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Philippians iv. 4–7
“Rejoice in the Lord alway: again I will say, Rejoice. Let your forbearance be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand. In nothing be anxious; but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall guard your hearts and your thoughts through Christ Jesus.”
“Blessed671671 [“Happy” would be more exact, but “blessed” has a fixed association with the passage quoted from the Sermon on the Mount.—J.A.B.] are they that mourn,” and “woe unto them that laugh” (Matt. v. 4; Luke vi. 25.), saith Christ. How then saith Paul, “Rejoice in the Lord alway”? “Woe to them that laugh,” said Christ, the laughter of this world which ariseth from the things which are present. He blessed also those that mourn, not simply for the loss of relatives, but those who are pricked at heart, who mourn their own faults, and take count of their own sins, or even those of others. This joy is not contrary to that grief, but from that grief it too is born. For he who grieveth for his own faults, and confesseth them, rejoiceth. Moreover, it is possible to grieve for our own sins, and yet to rejoice in Christ. Since then they were afflicted by their sufferings, “for to you it is given not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him” (Philip. i. 29.), therefore he saith, “Rejoice in the Lord.” For this can but mean, If you exhibit such a life that you may rejoice. Or when your communion with God is not hindered, rejoice. Or else the word “in” may stand for “with”:672672 [Chrys. had little notion of scientific precision in the use or interpretation of language. The word ἐν, “in,” sometimes introduces the instrument, where we in English say “with”; but it would be hard to find any passage in which it is clearly equivalent to σύν, “with,” i.e. in company with, in connection with.—J.A.B.] as if he had said, with the Lord. “Alway; again I will say, Rejoice.” These are the words of one who brings comfort; as, for example, he who is in God rejoiceth alway. Yea though he be afflicted, yea whatever he may suffer, such a man alway rejoiceth. Hear what Luke saith, that “they returned from the presence of the Council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to be scourged for His name.” (Acts v. 41.) If scourging and bonds, which seem to be the most grievous of all things, bring forth joy, what else will be able to produce grief in us?
“Again I will say, Rejoice.” Well hath he repeated. For since the nature of the things brought forth grief, he shows by repeating, that they should by all means rejoice.
“Let your forbearance be known unto all men.” He said above, “Whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame,” and that they “mind earthly things.” (Philip. iii. 19.) It was probable that they would be at enmity with the wicked; he therefore exhorted them to have nothing in common with them, but to use them with all forbearance, and that not only their brethren, but also their enemies and opposers. “The Lord is at hand,673673 [It is evident from the connection that Chrys. connects “the Lord is at hand” with what follows, and not (as Meyer wrongly states) with what precedes. Yet recent commentators generally connect it with what precedes, and are pretty certainly right.—J.A.B.] in nothing be anxious.” For why, tell me? do they ever rise in opposition? And if ye see them living in luxury, why are ye in affliction? Already the judgment is nigh; shortly will they give account of their actions. Are ye in affliction, and they in luxury? But these things shall shortly receive their end. Do they plot against you, and threaten you? “In nothing be anxious.” The judgment is already at hand, when these things shall be reversed. “In nothing be anxious.” If ye are kindly affected toward those who prepare evil against you, yet it shall not at last turn out to their profit. Already the recompense is at hand, if poverty, if death, if aught else that is terrible be upon you. “But in everything, by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God.” There is this for one consolation, “the Lord is at hand.” And again, “I will be with you alway, even unto the end of the world.” (Matt. xxviii. 20.) Behold another consolation, a medicine which healeth grief, and distress, and all that is painful. And what is this? Prayer, thanksgiving in all things. And so He wills that our prayers should not simply 247be requests, but thanksgivings too for what we have. For how should he ask for future things, who is not thankful for the past? “But in everything by prayer and supplication.” Wherefore we ought to give thanks for all things, even for those which seem to be grievous, for this is the part of the truly thankful man. In the other case the nature of the things demands it; but this springs from a grateful soul, and one earnestly affected toward God. God acknowledgeth these prayers, but others He knoweth not. Offer up such prayers as may be acknowledged; for He disposeth all things for our profit, though we know it not. And this is a proof that it greatly profiteth, namely, that we know it not. “And the peace of God which passeth all understanding shall guard your hearts and your thoughts in Christ Jesus.” What meaneth this? “The peace of God” which He hath wrought toward men, surpasseth all understanding. For who could have expected, who could have hoped, that such good things would have come? They exceed all man’s understanding, not his speech alone. For His enemies, for those who hated Him, for those who determined to turn themselves away, for these, he refused not to deliver up His Only Begotten Son, that He might make peace with us. This peace then, i.e. the reconciliation, the love of God, shall guard your hearts and your thoughts.
For this is the part of a teacher, not only to exhort, but also to pray, and to assist by supplication, that they may neither be overwhelmed by temptations, nor carried about by deceit. As if he had said, May He who hath delivered you in such sort as mind cannot comprehend, may He Himself guard you, and secure you, so that you suffer no ill. Either he means this, or that that peace of which Christ saith, “Peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you” (John xiv. 27.): this shall guard you, for this peace exceedeth all man’s understanding. How? When he tells us to be at peace with our enemies, with those who treat us unjustly, with those who are at war and enmity toward us; is it not beyond man’s understanding? But rather let us look to the former. If the peace surpasseth all understanding, much more doth God Himself, who giveth peace, pass all understanding, not ours only, but also that of Angels, and the Powers above. What meaneth “in Christ Jesus”? Shall guard us in Him, so that ye may remain firm, and not fall from His faith.
Ver. 8. “Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honorable, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are just.” What is “Finally”? It stands for, “I have said all.” It is the word of one that is in haste, and has nothing to do with present things.
“Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honorable, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.”
Ver. 9. “The things which ye both learned and received, and heard and saw in me.”
What meaneth, “whatsoever things are lovely”? Lovely to the faithful, lovely to God. “Whatsoever things are true.” Virtue is really true, vice is falsehood. For the pleasure of it is a falsehood, and its glory is falsehood, and all things of the world are falsehood. “Whatsoever things are pure.” This is opposed to the words “who mind earthly things.” “Whatsoever things are honorable.” This is opposed to the words “whose god is their belly.” “Whatsoever things are just,” i.e. saith he,674674 [These are hasty jottings by Chrys. or a reporter, and might easily be altered in copying. He can hardly have meant to define “just” by “of good report,” yet so the Greek stands; or else (as in some documents) he defines “of good report” by “if there be any virtue,” etc. The abridgment in the Catena may have caught the real meaning. It omits “whatsoever thing are just,” and puts together the three remaining clauses as the occasion of the remark which follows. Or perhaps “i.e. saith he” is a corrupt addition, and all four clauses should be simply taken together; for the remark applies to them all.—J.A.B.] “whatsoever things are of good report.” “If there be any virtue, if there be any praise.” Here he willeth them to take thought of those things too which regard men. “Think on these things,” saith he. Seest thou, that he desires to banish every evil thought from our souls; for evil actions spring from thoughts. “The things which ye both learned and received.” This is teaching, in all his exhortations to propose himself for a model: as he saith in another place, “even as ye have us for an ensample.” (Philip. iii. 17.) And again here, “What things ye learned and received,” i.e. have been taught by word of mouth, “and heard and saw in me”: both in respect of my words and actions and conduct. Seest thou, how about everything he lays these commands on us? For since it was not possible to make an accurate enumeration of all things, of our coming in, and going out, and speech, and carriage, and intercourse (for of all these things it is needful that a Christian should have thought), he said shortly, and as it were in a summary, “ye heard and saw in me.” I have led you forward both by deeds and by words.675675 [All of Field’s mss. here insert “For nothing is such an enemy of our nature as vice,” which, however, seems here out of place, and fits well below, where it is placed by the altered text.—J.A.B.] “These things do,” not only in words, but do them also. “And the God of peace shall be with you,” i.e. ye shall be in a calm, in great safety, ye shall suffer nothing painful, nor contrary to your will. For when we are at peace with Him, and we are so through virtue, much more will He be at peace with us. For He who so loved us, as to show favor to us even against our will, will He not, if He sees us 248hastening toward Him, Himself yet much more exhibit His love toward us?
Nothing is such an enemy of our nature as vice. And from many things it is evident, how vice is at enmity with us, and virtue friendly toward us. What will ye? That I should speak of fornication? It makes men subject to reproach, poor, objects of ridicule, despicable to all, just as enemies treat them. Ofttimes it hath involved men in disease and danger; many men have perished or been wounded in behalf of their mistresses. And if fornication produces these things, much rather doth adultery. But doth almsgiving so? By no means. But as a loving mother setteth her son in great propriety, in good order, in good report, and gives him leisure to engage in necessary work, thus alms-giving doth not release us nor lead us away from our necessary work, but even renders the soul more wise. For nothing is more foolish than a mistress.
But what willest thou? To look upon covetousness? It too treats us like an enemy. And how? It makes us hated by all. It prepareth all men to vaunt themselves against us; both those who have been treated unjustly by us, and those who have not, who share the grief of the former, and are in fear for themselves. All men look upon us as their common foes, as wild beasts, as demons. Everywhere are there innumerable accusations, plots against us, envyings, all which are the acts of enemies. But justice, on the contrary, makes all men friends, all men sociable, all men well disposed towards us, by all men prayers are made in our behalf; our affairs are in perfect safety, there is no danger, there is no suspicion. But sleep also fearlessly comes over us with perfect safety, no care is there, no lamenting.
How much better this sort of life is! And what? Is it best to envy, or to rejoice with one another? Let us search out all these things, and we shall find that virtue, like a truly kind mother, places us in safety, while vice is a treacherous thing, and full of danger. For hear the prophet, who saith, “The Lord is a stronghold of them that fear Him, and His covenant is to show them.” (Ps. xxv. 14, Sept.) He feareth no one, who is not conscious to himself of any wickedness; on the contrary, he who liveth in crime is never confident, but trembles at his domestics, and looks at them with suspicion. Why say, his domestics? He cannot bear the tribunal of his own conscience. Not only those who are without, but his inward thoughts affect him likewise, and suffer him not to be in quiet. What then, saith Paul? Ought we to live dependent on praise? He said not, look to praise, but do praiseworthy actions, yet not for the sake of praise.
“Whatsoever things are true,” for the things we have been speaking of are false. “Whatsoever things are honorable.” That which is “honorable” belongs to external virtue, that which is “pure” to the soul. Give no cause of stumbling, saith he, nor handle of accusation. Because he had said, “Whatsoever things are of good report,” lest you should think that he means only those things which are so in the sight of men, he proceeds, “if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things”—do these things. He wills us ever to be in these things, to care for these things, to think on these things. For if we will be at peace with each other, God too will be with us, but if we raise up war, the God of peace will not be with us. For nothing is so hostile to the soul as vice. That is, peace and virtue place it in safety. Wherefore we must make a beginning on our part, and then we shall draw God toward us.
God is not a God of war and fighting. Make war and fighting to cease, both that which is against Him, and that which is against thy neighbor. Be at peace with all men, consider with what character God saveth thee. “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.” (Matt. v. 9.) Such always imitate the Son of God: do thou imitate Him too. Be at peace. The more thy brother warreth against thee, by so much the greater will be thy reward. For hear the prophet who saith, “With the haters of peace I was peaceful.” (Ps. cxx. 7, Sept.) This is virtue, this is above man’s understanding, this maketh us near God; nothing so much delighteth God as to remember no evil. This sets thee free from thy sins, this looseth the charges against thee: but if we are fighting and buffeting, we become far off from God: for enmities are produced by conflict, and from enmity springs remembrance of evil.
Cut out the root, and there will be no fruit. Thus shall we learn to despise the things of this life, for there is no conflict, none, in spiritual things, but whatever thou seest, either conflicts or envy, or whatever a man can mention, all these spring from the things of this life. Every conflict hath its beginning either in covetousness, or envy, or vainglory. If therefore we are at peace, we shall learn to despise the things of the earth. Hath a man stolen our money? He hath not injured us, only let him not steal our treasure which is above. Hath he hindered thy glory? Yet not that which is from God, but that which is of no account. For this is no glory, but a mere name of glory, or rather a shame. Hath he stolen thy honor? Rather not thine but his own. For as he who committeth injustice doth not so much inflict as receive injustice, thus too he who plots against his neighbor, first destroyeth himself.
249For “he who diggeth a pit for his neighbor, falleth into it.” (Prov. xxvi. 27.) Let us then not plot against others, lest we injure ourselves. When we supplant the reputation of others, let us consider that we injure ourselves, it is against ourselves we plot. For perchance with men we do him harm, if we have power, but we injure ourselves in the sight of God, by provoking Him against us. Let us not then harm ourselves. For as we injure ourselves when we injure our neighbors, so by benefiting them we benefit ourselves. If then thy enemy harm thee, he hath benefited thee if thou art wise, and so requite him not with the same things, but even do him good. But the blow, you say, remains severe. Consider then that thou dost not benefit, but punishest him, and benefitest thyself, and quickly you will come to do him good. What then? Shall we act from this motive? We ought not to act on this motive, but if thy heart will not hear other reason, induce it, saith he,676676 i.e. St. Paul, Rom. xii. 20, on which passage see St. Chrys., who there fully states this view, perhaps the only one that fully explains the difficulty. even by this, and thou wilt quickly persuade it to dismiss its enmity, and wilt for the future do good to thine enemy as to a friend, and wilt obtain the good things which are to come, to which God grant that we may all attain in Christ Jesus. Amen.
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