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Psalm LXXVI.34323432     Lat. LXXV. Sermon to the Commonalty, wherein he disputeth against the Donatists, and treateth of vows.

1. The Jews are wont to glory in this Psalm which we have sung, saying, “Known in Judæa is God, in Israel great is the name of Him:” and to revile the Gentiles to whom God is not known, and to say that to themselves alone God is known; seeing that the Prophet saith, “Known in Judæa is God.” In other places therefore He is unknown. But God is known in very deed in Judæa, if they understand what is Judæa. For indeed God is not known except in Judæa. Behold even we say this, that except a person shall have been in Judæa, known to him God cannot be. But what saith the Apostle? He that in secret is a Jew, he that is so in circumcision of the heart, not in letter but in spirit.34333433     Rom. ii. 29. There are therefore Jews in circumcision of the flesh, and there are Jews in circumcision of the heart. Many of our holy fathers34343434     [This habit of the primitive faithful, claiming the fatherhood of Abraham and the prophets, is conspicuous in our author.—C.] had both the circumcision of the flesh, for a seal of the faith, and circumcision of the heart, for the faith itself. From these fathers these men degenerating, who now in the name do glory, and have lost their deeds; from these fathers, I say, degenerating, they have remained Jews in flesh, in heart Heathens. For these are Jews, who are out of Abraham, from whom Isaac was born, and out of him Jacob, and out of Jacob the twelve Patriarchs, and out of the twelve Patriarchs the whole people of the Jews.34353435     Gen. xxi. 1, xxv. 26, xxix. 32, etc. But they were generally called Jews for this reason, that Judah was one of the twelve sons of Jacob, a Patriarch among the twelve, and from his stock the Royalty came among the Jews. For all this people after the number of the twelve sons of Jacob, had twelve tribes. What we call tribes are as it were distinct houses and congregations of people. That people, I say, had twelve tribes, out of which twelve tribes one tribe was Judah, out of which were the kings; and there was another tribe, Levi, out of which were the priests. But because to the priests serving the temple no land was allotted,34363436     Numb. xviii. 20. but it was necessary that among twelve tribes all the Land of promise should be shared: there having been therefore taken out one tribe of higher dignity, the tribe of Levi, which was of the priests, there would have remained eleven, unless by the adoption of the two sons of Joseph the number twelve were completed.

What this is, observe. One of the twelve sons of Jacob was Joseph.…This Joseph had two sons, Ephraim and Manasse. Jacob, dying, as though by will, received those his grandsons into the number of sons, and said to his son Joseph, “The rest that are born shall be to thee; but these to me, and they shall divide the land with their brethren.”34373437     Gen. xlviii. 5. As yet there had not been given nor divided the land of promise, but he was speaking in the Spirit, prophesying. The two sons therefore of Joseph being added, there were made up nevertheless twelve tribes, since now there are thirteen. For instead of one tribe of Joseph, two were added, and there were made thirteen. There being taken out then the tribe of Levi, that tribe of priests which did serve the Temple, and lived by the tithes of all the rest unto whom the land was divided, there remain twelve. In these twelve was the tribe of Judah, whence the kings were. For at first from another tribe was given King Saul,34383438     1 Sam. ix. 1. and he was rejected as being an evil king; after there was given from the tribe of Judah King David, and out of him from the tribe of Judah were the Kings.34393439     1 Sam. xvi. 12. But Jacob had spoken of this, when he blessed his sons, “there shall not fail a prince out of Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until there come He to whom the promise hath been made.”34403440     Gen. xlix. 10. But from the tribe of Judah there came Our Lord Jesus Christ. For He is, as the Scripture saith, and as ye have but now heard, out of the seed of David born of Mary.34413441     2 Tim. ii. 8. But as regardeth the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, wherein He is equal with the Father, He is not only before the Jews, but also before Abraham himself;34423442     John viii. 58. nor only before Abraham, but also before Adam; nor only before Adam, but also before Heaven and earth and before ages: for all things by Himself were made, and without Him there was made nothing.34433443     John i. 3. Because therefore in prophecy hath been said, “there shall not fail a prince out of Judah,” etc.:34443444     Gen. xlix. 10. former times are examined, and we find that the Jews always had their kings of the tribe of Judah, and had no foreign king before that Herod who was king when the Lord was born. Thence began foreign kings, from Herod.34453445     Luke iii. 1. Before Herod all were of the tribe of Judah, but only until there should come He to whom the promise had been made. Therefore when the Lord Himself came, the kingdom of the Jews was overthrown, and removed from the Jews. Now they have no king; because they will not acknowledge the true King. See now whether they must be called Jews. Now ye do see that they must not be called Jews. They have themselves with their own voice resigned that name, so that they are not worthy to be 356called Jews, except only in the flesh. When did they sever themselves from the name? They said, “We have no king but Cæsar.”34463446     John xix. 15. O ye who are called Jews and are not, if ye have no king but Cæsar, there hath failed a Prince of Judah: there hath come then He to whom the promise hath been made. They then are more truly Jews, who have been made Christians out of Jews: the rest of the Jews, who in Christ have not believed, have deserved to lose even the very name. The true Judæa, then, is the Church of Christ, believing in that King, who hath come out of the tribe of Judah through the Virgin Mary; believing in Him of whom the Apostle was just now speaking, in writing to Timothy, “Be thou mindful that Jesus Christ hath risen from the dead, of the seed of David, after my Gospel.”34473447     2 Tim. ii. 8. For of Judah is David, and out of David is the Lord Jesus Christ. We believing in Christ do belong to Judah: and we acknowledge Christ. We, that with eyes have not seen, in faith do keep Him. Let not therefore the Jews revile, who are no longer Jews. They said themselves, “We have no king but Cæsar.”34483448     John xix. 15. For better were it for them that their king should be Christ, of the seed of David, of the tribe of Judah. Nevertheless because Christ Himself is of the seed of David after the flesh, but God above all things blessed for ever,34493449     Rom. ix. 5. He is Himself our King and our God; our King, inasmuch as born of the tribe of Judah, after the flesh, was Christ the Lord, the Saviour; but our God, who is before Judah, and before Heaven and earth, by whom were made all things,34503450     John i. 3. both spiritual and corporal. For if all things by Himself were made; even Mary herself, out of whom He was born, by Himself was made.…

2. “Known in Judæa is God, in Israel great is the Name of Him” (ver. 1). Concerning Israel also we ought so to take it as we have concerning Judæa: as they were not the true Jews, so neither was that the true Israel. For what is Israel said to be? One seeing God. And how have they seen God, among whom He walked in the flesh; and while they supposed Him to be man, they slew Him?…“In Israel great is His Name.” Wilt thou be Israel? Observe that man concerning whom the Lord saith, “Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom guile is not.” 34513451     John i. 47. If a true Israelite is he in whom guile is not, the guileful and lying are not true Israelites. Let them not say then, that with them is God, and great is His name in Israel. Let them prove themselves Israelites, and I grant that “in Israel great is His Name.”

3. “And there hath been made in peace a place for Him, and His habitation is in Sion” (ver. 2). Again, Sion is as it were the country of the Jews; the true Sion is the Church of Christians. But the interpretation of the Hebrew names is thus handed down to us: Judæa is interpreted confession, Israel, one seeing God. After Judæa is Israel. Wilt thou see God? First do thou confess, and then in thyself there is made a place for God; because “there hath been made in peace a place for Him.” So long as then thou confessest not thy sins, in a manner thou art quarrelling with God. For how art thou not disputing with Him, who art praising that which displeaseth Him? He punisheth a thief, thou dost praise theft: He doth punish a drunken man, thou dost praise drunkenness. Thou art disputing with God, thou hast not made for Him a place in thy heart: because in peace is His place. And how dost thou begin to have peace with God? Thou beginnest with Him in confession. There is a voice of a Psalm, saying, “Begin ye to the Lord in confession.”34523452     Ps. cxlvii. 7. What is, “Begin ye to the Lord in confession”? Begin ye to be joined to the Lord. In what manner? So that the same thing may displease you as displeaseth Him. There displeaseth Him thy evil life; if it please thyself, thou art disunited from Him; if it displease thee, through confession to Him thou art united.…

4. “There He hath broken the strength of bows, and the shield, and the sword, and the battle” (ver. 3). Where hath He broken? In that eternal peace, in that perfect peace. And now, my brethren, they that have rightly believed see that they ought not to rely on themselves: and all the might of their own menaces, and whatsoever is in them whetted for mischief, this they break in pieces; and whatsoever they deem of great virtue wherewith to protect themselves temporally, and the war which they were waging against God by defending their sins, all these things He hath broken there.

5. “Thou enlightening marvellously from the eternal mountains” (ver. 4). What are the eternal mountains? Those which He hath Himself made eternal; which are the great mountains, the preachers of truth. Thou dost enlighten, but from the eternal mountains: the great mountains are first to receive Thy light, and from Thy light which the mountains receive, the earth also is clothed. But those great mountains the Apostles have received, the Apostles have received as it were the first streaks of the rising light.…Wherefore also, in another place, a Psalm saith what? “I have lifted up mine eyes unto the mountains, whence there shall come help to me.”34533453     Ps. cxxi. 1. What then, in the mountains is thy hope, and from thence to thee shall there come help? Hast thou stayed at the mountains? Take heed what thou doest. There 357is something above the mountains: above the mountains is He at whom the mountains tremble. “I have lifted up,” he saith, “mine eyes unto the mountains, whence there shall come help to me.” But what followeth? “My help,” he saith, “is from the Lord, who hath made Heaven and earth.” 34543454     Ps. cxxi. 2. Unto the mountains indeed I have lifted up eyes, because through the mountains to me the Scriptures were displayed: but I have my heart in Him that doth enlighten all mountains.…

6. “There have been troubled all the unwise in heart” (ver. 5).…How have they been troubled? When the Gospel is preached. And what is life eternal? And who is He that hath risen from the dead? The Athenians wondered, when the Apostle Paul spake of the resurrection of the dead, and thought that he spake but fables.34553455     Acts xvii. 18, 32. But because he said that there was another life which neither eye hath seen, nor ear heard, nor hath it gone up into the heart of man,34563456     1 Cor. ii. 9. therefore the unwise in heart were troubled. But what hath befallen them? “They have slept their sleep, and all men of riches have found nothing in their hands.” They have loved things present, and have gone to sleep in the midst of things present: and so these very present things have become to them delightful: just as he that seeth in a dream himself to have found treasure, is so long rich as he waketh not. The dream hath made him rich, waking hath made him poor. Sleep perchance hath held him slumbering on the earth, and lying on the hard ground, poor and perchance a beggar; in sleep he hath seen himself to lie on an ivory or golden bed, and on feathers heaped up; so long as he is sleeping, he is sleeping well, waking he hath found himself on the hard ground, whereon sleep had taken him. Such men also are these too: they have come into this life, and through temporal desires, they have as it were slumbered here; and them riches, and vain pomps that fly away, have taken, and they have passed away: they have not understood how much of good might be done therewith. For if they had known of another life, there they would have laid up unto themselves the treasure which here was doomed to perish: like as Zacchæus, the chief of the Publicans, saw that good34573457     Many omit “good.” when he received the Lord Jesus in his house, and he saith, “The half of my goods I give to the poor, and if to any man I have done any wrong, fourfold I restore.”34583458     Luke xix. 8. This man was not in the emptiness of men dreaming, but in the faith of men awake.…

7. “By Thy chiding, O God of Jacob, there have slept all men that have mounted horses” (ver. 6). Who are they that have mounted horses? They that would not be humble. To sit on horseback is no sin; but it is a sin to lift up the neck of power against God, and to deem one’s self to be in some distinction. Because thou art rich, thou hast mounted; God doth chide, and thou sleepest. Great is the anger of Him chiding, great the anger. Let your Love observe the terrible thing. Chiding hath noise, the noise is wont to make men wake. So great is the force of God chiding, that he said, “By Thy chiding, O God of Jacob, there have slept all men that have mounted horses.” Behold what a sleep that Pharaoh slept who mounted horses. For he was not awake in heart, because against chiding he had his heart hardened.34593459     Exod. xiv. 8. For hardness of heart is slumber. I ask you, my brethren, how they sleep, who, while the Gospel is sounding, and the Amen, and the Hallelujah, throughout the whole world, yet will not condemn their old life, and wake up unto a new life. There was the Scripture of God in Judæa only, now throughout the whole world it is sung. In that one nation one God who made all things was spoken of, as to be adored and worshipped; now where is He unsaid? Christ hath risen again, though derided on the Cross; that very Cross whereon He was derided, He hath now imprinted on the brows of kings: and men yet sleep.…

8. “Thou art terrible, and who shall withstand Thee at that time by Thine anger?” (ver. 7). Now they sleep, and perceive not Thee angry; but for cause that they should sleep, He was angry. Now that which sleeping they perceived not, at the end they shall perceive. For there shall appear the Judge of quick and dead. “And who shall withstand Thee at that time by Thine anger?” For now they speak that which they will, and they dispute against God and say, who are the Christians? or who is Christ? or what fools are they that believe that which they see not, and relinquish the pleasures which they see, and follow the faith of things which are not displayed to their eyes! Ye sleep and snore,34603460     Balatis. ye speak against God, as much as ye are able. “How long shall sinners, O Lord, how long shall sinners glory, they answer and will speak iniquity?”34613461     Ps. xciv. 3. But when doth no one answer and no one speak, except when he turneth himself34623462     Oxf. mss. “they,” “themselves.” against himself?…

9. “From Heaven Thou hast hurled judgment: the earth hath trembled, and hath rested” (ver. 8). She which now doth trouble herself, she which now speaketh, hath to fear at the end and to rest. Better had she now rested, that at the end she might have rejoiced. Rested? When? “When God arose unto judgment, that He might save all the meek in heart” (ver. 9). Who are the meek in heart? They that on 358snorting horses have not mounted, but in their humility have confessed their own sins. “For the thought of a man shall confess to Thee, and the remnants of the thought shall celebrate solemnities to Thee” (ver. 10). The first is the thought, the latter are the remnants of the thought. What is the first thought? That from whence we begin, that good thought whence thou wilt begin to confess. Confession uniteth us to Christ. But now the confession itself, that is, the first thought, doth produce in us the remnants of the thought: and those very “remnants of thought shall celebrate solemnities to Thee.” What is the thought which shall confess? That which condemneth the former life, that whereunto that which it was is displeasing, in order that it may be that which it was not, is itself the first thought. But because thus thou oughtest to withdraw from sins, with the first thought after having confessed to God, that it may not escape thy memory that thou hast been a sinner; in that thou hast been a sinner, thou dost celebrate solemnities to God. Furthermore it is to be understood as followeth. The first thought hath confession, and departure from the old life. But if thou shalt have forgotten from what sins thou hast been delivered, thou dost not render thanks to the Deliverer, and dost not celebrate solemnities to thy God. Behold the first confessing thought of Saul the Apostle, now Paul, who at first was Saul, when he heard a voice from Heaven!…He put forth the first thought of obedience: when he heard, “I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest,” “O Lord,” he saith, “what dost Thou bid me to do?”34633463     Acts ix. 5, 6. This is a thought confessing: now he is calling upon the Lord, whom he persecuted. In what manner the remnants of the thought shall celebrate solemnities, in the case of Paul ye have heard, when the Apostle himself was being read: “Be thou mindful that Christ Jesus hath risen from the dead, of the seed of David, after my Gospel.”34643464     2 Tim. ii. 8. What is, be thou mindful? Though effaced from thy memory be the thought, whereby at first thou hast confessed: be the remnant of the thought in the memory.…

10. Even once was Christ sacrificed for34653465     Nobis Christus immolatur; the mss. have not pro, which is in the earlier editions.—Ben. us, when we believed; then was thought; but now there are the remnants of thought, when we remember Who hath come to us, and what He hath forgiven us; by means of those very remnants of thought, that is, by means of the memory herself, He is daily so sacrificed for us,34663466     Nobis sic immolatur. as if He were daily renewing us, that hath renewed us by His first grace. For now the Lord hath renewed us in Baptism, and we have become new men, in hope indeed rejoicing, in order that in tribulation we may be patient:34673467     Rom. xii. 12. nevertheless, there ought not to escape from our memory that which hath been bestowed upon us. And if now thy thought is not what it was,—for the first thought was to depart from sin: but now thou dost not depart, but at that time didst depart,—be there remnants of thought, lest He who hath made whole escape from memory.…

11. “Vow ye, and pay to the Lord our God” (ver. 11). Let each man vow what he is able, and pay it. Do not vow and not pay: but let every man vow, and pay what he can. Be ye not slow to vow: for ye will accomplish the vows by powers not your own. Ye will fail, if on yourselves ye rely: but if on Him to whom ye vow ye rely, ye will be safe to pay. “Vow ye, and pay to the Lord our God.” What ought we all in common to vow? To believe in Him, to hope from Him for life eternal, to live godly according to a measure common to all. For there is a certain measure common to all men. To commit no theft is not a thing enjoined merely upon one devoted to continence,34683468     Castimoniali. and not enjoined upon the married woman: to commit no adultery is enjoined upon all men: not to love wine-bibbing, whereby the soul is swallowed up, and doth corrupt in herself the Temple of God, is enjoined to all alike: not to be proud, is enjoined to all men alike: not to slay man, not to hate a brother, not to lay a plot to destroy any one, is enjoined to all in common. The whole of this we all ought to vow. There are also vows proper for individuals: one voweth to God conjugal chastity, that he will know no other woman besides his wife:34693469     The wife being living, and supposing he may survive. The following case would be that of one already a widower. so also the woman, that she will know no other man besides her husband. Other men also vow, even though they have used such a marriage, that beyond this they will have no such thing, that they will neither desire nor admit the like: and these men have vowed a greater vow than the former. Others vow even virginity from the beginning of life, that they will even know no such thing as those who having experienced have relinquished: and these men have vowed the greatest vow. Others vow that their house shall be a place of entertainment for all the Saints that may come: a great vow they vow. Another voweth to relinquish all his goods to be distributed to the poor, and go into a community, into a society of the Saints: a great vow he doth vow. “Vow ye, and pay to the Lord our God.” Let each one vow what he shall have willed to vow; let him give heed to this, that he pay what he hath vowed. If any man doth look back with regard to what he hath vowed to God, it 359is an evil. Some woman or other devoted to continence hath willed to marry: what hath she willed? The same as any virgin. What hath she willed? The same as her own mother. Hath she willed any evil thing? Evil certainly. Why? Because already she had vowed to the Lord her God. For what hath the apostle Paul said concerning such? Though he saith that young widows may marry if they will:34703470     1 Tim. v. 14. nevertheless he saith in a certain passage, “but more blessed she will be, if so she shall have remained, after my judgment.”34713471     1 Cor. vii. 40. He showeth that she is more blessed, if so she shall have remained; but nevertheless that she is not to be condemned, if she shall have willed to marry. But what saith he concerning certain who have vowed and have not paid? “Having,” he saith, “judgment, because the first faith they have made void.”34723472     1 Tim. v. 12. What is, “the first faith they have made void”? They have vowed, and have not paid. Let no brother therefore, when placed in a monastery, say, I shall depart from the monastery: for neither are they only that are in a monastery to attain unto the kingdom of Heaven, nor do those that are not there not belong unto God. We answer him, but they have not vowed; thou hast vowed, thou hast looked back. When the Lord was threatening them with the day of judgment, He saith what? “Remember Lot’s wife.”34733473     Luke xvii. 32. To all men He spake. For what did Lot’s wife? She was delivered from Sodom, and being in the way she looked back. In the place where she looked back, there she remained. For she became a statue of salt,34743474     Gen. xix. 26. in order that by considering her men might be seasoned, might have sense, might not be infatuated, might not look back, lest by giving a bad example they should themselves remain and season others. For even now we are saying this to certain of our brethren, whom perchance we may have seen as it were weak in the good they have purposed. And wilt thou be such an one as he was? We put before them certain who have looked back. They are savourless 34753475     Fatui. in themselves, but they season others, inasmuch as they are mentioned, in order that fearing their example they may not look back. “Vow ye, and pay.” For that wife of Lot to all doth belong. A married woman hath had the will to commit adultery; from her place whither she had arrived she looked back. A widow who had vowed so to remain hath willed to marry, she hath willed the thing which was lawful to her who hath married, but to herself was not lawful, because from her place she hath looked back. There is a virgin devoted to continence, already dedicated to God; let her have34763476     Oxf. mss. habeat. also the other gifts which truly do adorn virginity itself, and without which that virginity is unclean. For what if she be uncorrupt in body and corrupt in mind? What is it that he hath said? What if no one hath touched the body, but if perchance she be drunken, be proud, be contentious, be talkative? All these things God doth condemn. If before she had vowed, she had married, she would not have been condemned: she hath chosen something better, hath overcome that which was lawful for her; she is proud, and doth commit so many things unlawful. This I say, it is lawful for her to marry before that she voweth, to be proud is never lawful. O thou virgin of God, thou hast willed not to marry, which is lawful: thou dost exalt thyself, which is not lawful. Better is a virgin humble, than a married woman humble: but better is a married woman humble, than a virgin proud. But she that looked back upon marriage is condemned, not because she hath willed to marry; but because she had already gone before, and is become the wife of Lot by looking back. Be ye not slow, that are able, whom God doth inspire to seize upon higher callings: for we do not say these things in order that ye may not vow, but in order that ye may vow and may pay. Now because we have treated of these matters, thou perchance wast willing to vow, and now art not willing to vow. But observe what the Psalm hath said to thee. It hath not said, “Vow not;” but, “Vow and pay.” Because thou hast heard, “pay,” wilt thou not vow? Therefore wast thou willing to vow, and not to pay? Nay, do both. One thing is done by thy profession, another thing will be perfected by the aid of God. Look to Him who doth guide thee, and thou wilt not look back to the place whence He is leading thee forth. He that guideth thee is walking before thee; the place from whence He is guiding thee is behind thee. Love Him guiding, and He doth not condemn thee looking back. 34773477     [See A.N.F. vol. iv. p. 40, and General Index, sub voce “Marriage.”—C.]

12. “All they that are in the circuit of Him shall offer gifts.” Who are in the circuit of Him?…Whatever is common to all is in the midst. Why is it said to be in the midst? Because it is at the same distance from all, and at the same proximity to all. That which is not in the middle, is as it were private. That which is public is set in the middle, in order that all they that come may use the same, may be enlightened. Let no one say, it is mine: lest he should be wanting to make his own share of that which is in the midst for all. What then is, “All 360they that are in the circuit of Him shall offer gifts”? All they that understand truth to be common to all, and who do not make it as it were their own by being proud concerning it, they shall offer gifts; because they have humility: but they that make as it were their own that which is common to all, as though it were set in the middle, are endeavouring to lead men astray to a party, these shall not offer gifts.…“To Him terrible.” Let therefore all men fear that are in the circuit of Him. For therefore they shall fear, and with trembling they shall praise; because they are in the circuit of Him, to the end that all men may attain unto Him, and He may openly meet all, and openly enlighten all. This is, to stand in awe with others.34783478     Contremiscere. When thou hast made him as it were thine own, and no longer common, thou art exalted unto pride; though it is written, “Serve ye the Lord in fear, and exult unto Him with trembling.”34793479     Ps. ii. 11. Therefore they shall offer gifts, who are in the circuit of Him. For they are humble who know truth to be common to all.

13. To whom shall they offer gifts? “To Him terrible, and to Him that taketh away the spirit of princes” (ver. 12). For the spirits of princes are proud spirits. They then are not His Spirits; for if they know anything, their own they will it to be, not public; but, that which setteth Himself forth as equal toward all men, that setteth Himself in the midst, in order that all men may take as much as they can, whatever they can; not of what is any man’s, but of what is God’s, and therefore of their own because they have become His. Therefore they must needs be humble: they have lost their own spirit, and they have the Spirit of God.…For if thou shalt have confessed thyself dust, God out of dust doth make34803480     Or, “make thee man” (three mss. ap. Ben. te). man. All they that are in the circuit of Him do offer gifts. All humble men do confess to Him, and do adore Him. “To Him terrible they offer gifts.” Whence to Him terrible exult ye with trembling:34813481     Ps. ii. 11. “and to Him that taketh away the spirit of princes:” that is, that taketh away the haughtiness of proud men. “To Him terrible among the kings of the earth.” Terrible are the kings of the earth, but He is above all, that doth terrify the kings of the earth. Be thou a king of the earth, and God will be to thee terrible. How, wilt thou say, shall I be a king of the earth? Rule the earth, and thou wilt be a king of the earth. Do not therefore with desire of empire set before thine eyes exceeding wide provinces, where thou mayest spread abroad thy kingdoms; rule thou the earth which thou bearest. Hear the Apostle ruling the earth: “I do not so fight as if beating air, but I chasten my body, and bring it into captivity, lest perchance preaching to other men, I myself become a reprobate.”34823482     1 Cor. ix. 26, 27.


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