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AN ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY BAPTISM
IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
SUMMARY OF BAPTISM IN THE THIRTEENTH
[The thirteenth century is commenced with the thirteenth and last Centuria, with which the Magdeburg Centuriators have concluded their Ecclesiastical History; which is, as it were, a mournful farewell air, on account of the lamentable desolation caused by the Pope of Rome, in the worship of God. Several Roman superstitions mentioned, which were commanded as solemnly as the Word of God, and are called the baptism of necessity, the baptism by women, heretics, etc.; etc.; also, how to baptize a child that is in danger of death.
Some strange passages from Thomas Aquinas, touching infant baptism; added decree of the bishops of Nemansa, as to how to deal with a child, concerning which there may be doubt of its having been baptized aright; also the formula of words to be used by the Driest over the child. Explanation that all this was done to gain respect for infant baptism, among the common people.
Of the true baptism, and how God, in the midst of these storms, preserved His church.
The followers of the doctrine of Peter Bruis and Henry of Toulouse, who, in many respects, concurred in the belief of the Anabaptists of the present day, increase to such an extent, A. D. 1206, that in the provinces of Languedoc, Narbonne, Gascony, but few people were found who did not adhere to their doctrine; also the three articles of their doctrine against the Roman church.
The ancient Waldenses again appear, A. D. 1218, and, though excommunicated by the pope in the bull of the Lord's Supper, declare. against the swearing of oaths, taking the life of evil doers, the faith of the Roman church, ungodly priests, the pope.
Circumstantial account, that these people, A. D. 1230, were so numerous, that one traveling from his country to Milan, could lodge every night with one of his persuasion.
The increase of the Waldenses in France and Flanders, is again stated for, A. D. 1238.
Statement, for 1242, that they not only confessed their belief with the mouth, but also suffered for:t.
Thirty eight years after, namely, A. D. 1280, it is shown, that their doctrine had penetrated not only into Lombardy, but even into Sicily; several articles of their doctrine described in full.
Their increase in various countries of Christendom is again shown, for the year 1284, as a proof that notwithstanding the persecutions raised against them, they did not diminish.
A certain doctrine of Alexander, namely, that baptism must be administered on confession of faith; whereupon the Waldenses and Albigenses are introduced once more, for the last time, and it is stated that they considered infant baptism of no virtue.
Conclusion, being Jacob Mehrning's reply to Mellinus, respecting baptism.]
This is the century, writes Jacob Mehrning, with which the Magdeburg Centuriators have closed their church history, etc. Concerning this time they write in the preface as follows: "This is the calamitous time, in which the Roman pope exalted his might to the highest, in the occidental churches, and the Turk his power, in the Orient; where, then, the divine and pure doctrine became most abominably adulterated in every respect.
Yea, the ground of doctrine, and all external ceremonies, as well as all points of doctrine, all these, without reservation, the Pope of Rome would have under his control; in consequence of which such a blindness and darkness arose among men, that almost all of them took upon them the yoke, submitting whatever they spoke or wrote, with more fear to the judgment of the pope, than of God Himself, or of His church. Rules were established. by which all controverted articles were to be decided and judged; namely, the corrupted writings of the fathers, and the decrees or resolutions of councils. The Word of God entirely lost its honor, dignity and credit; yea, it was thenceforth accepted only as far as the opinion of the fathers and councils allowed. Moreover, the Word of God was no longer expounded from the Holy Scriptures, but according to the apprehension of their own imagination, etc. Besides, too much concession was made to the heathen subtleties of Aristotle; yea, with such folly, that the obscure writings of this heathen were introduced into the schools, brought into the pulpit, and mixed with the articles of faith, etc. Jac. Mehyn. Bapt. Hist., Q. 717, from Cent. Magd. X111, chap. 13.
As regards infant baptism, because the same was much contradicted, yea, utterly rejected, at this time, by the Waldenses and Albigenses, those of the Roman church, in order to provide for this, and to maintain it, ordained various things, called baptism of necessity (private baptism), baptism by women, baptism by heretics.
The Magdeburg Centuriators quote the following (chap. 6, fol. 242) from a synodal book, written jointly by some bishops, at Nemansa, A. D. 1251: "We command, that an infant, just born and in peril of death, so that it can not be brought to the priest, be baptized by the men present, whether in warm or in cold water, but with no other liquid, and this in a wooden, stone or other vessel. But if there be no men present, let the women who are there baptize the child, or even the father or the mother, in case there be no one else present, to baptize the child." Bapt. Hist., pp. 727, 728.
By these and similar means the Romanists at this time, sought to maintain the credit of infant baptism, which was greatly opposed; to which end tended also the words of Aquinas, which are as follows: "The proper administrator of baptism shall be a priest, whose province it is by virtue of 'his office, to baptize; but in cases of necessity, not only a chaplain, but also a layman, or a woman, yea, even a heathen or a heretic may baptize, if he only observes the form of the church, and purposes to do what the church does. But if a person, from necessity, is baptized by such an one, he indeed receives the sacrament, so that he need not be baptized again; but he does not receive the grace of baptism, because he is considered as not having been baptized aright," Thorn. Aquin. de Art., Fid., chap. 14, in Bapt. Hist., Q. 725.
In the same direction tends what is adduced in Cent. Magd., X111., chap. 6, fol. 242, from the above mentioned synodal book of the bishops of Nemansa: "But," say they, "if a child, in case of necessity, has been baptized by a layman, according to the form prescribed, we command, that said child, if it survives, be brought as soon as possible to the priest, who shall diligently examine how it was baptized; and if he find that the form prescribed was not observed aright, he shall baptize the child (again), according to the form of the church. But if he doubt whether it was rightly baptized, or not, since perhaps the baptizer did not properly consider the words which he spoke in baptism, or because the bystanders were not agreed in this, or because there is no certainty whether it was baptized or not, the priest shall baptize it with these words: `If thou art baptized, I baptize thee not again; but if thou art not baptized, I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' In such doubtful cases, however, one witness is sufficient when more can not be had." Bapt. Hist., p. 728.
Who does not see that the Roman church, when infant baptism was contradicted, endeavored by these and similar absurdities, to make it appear to the common people as though infant baptism were absolutely necessary to salvation, yea, so necessary that rather than neglect it for want of a priest, even women, yea, heathen and heretics whom they otherwise were accustomed to burn, might baptize the infants if they only observed the form of baptism employed by the church. O strange theology I Merely to maintain the error of infant baptism, many other errors were maintained.
OF THE TRUE BAPTISM
Nevertheless, in the midst of these storms and billows of antichrist, God preserved the ark of His church, so that many persons still remained, who, notwithstanding the manifold troubles and persecutions that came upon them on this account, practiced and maintained the true worship of God, particularly in opposition to infant baptism, the office of criminal authority, the swearing of oaths, and almost all other superstitions of the Roman church.
A. D. 1206. In the beginning, yea, before the beginning of this century, and so through a number of years, the doctrine of the ancient Anabaptists increased not a little, which appeared more particularly in the year 1206, when they had so increased in many countries, that the wiles and power of the Roman church were not sufficient to bring them to apostatize, much less to exterminate them.
Concerning this, P. J. Twisek gives the following description: "The adherents of the doctrine of Peter de Bruis and Henry of Toulouse, Anabaptists, mentioned for the year 1135, which doctrine afterwards was also followed by the Waldenses (see the year 1159), multiplied so greatly about this time, namely, A. D. 1206, that few were found in the provinces of Albi, Languedoc, Narbonne, Gascony, Rouergue, and Toulouse, who did not adhere to said doctrine, notwithstanding Pope Innocent III very cruelly opposed it. See account for the year 1198.
The principal points of their doctrine, besides others, were these: 1. That the Roman church was the whore of Babylon. 2. That her polity was impure and corrupted. 3. That the mass was a work replete with wickedness, and instituted neither by Christ nor for His disciples. Chron. Q. 523, col. 1 and 2, from Chron. Nicol. Gill., fol. 286 Guil. Merul., fol. 798, Henr. Boxh., fol. 22.
A. D. 1218. For this year mention is made by Sebastian Franck, of the ancient Waldenses, whom he calls by three different names. The Poor, Insabbdtati and Waldenses. However, that they together were but one people, has already been proved. Said author writes thus concerning them: "These originated A. D. 1218, under Emperor Louis IV. They are also excommunicated in the bull of the Lord's Supper, and hold
1. "That men ought not to swear at all, not even to the truth.
2. "That no judge, who would be a Christian may put to death any one, not even a malefactor.
3. "That the pious person who holds to the faith of the Roman church, can not be saved.
4. "That an ungodly priest can not consecrate.
5. "That the church perished at the time of Sylvester.
6. "That they are not subject, neither intend to be, to the pope or to other prelates."
Then follow several other articles of their doctrine, which, for the sake of brevity, we will pass over; for instance, that they held: "That outside of their church there was no sacrament nor baptism (which completely overthrows the infant baptism of the Roman church); that they denied purgatory; that they counted the mass, alms, and prayers for the dead of no value, yea, that they regarded them .as the inventions of priestcraft; that honoring the saints had not the slightest merit, and that they do not hear our prayers in heaven."
These and similar articles are adduced there, from Aeneas, Sylviusand other writers, as charges against the Waldenses; of which the intelligent may judge. Seb. Fr. Chron. der Rom. Kett., fol. 119, col. 4, letter P.
A. D. 1230. It is stated that the Waldenses, whose good confession we have already shown, declared at this time in the proceedings which it seems they had against the pope, that their numbers were so great in Germany, France and Italy, and especially in Lombardy where their teachers lived, to whom they annually sent sustenance from other countries that any one of them traveling from his country to Milan, could lodge every night with one of his own persuasion, whom they recognized by certain marks on the door or upon the roof. P. 1. Tzcnsck, Chron., Q. 546, col. 2, from Henr. Boxh., fol. 25.
A. D. 1238. Or about 1239, the Waldenses had thus increased in France and Flanders, that a certain Dominican monk, Robert Boulgre, sent as inquisitor by Pope Gregory IX, put to death a countless multitude of them; of which more will be said hereafter. P.1. Twisek, Chron., p. 554, col. 1.
A. D. 1242. At this time, said people had to suffer much from popery, on account of their faith and religion, which in the bishopric of Toulouse alone, appeared in the case of about two hundred persons, who held said belief, and were called Waldenses; of whose imprisonment and death we shall speak in the future. P. I. Tzvisck, Chron., p. 557, col. 1.
A. D. 1259. At this time, or thereabouts, Gerard Sagarellas, an Italian, but a doctor of Paris, wrote a book against the Franciscans, whereupon Bonaventura, General of the Franciscan order, replied; however, of this Gerard and his belief, as also of that of the Waldenses, we shall speak more fully hereafter. We would only stop to say that from this time on, his disciples, the Fratricelli, or Little Brothers, after the year 1285, called Dulcinists, began secretly (from fear of persecution) to hold their meetings in the mountains of Piedmont, and Novara, in Lombardy, professing the doctrine of the Waldenses. However, from the different places where they lived, they received different names; but the appellation Fratricelli or Frerots, was especially given them, because they called each other brethren in Christ; nevertheless the mouths of the scorners thus spoke only the truth, since Christ Himself so called His disciples, saying: "All ye are brethren" (Matt. 23:8); and "I will declare thy name (O God) unto my brethren; in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee" (Heb. 2:12) .
A. D. 1262. At this time the Waldenses are again mentioned, who lived in Lombardy, and in the country of Genoa, and professed a sound profession, though they were called heretics by the papists, and were oppressed and persecuted by open decrees of the Roman see; which shall be spoken of more fully elsewhere. Compare Bzov., A. D. 1262. Art. 3, ex Decret. Epist. Alexand. IV., with A. Mell., Hist., fol. 470, col. 2.
A. D. 1280. In this year it is recorded that said people professing the above profession (namely, the Waldenses, then called Waldois, after Waldo and his adherents, were expelled from Lyons), so multiplied in Lombardy that their doctrine, having spread in Italy, penetrated even into Sicily; as is attested by the open letters emitted against them by the Emperor Frederick II.
As regards their faith, the following articles, over and above what has already been mentioned. respecting their views against infant baptism, the office of criminal authority, the swearing of oaths, etc., were laid to their charge, as can be gleaned from the writings of Reinerius, the priest: That in the matter of salvation we must believe only the holy Scriptures, and in no wise depend on men. That said Scriptures contain everything that is necessary to salvation; and that nothing is to be received but what is commanded of God. That there is but one Mediator (Christ), and, consequently, that the saints ought not to be invoked. That there is no purgatory, but that all who are justified in Christ, enter into life everlasting, and those who do not believe, shall be cast into eternal death; thus denying that there is still besides a third or fourth place.
They accepted and admitted but two sacraments, namely, holy baptism and the holy Supper. They said that all masses, particularly those for the dead, should be rejected; likewise all human institutions, and that they ought not to be considered necessary to salvation: They also taught that the chanting, the hours, the fasting connected with certain days, superfluous feast days, distinction of food, the many degrees and orders of priests, monks, and nuns, the benedictions and consecrations of creatures, vows, pilgrimages, in short, the vast medley of ceremonies which in the times past had been brought into vogue, ought to be abolished. They denied the supremacy of the pope, especially as exercised by him over secular government, and admitted no other degrees in church offices than bishops, teachers (then called priests), and deacons. They said that the Roman see is the true Babylon, and the pope the fountain of all misery; that the marriage of the priests (or teachers) is good, and necessary in the church; that those who hear and rightly understand the Word of God, are the true church, to which Christ has given the keys, to let the sheep in, and to drive away the wolves. "Behold here," says the writer, "the sum of the doctrine of the Waldoes (or Waldenses), which was oppugned by the enemies of truth, and on account of which they, according to the testimony of their opponents, were persecuted." P. 7. Turisck, Chron., p. 605, col. 2, and p. 606, col. 1, from the Staet der Kerchen, Jan. Cresp., fol. 314, 315, 316. Merul., fol. 843. Henr. Boxh., fol. 19, 25.
A. D. 1284. At this time the Waldenses, according to Twisck, multiplied more and more in France and other countries of Christendom, though they were sought with craftiness and cruelly persecuted, and even previously every means and all diligence had been employed to utterly extirpate them; which greatly astonished certain bishops of that time, and also certain lawyers of Avignon, in certain consultations held against them, and still extant. P. J. Twisck, Chron., p. 611, col. 2.
Concerning the form or mode of baptism, Alexander* (p. 4, q. 11, m. 1), in this century, says: "Baptism shall be administered in confession of faith in the Holy Trinity." Jac. Mehr., Bapt. Hist., p. 726.
Centurid 13, of the Magdeburg Centuriators, cap. 5, fol. 216, 217, from Cesarius, states "That the Waldenses and Albigenses rejected baptism at this time, saying that it was inefficacious and useless; which they, as Jacob Mehrning writes, understood of infant baptism, which is administered without instruction and faith; for the Waldenses had a very high regard for the baptism of Christ, as administered according to His ordinance." Bapt. Hist., pp. 733, 734.
* We will say nothing of this Alexander, but merely speak of his doctrine.
NOTE. A. D. 1287. Probus, Bishop of Tullo, was at this time so enlightened of God that he not only opposed Pope Honorius IV, but also delivered an excellent oration, in which he freely exposed the errors of the papists. Compare Catal. Test. fol. 654, with the 13th book van den Ondergang, p. 614, col. 1.
A. D. 1299. In the year 1299 certain Albigenses and Waldenses, called Fratricelli, or Little Brothers (of whose faith and life we have spoken elsewhere), became so odious to Boniface VIII, Pope of Rome, on account of their uprightness, which the papists called falseness, that he declared them heretics; but as we intend elsewhere to speak more fully of their belief and walk among men, we will content ourselves here with merely mentioning them; it being sufficient for us that these people and their doctrine existed until the very close of this century. See in the large Christen Martelaersboeck, edition 1619, fol. 471, from Trithem. Chron. Hirsaug.
Proceeding to the close of the century, we will close with the conclusion of Jacob Mehrning, which is a reply to A. Mellinus, who did his best to show that the Waldenses did not well accord with the Anabaptists in the article of baptism. Mehrning replies to him as follows: "Abraham Mellinus (in his large Nederlandtsch Martelaers book) dared to say: `The Waldenses would not agree with the so called Anabaptists in the article of infant baptism.' But the good man forgets that he himself has adduced testimonies from Bernard, Peter Cluniacensis, and from the Magdeburg Centuries,* which refute and condemn this supposed error of the ancient Waldenses, namely, that they should have believed in infant baptism." Bapt. Hist., p. 736.
AN ACCOUNT OF THOSE WHO SUFFERED IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
SUMMARY OF THE MARTYRS IN THE THIRTEENTH
[The way and entrance to the martyrs of this century is through the valleys of Albi and throughout France, England, and other countries, where the pious witnesses of Jesus laid down their lives for the evangelical truth.
From the year 1209 throughout this century, crusades are preached in the name of the pope; which were the cause of the destruction of thousands of Albigenses, who lived quietly and peaceably under certain papistic authorities; for certain reasons, however, we have not finished this account.
Remarks with eight reasons unanimously indicating the nonresistant principles of the true Albigenses; nevertheless, for important reasons, we have placed the account of their martyrdom for the
* The following words are obscure in the author; hence we experienced difficulty in translating them. Van. Braght.
most part in a marginal note, for the years 1210 and 1211.
One hundred and eighty persons called Albigenses, burnt without the castle Minerve, A. D. 1210.
Sixty of those people end their lives by fire, for their faith, at Casser, about A. D. 1211.
About one hundred persons, who confessed the same doctrine, burnt alive in a tower at Cassas, about the close of A. D. 1211.
Fifty of their fellow believers likewise lose their lives by fire, at Chastelnau d'Ari, about the close of A. D. 1211.
Over four hundred persons, who professed the same profession, though called Induti, at Lavaur, or Vaurum, rather suffer themselves to be burnt to death by the terrible flames than accept the Roman faith.
ACCOUNT PROPER OF THE HOLY MARTYRS
Great persecutions of the believers, A. D. 1206. A man, at London, in England, burnt alive for the faith of the Waldenses, A. D. 1210; and twenty four persons at Paris, in France, likewise put to death by fire, for the same religion.
In the year 1212, about one hundred persons called Waldenses, are put to death by fire at Strasburg; thirty nine at Bingen, and eighteen at Mentz.
Account of a cruel inquisition, A. D. 1214, over the doctrine of the Waldenses; Conrad of Marpurg, the chief inquisitor, and his mode of examination with red hot iron, as well as with hot and cold water; also, the oath which the inquisitors in the bishopric of Utrecht were wont to put to those who were then called heretics, abot A. D. 1215.
About eighty persons called Waldenses, burnt for the faith, at Strasburg; also some Christians at Toulouse, about A. D. 1215.
Gerard de la Motte, a deacon of the Christians called Albi Waldenses, with some of his fellowbelievers, sacrificed by fire, at Borriens, A. D. 1227.
Several papal statutes and ordinances against the Waldenses, related for the year 1229.
Severe persecution, through the Inquisition, in Germany, where very many Waldenses are burnt for the faith, A. D. 1230.
Three decrees of Emperor Frederick II are successively described, for the year 1230; another severe persecution of the Anabaptistic Waldenses, in Germany, A. D. 1231.
Nineteen persons of the same profession, burnt in the bishopric of Toulouse, A. D. 1232; also, two hundred and twenty four in a place near Toulouse, A. D. 1243; a rigorous inquisition in the aforesaid bishopric, A. D. 1251, which was carried also into the following year.
Decree of Pope Urban III against the Waldenses and Albigenses in Lombardy and about Genoa, A. D. 1262; great persecutions, about A. D. 1280, 1283, 1284.
Gerard Sagarellus burnt at Parma, A. D. 1285; Herman, Andrew, and Guillemette [Wilhelmina], exhumed, A. D. 1299. Conclusion.]
The valleys of Albi, the region around Toulouse, yea, all France, England, and other kingdoms, furnish us, during this century, many martyrs, who, though, they, with reference to the severity of their tortures, according to the flesh, were pitiable and most miserable, suffered nevertheless with good cheer, yea, with joy, in consideration of their sure hope and unshaken confidence in the Lord, as being their shield and exceeding great reward.*
As regards the persecutions that occurred in this century, against the Waldenses and Albigenses, they by far surpass all other persecutions of which we read in the preceding centuries; for it seemed now as if the very furies of hell, so to speak, had broken loose, to destroy all believers, yea, almost the whole earth.
In the years 1209-12, 1225, 1234, yea, throughout the entire thirteenth century, crusades, or socalled holy, voluntary preparations of war were preached, by order of the pope, for the extermination of the Waldenses and Albigenses, all over the world, but more particularly in the kingdom of France.
These crusades consisted in great armies of Roman Catholics, who voluntarily enlisted in this socalled holy warfare; each distinguished by a white cross on his breast, or one of white cloth sewed on his garment; on account of which crosses these armies were called Crusades.
But that they might acquit themselves the more courageously and intrepidly, in exterminating the Albigenses and Waldenses, yea, that they might suffer none of them to remain alive, but kill them by fire, sword, gallows, and other means, the pope most solemnly promised to all who by so doing should meet death, or fall by the weapons of the princes seeking to protect the Albigenses and Waldenses, full remission of all their past sins, yea, that they should straightway go to heaven.
This had the effect, that countless multitudes flocked together, as it were, to the honor of God, and for the extirpation of the so called heresies, in order to obtain forgiveness of sins, and thus dying find salvation; and having, under certain chieftains, been formed into armies they marched forth and engaged alone in murdering, burning, desolating and tyrannizing among the Waldenses and Albigenses, sparing not even the infant in the cradle. It is impossible to relate how great a multitude of these innocent people perished, and under what severe torments, simply on account of their true faith.
* Gen. 15:1.
REMARKS IN REGARD TO THE DISTINCTION OF THE
PEOPLE CALLED ALBIGENSES OR WALDENSES
I deem it necessary here, to insert a caution, which I desire that it be borne in mind wherever the Albigenses and Waldenses (who are introduced as witnesses of our faith) are spoken of, namely, that we here speak only of such people as, besides the confession of their and our most holy faith respecting the points necessary to salvation, were opposed to war, and willingly and patiently, as defenseless sheep of Christ appointed for the slaughter, entered the path of death through manifold torments inflicted upon them by the enemies of the faith, to the glory of God, the edification of their neighbor, and the salvation of their own souls.
It is true, that in ancient histories mention is made of people who, though improperly, were called Waldenses or Albigenses, who resisted, yea slew their enemies; but of such we do not speak here, indeed, all of whom there is reason so to think, we would positively pass by.*
It must also be observed here, that the princes who had taken the defenseless Albigenses and Waldenses under their protection, and even their soldiers, were sometimes (through sheer ignorance) called Albigenses or Waldenses, simply because they protected them. However, of these we do not here speak, but only of those who, according to their confession, lived peaceably and meekly under their protection.
That many of them dwelt, as defenseless sheep, under the government of such princes, and that on this account war was sometimes waged by their enemies against these princes, so that one had to suffer with the other, is evident from the accounts of the ancients; however, we have, to the utmost of our ability, distinguished them; so that as far as we know, not one of those whom we have mentioned as martyrs, had any part or lot with revenge, much less with war.
In addition to this, I will briefly adduce from ancient writers, for the benefit of the truth seeking reader, several arguments, showing that the Waldenses and Albigenses dwelt defenselessly and in all quiet under the protection of their magistracies; and that in consequence of this, said magistrates were also called Waldenses and Albigenses, and war waged against them; who, when they resisted, were the cause that it was said that the Albigenses or Waldenses had resisted, yea, actually fought.
First Argument. Abraham Mellinus, from In;nocent III, epist. 84, states: That the pope, through letters, as well as legates, gave orders, throughout France, to the ecclesiastics as well as the seculars, to exterminate the Albigenses; however, Raymond, count of Toulouse had already taken upon him to defend the Albigenses. For this reason Pope Inno
* In those times there was a sect sometimes, though improperly, called Albigenses. Their proper name, however, was "Ruptuarii' or "Routiers" â€¢ that is, desolators or rioters, because they made resistance. See 2d book of he Persecutions, fol. 460, col. 4. But of such we have purposely avoided to speak, as they do not belong here.
cent wrote to the Archbishop of Narbonne, and to other bishops, abbots, and prelates, and among these especially to Radulph, canon of Narbonne, and also to the abbots of the great valley, and of Cisteaux, that they should speak to the count and persuade him to persecute the heretics (that is, the Albigenses); but, if he should reject their counsel, that they should excommunicate him; both of which took place. Second book, fol. 449, Col. 1.
Second Argument. Chassanion states: That shortly after the departure of the count of Toulouse and the King of Aragon, the abbot of Cisteaux, first legate of the pope, sent the bishop of Toulouse in France, to preach the crusade against Count Raymond, and to instigate the whole world against him and his country, saying that he rebelled against the (Roman Catholic) church, and protected all the heretics (namely, the Albigenses) that were within his territory. Chassan. Hist., lib. 3, cap. 10.
Third Argument. The legate of the pope summoned Raymond, count of Toulouse, to Arles, indicating that his case (namely, his protecting the Albigenses) would be considered there. When he came, several articles by which he was to be governed were laid before him; one of which was: That he should expel from his territories all the heretics (namely, the Waldenses, who lived quietly ,and peaceably under him), together with their adherents, friends, and kindred. Also: That he should deliver up into the hands of the legate, and Count Montfort, all those whom they should name to him (namely, those who professed the same belief), that they might do with them according to their pleasure; and this within one year. Chassan., Hist. Alb., lib. 3, cap. 9, 10. A. Mell., fol. 455, Col. 1.
Fourth Argument. Robert of Auxerre concludes his Year book with the papal excommunication against Raymond, count of Toulouse, whose territory was given as a prey to all who wished because he was found (says the writer) to extend favor and assistance to the heretics (the Albigenses and Waldenses), ,and was, therefore, declared a renegade of the faith and an open enemy of the (Roman) church. Chron. Altiss., A. D. 1211, Deceased A. D. 1212.
Who does not see that this Count was excommunicated simply bcause he permitted these socailed heretics, termed Albigenses and Waldenses, to live under him? on account of which his whole territory was given for a prey.
Fifth Argument. In the year 1212 the city of Penne, or Pene, in the territory of Aix la Chapelle, was besieged by the count of Montfort; but before the enemy arrived, the governor burnt the suburb, and retreated with his people into the citadel. Finally the city was taken, and seventy soldiers who were in it ( the writer says) were hanged; but all the rest (namely, the defenseless) that maintained the error of the Albigenses, were burnt. Thuan. Hist., lib. 6, A. D. 1550. Forte ex hincentio Bello hacensi and Petro Sarn.
From this also it certainly is more than evident that the Albigenses lived quietly under their magistrates, and offered no resistance to the enemies; hence they were not hanged, like the conquered soldiers, but burnt as heretics.
Sixth Argument. "Thus the Count of Montfort," writes Paul Emilius, "scoured the whole country, and brought all the cities and castles, especially in Agenois and Rouergue, under his power. Not because they all held an ungodly doctrine (that is, were Albigenses), but in order that they might not be able to protect or assist the ungodly," that is, the heretics, as they called them. Hist. Gal., lib. 6, in Phill., Aug. 2.
Here it is also evident beyond contradiction, that the Albigenses who lived under those magistrates, did not only carry no arms, but also held a belief entirely different from that of their authorities; for, otherwise they would have called both by the same name, that is, ungodly, but as it is, only the Albigenses are called ungodly, while of the magistrates it is stated, that they did not hold this doctrine; although sometimes the magistrates and the subjects were called by the same name, as has been said.
Seventh Argument. This is still more confirmed by the words with which the Dominican friars in those times were accustomed to conclude their sermons, saying: "Behold, here ye can perceive, most beloved, how great the wickedness of the heretics (the Albigenses) is, yea, what is still more, they have accepted the protection of the secular lords." hinbert. Burgund. Sean.., part 2, Serm. 64.
From this, and similar passages which we might adduce, it is sufficiently evident that not the Albigenses or Waldenses, but the magistrates under whom they lived, had recourse to arms and carried on war; hence, they do wrong, who confound the Albigenses with their magistrates, and lay, whether through ignorance or on purpose, what their magistrates did, to the charge of the Albigenses. Their own confession has already been given; in which they confess: That they follow the example of Christ, who exercised no temporal jurisdiction or dominion.
Eighth Argument. But, for still further proof of said matter, we will add the following, contained in the Introduction to the Martyrs' Mirror, edition 1631, p. 50, col. 1: "A. D., . . . there existed in Toulouse in France, the Albigenses, so called because they arose principally in the province of Albi; otherwise they were of the same doctrine and belief as the former (the Waldenses); hence it is presumable, that they were one people notwithstanding that they are called by different names."
"Baronius writes that their belief, among other things, was: That infant baptism was not necessary to salvation; that an unworthy, sinful priest could not administer the sacrament; that no one might become a bishop, who was not blameless; that no churches ought to be erected to the honor of God or the saints; that confession (of sins) could be made to any one; that it was not lawful to swear any oath, etc.; all of which things they said could be found in the New Testament, to which alone they held." From Baron., A. D. 1176, num. 1, 2, 3.
Continuing, we find, in the afore mentioned Introduction (sane page, col. 2), respecting their views against war, and in refutation of those who impute this to them, the following words: "For this reason we must also consider, that when we read here of the wars waged against them, and the resistance which they offered, this . . . is to be understood of the princes and magistrates who took them under their protection; as the King of Aragon, the count of Toulouse, the count of Foix, and others; further, of those who were employed under the authority of the afore mentioned persons; but it is. neither probable nor reasonable, that such people should be counted among them, who, according to Baronius, regulated their conduct only by the New Testament, which they observed so strictly, that they would not even swear an oath, which is much less than to engage in war."
This is confirmed by what Baronius says, namely, that war was waged by the pope and his adherents, against the aforesaid princes, for the reason that the latter would not persecute the Albigenses, and expel them from their territory;'but when this was done, after the said princes had been brought into subjection, the Albigenses, he writes, soon became extinct. Bar., A. D. 1210, num. 3, and 1228, nuns,. 3.
This could not have been the case if so numerous a people had opposed their persecutors with force of arms. Introduction, page 51, col. 1.
DEMONSTRATION OF A PLAIN DISTINCTION BE;
TWEEN THE ALBIGENSES AND THEIR MAGIS;
TRATES AND FELLOW CITIZENS
The last mentioned writer, proceeding to the violence and vexation suffered by the Albigenses from the papists ecclesiastics as well as seculars, makes mention of Raymond, count of Toulouse, and of the count of Turenne, saying: That they went to Peter, the cardinal and legate of the pope, in order that they should kill or slay the heretics (the Albigenses), if the latter should not be converted to the Roman church through the cardinals' preaching. Having arrived at Toulouse, they made the citizens swear an oath that they would name all the Albigenses they knew. Many of them were now betrayed, and among these, also Peter Moranus, one of their principal men. When he was examined, he freely confessed his faith; and was instantly condemned as a heretic, and all his property confiscated. Introduction, p. 51, col. 1, 2, from Baron., A. D. 1178, num. 2.
NOTE. From the afore mentioned eight arguments, but especially from this last demonstration, it appears incontrovertibly, that a great distinction must be made, between the Albigenses and their magistrates, as well as the citizens among whom they lived in the cities; so that whenever resistance, war or conflict are spoken of, in which the inhabitants of this or that city or place engaged, it is to be understood throughout of the magistrates and their soldiers, who guarded said cities or places, as also, of the common citizens; but not of the true Albigenses, since these, in accordance with their faith, as has already been sufficiently stated, exercised no revenge or resistance against any one, but lived peaceably under their magistrates; to whom they also, as was proper, paid their taxes.
However, that we may not give offense to our fellow believers, if any should entertain a different opinion in regard to this matter, although it has been sufficiently explained by us, we shall adduce the principal confessors who suffered in the besieged cities for the doctrine of the Albigensian religion, not as infallible witnesses, but as incidental matters; which the kind reader will please regard as having been done by us from no other motive than Christian prudence.
ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY PERSONS CALLED
ALBIGENSES, BURNT WITHOUT THE CASTLE
In the year of our Lord 1210, a large sacrifice of believers, called Perfecti or Albigenses took place near the castle Minerve; so that at one time about one hundred and eighty persons, men as well as women, who, forsaking the Roman antichrist, desired to adhere steadfastly to Jesus Christ and His divine truth, were publicly burnt; these, having commended their souls to God, are now waiting for the crown and reward of the faithful.
As to the manner in which this occurred, different papistic writers give this account: That the pope of Rome caused a second crusade or campaign to be preached, in order to annihilate with might and main the Albigenses wherever they might be concealed; promising forgiveness of sins, yea, eternal salvation to all who in this campaign should well acquit themselves in murdering and burning the Waldenses.
In the meantime there were in the castle of Minerve very many Albigenses called Perfecti (perfect ones), who resided under the lord of the castle, and were protected by him.
This castle, situated on a high rock, was besieged by the legate of the pope, and so hard pressed, that the lord of the same was finally, through lack of water, compelled to surrender. The legate commanded that all who would not unite with the Roman church, should he put to death.
Those within, however, (namely, the defenseless Albigenses) said: "We do not wish to forsake our faith; we reject your Roman faith; your labor is vain, for neither death nor life shall cause us to depart from our faith." Such was the answer and resolution of the men, who were all assembled together in one house. The women, who were in another house, were found by the abbot so courageous and undaunted that with all his fine words he could make no impression upon them.
The count of Montfort then caused them all (namely, these confessors) to come out of the castle, the men as well as the women, and having ordered a large fire to be kindled, he had them all cast into it, to the number of one hundred and forty; all of whom were burnt alive, except three women, who, having apostatized through weakness, escaped the fire. All the others that were in the castle (namely, the lord with his servants and soldiers, who had guarded the castle), complied with the will of the papal legate.
Peter Sarnensis, speaking of these people that were put to death, says, that these hundred and forty martyrs were of the Albigenses called Perfecti; and adds, that they would rather be burned alive, than unite with the Roman church. In Hist. Albigens. Also, loh. Chassan., Hist. Albig., lib. 3, carp. 7, ex Hist. Languedoc.
From the account of Robert of Auxerre, a strong papist, who wrote at that time, and, it seems, was an eyewitness of the steadfast death of these people, it appears, that about forty more than the preceding writers have stated were burned;. which might well be the case, namely, that the former first, and the latter afterwards, confessed themselves to be of the same faith, and thus were punished alike with death. He writes as follows: "In A. D. 1210 a great expedition was undertaken by our bishops, as well as by the lords and princes of the realm, and by the common people. This expedition was a very noted one, and was undertaken from pure devotion, or by vow; partly through the zeal of faith enkindled in the hearts of the believers (so he calls the papists), against the destroyers of the faith (thus he calls the true Albigenses), and partly, in order to merit the forgiveness of sins, promised by the apostolical see (the Pope of Rome); hence they marched with their assembled army before the castle of Minerve, which was a very strong place."
At last the besieged offered to surrender; but when it was proclaimed to all, that those who would turn from their heresy, should be left free and unmolested, about one hundred and eighty were found (namely, Albigenses) who rather suffered themselves to be burnt alive, than desist from their heretical wickedness (thus he calls their true faith).
Those who witnessed this, he writes, were astonished at the inexorable obstinacy of these miserable people, who would not listen to any salutary admonitions (thus he calls the fables of the papists), because their reason was smitten, and thus they voluntarily hastened to the punishment of death. Rob. Aux. Chronol. Altiss., A. D. 1210, compare with A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 454, col. 2.
SIXTY PERSONS CALLED ALBIGENSES, BURNT FOR
THE FAITH, AT CASSER
In the year 1211, or a little before, when the count of Montfort, by order of the pope, was exercising great tyranny for the purpose of exterminating the Albigenses, he learned, through an informer, or in some other way, that in a place called Casser, there resided many of these people, under the protection of the lord of said place. He therefore went to lay siege to it; but those within (namely, the garrison), seeing that they would not be able to hold out long, notwithstanding the place was tolerably strong otherwise, capitulated, with this agreement, that they would deliver into the hands of the enemy, those called heretics (or Albigenses); these the bishops sought to persuade to renounce their faith, but they could not prevail upon them in the least; in consequence of which sixty persons were burnt for the sake of that religion. Chris. Hist., Albig., lib. 3, compared with A. M. Hist., fol. 456, cot. 4.
ABOUT ONE HUNDRED PERSONS CALLED ALBI;
GENSES, OR HERETICS, BURNT FOR THE
FAITH IN A TOWER AT CASSAS
About the close of the year 1211, it is recorded, the legate of the pope, having gone forth utterly to extirpate all those that professed the confession of the above mentioned Albigenses, was apprised, that over eighty, but according to others, about a hundred of that sect or heresy, as it was called, were concealed on, or in, a tower at Cassas. They had been sent thither by those of Rogueville (who, it seems, were not willing that any of these defenseless people should remain among them), that they might save their lives, until this bloodthirsty man should have passed by. Having learned this, the legate very easily surprised, captured and demolished this tower, and caused all those that were in it like sheep for the slaughter in .the fold, who would not abandon their faith, to be burned alive as heretics. Chass., lib. 3, cap. 15. Also, A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 457, cot. 1.
FIFTY PERSONS CALLED ALBIGENSES, BURNT FOR
THE FAITH, AT CHASTELNAU D'ARI, AT
THE CLOSE OF THE YEAR 1211
This fire of the papal legate continued, like a thunderbolt, to burn and scorch among the defenseless flock of Christ, called Albigenses, or heretics, who had concealed themselves here and there, wherever they thought they might be secure.
In the meantime, there were fifty of these people at Chastelnau d'Ari, shut up and closely besieged, together with all that were in that place; by the count of Montfort, the commander in chief of the papal legate. Finally, the place having been taken, all these persons, as they would not depart from their faith, were burnt alive, and thus, having commended their souls unto God, they gave their bodies for a burnt sacrifice.
Chassanion writes, that when the Count of Montfort had taken the city of Chastelnau d'Ari, fifty persons were found in it, who would rather be burnt alive than returned to the papistic religion. Compare Chassau., lib. 3, cap. 16, with A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 457, cot. 1.
OVER FOUR HUNDRED PERSONS CALLED INDUTI,
OR ALBIGENSES, BURNT FOR THEIR FAITH, AT
LAVAUR, OR VAURUM, A. D. 1211
Previously we stated, that the Albigenses, whose confession we showed to be good and Scriptural, were called by various names. Besides those names already explained, they were also called Induti, or hestiti, that is, the clothed, or covered, either because they had to cover or conceal themselves on account of persecution, or for some other reason.
This, at least, is certain, that they are compared by Mellinus, 2d book, page 443, cot. 3, to the Albigenses, called Perfecti; who were also styled, as he shows, Boni homines, that is, good men, because they, as it seems, were good and upright in their walk. Very many of these good, upright, and not less believing people, were burnt for the faith, as heretics, suffering it innocently and patiently, in the city of Lavaur, also called Vaurum, about the year 1211. Their number, according to ancient chronicles, amounted to over four hundred.
Nicholas Bertrand quotes the following from the papistic chronicle of William de Podio Laurentii
"Simon, count of Montfort, hastened with the Lord's (the Roman Pope's) army, to lay siege to the fortress or city, of Vaurum, which Amerius, lord of Montreal and Laurack, brother of the lady Geralda, had undertaken to defend for her sake. Within there was no small number of those heretics called Induti, who did not always reside there, but had congregated at that time from distant countries."
"The army of God, therefore," he writes, (namely, the army of the pope) "encompassed the fortress, or city, and gave the besieged no rest night and day. Those within perceiving, . . . surrendered unconditionally to the beleaguers."
He then goes on to relate how they dealt with those who had guarded the city, or fortress, and coming then to the above mentioned people who, to live according to their faith, had resided quietly and peaceably among the other inhabitants, he says
"The heretics called Induti, that is, clothed, about three hundred, others write, over four hundred, he caused to be burned alive." Nich. Bertrand de Gest. Tholosan., fol. 27. The lives of the common people, however, were spared upon certain conditions.
A large fire was made of wood, says Robert Altissiodorensis, and the choice was given to all, either to turn from their errors (so he speaks, after the manner of the papists), or to be burnt alive; whereupon a great number, over four hundred, as stated, were found who were so obstinate in their error (as he calls their true faith) that they would rather be burnt than confess the Roman Catholic faith. Chronol., page 106. Also A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 456, Col. 2, 3.
COMMENCEMENT PROPER OF THE HISTORY OF THE
MARTYRS OF THIS CENTURY
GREAT PERSECUTION OF THE BELIEVERS,IN
THE YEAR 1206
In the year 1206, it is recorded, that Pope Innocent III exercised great cruelty against the followers of the doctrine of Peter Bruis and Henry of Toulouse, who, among other things, rejected infant baptism, the mass, and transubstantiation, as has already been stated. The manner, however, in which this cruelty was manifested toward them, is not expressed. P. 1. Twisck, Chron., page 523, Col. 1.
Undoubtedly, the pope then caused to be carried out what he had threatened, A. D. 1198, in his three letters, against the Waldenses and others that were called heretics, namely, that they should be spoiled of their goods, expelled from the country, and the material sword of the princes used against them. In regard to said three letters and threats, see A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 444, Col. 2, 3, and fol. 445, cot. 1.
A MAN BURNT ALIVE, AT LONDON, IN ENGLAND,
FOR THE FAITH OF THE WALDENSES,
A. D. 1210
In various ancient histories we read, that not only in France and Germany, but also in England, the doctrine of the Albi Waldenses* obtained a foothold, so that in said Island, especially at London, numbers were found, who made this profession, to the great detriment of the Roman religion. On this account, the popish clergy, unable to brook this, became filled with great bitterness against them, so that they, it seems, determined to punish one of them in such an exemplary manner, that it would ter the rest, and cause them to leave the country; or at least, to desist from confessing and speaking otherwise than those of the Roman Catholic church.
Thereupon they apprehended one of their number, whose name we have not been able to learn because they, afterwards perhaps, were ashamed of the deed, and in order to,give their design some semblance [of justice], they charged him with having reviled the clergy, and that he, consequently, was not fit to live, but deserved to die an ignominious and miserable death. He was accordingly burnt alive, A. D. 1210.
Concerning this, Balaeus writes, from the Chronicle of London: That the Albigenses in Eng
* Albigenses, says the writer; however they were of the profession of the Waldenses; but because of their origin from the province of Albf, they were called Albigenses.
land (according to the Papists) reviled the clergy, and that in consequence thereof a man was burnt alive by them, at London, A. D. 1210. Cent. 3, Script. Britt., in Append. ad Gualterum Horganium, page 258, compared with A. Mell. Hist., fol. 455, Col. 4.
P. J. Twisck, having given some account of many Waldensian martyrs at Strasburg, for the year 1210, proceeds thus: "The Chronicle of London states, that also in England a great number, namely, of Waldenses, or, as has been stated, Albigenses, who were of the same faith, were found, and that one of them was burnt at London." Chron., page 526, Col. 1.
NOTE. P. J. Twisck, after relating said matter concerning the Albigensian martyr, at London, adds: "A. D. 1210. In the city of Narbonne one hundred and thirty persons were put to death by the priests, because they reproved the great abuses and idolatry of the popes. In the same year there were also killed at Paris, in France, twenty four martyrs and witnesses of the truth, because they would not consent to the false doctrine of antichrist." Chron., p. 526, from Guil. Merul. Tijdtthresoor, fol. 800. Hist. der Mart. Adri., fol. 39. Chron. Zeg., fol. 299. Henr., Box. fol. 23.
TWENTY FOUR PERSONS BURNT ALIVE FOR THE
BELIEF OF THE WALDENSES, AT
PARIS, A. D. 1210
Christian Massaeus, having noticed the case of a great company of martyrs who, having been found in the castle Minerve, were all burnt alive as heretics, adds this account: "At that time, namely, A. D. 1210, also at Paris, twenty four who were of the same obstinacy (thus he, after the manner of the papists, calls the steadfastness of these people), were burnt alive." Christ. Mass. Chron., lib. 17, A. D. 1210, compared with the large Christen Martelarersboeck, edit. 1619, fol. 455, Col. 4.
The writer, after the manner of the papists, calls these people heretics, and their steadfast faith obstinacy; but how can anything good proceed from the mouth of the wicked? However, this must not offend us, since not only these, but even the ancient holy prophets, apostles, and servants of God, were stigmatized with many opprobrious names, yea, titles of the devil, by evil worldly men.
ABOUT ONE HUNDRED PERSONS CALLED WAL;
DENSES, BURNT FOR THE FAITH, AT STRAS;
BURG; THIRTY NINE AT BINGEN; AND
EIGHTEEN AT MENTZ, A. D. 1212
A. D. 1212, the true doctrine of the Gospel began to manifest itself to a great extent in Alsace, among the Waldenses, who were one people and of the same faith with the Albigenses. But the prince of darkness, unable to endure this great light, exerted every means to extinguish it, so that in said year, in Strasburg alone, about a hundred persons, men as well as women, were burnt alive on the same day, for this confession, by the servants of antichrist, particularly through the bishop of that city.
Concerning this, the papistic writer H. Mutius writes: "A. D. 1212 a heresy arose in Alsace, by which noble and ignoble were led astray. They maintained that it was lawful to eat flesh every day throughout the whole year, and that there is as much excess in the immoderate eating of fish, as of any kind of flesh." Again: "That they do very wrong who forbid marriage; since God has created all things, and everything may be used in a holy manner, with thanksgiving."*
"This, their opinion," he writes, "they maintained very firmly, and many believed them. Moreover, they did not hesitate (hear how the papists speak) to revile the most holy lord, the pope, because he prohibited ecclesiastical persons from marrying, and bade them abstain on certain forbidden days from some kinds of food. The pope of Rome therefore commanded that these people should be made away with and put to death. Hence, about a hundred were burnt together on the same day, by the bishop of Strasburg. H. Mut., Chron. lib. 19.
Bruschius, in his history of the Monasteries of Germany, relates, that at the same time, thirty five, or, as others read, thirty nine persons, inhabitants of Mentz, were brought to Bingen, and there burnt alive for the doctrine of the Waldenses; and at another time, by the same bishop of Mentz, eighteen others for the same confession, Also A. Melt., 2d book, fol. 457, col. 3; also P. J. Twisck, Chron., Q. 526, col. 1, from Guil. Merulae Tijdt thresoor, fol. 800.
CRUEL MODE OF INQUISITION OVER THE DOCTRINE
OF THE WALDENSES, OR OF THOSE CALLED
HERETICS, A. D. 1214
In the year 1214, Conrad of Marpurg, a Dominican friar, was appointed by Pope Innocent III, grand inquisitor of the faith over all Germany, and sent by him closely to search out and examine such as were said to have strayed from the faith of the Roman church. This commission he carried out with such cruelty for full nineteen years, that an incredible number of persons, declared heretics by him, were put to death, partly by fire and partly with the sword.
Trithemius speaks of the manner of this inquisition, saying: "That this inquisitor, Conrad of Marpurg, used to try the heretics (the true Christians), by giving them a red hot iron into their hands, and to deliver all those that were burnt by it as heretics, unto the secular judge, to be sentenced to the fire." Hence it came that only very few escaped, but that all who were once accused and
* What the Waldenses held with regard to infant baptism, the mass, and transubstantiation, has been previously shown.
brought to him for examination were, without mercy, condemned by him as heretics to be burned.
"There were some," he writes, "who held that he condemned very many innocent persons, because the red hot iron, finding none without sin, although they otherwise had never been tainted with any heresy, burned almost everyone that took it." Trithem. Chron. Hirsaug., A. D., 1214 and 1215. Also A. Melt., 2d book, fol. 459, col. 3; also fol. 466, col. 4.
THE PRECEDING INQUISITION CONTINUED
This was the most cruel and dreadful time which one could live to see; for this entire infernal inquisition, which was carried on with red hot iron and other intolerable means, had penetrated even into the Netherlands, so that there, not less than in Germany, this tyranny was carried on in the same manner, and even worse.
I cannot forbear here to inform you, though with a terrified and shuddering heart, of what I have found with respect to this matter, in a certain account which has just fallen into my hands, as it were, for this occasion. Marcus Zueris van Boxhorn, author of the Nederlandtsch Historien, in his first book, p. 23, printed A. D. 1649, at Leyden, and dedicated to the H. M. Lords States, gives the following account with reference to it:
The trial by red hot iron. If a person charged with holding sentiments contrary to the doctrine of the Roman church, from fear of a cruel death, denied it, the accused was delivered into the hands and custody of a priest, who was to find out the truth. Before making the trial, then commonly called the ordeal, they together spent three days ostensibly in fasting and prayer. This done, they went together to the church, where the priest, in his sacerdotal attire, placed himself in front of the altar, upon which he laid a piece of iron, first chanting the song of the three children in the fiery furnace: "Praise the Lord, all His works," etc., and then pronouncing a blessing over the altar, and the fire in which the iron was to be laid. The iron, while heating on the coals, was repeatedly sprinkled with holy water, and in the meantime mass was read. When the priest took the wafer into his hand, he adjured the accused, praying meanwhile (ostensibly) to God that by His righteousness He would discover the truth of the matter, using among others these words
The priest's prayer over the red hot iron. "'Lord God I we pray Thee that Thou wouldst clearly manifest the truth in this Thy servant; Thou, O God, who hast in former times done great and wonderful signs by fire, among Thy people; who didst deliver Abraham, Thy son, from the fire of the Chaldeans by which many perished; who didst preserve Lot, Thy servant, when Sodom and Gomorrah were justly laid in the ashes by the fire; who, in the sending of the Holy Ghost by the light of fiery and flaming tongues, didst separate the believers from the unbelievers; grant us the grace, while we make this trial, that through this red hot fire we may discover the truth. If this, Thy servant, who is now being tried, is guilty, let his hand be seared and burnt by the fire. But if, on the contrary, he is innocent, let him not be hurt by the fire. Lord God, to whom all secrets are known, however hid they are, fulfill, by Thy goodness, the expectation of our confidence and faith, while we make this examination; that the innocent may be acquitted; but the guilty detected and punished.'
"When the priest had uttered this prayer," writes M. S. Boxhorn, p. 24, "he again sprinkled the redhot iron with holy water, and pronounced this blessing over it: `The blessing of God the Father, and God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, come down upon this iron, that by it we may be enabled to pronounce a true judgment."'
How the iron was given into the hand of the accused. This having been said, the flaming iron was given into the hand of the accused, who had to carry it nine paces. The hand was then closely wrapped up with cloth by the priest, and sealed, for three days, at the end of which it was inspected. If it was wounded, the accused was judged to be guilty; if not, he was acquitted.
Oh, cruel inquisition I by which not only men, but even God was tried and tempted to the utmost. "Thou shalt not," says Christ, "tempt the Lord thy God." Matt. 4:7.
Another examination, by hot water. Sometimes also a kettle with hot, boiling water was used, into which the accused had to thrust his hand up to the elbow, in order to ascertain his guilt or innocence. This procedure was called Ketel vang, in the ancient Netherlands, and particularly in the Friesian statutes and laws.
The trial by cold water. Likewise, and for the same purpose, the cold and consecrated water of the canals or rivers was used. The accused were cast into it, and from the sinking or floating of their bodies, the righteousness or unrighteousness of their case was judged. This mode was carried out in the following manner at that time: A priest, one of the judges, went with the accused, and a great train of others, to a deep canal, ditch, or river, near by; and standing on the shore or brink, he adjured the water with these words: "I adjure thee, O Water." However, first he gave the accused a cup of holy water to drink, saying: "This holy water be for a test to thee this day.'; Turning then to the water, he exclaimed: "I adjure thee, O Water, in the name, etc., who created thee in the beginning, and would have thee serve to meet the necessities of man, and be separated from the waters above." He then adjured the water again in the name of Christ, and then in the name of the Holy Ghost, and finally in the name of the Holy Trinity; and this, with such hard, stern and severe words that I am shocked, and afraid in my very soul to repeat them.
"Thereupon followed," writes M. S. Boxhorn, "several additional solemn adjurations (these, however, he does not relate), which, when the priest had finished, the accused was stripped starknaked, and cast or driven into the water. If he sank, he was considered innocent; but if he floated, he was forthwith condemned and punished by fire, as being guilty." Page 26.
If any one should desire to read a full account as regards said papistic adjurations over the water, let him consult M. S. Boxhorn, Nederlandtsch Hist., 1st book, pp. 25, 26.
THE MANNER IN WHICH THESE TRIALS WERE COM;
MENCED IN THE NETHERLANDS,
ABOUT THE YEAR 1215
Before bringing persons to the trial with red hot iron, hot or boiling water, or in cold rivers, which was called the severest or extremest examination, milder means were employed, especially in the Netherlands; however, with such intricacies, and so many snares, that an honest soul, that would act candidly, and without dissimulation, could not escape but was in danger of losing his life.
The above mentioned Boxhorn, describing the manner of examination used at that time against the Vaudois, who also belonged to the Poor Men of Lyons, and were at that time one people with the Albigenses and Waldenses, but afterwards differed with them in various articles, relates: That the Dominicans, a certain order of monks, were at that time sent by the pope here into the Netherlands, as inquisitors; who, in order to well execute their office as it were, had put in writing a certain mode of examination, which literally read as follows
Examination. "When any one in the Netherlands is brought before the judge, suspected and accused of heresy, he shall first be asked: Why are you apprehended? Does any one know of your imprisonment? Have you not learned from any one the cause of your apprehension? If he say
I do not know; answer him: They say that you, seduced by certain teachers who keep themselves concealed, have, to a considerable extent, departed from the Christian faith, as it is publicly taught in this country and elsewhere, throughout all Christendom. Let him answer as well or as much as he will, and let forthwith an oath be demanded and put to him, unless his youth does not admit of his swearing. Before he takes the oath, these words shall be spoken to him: See, you are to swear here, that you will tell in all sincerity the truth as it is known to you, concerning yourself as well as others in regard to whom you will be questioned. If he refuses to swear,* he shall be suspected so much the more.
* From this it is quite evident that said people had an aversion to the swearing of oaths. But some one may say: This has refer. ence to adjuring their belief. To this it may be replied, that the oath demanded here did not aim at anything further than the tell. ing of the truth, as the preceding words declare.
"See well to it also, that he have no reason to say that he was compelled by threats or otherwise to swear; but if he is ready willingly to take the oath, present these words to him
The oath administered by the inquisitors, near the chapter house of Utrecht, to those who at that time were called heretics. "I, N. N. N., swear to God Almighty, my Lord of Utrecht (or otherwise) and the lords present in his stead, that I will tell the pure truth, without fear, of all matters known to me, concerning which I shall be questioned here; not only in regard to myself, but also to others. So help me God and His holy mother, in my last hour." Boxhorn, Nederl. Hut., Q. 15.
In this manner the inquisitors proceeded, and then observed the following mode of examination, which it seems they had to employ as their fundamental rule, against those who were called heretics
"If he is not known to you (says this rule) question him thus: What is your name? Where were you born? Who was your father? Again: How often have you confessed to the teachers of the heretics, who secretly circulate that they have come into the world in place of the apostles, to go from place to place, preaching the Gospel?*
Again: "How long have you resided here? How old were you when you began to give audience to these heretics? When did you last confess to them? For whom did you take them? Do they also wear crowns [the tonsur] and the priestly garb? What penance did they impose on you? Did they not charge you to say an Ave Maria? Did you believe that it was in their power to forgive your sins? Who first directed you to these heretics? To how many heretics have you confessed? What was the name of the first? the second? the third? etc.
"Did your parents also hold this heretical belief? How often have you received the body of Christ? Have you also confessed to our priests? Have you also confessed to them, that you hold this heretical belief? Why did you not confess it? How often have you heard them teach? where first? in what houses, or places? in what room or chamber? by day or at night? in the morning or evening? Who were there besides you? What did your teachers preach respecting purgatory? It there a purgatory? How many times a day do you pray for the souls of your parents, friends, and benefactors? What alms have you given for them? How many days have you fasted for them? How many masses have you had read for them?
"Can you say the Ave Maria! Say it. Can you say any prayers to the saints? Do you believe, that the holy Mary, and other saints, are acquainted with our distresses, and that they are filled with compassion on this account, and pray for us? Who is the patron of your parish? When is his day ,celebrated? Have you properly celebrated him?
* It seems that these inquisitors thought that these people also observed auricular confession; which is a grave misapprehension, seeing their confession avowed the contrary.
What kind of a saint is it? Is it an angel? or a martyr? or a confessor? or an apostle? or a virgin? or a widow? What did you bring as an offering on their feast day? Have you chosen for yourself a certain apostle? Who is your apostle?
"What do you hold with regard to the worship of the holy cross? the nails? the crown of thorns? the spear? and the images of the saints?
"Have you ever journeyed to Rome, to obtain forgiveness of your sins? Have you sprinkled yourself with holy water? Have you tasted the consecrated salt? Have you consecrated twigs and tapers in your house? Have you done this with a pure and upright heart, as do other Christians, who by your people are called Strangersf or have you done it merely for appearance' sake, so as not to be detected in your heresy? Tell the simple truth.
"Do you not believe that St. Martin has become a saint, and that his holy soul is now in the kingdom of heaven? Will you drink in the name and to the remembrance of St. Martin? Do you know any hymns to the honor of God, or His holy mother? and so forth.
"Say, finally: Will you desist with all your heart from your errors, and separate yourself from the heretics, and henceforth have no fellowship with them? If so, then swear thus:
The second oath administered by the inquisitors to those who were at that time called heretics; which none of the true martyrs ever swore.;"I, N. N. N., swear an oath, to God Almighty, my lord, bishop N. N., and the lords present in his stead, without any dissimulation, that henceforth I will go no more to the people that call themselves, etc., and will have fellowship neither with them nor with their leaders, teachers, etc., as long as they remain heretics. Moreover, I forswear (see what paptistic tricks these are), all manner of unbelief that is contrary to the open faith taught and maintained everywhere in the holy Roman church and in Christendom. And that I will also submit to penance for my transgressions, when and as it shall, though in mercy, be imposed upon me. So truly help me God and His mother, in my last hour." Boxhorn, page 18. Concerning the examination, see page 15-17.
NOTE. Who does not see, beloved reader, that these were snares from which the pious could not extricate themselves without losing their lives? for it was certain that the Poor Men of Lyons, in those times, whether called Vaudois,* Waldenses, or Albigenses, did not swear at all; which, especially as regards the Waldenses and Albigenses, has been distinctly proved in our previous explanation. This, then, was the first snare which they could not escape.
In the second place, by the form of that oath it was proposed to them, that they should forsake their entire religion, faith, and worship, and join
* That the very odious name "Vaudois", was given the Poor Men of Lyons, need offend no one; since Christ Himself and His holy apostles were often called evil and opprobrious names, by their adversaries.
themselves to the Roman church which they held to be worse than Babylon. Hxow could this be done by them with a good conscience? In no wise. This snare, therefore, they could likewise not escape. What, then, had they to expect? Nothing less than certain death; yea, a cruel, ignominious, and accursed death, though blessed for those who, remaining steadfast, suffered it.
I will say nothing now of the cruel and horrible manner of inquisition, by red hot iron, hot water, as also in open rivers,* which generally followed upon the examination just stated.
What heathen or barbarians have ever acted thus? It is true, they put the pious witnesses of Jesus to death in a very painful manner; however, that was the end of it; and, besides, sometimes means remained by which it was possible to escape death, and yet keep the faith. And we nowhere read, that they ever had such a mode of inquisition over matters of faith; but the Romanists, who call themselves Christians, were not afraid or ashamed of it.
Certainly, here one or the other, either the body or the soul, had to be sacrificed by the martyrs, for if they would save the body, by forsaking the faith, which they, in their conscience, recognized as the genuine, yea, the only and eternal truth, they were in danger, yea, fully assured of losing their souls; on the other hand, if they sought to preserve their souls, by their good confession, and by forsaking the superstitions of popery, they had to lose their bodies, and this by the most cruel, horrible, and miserable death; which, according to the custom of that time, was to be placed alive into the flames until death ensued.
In this manner, very many, yea, almost a countless number, of pious Christians, called Albigenses and Waldenses, perished in those times; who, constrained by the love of Christ, to hold fast the confession of their faith, willingly exchanged this earthly for the heavenly; suffering here the tabernacle of their body to be dissolved, in order to have a building with God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. II Cor. 5:1.
We will now see, what persons perished for the faith, in that cruel inquisition, particularly under the test of red hot iron, not in the Netherlands, but in Germany, where it first originated.
ABOUT EIGHTY PERSONS CALLED WALDENSES,
BURNT FOR THE FAITH, AT STRASBURG,
A. D. 1215
Now, when the throne of antichrist began to suffer much detriment through the doctrine of the Waldenses, and infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, the secular power and dominion, the authority of the Pope of Rome, the mass, purgatory, absolution or forgiveness of sins by the so called clergy, pilgrimages, visitations of the holy sepulchres,
* For further information respecting the method of the inquisitors, see our account of the martyrs for the year 1301, etc.
prayers, or sacrifices for the dead, and other things pertaining to popery, were opposed by them, they saying, that these things ought to have no place in the true church of Christ; it came to pass, A. D. 1215, that this cruel man, Conrad of Marpurg, of whom it was stated, for the year 1214, that he had been sent into Germany, as grand inquisitor, by Pope Innocent III, apprehended over eighty persons, both men and women, who were called Waldenses and made the same confession. They were also examined, concerning their faith, in that horrible manner of which we have already spoken, namely, by taking a red hot iron into their bare hands; and having all of them endured it patiently, and remaining steadfast, they were finally condemned to be burnt alive as heretics; which was done to them all on the same day, at Strasburg, in said year of their apprehension, A. D. 1215.
Of this the papistic writer Trithemius gives the following account: "At this time, namely A. D. 1215, there were very many who were heretics secretly, men as well as women, who spread divers strange errors throughout all Germany, France, and Italy; of whom great numbers were apprehended and burnt alive. For in said year more than eighty were apprehended in Strasburg, at the same time, among whom but very few were found innocent; for if any of them deni ed the heresy,* Conrad of Marpurg, the pope's inquisitor, would try them by giving them red hot iron into their hands, and deliver all those that were burnt by it, to the secular judge, as heretics, to be sentenced to the fire." Trith. Chron. Hiysaug. Also, A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 459. C. Mellinus calls these martyrs Waldenses, fol. 457, col. 3; and their confession he has shown, fol. 446, col. 1, 2.
SEVERAL CHRISTIANS BURNT FOR THE FAITH, AT
TOULOUSE, A. D. 1215
About that time, Pope Innocent III had advised Dominic, that by means of constant preaching and disputation he should wondrously execute the office of inquisition, which he had entrusted to him, namely, against the so called heretics; and that he should reconcile to the Roman church those who should ostensibly become converted; but should justly condemn such as remained refractory, that is, steadfast in their faith. Sixtus 5, in Diplonn. instit. Festi S. Petri Mart.
Dominic discharged his inquisitorial office so energetically in the city of Toulouse, against the heretics mentioned, that is the Christians called Waldenses, that several who had been cast into prison, were, by his advice, delivered to the secular judge, to be burned. For, when in those times people could not be overcome by way of argument, with the Word of God, they began to dispute with fire
* It is necessary here to understand that by the word "heresy" those people did not mean their orthodox faith; but all that could truly be called heresy; and this they then disavowed; whereby this inquisitor, (to all appearance) though he was very crafty, was greatly misled.
and sword against them; and then it was an easy matter to conquer them, not in regard to:the truth, but in regard to their bodies and lives. This was also the case with these pious people of Toulouse, who would rather lose their lives than forsake the truth; which they confirmed in the flames by their death, having commended their souls into the hands of God, in the year of our Lord 1215.
The papist Theodoric, in his biography, of Dom , inic, makes mention of these martyrs, saying
"When he (Dominic) was preaching, at this time, in the parts of Toulouse, it happened that some. heretics were apprehended in that city and were convicted by him; whom, when they would not return to the Catholic church, he delivered to the secular Judge. When they had been condemned to be burnt." Theod. in vita Dominici, citate Bzov. ad A. D. 1215, Art. 11, 12. Also, A. Mellinus, 2d book, fol. 460, col. 4.
NOTE. A. D. 1220 lived the strong and celebrated theologian Almaricus; he reproved as idolatry the invocation of saints, and denied transubstantiation; on which account he was burnt at Paris. P. J. Twisck, page 537, col. 1, from Hist. Andr., page 162.
A. D. 1218. In a certain ancient history of the martyrs of this time, I have found the following account, in which one of the orthodox believers presents a summary of the doctrine of the papists, as opposed to the true doctrine of the true church of , God in those times; it reads as follows
1. "They found their church upon the succession and derivation of the bishops (though erroneously) from the times of the apostles.
2. "They call those bishops, who consecrate churches, chapels, and altars; who make mass priests and sanctuaries of the altars.
3. "They regard the pope as the supreme bishop, the head of their churches; who may be reproved by none but God.
4. "They are divided into many contending sects; some are ecclesiastics, some seculars. The ecclesiastics have separated themselves from the common people whom they call the laity and are th mselves variously divided. Some are called monk and nuns; who vow, not to marry; to submit to voluntary poverty; to observe human institutions, such as, to have nothing to do with money; to wear a gray, white, or black cap; to eat no flesh; to be dumb at times.; and other similar false and invented forms of holiness. Others are called secular priests; who also may not marry, but like the others, have to do a great amount of muttering and reading.
5. "They have priests, who are consecrated by the bishops, to offer up sacrifice for the living and the dead.
6. "All these ecclesiastics hold themselves exempt from punishment by civil authority, and bear no burdens with the citizens, since they are exempt.
7. "They seek their salvation out of Christ, in their own works and merits, which they also sell to each other for money; such as masses, indulgences, pilgrimages, and the merits of departed saints, which they also sell to the dead, who, they say, are in purgatory.
8. "They have an idol or patron for every city, village, or hamlet.
9. "They divide the power and honor of God among the departed saints; thus, seamen invoke St. Nicholas, St. Christopher, and St. Anna; women in travail, St. Mary; for gum boils, St. Appollonia; against pestilence, St. Rochus and St. Anthony.
10. "They set up images in their churches; they light tapers, torches, and lamps before them; they clothe them in cloth, silk, velvet, silver, and gold; they carry them with great reverence on their shoulders; they visit them in different places, and offer gifts to them (to which practice the popes and bishops append indulgence for sins); they kneel before them; they kiss, and worship them.
11. "In their oaths they swear by God and all His saints, etc.
12. "They pray to, and call upon God, without considering their need, and without thinking why they call upon Him.; they give Him their prayers by the number, as apples are bought; they read, in the hours, rosaries, etc.
13. "They create many sabbaths, which they call holidays, in honor of departed saints; on which days manual labor is forbidden on pain of punishment; while drinking to excess, bartering, and gambling remain unpunished. On these days they generally commit shameful idolatry; the services are. read in an unknown tongue; water is conjured; the organ is played; and the dead are called on for help and assistance.
14. "To the two sacraments, or signs of grace, instituted by Christ in His church, namely, holy baptism and the holy Supper, which they have shamefully corrupted, they have added five others, namely, confirmation, matrimony, ordination of mass priests, auricular confession, and extreme unction.
15. "In baptism they leave out the most important part, namely the preaching of the Gospel; and add of their own, conjured salt, grease, spittle, and tapers, and exorcise the devil from the child which he never possessed.
16. "They also baptize bells, giving them names.
17. "They have changed the Lord's Supper into an offering for the living and the dead; they conJure the bread with five words,* and persuade the people, that the bread is changed into flesh, and the wine into blood.
18. "They withhold the wine from the laity, contrary to the command of Christ, who said: `Drink ye all of it.'
"Floc est enim corpus meum", i. e. for this is my body.
19. "They worship the bread, and say that it is their God; they enclose it in coffers and ciboria; they carry it through the streets; they burn torches and tapers before it, also at noonday; they address and salute it; but it answers not.
20. "In their churches they have altars draped with linen, upon which burning tapers are placed at daytime, when mass is read.
21. "Mass is read by a mass priest, who is hired to do it for money, or a yearly salary; he comes clothed in strange attire, after Jewish fashion, with a drinking cup of silver or:gold in his hand, and accompanied by an attendant. He then says his confession before the altar, in Latin (though the attendant does not understand it), and invokes the assistance of the dead saints. Then, having kept up his mummery for a considerable time, having spoken loud and low, turning himself hither and thither, kissing and licking, he finally takes bread and wine, and forthwith offers the same to God, for the redemption of souls, for the hope of salvation, and the health of those present. Thus they reject Thy sacrifice, O Christ Jesus, which Thou once didst make for our salvation. O God, says the writer, how canst Thou suffer this? He then calls the dead saints to the feasts, desiring to be aided by their merits. Over the bread he breathes these five words: Hoc ist enim corpus meum, that is
For this is my body; supposing that thereby the bread will be changed into flesh. He then holds it above his head, for the people to worship it. So he does also with the cup. Then he prays for all those who sleep in Christ, that they may obtain a place of refreshing. Thereupon he prays to the Father, to accept His Son, whom they believe to have there, as graciously as he accepted the offerings of Melchisedec and of Abel. Finally, he worships the bread, calling it the Lamb of God. Having worshiped the Lamb, he breaks it in pieces, and eats it up, also quaffing the wine, which he imagines to be the Lamb's blood. This is the glorious mass of the papists, which, says our author, is a shameful corruption of the Supper of Christ, and has been reprehended by many godly men, who on this account had shed their blood.
22. "Such masses they read in honor of dead saints, of the sacrament, of the cross, the spear, and the nails.
23. "They sell the same as a remedy against all sickness, against storm, thunder, lightning, hail, tempests at sea, and every calamity. Every man is served according to his money; they who give little, have a dry mass, or a wet mass without singing; those who give much, get a half sung mass, or one partly sung, according as to how much they give.
24. "They teach, that their invented sacrament of confirmation is of more importance than the sacrament of baptism, instituted by Christ; and that baptism is incomplete without confirmation.
25. "They dissolve marriage, in order that the husband or the wife may become spiritual, that is, a priest, monk, or nun, contrary to the command of Christ: What God hath joined together, let no man put asunder."
"Time would fail me," writes this zealous man, "if I were to recount all the falsities of the papists, in life, doctrine; and sacraments; and still they can endure no admonition to reform, but persecute with fire and sword, those who admonish and reprove them." Ex Author. Tempor., A. D. 1218, compared with the History of the Martyrs, by J. S., edition 1645, fol. 32, col. 1-3. Gerard de la Motte, deacon of the Christians called Albi Waldenses, with some of his fellow believers, burnt for the faith, at Borriens, A. D. 1227.
When the believing defenseless. Albi Waldenses* had enjoyed rest for a season, and the lily of their true faith was beginning, in some measure, to grow and blossom, in all purity and beauty (as compared with former times), the thorns of persecution immediately arose over it; inasmuch as these pious and upright people were forthwith deprived of their liberty. by the Romanists; so that as soon as it was noticed, that they increased, here or there, though secretly, under the protection of their authorities, means were sought without delay, to subdue, yea, utterly to exterminate, them.
This appeared A. D. 1227, when, upon the mere report that a few of these people resided in the town of Borriens, the whole place (in order to apprehend them), was besieged and enclosed by Humbert of Beaujeu, who, having made himself master of the place, and having entered it, apprehended said people, and, as they would not desist from their faith, caused them to be burnt alive; all of whom testified to the truth and uprightness of their faith, as gold in the furnace, by their steadfast death in the midst of the flames.
Certain papistic writers say, that there were some in Borriens, who were said to be heretics, and who, as they would not desist from their belief, were burnt alive; among whom there is mentioned one Gerard de la Motte, who, it is said, was their deacon or minister. This is stated to have occurred A. D. 1227, in the time of Humbert of Beaujeu, whom the king had left in Languedoc. hignier, Hist. Eccles., from Vincentius and others already cited, and Chron. Moat f ortensi Hist. Adde Gaguin., lib. 7, and Paul. Aemil., lib. 7, de Cest. Franc. in Lud. 8. Also, Abr. Mell., 2d book, page 464, col. 3.
OF VARIOUS PAPAL STATUTES AND ORDINANCES
INSTITUTED AGAINST THE WALDENSES,
OR SO CALLED HERETICS, ABOUT
A. D. 1229
Franciscus Pegna, a Romanist, in a tract written by him to John Calderinus, touching the manner of proceeding against the heretics, declares to have
* Albigenses says one writer.
found in past years, in the Vatican Library, as well as in an old parchment manuscript book, which had been brought from the inquisition from Florence to Rome, information respecting various councils held in those times against the Waldenses, in France. Among others, of one held in the year 1229 in Toulouse, a place where the Anabaptists, called Waldenses, greatly increased. The statutes and ordinances enacted there were published by Cardinal Romanus, Legate of the Pope. Franc. Pegna. T. 11. Doctor., part 2, fol. 410, edition Tenet., 1584.
Among other things adduced by the aforementioned Franciscus Pegna, in said tract, from the second council of the prelates of France, there is also found the ecclesiastical ordinance concerning the general abjuration of heresy, which reads as follows
Of the abjuration of heresy. "In order that, through the help of God, the heretics may be more easily exterminated, and the Roman Catholic faith the sooner planted in the land, we decree, that you shall perfectly observe all the statutes, ecclesiastical ordinances, laws, and commandments that have been enacted regarding this matter, by the apostolical see (the pope and his legates), and by the princes. Moreover, that you make all males as well as females, the male sex from fourteen years and upwards, the female sex from twelve years and upwards, abjure ail heresy, and, besides, promise with an oath, that they will observe the Roman Catholic faith, defend the Catholic church, and persecute the heretics. All those who, after such abjuration, shall be found to have apostatized, and not to have observed or fulfilled the penance imposed upon them, shall be punished with the proper punishment, such apostates deserve."
Of the demolition of the houses of the Wald.en;ses. The fifth chapter of the council of Toulouse contains the following brief ecclesiastical ordinance respecting the demolition of the houses of the heretics, namely, of the Waldenses and Albigenses
"We ordain, that the house in which a heretic is discovered, shall be razed to the ground; and the land or farm upon which a heretic is found, shall be confiscated."
f the forfeiture of all their goods. In the 35th chapter of the council of Beziers we read: "Also the houses in which any heretic shall be found, living or dead, accused or condemned, being there with the knowledge or consent of the proprietors of said houses, provided said proprietors have attained their legal age, you shall cause to be demolished, and shall confiscate all the goods of those who live in them, unless they can legally prove or show their innocence or ignorance." This much of the year 1229, in the second book of the History of the Persecutions, page 465, col. 3.
SEVERE PERSECUTIONS BY THE INQUISITION IN
GERMANY, VERY MANY WHO WERE
CALLED WALDENSES, BURNT FOR
THE FAITH, A. D. 1230
In the year 1230, in many provinces of Germany, especially in the archbishopric of Treves, very many schools and secret congregations of those who professed the doctrine of the Waldenses, were discovered by Conrad of Marpurg, Inquisitor General over Germany. They were said to be heretics, because they denied transubstantiation in the mass, and purgatory, saying that the prayers and intercessions of the living for the dead served to no purpose, and could avail the deceased nothing.
As regards their rejecting infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, revenge or wars, together with all the traditions of the Roman church, and their desiring to hold only to the truth of the Holy Scriptures, especially of the New Testament, this has already been shown.
"From their processes, and from the confessions made by them on the rack," says A. Mellinus, "it was seen that the number of their adherents and accomplices, throughout Germany, France and Italy, but especially in Lombardy, was very great."
About this time a severe inquisition was raised against them, throughout Germany and Italy, by which very many were discovered and burnt alive.
Abr. Mellinus (contra Trithemius) refutes the calumnies cast against them, saying: "This is a willful falsehood and slander, fabricated by this monk (Trithemius), because they accused the pope. A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 465, D: Also P. J. Twrissck,;Chron., p. 546, col. 2.
In the meantime we will produce some decrees by which, it seems, the aforesaid inquisitor was made the more bold and daring in putting into execution his unprecedented cruel inquisition and tyranny against the innocent Christian believers, who had separated from the Roman church.
OF THE FIRST DECREE OF EMPEROR FREDERIC II,
AGAINST THE DEFENCELESS ALBIGENSES AND
WALDENSES, ABOUT A. D. 1230
Mellinus relates, from Abraham Bzovius, who completed the Annals of Baronius, that Emperor Frederic II, at the request of Pope Gregory IX, issued his decrees against the Albigenses; however, under different names given them by the Emperor, saying: "(Petr. de Veneis lib. 1, epist. 27.) Here commence the chapters or articles of the constitution of the Emperor against the Pata.rini (Waldenses). He then adds some other names which do not properly belong here.
"Men, as well as women, whatever name they may bear, we sentence to perpetual infamy, that neither oath nor faith shall be kept towards them; but we banish them, and order that their goods be confiscated, never more to be returned to them.
"We likewise ordain by this decree that all officers, burgomasters, and rulers, in whatever office they may be, shall, for the defense of the faith, publicly swear an oath that they will, in good faith and to the best of their ability, endeavor to ex pet from the districts under their jurisdiction, al heretics indicated to them by the church.
"But if any temporal lord, having been requester and admonished thereto by the church, shall bt found negligent in purging his land from heretics wickedness, let him be warned that, one year after the admonition, we shall give his land for a prey to all Catholics, who, after they shall have driver. out the heretics, shall possess the same without molestation, and preserve it in the purity of the (Catholic) faith.
"We also banish those who believe (the Waldenses and Albigenses), or receive them into their cities or houses, protect or favor them, ordaining
That if any one having been noted as being in communion with these believers, does not satisfy the church within a year, he shall be considered infamous from that time on.
"We add here that one heretic may convict another, and that the houses of . . . , or of their harborers, protectors, and favorers, or where they have taught or imposed hands upon other, shall be demolished, never to be rebuilt Given."
OF THE SECOND DECREE
By the chancellor of this Emperor, A. D., 1230. (Same place, Epist. 25, Petri..de Veneis).
In another letter of Peter de Veneis, we find another decree of Frederic II, which reads as follows
"We therefore decree and ordain that heretics, of whatever name, shall receive condign punishment, throughout the empire, wherever the church shall condemn them as heretics, and deliver or indicate them to the secular judge.
"But if any of the aforesaid, after their apprehension, deterred by the fear of death, shall desire to return to the unity of the Catholic faith, they shall according to the requirement of the church ordinances, be imprisoned for life, to do penance.
"Moreover, all heretics, in whatever city, village or place, of the realm they may be found by the inquisition sent by the Apostolic see, or by other zealous adherents of the Catholic faith, shall receive like punishment.
"All those, then, who shall have jurisdiction there, shall be bound, on the denunciation or intimation of the inquisitors, or of other Catholics, to apprehend and closely keep them, until they, after their being condemned by the censure of the church, shall punish them with death.
"We ordain like punishment for those whom the crafty enemy stirs up to be their advocates, or who are their improper protectors."
At the end of the decree are these words: "But the heretics whom they shall point out to you, you shall, each in his jurisdiction, be bound to apprehend and keep in close custody, so that they, after the judgement of the church, shall be punished ac cording to their deserts; knowing, that in the execution of this matter, if you will do your utmost unitedly with these brethren (the Dominicans and Franciscans)* to expunge from our dominion the blot of this unheard of heretical wickedness (thus he calls the true faith), you will render unto God a pleasing, and unto us a commendable, service.
"But if any be slack or negligent herein, and unprofitable before the Lord, he also shall be justly worthy of punishment in our eyes." Given at Pavia.
OF THE THIRD DECREE OF EMPEROR FREDERIC II
AGAINST THE AFORE MENTIONED PER;
SONS, A. D., 1230
Peter de Veneis (Lib. 1, EQist. 26), relates in his letters a third decree of Emperor Frederic II, in which he gives fuller information concerning the surname of the Waldenses , namely, Patarim, as well as regarding their belief, and their spreading into all the provinces of the empire; it reads as follows:
"The sects of these heretics (says the Emperor), are not called by the name of any ancient heretics, lest they should become known; or, what is perhaps still more shameful, they are not content with the ancient names, that is, to borrow their names, like the Arians from Arius, the Nestorians from Nestorius, or from other like heretics; but after the example of the ancient martyrs, who suffered martyrdom for the Catholic faith, they likewise, from their suffering, call themselves Patarini, that is, delivered unto passion or suffering.
"But these miserable Patarini, who are estranged from the holy faith of the eternal Godhead (thus he speaks of the true believers), destroy with one sweep of their heretical wickedness, three things at once, namely, God, their neighbor and themselves. They destroy God because they do not know the faith and the counsel of God; they deceive their neighbor because, under the cover of spiritual food, they administer the pleasure of heretical wickedness; but far more cruelly they rage against themselves, because, after destroying their souls they, as extravagant squanderers of their life, and improvident seekers of their death, ultimately also expose their bodies to a cruel death, which they might have escaped by a true confession of, and constancy in, the orthodox faith (thus he, calls the priest's faith).
And what is hardest of all to say, those who survive are not only not deterred by the example of others whom they see die before their eyes, but they even strive to be burnt alive in the sight of men," as he afterwards speaks of it in this same decree.
"Therefore we cannot refrain," says the Emperor, "from drawing the sword of just vengeance
*The Dominicans and Franciscans, though they seemed to be very simple and modest, were neverteless the principal actors in this matter.
against them, the more vigorously to persecute them, as it is judged and known that they practice the more extensively the knavery of their superstition (thus he calls the virtue of these people), to the clear exclusion of the Christian faith, on account of the Roman church, which is held to be the head of all other churches, as it is known that they came from the borders of Italy, and especially from Lombardy, where, as we have ascertained, their wickedness overflows far and wide, and that from thence they have directed the rivulets of their unbelief even into our kingdom of Sicily.
"It is furthermore the will of the Emperor, that the crime of heresy, and all kinds of accursed sects, of whatever name, shall be reckoned among the public crimes, or those deserving of death; yea, that the heresy of the Patarini (also called Waldenses), shall be considered, before all the world, as more abominable than the crime of lese majesty, that is, than the crime of him that has offended the Imperial Majesty.
"The Emperor also wishes that, as the Patarini (or Waldenses) walk in darkness, in order to conceal themselves from the heat of persecution, endeavors shall be made to discover them, and to earnestly seek them out, even though no one accuses them, and that the officers of the Emperor, when they have found them, shall keep them in bonds, in order that at the proper time they may be called before the inquisition, or brought to the rack.
"And if they are accused only upon slight suspicion, we command that they shall be examined by ecclesiastical persons and prelates; and though they may err from but one article of the (Roman) Christian faith, and, after admonition, continue obstinately in their error, we ordain by this, our present decree, that the Patarini (or Waldenses) shall be condemned to death, and burnt alive; and let no one dare intercede for them, for against him that shall do this, we will justly direct our anger. Given, etc." Second book of the Hist. of the Persecutions, p. 466, a. b. c. from Abr. Bzovius, and A. Bzorvius, from Petr. Tine., lib. 1, epist. 26.
GREAT PERECUTION IN GERMANY OF THE ANABAP;
TIST WALDENSES, MANY OF WHOM WERE
BURNT FOR THE FAITH, A. D. 1231
The above mentioned decrees against the Christians called Waldenses, issued by Emperor Frederic II, were not long without their influence and effect; inasmuch as in the year following, A. D. 1231, a severe persecution arose in Germany over the innocent lambs of Christ, who, keeping themselves concealed in quietness, were informed against and made manifest, through the rack and otherwise. The consequence was, that many of them, continuing steadfastly and immovably in their belief, were burnt to death, and thus, having commended their souls unto God, offered up an acceptable sacrifice well pleasing unto God.
The following may serve as a confirmation of this account
Abraham Bzovius relates, from a fragmentary history by an unknown author, that in the year 1231 a great persecution arose in Germany against the so called heretics, who kept themselves concealed in great numbers among the papists, in cities, castles and villages, and brought over to their belief all whom they could turn from their faith; many of whom were apprehended and convicted in the presence of the clergy and the people and that they held the belief of the Waldenses.
He writes further that "Brother Conrad of Marpurg, a monk of the Dominican order, punished those who were convicted of heresy, according to the manner prescribed by the ecclesiastical ordinances, namely, with fire." Abr. Bzov., T. 13, Annad. Baron., A. D. 1232, Art. 7. Also in the second book of the History of the Persecutions, fol, 466, dol. 3, 4.
"The Waldenses," writes P. J. Twisck, "suffered severe pesecution at this time, from the papists, and though they sought to conceal themselves in wildernesses, mountains and deep valleys, yet, their schools were discovered, their assemblies broken up, and all cruelly killed, especially in the bishopric of Treves, which state of things lasted three years." Chron., Q. 546, col. 2.
NOTE. From this account of P. J. Twisck, it appears that the above persecution commenced already in the year 1230, just when the decrees of Emperor Frederic II had been issued, and that it continued for three years, namely, to the close of the year 1233; during which time doubtless very many believers perished, of whom we shall notice a few with whom we have met.
NINETEEN PERSONS CALLED WALDENSES, BURNT
FOR THE FAITH, IN THE BISHOPRIC OF
TOULOUSE, A. D. 1232
In the year 1232 the bishop of Toulouse apprehended, in his dominion or bishopric, nineteen persons, who were said to be heretics, because they adhered to the belief of the Waldenses, whose confession we have already shown not to be at variance with ours; all of which persons the bishop of Toulouse caused to be executed, that is, burnt alive. Vignier, A. D. 1232. Hist. Eccles. Also in the second book of the History of the Persecutions, fol. 466, col. 4.
TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY FOUR PERSONS,
CALLED WALDENSES, BURNT FOR THE FAITH,
IN A PLACE NEAR TOULOUSE, A. D. 1243
When the north wind* of persecution, which, from the year 1233 on, had done but little harm in the garden of the true Christians, began to raise again, A. D. 1243, there were apprehended, near
* Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. Solom. S. 4:16.
Toulouse, two hundred and twenty four persons, called Waldenses, who are to be distinguished, and were also then distinguished from others, who carried arms and called themselves Albigenses, but had no communion with the true Albigenses and Waldenses, both of whom were opposed to all revenge, professed the same confession respecting suffering and bearing for the name of Christ.
These two hundred and twenty four defenceless and innocent lambs of Christ, having been apprehended, and refusing to forsake the Great Shepherd of the sheep, Jesus Christ, and His holy commandments, as also the faith in His name, were all condemned to death, and burnt alive, thus offering up a living holy sacrifice, acceptable unto God, A. D. 1243.*
Concerning these persons, as well as their imprisonment and death, see hignier Hist., Eccl. A. D. 1243; also, second book ofthe History of the Persecutions, fol. 469, col. 3, also in an old manuscript chronicle, same date.
NOTE. Besides the above authors, P. J. Twisck, also, it seems, makes mention of these two hundred and twenty four persons; from the account of Henry Boxhorn, though he differs somewhat in regard to the time when this happened, as well as to the number of persons put to death; for, instead of A. D. 1243, he has it A. D. 1242, and instead of two hundred and twenty four,, he has about two hundred.
However, this difference is easily reconciled, if, first, in regard to the time; A. D. 1242, is understood to mean the end or close of said year, and A. D. 1243, the beginning; the number of persons put to death, about two hundred, to mean over two hundred, or two hundred and twenty four, as expressed.
The words of his account.are as follows: "A. D. 1242, the Waldenses had to suffer much from popery, on account of their ~faith and religion. At this time, about two hundred persons, together with two of their preachers, were apprehended in the bishopric of Toulouse, by the bishop of Narbonne and Albi, and the Seneschal of Carcassonne, and were all burnt alive, continuing steadfastly in their religion." In the 13th book of his Chronicle, p. 557, col. 1, from Henr. Boxhorn, fol. 25'.
SEVERE INQUISITION OF BELIEVERS IN THE COUN;
TRY AROUND TOULOUSE, A. D. 1251
At this time there was as yet no abatement of the constraint of conscience exercised over the faith of the orthodox Christians, who had fled from Babylon, and, for the sake of the welfare of their souls, could no longer trust themselves in Romish Egypt. This appeared from.the new inquisition, which, by order of the pope, through appointed in
* This great number of martyred Waldenses, through the carelessness of some writers, has been mingled under the mire of certain erring persons, from whence we have drawn them forth again, though not without labor. An ancient writer says: "I seek pearls in the mire."
quisitors, suffered the minds of the true believer; to have no rest, until they left the Roman terri tories, or made an oral disavowal, or, remaining steadfast, exchanged their life for a violent death
Regarding the most wicked and unjust inquisition, I have found the following account:
"In the year 1251, the pope appointed, or sent, inquisitors to Toulouse, from the orders of the Dominicans and Franciscans, who exercised an inhuman tyranny over the Christians there. The same thing was done at Worms, by Conrad Dorfc and his disciple John, also Dominicans and inquisitors; who, condemning there many innocent men to the fire, were therefore themselves, ultimately, as by the hand of God brought to a very lamentable, though just death." Bal. Cent. 4, in Append., ad Richard. Wich., p. 301, compared with A. Mell., fol. 470, col. 1.
CONTINUATION OF THE PRECEDING INQUISITION
IN THE YEAR 1252
That the aforesaid inquisition or examination of the faith did not end with the close of the previous year, but continued also in the succeeding time, is so manifest that proof is almost unnecessary; still, it experienced a brief cessation, caused through the sudden and unexpected death of Peter of Verona, who administered at that time the office of inquisitor.
Concerning this, the above mentioned author relates the following: "In the year 1252, Peter of Verona, inquisitor in Lombardy, justly perished near the city of Milan, on account of his tyranny against the Waldenses, and, twenty four days after, was canonized, that is, placed on the register of the saints of the Roman church, by the antichrist, the Pope of Rome, Innocent IV."
NOTE. In the following year, namely, A. D. 1253, Robert, bishop of Lincoln, was deposed from his bishopric, by said Pope Innocent IV, because he frequently in his preaching, though with discretion, had openly reproved the avarice, ambition, arrogance, and tyranny of the pope, yea, had expressly written him severe letters, in which he accused him of exhausting almost all England, by unusual taxes, in order to enrich his illegitimate children, nieces and nephews. When the pope cited him to Rome, he appealed from the papal tyranny to the judgment and tribunal of Jesus Christ, whereupon the pope soon died. Bal. Cent. 4, cap. 18, in Roberta Grossoreste ex Annalis. John. Buriens. Ranulpho, Mattheo and Fabiano, compared with A. Mell., Hist., p. 470, col. 1.
In the year 1258, the Jacobines and Dominicans, in the bishopric of Cambray, caused a great number of Christians, whom they had condemned as heretics to be burned alive. Balms Cent. 4, cap. 26, ad Matt. Paris. Append., p. 315, ex Th. Cantiprmt., lib. 2, cap. 56. Also, A. Mell., Hist., lib. 2, p. 470, col. 2.
In the year 1260, Pope Alexander IV wrote letters to the inquisitors from the order of the Dominicans, in Lombardy and the margravate of Genoa, to persecute the heretics (as they were called) there. Moreover, he decreed that the inquisitors might compel, by excommunication, the secular authorities, whoever they might be, to execute, without delay, the sentence of the inquisitors against those suspected of heresy. Compare the last mentioned author, in the place cited, with Bzov., A. D. 1260, Art. 4, ex Decret. Epist Alex;and. 4.
OF THE MANDATE OF POPE URBAN IV AGAINST
THE WALDENSES AND ALBIGENSES IN LOM;
BARDY AND AROUND GENOA, A. D. 1262
The aforesaid distress among the believers, continued on, through the severe inquisition commenced eleven years before, namely, A. D. 1251; for, although the first inquisitors had departed this life, as by the vengeance of God, it did not remain so, since Pope Urban IV took up the pen to issue bloody edicts against the orthodox Waldenses and Albigenses who were scattered abroad in all parts. These decrees he caused to be proclaimed to his minions, who bore the name of ecclesiastics. This is stated in the following words by an ancient papist: In the year 1262, Pope Urban IV made an ordinance against the heretics in Lombardy and in the margravate of Genoa, and sent a copy of it to the order of the Dominicans in said parts, to persecute the Waldenses and Albigenses, who were mostly scattered there. Bzov., A. D. 1262, Art. 3, ex Decr. Epist, Alex. 4. also, A. M., Hist., fol. 470, col. 2.
Thereupon, as it appears, no small persecution arose; but as to the mariner in which the same occurred, and the persons who then suffered for the faith, we have not been able to find any account, notwithstanding we have made diligent search. No doubt, it fell chiefly upon the heads of the Waldenses and Albigenses, since they were mentioned by name in the mandate of the pope.
We deem what we have here shown sufficient for this time; hence we will leave it, without adding any more.
NOTE. A. D. 1270, eight years afterwards, Peter Caderita and William Colonicus, Dominicans, persecuted the (so called) heretics in the kingdom of Aragon, Bzov., A. D. 1270, ex Surita, lib. 2. A. Mell., Hist., fol. 470, col. 2.
In the year 1280, the moon was completely changed into the color of blood; which by many was held to signify the very bloody and lamentable state of the church of God; the more so since at that time, not only a dire persecution prevailed, but also, a destructive crusade, under the sign of the cross, such as was formerly waged against the Saracens, was undertaken the following year, namely, 1281, by the papists, by order of the pope, against the Albigenses in Spain. Compare the large book of Christian martyrs, fol. 470, col. 2, 3, with Bal. Cent. 4, Append. ad Greg. de Brid. Lington., p. 446, from Everildenas.
SEVERE PERSECUTION OF THE ANABAPTIST WAL;
DENSES IN FRANCE, ABOUT A. D. 1280
P. J. Twisck, having noticed, in the first part of his Chronijck, for the year 1280, the doctrine of the Waldenses, whom he calls Waldois, after their leader, Peter Waldus, finally he speaks of their persecutions, saying: "Matthias Illyricus, in his Register of the witnesses of the truth, says, that he has in his possession the consultations of certain advocates of Avignon, also, of the three bishops of Narbonne, Arles, and Aix, and of the bishop of Alban, tending to the extermination of the Waldois, or Waldenses, and written three hundred years previously; from which it is evident, that at that time and before, a great number of the believers were scattered here and there throughout France.
"We can also infer from the consultations of the aforesaid archbishops, that even as their number was great, so was also the persecution against them very cruel; for at the end of this consultation it is written: `Who is so great a stranger in France, as to be ignorant of the damnatory sentence (thus speak these papists .themselves) which has now, for a long time, been most justly used against these heretical Waldois (Waldenses); and should we doubt a matter so notorious and common, which has cost the iCatholics so much money, sweat, and labor, and has been sealed with so many condemnations and executions of unbelievers (thus he calls the true believers)?'
"Hence appears," writes Twisck, "what massacres of believers occurred at this time, and what cruelties the subjects of antichrist employed against them. `And it can be proved,' says Boxhorn, `even from the testimony of their greatest enemies, that they declared, maintained, and testified in the midst of the fire, that they had received this their faith unaltered, from hand to hand, from the times of the apostles; and they continued even to the present time, having never been entirely exterminated.' " P. 1. Twisck, Chron., p. 606, col. 1, 2.
CONTINUATION OF THE PRECEDING PERSECUTION,
A. D. 1283
Mellinus writes that "A. D. 1283, the Waldenses had again greatly increased in France, as also in other countries throughout Christendom, notwithstanding they had been very cruelly sought out and persecuted up to this time." In the second book of the History of the Persecutions, fol. 470, col. 3, from hign cer, Hist. Eccl., A. D. 1283.
FURTHER SPREADING OF THE AFORESAID PERSE;
CUTION, IN WHICH THE WALDENSES WERE
BURNT IN GREAT NUMBERS, A. D. 1284
P. J. Twisck gives the following account for the year 1284: "The Waldois or Waldenses, of whom, since the year 1159, much mention is made, increased at this time more and more, in France and other countries of Christendom, notwithstanding that they were craftily sought and cruelly persecuted, and that all diligence and every means had first been employed, utterly to exterminate them; which greatly astonished certain bishops and advocates of Avignon of that time." "They were burnt," he writes, "in great numbers." Chron., fol. 611, 612, from Henr. Boxhorn, fol. 26.
GERARD SAGARELLUS, BURNT IN THE CITY OF
PARMA, FOR THE FAITH OF THE WALDEN;
SIAN ANABAPTISTS, A. D. 1285
In the year 1285, there became known, and were proclaimed heretics by the adherents of popery, Gerard Sagarellus of Parma, and Dulcinus of Novaria. Both of them were particularly accused, on account of various articles opposed to the Roman church and her superstitions, with which they were charged, of having fallen into heresy, and having borrowed their belief from the Waldenses, which, writes Abr. Mellinus, is quite presumable.
As to the articles which they confessed contrary to the belief of the Roman church, and on account of which they were called heretics, they are written in the second book of the Hist. of the Persecutions, fol. 470, col. 3.
Finally, as Gerard Sagarellus would not depart from, but continue steadfast in, the truth of his Saviour, Jesus Christ, he was (in the same year, it is supposed) burnt alive in the city of Parma, by the bloodthirsty inquisitors. A. Mell., p. 470, col. 3. Also, Bal. Cent. 4, cap. 30, in Append. ad Laurent. Angl.
Dulcinus, who, besides the charge of his true faith, was also assailed with great calumnies, was put to death in great steadfastness some years afterwards. However, of this a fuller account will be given for the year 1308.
NOTE. Since the death of Dulcinus did not occur the year in which Sagarellus died, but long afterwards, we will reserve the account of the same for the proper time and place. Bear this in mind.
HERMAN, ANDREW AND GUILLEMETTE* EXHUMED
AND BURNT, A. D. 1299
A. D. 1299, the Fratricelli, that is, the AlbiWaldenses, who were called Little Brothers, were declared heretics, by Pope Boniface VIII, because their belief was contrary to the Roman church, as we have already shown. Said pope caused these Fratricelli (or Albigenses) to be persecuted with
so much violence that he not only spared not the living, but not even the dead; for he caused one Herman, who had been one of their principal teachers, to be exhumed twenty years after his death, and his bones burnt to ashes, notwithstanding the papists, who were his enemies, had, in his life time, regarded him as a holy man. Thus they did also with the dead bodies of one Andrew, and of his wife Guillemette, who were also greatly noted for their remarkable godliness.
The Fratricelli (or Albi Waldenses) were nevertheless, though unjustly, accused of many and abominable crimes. Hence, many of the ancients presume that these slanders were invented against them for the express purpose of making them the objects of the hatred and envy of the people; since they [the slanders] were utterly antagonistic to the doctrine which they professed, and with their life. For it is recorded of them, that they called themselves true followers of the apostles, and the true church of Christ, and that they on their part reproved the corrupt morals of the prelates. There were also ascribed to them all the opinions, or articles of faith, of the Waldenses who, as already shown, also rejected infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, revenge towards enemies, the mass, and almost all the superstitions of the Roman church; hence it is probable, that they were of their persuasion and had only given themselves different names, according to the different places where they resided. In the second book of the Hist. of the Persecutions, fol. 471, col. 2, from Trithemm., Citron., Hirsaug., A. D. 1299. Also hignier, A. D.1298. Hist. Eccl., ex Platina, Sabellico, Mari. Hist. Antonino Bernhardo de Lutzenb. Bal. Cent. 4, Script. Brittan. Append. 2, ad Joan Rufum, page 384.
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