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Part III.—Bibliography.

A. Bibliography of Bibliography.

Gesner: Bibliotheca universalis. s.v. 1545.

Possevin: Appartus sacer. s.v. 1608.

Du Pin: Nouvelle bibl. d. Auteurs Eccles. Tom. iii. Pt. ii. 189–90. 1690.

Sluter: Propylæum Historiæ Christianæ, ix. 6, p. 45. 1696.

Ittig: De bibliothecis patrum apostol. s.v. 1699–1700.

Olearius: Bibliotheca scriptorum eccles. Tom. ii. s.v. 1711.

Fabricius: Bibliotheca Græc. Vol. vi. Lib. v. c. 4. xxxi. 1726.

Cave: Scriptorum Eccles. Hist. Literaria. p. 427. 1740.

Walch: Bibl. Theol. Tom. iii. p. 114. 1762.

De Bure: Bibliographie instructive. Nos. 4393–5. 1768.

Nodier: Bibliothéque sacrée gr.-lat. s.v. 1826.

Boose: Grundriss der Christ. Liter., § 230. 1828.

Clarke: Concise view of the succession of Sac. Lit. Vol. ii. p. 225. 1831.

Hoffmann, S.F.W.: Lexicon Bibliog. s.v. 1833–38.

Walch, J.G.: Biblioth. Patristica, ii. § 16. 2. ed. Danz. 1834.

Vossius (ed. Westermann): De Historicis Græcis, ii. 20. 1838.

Ceillier: Hist. Gen. des Auteurs Sacrés. Tom. viii. c. 39. 1858 sqq.

Alzog: Handb. d. Patrologie. 3d ed. 1876.

Nicolai: Griech. Literaturgesch. in neuer Bearbeitung. 1874–8.

Chevalier: Répertoire des sources hist. d. M.A. s.v. 1877 sqq.

Nirschl: Lehrbuch der Patrologie u Patristik. Vol. iii. c. 4, 235. 1881 sqq.

Harnack: Herzog R.E., Vol. xiv. s.v. 1884.

——: Encycl. Br., Vol. xxii. s.v. 1887.

Thuille: Patristisches Handbuch. 1888.

B. Texts.

I. Manuscripts.—It would indeed be a desirable work to have a uniform apparatus of the codices, not only of Sozomen, but of all the Greek Church historians. Admirable as is Heinchen’s survey of Eusebian mss., it is neither uniform nor complete. No editor of Sozomen from Stephen down, has deemed it necessary to work up the detail even as well as Heinchen. Nolte evidently had the material in hand, but the labor remains to be done. The numbers and positions of many codices have been changed since the days of Valesius, Montfaucon, and Hænelius, and it is impossible to bring harmony out of the differences without direct inspection. It would seem as if no one had consulted some of those mentioned by Montfaucon; e.g. in the Inventarium mss. monasterii S. Petri Carnutensis, the title is given without number; Socratis, Sozomenis et Theodoreti historia Ecclesiastica, vol. in fol. notat P. sæculo ix. (ii. 1246); and the two described by Hænelius (a) Socratis, Sozomenis historia ecclesiastica memb. fol. exemp. vetus., at Chartres (Fasc. i. col. 130). (b) iv. 2, Hermiæ Sozomeni Salaminis, historicæ ecclesiasticæ lib. ix. (Fasc. iii. c. 93) in the Escorial.

II. Editions of Text.—1. The first printed text without translation was by Robert Stephen: Eusebii Pamphili, Ecclesiasticæ historiæ, libri x.; ejusdem de vita Constantini, libri v.; Socratis, libri vii.; Theodoreti episc. Cyrenensis, libri v.; Collectaneorum ex historia ecclesiastica Theodori lectoris, libri ii.; Hermiæ Sozomeni, libri ix.; Evagrii, libri vi.; Græce Excud. Rob. Steph. Lutetiæ Parisior. (pridie Cal. Jul.) 1544. Fol.

226The sole manuscript at the basis of this edition is the Codex Regius bibliothecæ Parisiensis, n. 1437 (Nolte, 1444) Possevin (App. crit.) says: A Græca vero edito proviget ann. 1545, but this seems a mistake.

2. The next edition of the text was accompanied with a Latin translation; Græca et Latine ex interpretatione J. Christophorsoni et recognitione Suffredi Petri una cum variis lectionibus, J. Christophorsoni, Jos. Scaligeri, Jac. Cuiaci, Jan. Gruteri, Jac. Bongarsii, Col. All. (Geneva) 1612. 2 vols. in fol. This was the text of Stephen with marginal notes of the above [see Hussey, Nolte]. The sources of the notes are not sure.

3. Reprint of Geneva edition: Bibliotheca magna veterum patrum et antiq. Scriptorum eccles. primo a Margarino de la Bigne collecta. Tom. v. has Soc. and Soz. with the Latin of Christophorson and Suff. Petrus. Colon. 1618–22.

4. The edition of Valesius, 1659–1668, with a new translation by himself. Socratis Scholastici et Hermiæ Sozomeni historia ecclesiastica. Henricus Valesius græcum textum collatis mss. Codicibus emendavit, Latine vertit, et annotationibus illustravit. Adjecta est ad calcem disputatio Archelai Episcopi adversus Manichæum. Parisiis, 1668. Fol. In this edition there are the preface to the reader, explaining his sources; an essay on the life and writings of the historians; and the text is followed by annotations. This edition is conspicuous for the number of codices, more or less accurately collated. The Codex Fuketanus is his chief reliance; the previous annotations were used; he claims to have made no alteration without warrant.

5. Biblioteca Maxima Veterum Patrum M. de la Bigne, Lugd. 1677. In vol. vii. of this series; this reproduces the Genevan edition.

6. A reprint of Valesius. Eusebii Pamph. Ep. Cæsar. et Theodoreti, Evagrii, Socratis et Sozomeni Historia Ecclesiastica. Gr. Lat. cum notis Valesii. 3 Tomi. Paris, 1678. Fol.

7. A reprint of Valesius. Socratis et Sozomeni historia ecclesiastica. Gr. et Lat. Paris 1686. Fol.

8. A reprint of Valesius. Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ Eus. Pamph., Soc., Soz., Theodore ti, et Evag. cum excerptis ex historia Philost. et Theod. Lec. Græc. et Lat. c. Annot. H. Valesii. 3 Tomi. Moguntiæ, 1677–79. Fol.

9. Another reprint of Valesius, but from the Mayence edition: Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ Eus., Soc., etc. Græc.-Lat. 3 Tomi. Amst. 1695. Fol.

10. Historiæ ecclesiasticæ Scriptores Græci cum excerptis ex historia Philostorgi et Theodori Lect. Gr. et Lat. c. interpret. H. Valesii. Amst. 1699. Fol. (Georgi.)

11. A separate edition of Socrates and Sozomen, with the usual Valesian apparatus, and the debate of Bishop Archelaus against the Manichæans: Socratis Scholastici et Hermiæ Sozomeni historia ecclesiastica græce et latine. Henricus Valesius Græcum textum collatis mss. codicibus emendavit, Latine vertit, et Annotationibus illustravit. Adjecta est ad calcem disputatio Archelai Episcopi adversus Manichæum. Ad novissimam editionem Parisiensem castigatissime recusa prostat Amstelodami apud Henricum Wetstenium. 1700.

12. Valesian text as basis and apparatus, with new emendations. General title:

Eusebii Pamphili, Socratis Scholastici, Hermiæ Sozomeni, Theodoreti et Evagrii, Item Philostorgii et Theodori Lectoris quæ extant historiæ ecclesiasticæ græce et latine, in tres tomos distributæ. Henricus Valesius græcum textum ex mss. codicibus emendavit, latine vertit et Annotationibus illustravit.

Gulielmus Reading novas Elucidationes, præsertim Chronologicas, in hac Editione adjecit. Cantabrigiæ, 1720.

Special title: Socratis Scholastici et Hermiæ Sozomeni historia ecclesiastica græce et latine. Henricus Valesius græcum textum collatis mss. codicibus emendavit, latine vertit et Adnotationibus illustravit. Adjecta est ad calcem disputatio Archelai Episcopi adversus Manichæum. Hanc Editionem Criticis plurium Eruditorum Observationibus locupletavit Gulielmus Reading. Cantabrigiæ, 1720.

He restores readings of Stephen for some changes made by Valesius; uses Valesius’ own manuscript annotations, suggestions of Lowth, Casaubon’s variæ lectiones from the codex Jonesianus, and the codex Jonesianus itself. But there is no general collation.

13. Reprint of the Reading edition. 3 vols. Augustæ Taurinorum (Turin).

14. Valesian text as basis; partially new apparatus and emendations.

Sozomeni ecclesiastica historia edidit Robertus Hussey, S.T.B. Oxonii: e typographeo academico, 1860. Three volumes, two of text, and the third of annotations. The Latin version is by Valesius.

Hussey died before completing his work; the apparatus was prepared by John Barrow. Besides other not far-reaching collations, Hussey used a codex in the Bodleian, called the codex Barrocianus (B.), and a partial collation of codex Severniensis, which is of inferior value.

15. Reproduction of Reading-Valesius:

Patrologiæ Cursus Completus.

Socratis Scholastici, Hermiæ Sozomeni Historia Ecclesiastica. Henricus Valesius græcum textum collatis mss. codicibus emendavit, latine vertit notis illustravit; cujus editionem criticis observationibus locupletavit Gul. Reading. Accurante et denuo recognoscente. J. P. Migne. Paris. 1864.

16. The English catalogue announced in August, 1874: Sozomeni Historia Ecclesiastica, edited by Robert Hussey, vol. i., 8°, Macmillan; but it did not appear.

227C. Textual Criticism.

We have here (1) the apparatus mentioned in the greater editions; (2) the marginal notes and papers of various readings by Bishop Christophorson, Scaliger, Casaubon, Curicius, Gurterius, etc. (3) The solitary work of Dr. Nolte, who, in 1860, wrote a recension of Hussey’s edition of Sozomen. Theolog. Q. Schrift. 1861. iii. 417–451; as he had done for Socrates, and did later for Evagrius. He dwells especially on the valuable readings which could be derived from the translation of Epiphanius Scholasticus and from Nicephorus Callistus.

This shows the urgency of collation de novo, and a new edition of the text.

D. Analytical Criticism.

Besides the meagre apparatus of the editions, the following works assist in the study, although some are not directly related.

Holzhausen, F. A. Commentatio de fontibus quibus Socrates, Sozomenus ac Theodoretus in scribenda historia sacra usi sunt, adiuncta eorum epicrisi, scripta a Friderico Augusto Holzhausen. Gottingæ, 1825.

Rosenstein, J., in Forschung z. deutsch. Gesch. 1862, i., 166.

Matin: de fontibus Zosimi. Dissert. Berlin, 1865.

Sudhans: de Ratione quæ intercedat inter Zosim et Amm. cet. relationes Dissert. Bonn, 1870.

Holden-Egger, Untersuchungen über einige annalist. Quellen z. Gesch. des v. u. vi. Jahrh. Neu. Archiv. d. Gesch. f. alt. deutsch. Gesch. 1876, i. 1.

Güldenpenning, A. Die Quellen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Theod. d. Gr. Dissert. Halle, 1878.

Güldenpenning, A., and Ifland, J.: Der Kaiser Theodiosius der Grosse. Halle, 1878. Cf. Harnack in T.L.Z. 1879, 18.

Jeep, Ludwig. Quæstiones Fridericianæ, Dissert. 1881.

Sarrazin, J.V. De Theodoro Lectore Theophanis fonte præcipuo. Dissertatio inauguralis. Lips. 1881.

Jeep. L.: Quellenuntersuchungen zu den Griechischen Kirchenhistorikern. Bes. Abdruck aus dem vierzehnten Supplementbande der Jahrbücher für classische Philologie. Leipzig, 1884.

Güldenpenning, A.: Die Kirchengeschichte des Theodoret von Kyrrhos, eine Untersuchung ihrer Quellen. Halle, 1889.

The above show the sources and their interrelation.

E. Translations.

1. Latin—1. Epiphanius Scholasticus. At the suggestion of Cassiodorus he translated Theodoret, Socrates, and Sozomen. This version, Cassiodorus polished and selected from, for his Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita. (See Preface to that work.) This was frequently printed. The first edition, Paris, s. a.; Basle 1523, and after.

2. Eusebii. Pamph. Historia Ecclesiastica c. Sozomeno et Socrate. Basle, 1544. Fol. This was in the Stephen text. Possevin has severe criticism for Musculus (App. crit.).

3. The same: cum Eus., Soz., Theod. Lect., Evag., et Dorothei Tyri vitis Prophetarum et Apostolorum ex ejusdem Musculi interpretatione et Theodoreti H. E. ex versione Joach. Camerarii. Basle, 1549. Fol.

4. The same in Basle, 1557. Fol.

5. Ecclesiasticæ Scriptores Græci c. Interpratione lat. Jo. Christophorsoni, recogniti a Suffrido Petro. Col. Agr. 1562. Fol.

Six books of Soz. were by J.C.; the remaining three by S.P.

6. A reprint of (5). Louv. 1569. 8vo.

7. The same with all the translators. Jo. Jacobi Grynæi recognitione atque cum ejus notis. Basle, 1570. Fol.

8. The reprint of (5), according to Possevin: apud hæredis Arnoldi Birckmanni. Basle, 1570. Fol.

9. The reprint of (5), at Paris, 1571. Fol.

10. A reprint of (7). Basle, 1572. Fol.

11. The reprint of (5), Veteres Scriptores Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ Græci. Col. Agr. 1581. Fol.

12. A reprint of (7). Basle, 1587. Fol.

13. Reprint of (3). Basle, 1594. Fol.

14. A new version from new collations and improvements by Grynæus:

Eusebii Pamphili, Ruffini, Socratis, Theodoriti, Sozomeni, Theodori, Evagrii, et Dorothei Ecclesiastica Historia, sex prope seculorum res gesta complectens: Latine iam olim a doctissimis viris partim scripta, partim e Græco a clarissimis viris, Vuolfgango Musculo, Joachimo Camerario, et Johanne Christophersono Britanno, eleganter conversa: et nunc ex fide Græcorum codicum sit ut novum opus videri possit, per Joan. Jacobum Grynæum locis obscuris innumeris illustrata, dubijs explicata, mutilis restituta: Chronographia insuper Abrahami Bucholceri, ad 228Annum Epochæ Christianæ 1598, et lectionis sacræ historæ luculenta Methodo exornata. Cum continuatione in præsentem annum 1611. Et Indicibus rerum verborumq’: lucupletiis. Basileæ, 1611. Fol.

The sources for new readings are not given.

15. Ecclesiasticæ Historiæ Scriptores. Latine tantum. Basle, 1612. Fol. (Georgi.)

16. A reprint of (11). Coll. All. 1612. Fol.

17. Ecclesiasticæ historiæ Eusebii. Soc., Soz., Theodoret, Evag., Latine tantum ex Valesii versione. Paris, 1677. Fol.

II. German.—1. Eusebii Pamphili, Sozomeni, Socratis und Theodorets Kirchen Historie durch Hestionem (Caspar Hedio). Strassb. 1545. Fol.

This was on the basis of the H. E. Tripartita.

2. A reprint of (1). Basle, 1607. Fol.

III. French.—1. General title: Histoire de l’Église. 1675.

Special title for Vol. iii.: Histoire de l’église, écrite par Sozomène. Traduite par Monsieur Cousin, President en la cour des Monnoyes. Tome iii. á Paris, 1676. 4°.

2. Reprint of (1). Amst. 1686. 6 vols. in 12°.

3. There was a French version of the Tripartite by Ludovicus Cyaneus. Paris, 1568. Fol.

4. Possevin (App. Crit. s. Soc.) ascribes a translation of Socrates (including Soz.?) into French in his day to Jacobus Billius Prunæus.

IV. English.—1. An Abridgement of the Ecclesiastical history of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, translated into English by Samuel Parker. 2 vols. London, 1707. 8°.

2. A reprint of (1). London, 1709. Fol. (?)

3. A third edition: The Ecclesiastical Histories of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodorit Faithfully Translated and Abridg’d from the Originals. Together with A brief Account of the Lives of these Historians, and several Useful Notes and Illustrations, and a copius Index. By Mr. Parker.

The Third edition, carefully Review’d by the Author, and very much Corrected, Improv’d and Enlarg’d. To which is now added, by a Friend, an Abridgment of the History of Evagrius Scholasticus. The Whole chiefly design’d for Use of young Students in Divinity, and Families Religiously disposed. London, 1729. 4°.

4. A History of the Church in nine books from a.d. 324 to a.d. 440: a new translation from the Greek, with a memoir of the author. London, 1846. 8°.

This is in the Bagster series of the Greek Ecclesiastical Historians of the first six centuries. 1843–46.

5. A reprint of (4), Bohn’s Ecclesiastical Library.

History of the Church by Sozomen and Philostorgius. The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen, comprising a History of the Church, from a.d. 324 to a.d. 440. Translated from the Greek, with a memoir of the author.

Also, the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius, as epitomized by Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople. Translated by Edward Walford, Late Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. London, 1855. 8°.

6. A reprint of (4). London, 1868. 8°.

F. Historiography.

The usual Introductions to Church Histories: on the History of Church History; particularly Schröckh, i. 148–9, vii, 188–90.

Staüdlin C.F. (Hemsen). Geschichte und Literatur der Kirchengeschichte. Hannover, 1827.

Baur, J. Ch.: Die Epochen der kirchlichen Geschichtschreibung. Tüb. 1832.

Dowling, J.G.: An introduction to the critical study of Ecclesiastical History. London, 1838.

Ten Haar, B.: de Historiographie der Kerkgeschiedenis. Utrecht, 1870.

Nirschl, Jos.: Propädeutik d. Kirchengeschichte. Mainz, 1888.

Ceillier and Harnack as before.

This is also a field that needs scholars.

G. Literature

[This does not pretend to be exhaustive.]

1. Biographical.

Photius: Myrobiblion: codex 30, a few lines of biography and authorship.

Sigebert of Gembloux: de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis (ed Fabricius), c. 11.

Trithemius: de Ecclesiasticis scriptoribus (ed. Fabricius), cxxxvi.

Hoffmann, Jo. Jac.: Lexicon Universale historiam sacram et profanam, etc. Tom. iv. s.v.

Moreri: le Grand Dictionnaire Historique. Tom. vi. s.v.

Zedler: Universal Lexicon. Tom. xxxviii. s.v.

229Wetzer u. Welte: Lexicon. Art. Kirchengeschichte. vi.

Smith: Dict. G. R. Biog. and Myth. (Art. by J.C. Means). Vol. iii.

Michaud: Biographie Universelle. Tom. xxxix. s.v.

Didot Frères: Nouvelle Biographie Géneral. Tom. xliv. s.v.

Glaire, J-B.: Dict. univ. des Sciences Ecclesiastiques, s.v.

Lichtenberger: Encyclopédie des Sciences Religieuses. Tom.xi. s.v.

Smith: Art. Vol. iv. Dict. Christ. Biog. Art. by William Milligan.

2. Historical.

(a) Theodorus Lector was the first to have used Sozomen for a Tripartite history, and doubtless alluded to him (cf. Nic. Call. H.E. i. 1).

Evagrius Scholasticus: H.E. i. Preface.

Epiphanius Scholasticus and Cassiodorus in the preface to H.E. Tripartita.

Gregory the Great mentions him by mistake for Theodoret in Book vii. of his letters; Ep. 34.

Nicephorus Callistus: H.E. i. 1.

Baronius: An Eccl. Vols. iii.–v., ed. 1707.

Bellarmin-Labbe: Dissertationes philologicæ de Scriptoribus ecclesiasticis. Vol. ii. 371, 372.

Pagi: Critica hist. Chronol. in An Eccles. Baronii Sæc. iv. 76–292.

Tillemont: Histoire des Emper. Rom. vi. 123–7; 613–4.

Du Cange: Historia Byzantina. Paris, 1680.

Gibbon: Decline and Fall. Vols. ii. iii. Boston, 1862.

Hertzberg, W.: D. Gesch. Griechenlands unter d. Herrschaft d. Römer. 3 Bde. Halle, 1866–75.

Sievers, G.R.: Studien z. Gesch. d. röm Kaiser. Berlin, 1870.

Finlay: History of Greece. Vol. i. Oxford, 1877.

(b) Holder, Alf.: Inventio sanctæ crucis: Actorum Cyriacus, pars i. lat. et gr. &c. Leipzig, 1889.

Nestle, Eberh.: De Sancta Cruce, ein Beitrag z. christl. Legendengeschichte. Berin, 1889.

Dräseke, J.: zu Apollinarius v. Laodicea. I. zu den dogmat. Bruchst. des A. II. zur Psalmen-Metaphrase des A. Zwth. xxxi. 469–487. Die Abfassungszeit der Psalm.-Metaphr. des Apoll. ZwTh. xxxii. 108–120.

——Vitalios von Antiochia u. sein Glaubensbekenntniss. ZWL, 186–201, 1888.

Ihm, M.: Studia Ambrosiana. Jahrbücher f. class. Philologie, 1889. Suppl. Bd. xvii. 1, pp. 1–124. rec. Jülicher, Theol. L. Z. 1889, 26.

Dräseke, J.: Apollinarios’ von Laodicea DialogeUber d. heil. Dreieinigkeit.” TSK 1890, 1, pp. 137–171.

——Des Apollinarios v. Laodicea Schrift. wider Eunomius. ZKG, xi. 1, 1889.

——Phöbadius von Agennum und seine Schrift gegen die Arianer. ZWL, 335–343; 391–407. 1889.

Batiffol, R.: Fragmente d. Kirchengesch. d. Philostorgius, Röm. Quartalschr. f. christl. Alterthumskunde u. f. Kirchengesch. 1889, 2 and 3.

Batiffol, P.: Studia patristica. Études d’ancienne littérature chrétienne. Fasc. 1 (v.d., Wilpert; röm. Quartalschrift 1890, 1; v. Funk; TQS, 1890, 2).

(c) Gelzer, H.: Sextus Julianus Africanus u. d. byzantin. Chronographie. Leipzig, 1880–1885 (ii.); rec. Hilgenfeld, ZwTh, 30, 3, 1887.

(d) De Broglie (le duc Albert): L’Église et l’Empire romain au IVe siècle. 3 parties. Paris, 1867–9.

Proudhon, P.J.: Césarisme et Christianisme de l’an 45 avant J.-C. à l’an 476 après. 2 vols. Paris, 1883.

Tozer, H.F.: The Church and the Eastern Empire. London, 1888.

Langen, Jos.: Gesch. d. Rom. Kirche bis zum Pontificate Leo’s I. Bd. i.; von Leo I. bis Nicolaus I. Bd ii. Bonn, 1881–5.

Wolff, P.: Die πρόεδροι auf d. Synode zu Nicäa. ZWL. 1889, 3, pp. 137–151.

Bright, Wm.: History of the Church, a.d. 313–451. 2d edition. London, 1869.

Newman, J.H.: Arians of the Fourth Century. 3d edition. London, 1871.

——Tracts Theological and Ecclesiastical. Nos. ii and iii. London, 1874.

Gwatkin, H.M.: Studies of Arianism chiefly referring to the character and chronology of the reaction which followed the council of Nicæa. 1882.

——The Arian controversy. (Epochs of Church History, Vol. 15.) New York, 1890.

Sonnino, G.: Di uno scisma in Roma à tempi di Valentiano I. Livorno, 1888.

Dräseke, J.: Der Sieg d. Christenthums in Gaza. ZWL, 20–40. 1888.

Birt, Thdr.: De fide christiana quantum Stilichonis ætate in aula imperatoria occidentali valuerit. Marburg, 1885.

230Bright, Wm.: Notes on the canons of the first four general councils. London, 1882.

Martin, P.: Le Pseudo-Synode connu dans l’histoire sous le nom de Brigandage d’ Ephèse, étudié d’après ses actes, retrouvés en syriaque. Paris, 1875.

Schultze, V.: Gesch. d. Untergangs d. Griech-Röm. Heidenthums. Bd. 1. Jena, 1887; rec. Wissowa: Nuova Centologia, Ser. iii., Vol. xvii. Fasc. 18, 1888. Dtsche. Litztg. 1888, 44. Gwatkin, H.M.: The Engl. hist. Rev. 1889, Jan.

Martin, J.P.P.: Les origines de l’église d’Edesse et des églises syriennes. Paris, 1889.

Görres, J.: D. Christenthum im Sassanidenreich. ZwTh, xxxi. 449–468.

Boissier, G.: Études d’histoire religieuse. Le Christianisme et l’invasion des Barbaresle lendemain de l’invasion. Revue des deux mondes, 1890. 1er mai, pp. 145–172.

(e) Manso: Das Leben Constantin d. Grossen. Breslau, 1817.

Burckhardt: D. Zeit Constantin’s d. Grossen. 2 Aufl. Leipzig, 1880.

Keim: D. Übertritt Constantin’s d. Grossen z. Christenthum. Zürich, 1862.

Zahn: Constantin d. grossse u.d. Kirche. Hannover, 1876.

Brieger: Konstantin d. Grosse als Religionspolitiker. Gotha, 1880.

Görres, F.: Weitere Beitraege z. Gesch. d. constantinischen Zeitalters. ZwTh, xxxiii., 2, pp. 206–215 1890.

Crivellucci, A.: Della fide storica di Eusebio nella vita di Constantino, 1889; rec. Schultze: Theol. Litblt. 1889, 9–10.

Mariano, R.: Constantino Magno e la chiesa cristiana (Nuova Antologia, xxv., fasc. 10; 16 maggio, 1890, pp. 271–299).

Mücke, J.F.A.: Flavius Claudius Julianus. 2 abthl. Gotha, 1867–9.

Rendall, G.H.: The Emperor Julian; Paganism and Christianity. London, 1879.

Neumann, K.J.: Prolegomena zu Juliani imperatoris librorum contra Christianos quæ supersunt. Lips. 1880.

——, ——: Juliani Imperatoris Librorum contra Christianos quæ supersunt. Leipzig, 1880.

——, ——: Kaiser Julians Bücher gegen d. Christen. Leipzig, 1880.

King. C.W.: Julian, the emeror; containing Greg. Nazianzen’s two invectives, and Libanius’ Monody with Julian’s extant theosoph. works. London, 1888.

Zoeckler, O.: Julianus u.s. christl. Gegner. B.G. 41–48, 101–113. 1888.

Schwarz: De vita et de scriptis Juliani Imperatoris. Bonn, 1888; rec. Neumann: TLz, 1889, 5.

Largajolli, D., e Pietro Parisio: Nuovi studi intorno a Guiliano imperatori. Torino, 1889. (Estr. della Riv. di filol. e d’istruz. class. xvii. 7–9.)

Stuffken, J.M.: Diss. de Theodosii Magni in rem christianam meritis. Lugd., Bat., 1828.

Güldenpenning, A., Ifland, J.: D. Kaiser Theodosius d. Gr. Ein Beitrag zur röm Kaisergeschichte. Halle, 1878.

Richter, H.: D. Weström. Reich besonders unter den Kaisern Gratian, Valentianian II., und Maximus. Berlin, 1865.

Güldenpenning, A.: Gesch. d. oström. Reiches unter den Kaisern Arcadius u. Theod. II. Halle, 1885.

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