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QUOTATIONS FROM THE LXX. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
1. THE writings of the New Testament were the work of some nine authors, of different nationalities and antecedents. Six of them, according to the traditional belief, were Palestinian Jews; a seventh, though 'a Hebrew of Hebrew parentage,' belonged by birth to the Dispersion of Asia Minor; of the remaining two, one was possibly a Gentile from Antioch, and the other a 'Hellenist with Alexandrian proclivities.' Some diversity of practice as to the literary use of the Greek Old Testament may reasonably be expected in a collection of books having so complex an origin.
With few exceptions, the books of the New Testament abound in references to the Old Testament and in quotations from it. An exhaustive list of these may be seen at the end of Westcott and Hort's New Testament in Greek (Text, p. 581 ff.), and in their text the corresponding passages are distinguished by the use of a small uncial type. But this device, though otherwise admirable814814See below, p. 403., does not enable the student to distinguish direct citations from mere allusions and reminiscences; and as the distinction is important for our present purpose, we will begin by placing before him a table of passages in the Old Testament which are formally quoted by New Testament writers.
By passages formally cited we understand (1) those which are cited with an introductory formula, such as τοῦτο γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθέν (Mt.), οὕτως or καθὼς γέγραπται, or γέγραπται simply (Mt., Mc., Lc., Paul), γεγραμμένον ἐστίν (Jo.), Μωυσῆς (Δαυεὶδ) λέγει or εἶπεν, λέγει or εἶπεν ἡ γραφή (Jo., Paul), or τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα (Hebrews); (2) those which, though not announced by a formula, appear from the context to be intended as quotations, or agree verbatim with some context in the O. T.
Table of O. T. passages quoted in the N. T.
|Gen.||i. 27 (v. 2)||Mt.||xix. 4, Mc. x. 6|
|ii. 2||Heb.||iv. 4|
|7||1 Cor.||xv. 45|
|v. 24||Heb.||xi. 5|
|xii. 1||Acts||vii. 3|
|3 b (xxii. 18)||iii. 25, Gal. iii. 8|
|xv. 5||Rom.||iv. 18|
|6||Jas.||ii. 23, Rom. iv. 3, Gal. iii. 8|
|13 f.||Acts||vii. 6 f.|
|xvii. 5||Rom.||iv. 17|
|xviii. 10, 14||ix. 9|
|xxi. 10||Gal.||iv. 30|
|12||Rom.||ix. 7, Heb. xi. 18|
|xxii. 16 f.||Heb.||vi. 13 f.|
|xxv. 23||Rom.||ix. 12|
|xlvii. 31||Heb.||xi. 21|
|Exod.||ii. 14||Acts||vii. 27 f.|
|iii. 5 ff.||Mt.|
|ix. 16||Rom.||ix. 17|
|xii. 46 (Num. ix. 12, Ps. xxxiii. 20)||John||xix. 36|
|xiii. 12||Lc.||ii. 23|
|xvi. 4, 15 (Ps. lxxvii. 24)||John||vi. 31 ff.|
|18||2 Cor.||viii. 15|
|xix. 13||Heb.||xii. 20|
|xx. 12—17 (Deut. v. 16 ff.)||Mt.|
|xxi. 16 (17)||xv. 4, Mc. vii. 10|
|xv. 8—11||Acts||ii. 25—28|
|xvii. 50||Rom.||xv. 9|
|xviii. 5||x. 18|
|xxi. 2||Mt.||xxvii. 46, Mc. xv. 34|
|xxiii. 1||1 Cor.||x. 26|
|xxxi. 1 f.||Rom.||iv. 6—8|
|xxxiii. 13—17||1 Pet.||iii. 10—12|
|xxxiv. 19 (lxviii. 5)||Jo.||xv. 25|
|xxxix. 7—9||Heb.||x. 5—7|
|xl. 10||Jo.||xiii. 18|
|xliii. 22||Rom.||viii. 36|
|xliv. 7 f.||Heb.||i. 8 f.|
|l. 6||Rom.||iii. 4|
|liv. 23||1 Pet.||v. 7|
|lxvii. 19||Eph.||iv. 8|
|lxviii. 10||Jo.||ii. 17, Rom. xv. 3|
|23 f.||Rom.||xi. 9 f.|
|lxxvii. 2||Mt.||xiii. 35|
|lxxxi. 6||Jo.||x. 34|
|lxxxviii. 21||Acts||xiii. 22|
|xc. 11 f.||Mt.||iv. 6, Lc. iv. 10 f.|
|xciii. 11||1 Cor.||iii. 20|
|xciv. 8—11||Heb.||iii. 7—11|
|ci. 26—28||i. 10—12|
|ciii. 4||i. 7|
|cviii. 8||Acts||i. 20|
|4||Heb.||v. 6 (vii. 17, 21)|
|cxi. 9||2 Cor.||ix. 9|
|cxv. 1||iv. 13|
|cxvi. 1||Rom.||xv. 11|
|cxvii. 6||Heb.||xiii. 6|
|Prov.||iii. 11 f.||Heb.||xii. 5 f.|
|34||Jas.||iv. 6, 1 Pet. v. 5|
|xi. 31||1 Pet.||iv. 18|
|xxv. 21 f.||Rom.||xii. 20|
|xxvi. 11||2 Pet.||ii. 22|
|Job||v. 13||1 Cor.||iii. 19|
|Hos.||i. 10||Rom.||ix. 26|
|lii. 15||Rom.||xv. 21|
|liii. 1||Jo.||xii. 38, Rom. x. 16|
|5 f.||1 Pet.||ii. 24 f.|
|7 f.||Acts||viii. 32 f.|
|12||Mc.||xv. 28, Lc. xxii. 37|
|liv. 1||Gal.||iv. 27|
|lv. 3||Acts||xiii. 34|
|lvi. 7||Mt.||xxi. 13, Mc. xi. 17, Lc. xix. 46|
|lix. 20 f.||Rom.||xi. 26 f.|
|lxi. 1 f.||Lc.||iv. 18 f.|
|lxiv. 4||1 Cor.||ii. 9 (?)|
|lxv. 1 f.||Rom.||x. 20 f.|
|lxvi. 1 f.||Acts||vii. 49 f.|
|Jer.||vii. 11||Mt.||xxi. 13, Mc. xi. 17, Lc. xix. 46|
|ix. 23 f. (1 Regn. ii. 10)||1 Cor.||i. 31, 2 Cor. x. 17|
|xxxviii. 15||Mt.||ii. 18|
|Dan.||xii. 11 (ix. 27, xi. 31)||Mt.||xxiv. 15, Mc. xiii. 14|
Thus upon a rough estimate the passages directly quoted from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament are 160. Of these 51 belong to the Pentateuch, 46 to the Poetical Books, and 61 to the Prophets. Among single books the Psalter supplies 40 and Isaiah 38; i.e. nearly half of the passages expressly cited in the N.T, come from one or other of these two sources.
2. The table already given shews the extent to which the Old Testament is directly cited in the New. In that which follows the comparison is inverted, and the student will be able to see at a glance how the quotations are distributed among the several groups of writings of which the New Testament is made up.
(1) Quotations in the Synoptic Gospels.
(2) Quotations in the Fourth Gospel.
|Jo.||i. 23||Isa.||xl. 3|
|ii. 17||Ps.||lxviii. 10|
|vi. 31||Exod.||xvi. 4, 15 (Ps. lxxvii. 24 f.)|
|x. 34||Ps.||lxxxi. 6|
|xii. 15||Ezech.||ix. 9|
|xiii. 16||Ps.||xl. (xli.) 10|
|xv. 25||xxxiv. 19 (lxviii. 5)|
|xix. 24||xxi. 19|
|36||Exod.||xii. 46 (Num. ix. 12, Ps. xxxiii. 21)|
(3) Quotations in the Acts.
|Acts||i. 20||Ps.||lxviii. 26 + cviii. 8|
|ii. 17—21||Joel||ii. 28—32|
|34 f.||cix. 1|
|iii. 22 f. (vii. 27)||Deut.||xviii. 15, 18 f.|
|25||Gen.||xii. 3 + xxii. 18|
|iv. 25 f.||Ps.||ii. 1 f.|
|vii. 3||Gen.||xii. 1|
|6 f.||xv. 13 f.|
|27 f., 35||Exod.||ii. 14|
|33 f.||iii. 6—8|
|42 f.||Amos||v. 25—27|
|49 f.||Isa.||lxvi. 1 f.|
|viii. 32 f.||liii. 7 f.|
|xiii. 22||Ps.||lxxxviii. 21 etc.|
|xv. 16—18||Jer.||xii. 15 + Amos ix. 11 f. + Isa. xlv. 21|
|xxviii. 26 f.||Isa.||vi. 9 f.|
(4) Quotations in the Catholic Epistles.
|James||ii. 8||Lev.||xix. 18|
|11||Exod.||xx. 13 f.|
|iv. 6||Prov.||iii. 34|
|1 Peter||i. 24 f.||Isa.||xl. 6—9|
|ii. 6||xxviii. 16|
|iii. 10—12||Ps.||xxxiii. 12—17|
|iv. 18||Prov.||xi. 31|
|v. 7||Ps.||liv. 23|
|2 Peter||ii. 22||Prov.||xxvi. 11|
(5) Quotations in the Epistles of St Paul
|Rom.||i. 17||Hab.||ii. 4|
|ii. 24||Isa.||lii. 5|
|iii. 4||Ps.||l. 6|
|10—18||xiii. 1—3 815815See above, p. 251 f.|
|iv. 3, 22||Gen.||xv. 6|
|7 f.||Ps.||xxxi. 1 f.|
|vii. 7||Exod.||xx. 14, 17|
|viii. 36||Ps.||xliii. 23|
|ix. 7||Gen.||xxi. 12|
|13||Mal.||i. 2 f.|
|27||Isa.||x. 22 f.|
|33||viii. 1 + xxviii. 16|
|x. 6—9||Deut.||xxx. 11—14|
|15||Isa.||lii. 7 (Nah. i. 15)|
|20 f.||Isa.||lxv. 1 f.|
|xi. 1 f.||Ps.||xciii. 14|
|3 f.||3 Regn.||xix. 10, 14, 18|
|8||Isa.||xxix. 10 + Deut. xxix. 4|
|9||Ps.||lxviii. 23 f. + xxxiv. 8|
|26 f.||Isa.||lix. 20 + xxvii. 9|
|34 f.||xl. 13|
|xii. 20 f.||Prov.||xxv. 21 f.|
|xiii. 9||Exod.||xx. 13 ff., Lev. xix. 18|
|xiv. 11||Isa.||xlv. 23|
|xv. 3||Ps.||lxviii. 10|
|9||xvii. 50 (2 Regn. xxii. 50)|
|1 Cor.||i. 19||xxix. 14|
|ii. 9||Isa.||lxiv. 4 + lxv. 17 (?)|
|vi. 16||Gen.||ii. 24|
|ix. 9||Deut.||xxv. 4|
|x. 7||Exod.||xxxii. 6|
|xiv. 21||Isa.||xxviii. 11 f.|
|xv. 32||xxii. 13|
|54 f.||Isa.||xxv. 8 + Hos. xiii. 14|
|2 Cor.||iv. 13||Ps.||cxv. 1|
|vi. 2||Isa.||xlix. 8|
|16 ff.||Ezek.||xxxvii. 27 + Isa. lii. 11|
|viii. 15||Exod.||xvi. 18|
|ix. 9||Ps.||cxi. 9|
|x. 17||Jer.||ix. 24|
|Gal.||ii. 16||Ps.||cxlii. 2|
|iii. 6||Gen.||xv. 6|
|iv. 27||Isa.||liv. 1|
|v. 14||Lev.||xix. 18|
|Eph.||iv. 8||Ps.||lxviii. 19|
|iv. 26||Ps.||iv. 5|
|v. 31||Gen.||ii. 24|
|vi. 2||Exod.||xx. 12|
|1 Tim.||v. 18||Deut.||xxv. 4|
|2 Tim.||ii. 19||Num.||xvi. 5|
(6) Quotations in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
|Heb.||i. 5||Ps.||ii. 7 (2 Regn. vii. 14)|
|6||xcvi. 7 (Deut. xxxii. 43)|
|8 f.||xliv. 7 f.|
|ii. 6—8||viii. 5—7|
|13||Isa.||viii. 17 f.|
|iii. 7—12||Ps.||xciv. 8—11|
|iv. 4||Gen.||ii. 2|
|v. 6 (vii. 17, 21)||Ps.||cix. 4|
|vi. 13 f.||Gen.||xxii. 16 f.|
|viii. 5||Exod.||xxv. 40|
|8—13, x. 16 f.||Jer.||xxxviii. 31—34|
|ix. 20||Exod.||xxiv. 8|
|x. 5—10||Ps.||xxxix. 7—9|
|30||Deut.||xxxii. 35 f.|
|37||Hab.||ii. 3 f.|
|xi. 5||Gen.||v. 24|
|xii. 5 f.||Prov.||iii. 11 f.|
|20||Exod.||xix. 12 f.|
|xiii. 5||Deut.||xxxi. 6, 8|
Some interesting results follow from an inspection of these lists. (1) The Synoptic Gospels have 46 distinct quotations (Mt. 40, Mc. 19, Lc. 17), of which 18 are peculiar to Mt., 3 to Mc., 3 to Lc. There are 10 which are common to the three, 3 common to Mt. and Mc., 4 to Mt. and Lc., but none 392which are shared by Mc. and Lc. to the exclusion of Mt. (2) Of the 12 quotations in the Fourth Gospel, 3 only are also in the Synoptists. (3) The 23 quotations in the Acts occur almost exclusively in the speeches. (4) The Johannine Epistles do not quote the O. T. at all, and the other Catholic Epistles contain few direct citations. (5) Of 78 quotations in St Paul, 71 are in the four first Epistles (Romans 42, 1—2 Corinthians 19, Galatians 10); there are none in the Epistles of the Roman captivity, with the exception of Ephesians, which has five. (6) The Epistle to the Hebrews quotes 28 passages, of which 21 are not cited in any other N. T. writing816816Westcott, Hebrews, p. 473.. (7) The Apocalypse does not quote, but its language is full of O. T. phraseology to an extent unparalleled in the other books.
3. Hitherto no account has been taken of the relation which the N. T. quotations bear to the Alexandrian version, although for the sake of convenience the references to the O. T. have been given according to the order and numeration of the Greek Bible. We may now address ourselves to this further question; and it may at once be said that every part of the N. T. affords evidence of a knowledge of the LXX., and that a great majority of the passages cited from the O. T. are in general agreement with the Greek version. It is calculated by one writer on the subject that, while the N. T. differs from the Massoretic text in 212 citations, it departs from the LXX. in 185817817Turpie, O.T. in the N., p. 267.; and by another that "not more than fifty" of the citations "materially differ from the LXX.818818Grinfield, Apology for the LXX., p. 37." On either estimate the LXX. is the principal source from which the writers of the N. T. derived their O. T. quotations.
More may be learnt by patiently examining the details of the evidence. This cannot be done here in full, but we may 393point out the method to be pursued in such an investigation, and its chief results.
Each group of the N. T. writings must be interrogated separately. (a) Beginning with the Synoptic Gospels, we observe that the quotations partly occur in narratives or dialogue which are common to the Synoptists or to two of them, and are partly due to the individual writer. Between these two classes of quotations there is a marked contrast. Citations belonging to the common narrative, or to sayings reported by all the Synoptists, or to two of them, with few exceptions adhere closely to the LXX., the differences being only textual or in the way of omission.
Some examples will make this clear. (1) Citations common to Mt., Mc., Lc. Mt. xxi. 13 = Mc. xi. 17 = Lc. xix. 46 = LXX., Mc. alone completing the verse. Mt. xxi. 42 = Mc. xii. 10 = Lc. xx. 17 = LXX., Lc. omitting παρὰ Κυρίου κτλ. Mt. xxii. 37 = Mc. xii. 29 f. = Lc. x. 27 a = LXX., with variants819819On these see Hatch, Essays, p. 104, and the writer's St Mark, p. 255.. Mt. xxii. 39 = Mc. xii. 31 = Lc. x. 27 b = LXX. Mt. xxii. 44 = Mc. xii. 36 = Lc. xx. 42 f., = LXX. with the variant ὑποκάτω in Mt., Mc. (2) Citations common to Mt., Mc. Mt. xv. 4 = Mc. vii. 10 = LXX., cod. A. Mt. xv. 8 f. = Mc. vii. 6 = LXX., with variants820820Hatch, op. cit., p. 177 f.. Mt. xix. 5 f. = Mc. x. 6 ff. = LXX., Mc. omitting προσκολληθήσεηαι κτλ. Mt. xxiv. 15 = Mc. xiii. 14 = LXX. and Th. Mt. xxvi. 31 = Mc. xiv. 27 (omitting τῆς ποίμνης) = LXX., cod. A, with one important variant not found in any MS. of the LXX.; cod. B has quite a different text821821St Mark, p. 318 f.. (3) Citations common to Mt., Lc. Mt. iv. 4 = Lc. iv. 4 = LXX., Lc. omitting the second half of the quotation. Mt. iv. 6 = Lc. iv. 10 f. = LXX., except that the clause τοῦ διαφυλάξαι is omitted by Mt. and in part by Lc. Mt. iv. 7 = Lc. iv. 12 = LXX. Mt. iv. 10 = Lc. iv. 8 = LXX.., cod. A.
Thus it appears that of 14 quotations which belong to this class only two (Mt. xv. 8 f., xxvi. 31) depart widely from the LXX. But when we turn from the quotations which belong to the common narrative to those which are peculiar to one of the Synoptists, the results are very different.
In Mt. there are 16 quotations which are not to be found in Mc. or Lc. (Mt. i. 23, ii. 6, 15, 18, iv. 15 f., v. 33, 38, 43, viii. 17, ix. 13 = xii. 7, xii. 18 ff., xiii. 14 f., 35, xxi. 4 f., 16, xxvii. 9 f.). Of these 4 (v. 38, ix. 13, xiii. 14 f., xxi. 16) are in the words of the LXX. with slight variants; 4 exhibit important variants, and the remaining 7 bear little or no resemblance to the Alexandrian Greek822822Cf. Sir J. C. Hawkins, Hor. Syn., p. 123 ff.. Neither Mc. nor Lc. has any series of independent quotations; Mc. ix. 48, xii. 32 are from the LXX., but shew affinities to the text of cod. A; Lc. iv. 18 f. differs from the LXX. in important particulars.
It may be asked whether the quotations in the Synoptists which do not agree with our present text of the LXX., or with its relatively oldest type, imply the use of another Greek version. Before an answer to this question can be attempted, it is necessary to distinguish carefully between the causes which have produced variation. It may be due to (a) loose citation, or to (b) the substitution of a gloss for the precise words which the writer professes to quote, or to (c) a desire to adapt a prophetic context to the circumstances under which it was thought to have been fulfilled, or to (d) the fusing together of passages drawn from different contexts. Of the variations which cannot be ascribed to one or other of these causes, some are (e) recensional, whilst others are (f) translational, and imply an independent use of the original, whether by the Evangelist, or by the author of some collection of excerpts which he employed.
The following may be taken as specimens of these types of variation. (a) Mt. ii. 18, xxi. 4f.; (b) Mt. ii. 6, xxvii. 9f.; (c) Mt. ii. 15; (d) Lc. iv. 18 f.; (e) Mt. xii. 18 ff., Mc. xii. 29f.; (f) Mt. xiii. 35 b. But more than one cause of divergence may have been at work in the same quotation, and it is not always easy to decide which is paramount; e.g. in Mt. ii. 15 the substitution of τὸν υἱόν μου for τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς may be due either to the Evangelist's desire to adapt the prophecy to the event, or to a correction of the LXX. from the Heb. (לִבְנִי).
The three last-named causes of variation need to be considered at some length.395
(1) A few of the Synoptic quotations are manifestly composite. E.g. Mt. xxi. 4 f., which is mainly from Zech. ix. 9, opens with a clause from Isa. lxii. 11 (εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ Σιών Ἰδού). Lc. iv. 18 f., which is professedly an extract from a synagogue lesson Isa. lxi. 1 ff., inserts in the heart of that context a clause from Isa. lviii. 6 (ἀπόστεῖλai τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει). Still more remarkable is the fusion in Mc. i. 2 f., where, under the heading καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν τῷ Ἠσαίᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ, we find Mal. iii. 1 + Isa. xl. 3823823St Mark, p. 2.. Here the parallel passages in Mt., Lc., quote Isaiah only, using Malachi in another context (Mt. xi. 10, Lc. vii. 27).
(2) there is a considerable weight of evidence in favour of the belief that the Evangelists employed a recension of the LXX. which came nearer to the text of cod. A than to that of our oldest uncial B. This point has been recently handled in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift f. Wissenschaftliche Theologie824824In nos. xxxv., xxxvi., xxxviii., xl., by Dr W. Staerk, who shews that the witness of the N. T. almost invariably goes with codd. אAF and Lucian against the Vatican MS., and that its agreement with cod. A is especially close825825xxxvi., p. 97 f.. It may of course be argued that the text of these authorities has been influenced by the N. T.826826Cf. Zahn, Einleitung, ii. p. 314 ff.; but the fact that a similar tendency is noticeable in Josephus, and to a less extent in Philo, goes far to discount this objection. Still more remarkable is the occasional tendency in N. T. quotations to support Theodotion against the LXX.827827Cf. p. 48. Some instances have been given already; we may add here Mt. xii. 18 = Isa. xlii. i:
|ἰδoὺ ὁ παῖς μου ὃν ᾑρέτισα, ὁ αγαπητός μου ὃν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου.||Ἰακωβ ὁ παῖς μου ἀντιλήμψομαι αὐτοῦ· Ἰσραὴλ ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου, προσεδέξατο αὐτὸν ἡ ψυχή μου.||ἰδoὺ ὁ παῖς μου, ἀντιλήμψομαι αὐτοῦ· ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου ὃν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου.|
Such coincidences lend some probability to the supposition that Theodotion's version bears a relation to the recension of the Alexandrian Greek which was in the hands of the early Palestinian Church.
(3) Certain quotations in the First Gospel are either independent of the LXX., or have been but slightly influenced by it. These require to be studied separately, and, as they are but few, they are printed below and confronted with the LXX.
|Mt. ii. 6||Mic. v. 2, 4|
|καὶ σύ, Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα· ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου Ἰσραήλ.||καὶ σύ, Βηθλέεμ, οἶκος Ἐφράθα, ὀλιγοστὸς εἶ τοῦ εἶναι ἐν χιλιάσιν Ἰούδα· ἐξ οὗ μοι ἐξελεύσεται τοῦ εἶναι εἰς ἄρχοντα τοῦ Ἰσραήλ . . . καὶ ποιμανεῖ . . .|
|ουδαμως] μη D | εκ σου] εξ ου (B*)אC(D) | om γαρ א*||εξ ου | εκ σου B b?cAQ | εξελευσεται] + ηγουμενος A|
On the relation of the LXX. in this passage to the M. T. see above p. 338. Χιλιάσιν, ἡγεμόσιν answer to different vocalisations of אלפי, but οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ and ἡγούμενος ὅστις π. τὸν λ. μου are paraphrastic. The Evangelist has put into the mouth of the Scribes an interpretation rather than a version of the prophecy.
|Mt. iv. 15 f.||Isa. ix. 1 f.|
|γῆ Ζαβουλὼν καὶ γῆ Νεφθαλείμ, ὁδὸν θαλάσσης, πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, Γαλειλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν, ὁ λαὸς ὁ καθήμενος ἐν σκοτίᾳ φῶς εἶδεν μέγα· καὶ τοῖς καθημένοις ἐν χώρᾳ καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου φῶς ἀνέτειλεν αὐτοῖς.||χώρα Ζαβουλών, ἡ γῆ Νεφθαλείμ, καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ τὴν παραλίαν καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, Γαλειλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν. ὁ λαὸς ὁ πορευόμενος ἐν σκότει, ἴδετε φῶς μέγα· οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν χώρᾳ σκιᾷ θανάτου, φῶς λάμψει ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς.|
|οι καθημενοι D | και σκια] om και D*||Νεφθαλειμ] + οδον θαλασσης א c.aAQ (Aq. Th.) | παραλιαν] + κατοικουντες א c.aAQ | πορευομενος] καθημενος A | σκια] pr και א c.aAQΓ|
Here Mt. differs widely both from LXX. and M. T., yet he has points of agreement with both. The influence of LXX. is seen in γῆ Ζ., Γ. τῶν ἐθνῶν, χώρᾳ [καὶ] σκιᾷ. On the other hand ὁδὸν θαλάσσης, εἶδεν, αὐτοῖς agree with M.T. The writer quotes from memory, or from a collection of loosely cited testimonia.
|Mt. viii. 17||Isa. liii. 4|
|αὐτὸς τὰς ἀσθενείας ἡμῶν ἔλαβεν καὶ τὰς νόσους ἐβάστασεν||οὗτος τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν φέρει καὶ περὶ ἡμῶν ὀδυνᾶται.|
Mt.'s version is based upon Heb., from which the LXX. departs. Cf. Symm.: τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αὐτὸς ἀνέλαβεν καὶ τοὺς πόνους ὑπέμεινεν.
|Mt. xiii. 35||Ps. lxxvii. 2|
|ἀνοίξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὸ στόμα μου· ἐρεύξομαι κεκρυμμένα ἀπὸ καταβολῆς.||ἀνοίξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὸ στόμα μου· φθέγξομαι προβλήματα ἀπ᾿ ἀρχῆς.|
|καταβολης] + κοσμου א*CD|
V. 35 a in Mt. follows the LXX. verbatim, while 35 b is an independent rendering of the Heb. The departure from the LXX. in the second half of the text is not altogether for the sake of exactness; if ἐρεύξομαι is nearer to אַבִּיעָה than φθέγξομαι, ἀπὸ καταβολῆς introduces a conception which has no place in מִנִּי־קֶדֶם, and in this sense the Greek phrase is practically limited to the N. T. (see Hort on 1 Pet. i. 20).
|Mt. xxvii. 9 f.828828Mt. ascribes this prophecy to Jeremiah: τότε ἐπληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἰερεμίου τοῦ προφήτου. The slip is probably due to a confusion between Zach. 1. c. and Jer. xviii. 2.||Zach. xi. 13|
|καὶ ἔλαβον . . . τὴν τιμὴν τοῦ τετιμημένου ὃν ἐτιμήσαντο ἀπὸ υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἔδωκαν αὐτὰ εἰς τὸν ἀγρὸν τοῦ κεραμέως, καθὰ συνέταξέν μοι Κύριος.||καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος πρὸς μέ Κάθες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ χωνευτήριον καὶ σκέψομαι εἰ δόκιμόν ἐστιν, ὃν τρόπον ἐδοκιμάσθην ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν. καὶ ἔλαβον . . . καὶ ἐνέβαλον αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν οἶκον Κυρίου εἰς τὸ χωνευτηρίον.|
|εδωκεν A* vid εδωκα א||εδοκιμασθην B* fortאAQ|
Mt. has re-arranged this passage, and given its sense, without regard to the order or construction of the original. In doing this he has abandoned the LXX. altogether, and approximates to the Heb.; cf. Aq. ἡ τιμὴν ἣν ἐτιμήθην ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν.
In these five passages the compiler of the first Gospel has more or less distinctly thrown off the yoke of the Alexandrian version and substituted for it a paraphrase, or an independent rendering from the Hebrew. But our evidence does not encourage the belief that the Evangelist used or knew another complete Greek version of the Old Testament, or of any particular book. It is to be observed that he uses this liberty only in quotations which proceed from himself, if we except the references to the O. T. in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt. v. 21, 27, 31, 33, 38, 43) which are hardly of the nature of strict citations; the formula ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις distinguishes them from that class, and suggests that they purport only to give the general sense.
(b) The Fourth Gospel quotes the LXX. verbatim, or with slight variants, in cc. ii. 17, x. 34, xii. 38, xix. 24, 36; and more freely in vi. 31, 45, xv. 25. In other places the author takes a more or less independent course: e.g. in i. 23, quoting Isa. xl. 3 he writes εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου for ἐτοιμάσατε τ. ὁ. Κ., εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν (cf. Mt. iii. 3, Mc. i. 3, Lc. iii. 4); in xii. 40, Isa. vi. 9, 10 is paraphrased τετύφλωκεν αὐτῶν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς καὶ ἐπώρωσεν αὐτῶν τὴν καρδίαν, which agrees neither with the LXX. nor with M.T.; in xix. 37 ὄψονται εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν is a non-Septuaginta rendering of Zach. xii. 10, which was perhaps current in Palestine, since εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν appears also in Theodotion (cf. Aq., Symm., and Apoc. i. 7)829829See against this Nestle, Textual Criticism of the N. T., p. 291..
(c) The quotations from the O. T. in the Acts are taken from the LXX. exclusively. With the exception of the περιοχή in c. viii. 32830830An exact citation, with one or two variants of the A type., they occur only in the speeches. A few points deserve special notice. In vii. 43 (= Amos v. 26) the LXX. is followed against M.T. (Ῥαιφά(ν) or Ῥαιφάν, כִּיּוּן). Similarly in xiii. 34 (= Isa. lv. 3) τὰ ὅσια Δαυείδ is read with the LXX. for חַסְדֵי דָוִד. C. xiii. 22 is a conflation of Ps. lxxxviii. 21 399+ lxxi. 20 + 1 Regn. xiii. 14 + Isa. xliv. 28. C. xv. 16 ff., which is introduced by the formula τούτῳ συμφωνοῦσιν οἱ λόγοι τῶν προφητῶν, καθὼς γέγραπται, presents a remarkable instance of free citation accompanied by conflation, which calls for separate study.
|Acts xv. 16 ff.||Jer. xii. 15 + Amos ix. 11 f.|
|μετὰ ταῦτα ἀναστρέψω καὶ ἀνοικοδομήσω τὴν σκηνὴν Δαυεὶδ τὴν πεπτωκυῖαν, καὶ τὰ κατεσκαμμένα αὐτῆς ἀνοικοδομήσω καὶ ἀνορθώσω αὐτήν, ὅπως ἂν ἐκζητήσωσιν οἱ κατάλοιποι τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸν κύριον καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐφ᾿ οὓς ἐπικέκληται τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς, λέγει Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν ταῦτα * * * 831831On this reading see W. H.², Notes on select readings, p. 96..||μετὰ τὸ ἐκβαλεῖν με αὐτοὺς ἐπιστρέψω . . . ἀναστήσω τὴν σκηνὴν Δαυεὶδ τὴν πεπτωκυῖαν . . . καὶ τὰ κατεσκαμμένα αὐτῆς ἀναστήσω καὶ ἀνοικοδομήσω αὐτὴν καθὼς αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ αἰῶνος, ὅπως ἐκζητήσωσιν οἱ κατάλοιποι τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐφ᾿ οὓς ἐπικέκληται τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς, λέγει Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν ταῦτα.|
|κατεστραμμενα] κατεσκαμμενα ACD||κατεσκαμμενα] κατεστραμμενα AbO|
|οπως] + αν A | ανθρωπων] + τον κυριον A|
The combination in this quotation of looseness with close adherence to the LXX. even where it is furthest from the Heb. (e.g. in ὅπως ἐκζητήσωσιν κτλ.) is significant, especially when it is remembered that the speaker is St James of Jerusalem.
(d) The Catholic Epistles use the LXX. when they quote the O.T. expressly, and with some exceptions keep fairly close to the Alexandrian Greek. Thus Jas. ii. 8, 11832832Cf. Mc. x. 19, Lc. xviii. 20. Jas. ii. 23, v. 20, 1 Pet. iv. 8, differ from LXX., 23, iv. 6, 1 Pet. i. 24833833On the few variants in this passage see Hort, St Peter, p. 93., iv. 18, v. 5, are substantially exact. 1 Pet. ii. 6 differs from the LXX. of Isa. xxviii. 16. 1 Pet. iii. 10 ff., an unacknowledged extract from Ps. xxxiii. 12 ff., is adapted to the context by a slight change in the construction, but otherwise generally follows the LXX.: θέλων ζωὴν ἀγαπᾷν καὶ ἰδεῖν ἡμέρας ἀγαθάς for θέλων ζ., ἀγαπῶν ἰδ. ἡμ. ἀγαθάς is probably 400a slip, shewing that the writer was quoting from memory. In 2 Pet. ii. 22 (= Prov. xxvi. 11) κύων ἐπιστρέψας ἐπὶ τὸ ἴδιον ἐξέραμα is nearer to the Heb. than κ. ὅταν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ἔμετόν, and appears to be an independent rendering.
(e) More than half of the direct quotations from the O.T. in the Epistles of St Paul are taken from the LXX. without material change (Rom. i. 17, ii. 24, iii. 4, iv. 7 f., 18, vii. 7, viii. 36, ix. 7, 12, 13, 15, 26, x. 6 ff., 16, 18, 19, 20 f., xi. 26 f., 34f., xii. 20 f., xiii. 9, xv. 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21; 1 Cor. iii. 20, vi. 16, x. 7, 26, xv. 32; 2 Cor. iv. 13, vi. 2, viii. 15, ix. 9; Gal. iii. 6, 10, 11, 12, iv. 27, v. 14; Eph. iv. 16; 2 Tim. ii. 19). A smaller proportion skew important variants (Rom. iii. 20 = Gal. ii. 16 πᾶσα σάρξ for πᾶς ζῶν LXX.; ix. 9 κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον ἐλεύσομαι, καὶ ἔσται τῇ Σάρρᾳ υἱός for ἥξω . . . κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον . . . καὶ ἕξει υἱὸν Σάρρα LXX.; ix. 17 εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἐξήγειρά σε for ἕνεκεν τούτου διετηρήθης, and δύναμίν for ἰσχύν LXX.834834B A reads δύναμιν.; ix. 27 ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰ., ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς; xiv. 11 ζῶ ἐγώ for κατ᾿ ἐμαυτοῦ ὀμνύω, ἐξομολογήσεται τῷ θεῷ for ὀμεῖται τὸν θεόν LXX.; 1 Cor. i. 19 ἀθετήσω for κρύψω LXX.; Gal. iii. 8 πάντα τὰ ἔθνη for πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς LXX.; iii. 13 ἐπικατάρατος (cf. v. 20) for κεκαταραμένος LXX.; Eph. iv. 8 ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις for ἔλαβες δ. ἐν ἀνθρώπῳ835835ανοις BaאRa. LXX.; iv. 25 μετὰ τοῦ πλησίον for πρὸς τὸν πλ. LXX.; v. 31 ἀντὶ τούτου for ἕνεκεν τ., om. αὐτοῦ 1º, 2º; cf. Mt. xix. 5 f., Mc. x. 7 f.; vi. 3 καὶ ἔσῃ μακροχρόνιος for κ. ἰνα μακροχρ. γένῃ).
In other passages St Paul departs still further from the LXX., quoting freely, or paraphrasing, or fusing two distinct passages into a single citation, or occasionally deserting the Alexandrian version altogether. Examples of loose quotations or of paraphrases will be found in Rom. ix. 27, xi. 3, 4, 1 Cor. xv. 45, Gal. iv. 30; conflation occurs in Rom. iii. 10 ff.836836On this passage, see above, p. 251 f., ix. 33, xi. 8, 9, 26 f.; 1 Cor. xv. 54 f., 2 Cor. vi. 16 ff.401
The following instances will shew how far reconstruction is carried in cases of conflation.
|Rom. ix. 33 ἰδοὺ τίθημι ἐν Σιὼν λίθον προσκόμματος καὶ πέτραν σκανδάλου· καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται837837Cf. 1 Pet. ii. 8 (Hort).||Isa. viii. 14 οὐχ ὡς λίθου προσκόμματι συναντήσεσθε οὐδὲ ὡς πέτρας πτώματι838838Aq. καὶ εἰς στερεὸν σκανδάλου. . xxviii. 16 ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐμβάλλω εἰς τὰ θεμέλια Σειὼν λίθον πολυτελῆ, ἐκλεκτὸν ἀκρογωνιαῖον, ἔντιμον . . . καὶ ὁ πιστεύων οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ.|
|Rom. xi. 8 ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα κατανύξεως, ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας.||Isa. xxix. 10 πεπότικεν ὑμᾶς Κύριος πνεύματι κατανύξεως. Deut. xxix. 4 καὶ οὐκ ἔδωκεν Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὑμῖν καρδίαν εἰδέναι καὶ ὀφθαλμοὺς [τοῦ] βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα ἀκούειν ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης.|
|1 Cor. ii. 9 ἅ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν καὶ οὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη, ὅσα ἡτοίμασεν ὁ θεὸς τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν839839On this passage see Resch, Agrapha, p. 154 ff..||Isa. lxiv. 3 οὐκ ἠκούσαμεν οὐδὲ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἡμῶν εἶδον θεὸν πλὴν σοῦ, καὶ τὰ ἔργα σου ἃ ποιήσεις τοῖς ὑπομένουσιν ἔλεον. lxv. 17 οὐδ᾿ οὐ μὴ ἐπέλθῃ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ καρδίαν.|
|αγαπωσιν] υπομενουσιν Clem. R. i. 34, 8.|
|1 Cor. xv. 54 f. κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος.840840So Theodotion. ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον;||Isa. xxv. 8 κατέπιεν ὁ θάνατος ἰσχύσας Hos. xiii. 14 ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου, θάνατε; ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου, ᾅδη;|
In some cases a wide departure from the LXX. is probably to be explained by the supposition that the Apostle quotes from memory; e.g.:
|Rom. xi. 2 ff.||3 Regn. xix. 14 ff.|
|οὐκ οἴδατε ἐν Ἠλείᾳ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή . . . Κύριε, τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν, τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν, κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην μόνος καὶ ζητοῦσιν τὴν ψυχήν μου. ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός; Κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ.||καὶ εἶπεν Ἠλειού . . . τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου καθεῖλαν καὶ τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν . . . καὶ ὑπολέλειμμαι ἐγὼ μονώτατος καὶ ζητοῦσι τὴν ψυχήν μου . . . καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος πρὸς αὐτόν . . . καταλείψεις ἐν Ἰσραὴλ ἑπτὰ χιλιάδας ἀνδρῶν, πάντα γόνατα ἃ οὐκ ὤκλασαν γόνυ τῷ Βααλ.|
The following quotation also is probably from memory841841As ἐν τῷ νόμῳ seems to indicate., but the Apostle's knowledge of the original has enabled him to improve upon the faulty rendering of the LXX.
|1 Cor. xiv. 21||Isa. xxviii. 11 f.|
|ἐν τῷ νόμῳ γέγραπται ὅτι Ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις καὶ ἐν χείλεσιν ἑτέρων λαλήσω τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ, καὶ οὐδ᾿ οὕτως εἰσακούσονταί μου, λέγει Κύριος||διὰ φαυλισμὸν χειλέων, διὰ γλώσσης ἑτέρας· ὅτι λαλήσουσιν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ . . . καὶ οὐκ ἠθέλησαν ἀκούειν.|
Jerome, quoting these words from St Paul, rightly adds, "Quod mihi videtur iuxta Hebraicum de praesenti sumptum capitulo." Aquila's rendering is remarkably similar, ὅτι ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις καὶ ἐν χείλεσιν ἑτέροις λαλήσω τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ. Theodotion unfortunately is wanting.
(f) The Ep. to the Hebrews is in great part a catena of quotations from the LXX. "The text of the quotations agrees in the main with some form of the present text of the LXX.842842Westcott, Hebrews, p. 476." A considerable number of the passages are cited exactly, or with only slight variation (i. 5, 8 f., 13; ii. 6 ff., 13; iv. 4, v. 6, vi. 13 f., viii. 5, xi. 5, 18, 21; xii. 5 f., xiii. 6). The writer usually follows the LXX. even when they differ materially from the Heb. (viii. 8 ff.843843Cf. p. 338., x. 5 ff. , σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι, 37 ἐὰν ὑποστείληται, xi. 21 ῥάβδου, xii. 5 μαστιγοῖ844844Yet "he nowhere shews any immediate knowledge of the Hebrew text" (Westcott, op. cit., p. 479).). But he sometimes deserts both version and original, substituting a free paraphrase, or apparently citing from memory (i. 6, ix. 20 ἐνετείλατο, x. 30845845Cf. Rom. xii. 19. Apparently a stock quotation, current in this form., xii, 19 f., 26). Some of his readings are interesting: in i. 7 we have πυρὸς φλόγα for πῦρ φλέγον846846A a has πυρὸς φλέγα (sic) in Ps. ciii. 4.; in i. 12 ὡς ἱμάτιον seems to be a doublet of ὡσεὶ περιβόλαιον. Notice also ii. 12 ἀπαγγελῶ for διηγήσομαι (perhaps after Ps. xxi. 31 f.); iii. 9 ἐν δοκιμασίᾳ for ἐδοκίμασαν ( for ) and iii. 10 τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη· διὸ προσώχθισα for 403τεσσ. ἔτη προσώχθ.; x. 6 εὐδόκησας for ᾓτησας B, ἐζήτησας אART; xii. 15 ἐνοχλῇ for ἐν χολῇ, a corruption supported even in the LXX. by B*AF*.
In the Epistles, as in the Gospels, the text of the LXX. which is employed inclines to cod. A rather than to cod. B. But its agreement with the A text is not without exception; and these are other elements in the problem which must not be overlooked. As in the Gospels, again, we notice from time to time a preference for Lucianic readings, or for the readings of Theodotion. It has been reasonably conjectured that the writers of the N.T. used a recension which was current in Palestine, possibly also in Asia Minor, and which afterwards supplied materials to Theodotion, and left traces in the Antiochian Bible, and in the text represented by cod. A. We shall revert to this subject in a later chapter; for the present it is enough to notice the direction to which the evidence of the N.T. seems to point.
4. We have dealt so far with direct quotations. But in estimating the influence of the LXX. upon the N. T. it must not be forgotten that it contains almost innumerable references of a less formal character. These are in many cases likely to escape notice, and it is not the least of the debts which we owe to the Westcott and Hort text, that attention is called to them by the use of uncial type. They will be found chiefly (a) in the words of our Lord (e.g. Mt. vii. 23 = Lc. xiii. 27, Mc. x. 21, 35 f. = Lc. xii. 52 f., xi. 5 = Lc. vii. 22, xi. 21, 23 = Lc. x. 15, 28 f., xiii. 32 = Mc. iv. 32 = Lc. xiii. 19, xvii. 17 = Lc. ix. 41, xviii. 16, xxi. 33 = Mc. xii. 1 = Lc. xx. 9, xxiv. 29 ff. = Mc. xiii. 24 ff. = Lc. xxi. 25 ff., xxiv. 39 = Lc. xvii. 27, xxvi. 64 = Mc. xiv. 62 = Lc. xxii. 69; Mc. iv. 29, vi. 23, ix. 48, xvi. 19; Lc. xii. 53, xxi. 22, 24, xxiii. 30, 46); (b) in the canticles of Lc. i.—ii.; (c) in St Stephen's speech, and, though more sparsely, in the other speeches of the Acts; (d) in the Epistle 404of St James847847See Mayor, St James, pp. lxviii. ff., cxxxix. and the First Epistle of St Peter; (e) in the Epistles of St Paul; where, though not so numerous as the citations, the allusions to the LXX. are more widely distributed, occurring in 1, 2 Thessalonians, Philippians and Colossians, as well as in the great dogmatic Epistles; (f) in the Epistle to the Hebrews (ii. 16, iii. 5 f., vi. 7 f., 19 f., vii. 1 ff., x. 29 ff., xi. 12 f., 17 f., 28, xii. 12—21, xiii. 11, 20); and especially (g) in the Apocalypse, where references to the Greek Old Testament abound in every chapter.
5. This summary by no means represents the extent of the influence exerted upon the N.T. by the Alexandrian Version. The careful student of the Gospels and of St Paul is met at every turn by words and phrases which cannot be fully understood without reference to their earlier use in the Greek Old Testament. Books which are not quoted in the N.T., e.g. the non-canonical books of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus and Maccabees, find echoes there, and not a few of the great theological words which meet us in the Apostolic writings seem to have been prepared for their Christian connotation by employment in the Alexandrian appendix to the Canon848848The facts are collected by Dr Ryle in Smith's D.B.² art. Apocrypha (i. pp 183, 185).. Not the Old Testament only, but the Alexandrian version of the Old Testament, has left its mark on every part of the New Testament, even in chapters and books where it is not directly cited849849See below, c. iv.. It is not too much to say that in its literary form and expression the New Testament would have been a widely different book had it been written by authors who knew the Old Testament only in the original, or who knew it in a Greek. version other than that of the LXX.
LITERATURE. F. Junius, Sacrorum Parallelorum libri iii. (Heidelberg, 1588); J. Drusius, Parallela Sacra (Franeker, 4051594); H. Hody, De Bibl. textibus, p. 243 ff. (Oxford, 1705); W. Surenhusius, ספר המשיח sive βίβλος καταλλαγῆς (Amsterdam, 1713); H. Owen, Modes of quotation used by the Evangelical writers explained and vindicated (London, 1789); H. Gough, N. T. Quotations (London, 1855); A. Tholuck, Das A. T. in N.T.-erste Beilage (Gotha, 1836); D. M cC. Turpie, The Old Testament in the New (London, 1868); The New Testament view of the Old (London, 1872); Kautzsch, De Veteris Testamenti locis a Paulo ap. allegatis (Leipzig, 1869); C. Taylor, The Gospel in the Law (Cambridge, 1869); H. Monnet, Les citations de l’Ancien Testament dans les Épîtres de Saint Paul (Lausanne, 1874); Böhl, Die ATlichen Citate im N.T. (Vienna, 1878); C. H. Toy, Quotations in the New Testament (New York, 1884); E. Hatch, Essays in Biblical Greek, p. 131 ff. (Oxford, 1889); W. Staerk, in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Theologie, xxxv.—xl.; Bp Lightfoot's Biblical Essays, p. 136 ff. (London, 1893); A. Clemen, Der Gebrauch des A.T. in den NTlichen Schriften (Gütersloh, 1895); H. Vollmer, Die ATlichen Citate bei Paulus (Freiburg in B., 1895); J. C. Hawkins, Horae Synopticae, pp. 123 ff. (Oxford, 1889); W. Dittmar, Vetus Testamentum in Novo i. (Göttingen, 1899); Th. Zahn, Einleitung in das N.T., ii. p. 313 ff., and elsewhere (see Sachregister s. ATliche Citate (Leipzig, 1899); E. Hühn, Die ATlichen Citate and Reminiscenzen im N.T. (Tübingen, 1900). See also the commentaries on particular books of the N.T., e.g. Bp Westcott, Hebrews, p 469 ff.; J. B. Mayor, St James, p. lxviii. ff.; H. B. Swete, St Mark, p. lxx ff.; Apocalypse, p. cxxxix. ff.; G. Milligan, Thessalonians, pp. liv., lviii. f.
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