Paulus, bishop of Emesa
Paulus (30), bp. of Emesa, one of the most deservedly respected prelates
of the period of the Nestorian controversy, the contemporary of Cyril and John
of Antioch, the peacemaker between the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch
after the disastrous close of the council of Ephesus, a.d. 431. He reached Ephesus
together with John of Antioch and the other Oriental bishops, and joined in
the deposition of Cyril and Memnon (Labbe, iii. 597) and in all the proceedings
of the Oriental party. He was one of the eight Oriental deputies despatched
to the emperor with plenipotentiary powers (ib. 724). His moderation
in these difficult and delicate negotiations was condemned by the uncompromising
Alexander of Hierapolis as proceeding from a mean desire for reconciliation
at the cost of the truth (Baluz. Concil. Nov. Collect. 800). Paul was
a sincere lover of peace, and above all things anxious to put an end to the
disputes on points of faith, the mutual violence of which was a disgrace to
the church, a scandal to the faithful, and a stumbling-block to unbelievers.
He was a man of vast experience in ecclesiastical matters, an accomplished theologian,
possessed of great tact and courtesy, and one who—for unblemished holiness as
well as for his advanced age—enjoyed the confidence and reverence of both parties.
Weary of conflict and anxious to obtain peace, John of Antioch despatched Paul
as his ambassador to Alexandria to confer with Cyril on the terms of mutual
concord, a.d. 432. Paul presented in his own name and John's a confession of
faith originally drawn up by Theodoret. The formulary was accepted by Cyril
as orthodox, and he exhibited a formulary of faith which Paul approved as consonant
with the creed of the Orientals (Labbe, iii. 1090).
819Paul was then received into communion by Cyril on exhibiting a
written document acquiescing in the deposition of Nestorius, anathematizing
his writings, and recognizing his successor Maximian (Cyrill. Epp. 32,
40, t. ii, pp. 100–102, 152). Paul was invited by Cyril to preach on the Sunday
before Christmas Day and on Christmas Day itself. On the festival the chief
church of the city was crowded, and Paul, having commenced with the "Gloria
in excelsis Deo," passed on to
Is. vii. 14, and concluded his exordium with words decisive
of the whole controversy, "Mary the mother of God brings forth Emmanuel." The
test title was received with loud acclamations by the congregation, "This is
the true faith"; "This is the gift of God," which were repeated when he proceeded
to enunciate the doctrine of "the combination of two perfect natures in the
one Christ," with shouts of "Welcome, orthodox bishop, the worthy to the worthy"
(Labbe, iii. 1095). Paul preached a third time the following Sunday, New Year's
Day, 433, with equal acceptance. Portions of all these sermons are still extant
(ib. 1091, 1095, 1097). To quicken John's delay in accepting the terms
of peace proposed by Cyril, Paul accompanied Aristolaus and a deputation of
two of Cyril's clergy to Antioch, to lay before John for his signature a document
recognizing Nestorius's deposition and the anathematizing of his teaching. This,
eventually, was signed by John, and brought back with great joy by Paul to Alexandria
(ib. 1091). The happy reunion of the long-divided parties was published
by Cyril, in the chief church of Alexandria, Apr. 23, 433. Cyril acknowledged
the receipt of John's formulary in a well-known letter—conveyed to him by the
aged peace-maker—commencing with the words of
Ps. xcvi. 11: "Laetentur caeli," etc., by which
it was subsequently known (ib. 1106; Baluz. 786). The time of Paul's
death is uncertain. Tillem. Mém. eccl. xiv. (index); Cave, Hist. Lit.
i. 419; Coteler. Mon. Eccl. Graec. i. 48; Clinton, Fast. Rom.
ii. 240; Migne, Patr. Gk. lxxvii. 1433; Hefele, Hist. of Councils,
Clark's trans. iii. 127–137.