore together with the ark, were put under the wings of these cherubim.
8. Drew out - Not wholly, which was expressly forbidden, Exod. xxv, 15, Num. iv, 6, but in part. Seen out - In the most holy place, which is oft called by way of eminency, the holy place, and the Hebrew words rendered before the oracle, may be as well rendered, within the oracle. And these staves were left in this posture, that the high-priest might hereby be certainly guided to that very place where he, was one day in a year to sprinkle blood, and to offer incense before the ark, which otherwise he might mistake in that dark place, where the ark was wholly covered with the wings of the great cherubim, which stood between him and the ark when he entered in.
9. Nothing - Strictly and properly: but in a more large sense, the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod were also in it, Heb. ix, 4, that is, by it, in the most holy place, before the ark of the testimony, where God commanded Moses to put them.
10. The cloud - The usual token of God's glorious presence. Filled - In testimony of his gracious acceptance of this work, and their service; and to beget an awe and reverence in them, and in all others, when they approach to God.
12. Then spake - Perceiving both priests and people struck with wonder at this darkness, he minds them, that this was no sign of God's disfavour, as some might possibly imagine; but a token of his approbation, and special presence among them. Said - He hath declared, that he would manifest his presence with, and dwelling among his people, by a dark cloud, in which he would appear.
14. Turned - From the temple to the body of the congregation. Stood - In token of reverence, and of their readiness to receive the blessing.
16. Since, &c. - Until David's time; for then he did chuse Jerusalem. That my name - That my presence, and grace, and worship, and glory, might be there. Chose David - And in and with him the tribe of Judah, of which he was, and Jerusalem where he dwelt.
21. The covenant - The tables of the covenant, wherein the conditions of God's covenant with Israel are written.
22. Stood - Upon a scaffold set up for him in the court of the people, 2 Chron. vi, 13.
24. Hast kept - That branch of thy promise concerning the building of this house by David's son.
25. Keep - Make good the other branch of thy promise.
27. But will - Is it possible that the great, and high, and lofty God should stoop so low, as to take up his dwelling amongst men? The heaven - All this vast space of the visible heaven. And heaven, &c. - The third and highest, and therefore the largest heaven, called the heaven of heavens for its eminency and comprehensiveness. Contain - For thy essence reacheth far beyond them, being omnipresent. Much less - This house therefore was not built as if it were proportionable to thy greatness, or could contain thee, but only that therein we might serve and glorify thee.
28. Yet - Tho' thou art not comprehended within this place, yet shew thyself to be graciously present here, by accepting and granting my present requests here tendered unto thee.
29. Open - To behold with an eye of favour. My name - My presence, and glory and grace. This place - This temple, to which Solomon did now look, and towards which, the godly Israelites directed their looks in their prayers.
30. In heaven - Which he adds to direct them in their addresses to God in this temple, to lift up their eyes above it, even to heaven, where God's most true, and most glorious dwelling-place is. Forgive - The sins of thy people, praying, and even of their prayers; which, if not pardoned, will certainly hinder the success of all their prayers, and the course of all thy blessings.
31. Trespass - If he be accused of a trespass. Laid on him - Either by the judge, or by the party accusing him, or by the accused person himself: which was usual, when there were no witnesses. Thine altar - For here God, who was appealed to as witness, was especially present. Hence the Heathens used to swear at their altars.
32. His way - The just recompence of his wicked action. Give him, &c. - To vindicate him, and manifest his integrity.
33. Confess - Give glory to thy name, by acknowledging their sins, and by justice; and by accepting the punishment of their iniquity; and by trusting to thy power and goodness alone, for their deliverance.
35. Heaven - The lower heaven in which the clouds are. Shut up - Heaven is compared to a great store-house in God's keeping, out of which nothing can be had, so long as it is close shut up.
36. Good way - The way, of their duty, which is good in itself; and both delightful and profitable, to those that walk in it. Give rain - The order of Solomon's prayer is very observable; first and chiefly, he prays for their repentance and forgiveness, which is the chief blessing, and the only solid foundation of all other mercies: and then he prays for temporal mercies; thereby teaching us what to desire principally in our prayers; which also Christ hath taught us in his perfect prayer; wherein there is but one petition for outward, and all the rest are for spiritual blessings.
38. The plague - His sin, which may be called the plague of his heart, in opposition to the other plagues here mentioned; so the sense is, who, by their afflictions are brought to a true and serious sense of their worse and inward plague of their sins, which are most fitly called the plague of the heart, because that is both the principal seat of sin, and the fountain from whence all actual sins flow.
39. Thou knowest - Not only the plagues of their hearts, their several wants and burdens, (these he knows! but he will know them from us,) but the desire and intent of the heart, the sincerity or hypocrisy of it.
41. A stranger - A proselyte. But cometh - That he may worship, and glorify thy name.
43. Calleth for - Agreeable to thy will and word. It is observable, that his prayer for the strangers is more large, and comprehensive, than for the Israelites; that thereby he might both shew his public- spiritedness, and encourage strangers to the worship of the true God. Thus early were the indications of God's favour, toward the sinners of the Gentiles. As there was then one law for the native and for the stranger, so there was one gospel for both.
44. To battle - In a just cause, and by thy warrant or commission. Shall pray - Whereby he instructs them, that they should not trust, either to the strength or justice of their arms, but only to God's help and blessing. Chosen - For thy dwelling-place, and the seat of thy temple. Towards the house - For to it they were to turn their faces in prayer; to profess themselves worshippers of the true God, in opposition to idols; and to strengthen their faith in God's promises and covenant, the tables whereof were contained in that house. Soldiers in the field must not think it enough that others pray for them: they must pray for themselves. And they are here encouraged to expect a gracious answer. Praying should always go along with fighting.
48. And return - Sincerely, universally, and steadfastly.
49. Their course - Hebrew. their right, against their invaders and oppressors. For they had forfeited all their rights to God only, but not to their enemies; whom tho' God used as scourges to chastise his peoples sins, yet they had no pretense of right to their land.
55. He stood - He spoke this standing, that he might be the better heard, and because he blessed as one having authority. Never were words more pertinently spoken: never was a congregation dismissed, with that which was more likely to affect them, and to abide with them.
56. Blessed, &c. - This discharge he gives in the name of all Israel, to the everlasting honour of the Divine faithfulness, and the everlasting encouragement of all those that build upon the Divine promises.
58. Incline - That he may not only bless us with outward prosperity, but especially, with spiritual blessings: and that as he hath given us his word to teach and direct us, so he would by his holy Spirit, effectually incline us to obey it.
61. Perfect - Let your obedience be universal, without dividing; upright, without dissembling; and constant, without declining.
63. Offered - Not all in one day, but in the seven, or it may be in the fourteen days, mentioned ver. 65.
64. Middle of the court - Of the priests court, in which the great altar was. This he consecrated as he did the great altar, by sacrifices; but with this difference, that he consecrated that for perpetual use: but this only for the present occasion, being warranted to do so both by the necessity of it for God's service, and for the present solemn work, for which the brazen altar was not sufficient; and by the direction of God's spirit, wherewith Solomon was endowed, as being a prophet, as well as a king. Here therefore he suddenly reared up divers altars, which, after this solemnity were demolished.
65. Seven - Seven for the dedication of the temple, or altar; and the other seven for the feast of tabernacles. And it seems to be expressed in this manner, to intimate, that these fourteen days of rejoicing, were not altogether, but that there was some interval between them, which indeed was necessary, because the day of atonement was on the tenth day of this month, Lev. xxiii, 27. And because these fourteen days ended on the twenty-second day, 2 Chron. vii, 10, it may seem most probable, that the feast of the dedication was kept before the tenth day: and the feast of tabernacles some days after it.
66. He sent - Solomon having joined with the people in the solemn assembly, which was kept on the eighth day; in the close of that day took his solemn farewell, and dismissed them with his blessing; and the next morning when the heads and elders with divers of the people came to take their leave of the king, he sent them away.
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