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Chapter 6.—21.  It is indeed better (as no one ever could deny) that men should be led to worship God by teaching, than that they should be driven to it by fear of punishment or pain; but it does not follow that because the former course produces the better men, therefore those who do not yield to it should be neglected.  For many have found advantage (as we have proved, and are daily proving by actual experiment), in being first compelled by fear or pain, so that they might afterwards be influenced by teaching, or might follow out in act what they had already learned in word.  Some, indeed, set before us the sentiments of a certain secular author, who said,

"’Tis well, I ween, by shame the young to train,

And dread of meanness, rather than by pain."25062506     Ter. Adelph. act 1. sc. i. 32, 33.

This is unquestionably true.  But while those are better who are guided aright by love, those are certainly more numerous who are corrected by fear.  For, to answer these persons out of their own author, we find him saying in another place,

"Unless by pain and suffering thou art taught,

Thou canst not guide thyself aright in aught."25072507     This is not found in the extant plays of Terence.

But, moreover, holy Scripture has both said concerning the former better class, "There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear;"25082508     1 John iv. 18. and also concerning the latter lower class, which furnishes the majority, "A servant will not be corrected by words; for though he understand, he will not answer."25092509     Prov. xxix. 19.   In saying, "He will not be corrected by words," he did not order him to be left to himself, but implied an admonition as to the means whereby he ought to be corrected; otherwise he would not have said, "He will not be corrected by words," but without any qualification, "He will not be corrected."  For in another place he says that not only the servant, but also the undisdained son, must be corrected with stripes, and that with great fruits as the result; for he says, "Thou shall beat him with the rod, and shall deliver his soul from hell;"25102510     Prov. xxiii. 14. and elsewhere he says, "He that spareth the rod hateth his son."25112511     Prov. xiii. 24.   For, give us a man who with right faith and true understanding can say with all the energy of his heart, "My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God:  when shall I come and appear before God?"25122512     Ps. xlii. 2. and for such an one there is no need of the terror of hell, to say nothing of temporal punishments or imperial laws, seeing that with him it is so indispensable a blessing to cleave unto the Lord, that he not only dreads being parted from that happiness as a heavy punishment, but can scarcely even bear delay in its attainment.  But yet, before the good sons can say they have "a desire to depart, and to be with Christ,"25132513     Phil. i. 23. many must first be recalled to their Lord by the stripes of temporal scourging, like evil slaves, and in some degree like good-for-nothing fugitives.

22.  For who can possibly love us more than Christ, who laid down His life for His sheep?25142514     John x. 15.   And yet, after calling Peter and the other apostles by His words alone, when He came to summon Paul, who was before called Saul, subsequently the powerful builder of His Church, but originally its cruel persecutor, He not only constrained him with His voice, but even dashed him to the earth with His power; and that He might forcibly bring one who was raging amid the darkness of infidelity to desire the light of the heart, He first struck him with physical blindness of the eyes.  If that punishment had not been inflicted, he would not afterwards have been healed by it; and since he had been wont to see nothing with his eyes open, if they had remained unharmed, the Scripture would not tell us that at the imposition of Ananias’ hands, in order that their sight might be restored, there fell from them as it had been scales, by which the sight had been obscured.25152515     Acts ix. 1-18.   Where is what the Donatists were wont to cry:  Man is at liberty to believe or not believe?  Towards whom did Christ use violence?  Whom did He compel?  Here they have the Apostle Paul.  Let them recognize in his case Christ first compelling, and afterwards teaching; first striking, and afterwards consoling.  For it is wonderful how he who entered the service of the gospel in the first instance under the compulsion of bodily punishment, afterwards labored more in the gospel than all they who were called by word only;25162516     1 Cor. xv. 10. and he who was compelled by the greater influ642ence of fear to love, displayed that perfect love which casts out fear.

23.  Why, therefore, should not the Church use force in compelling her lost sons to return, if the lost sons compelled others to their destruction?  Although even men who have not been compelled, but only led astray, are received by their loving mother with more affection if they are recalled to her bosom through the enforcement of terrible but salutary laws, and are the objects of far more deep congratulation than those whom she had never lost.  Is it not a part of the care of the shepherd, when any sheep have left the flock, even though not violently forced away, but led astray by tender words and coaxing blandishments, to bring them back to the fold of his master when he has found them, by the fear or even the pain of the whip, if they show symptoms of resistance; especially since, if they multiply with growing abundance among the fugitive slaves and robbers, he has the more right in that the mark of the master is recognized on them, which is not outraged in those whom we receive but do not rebaptize?  For the wandering of the sheep is to be corrected in such wise that the mark of the Redeemer should not be destroyed on it.  For even if any one is marked with the royal stamp by a deserter who is marked with it himself, and the two receive forgiveness,25172517     Accipiant:  sc. the baptizer and the baptized; and so the Mss.  The common reading is "accipiat." and the one returns to his service, and the other begins to be in the service in which he had no part before, that mark is not effaced in either of the two, but rather it is recognized in both of them, and approved with the honor which is due to it because it is the king’s.  Since then they cannot show that the destination is bad to which they are compelled, they maintain that they ought to be compelled by force even to what is good.  But we have shown that Paul was compelled by Christ; therefore the Church, in trying to compel the Donatists, is following the example of her Lord, though in the first instance she waited in the hopes of needing to compel no one, that the prediction of the prophet might be fulfilled concerning the faith of kings and peoples.

24.  For in this sense also we may interpret without absurdity the declaration of the blessed Apostle Paul, when he says, "Having in a readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience is fulfilled."25182518     2 Cor. x. 6.   Whence also the Lord Himself bids the guests in the first instance to be invited to His great supper, and afterwards compelled; for on His servants making answer to Him, "Lord, it is done as Thou hast commanded, and yet there is room," He said to them, "Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in."25192519     Luke xiv. 22, 23.   In those, therefore, who were first brought in with gentleness, the former obedience is fulfilled; but in those who were compelled, the disobedience is avenged.  For what else is the meaning of  "Compel them to come in," after it had previously said, "Bring in," and the answer had been made, "Lord, it is done as Thou commanded, and yet there is room"?  If He had wished it to be understood that they were to be compelled by the terrifying force of miracles, many divine miracles were rather wrought in the sight of those who were first called, especially in the sight of the Jews, of whom it was said, "The Jews require a sign;"25202520     1 Cor. i. 22. and, moreover, among the Gentiles themselves the gospel was so commended by miracles in the time of the apostles, that had these been the means by which they were ordered to be compelled, we might rather have had good grounds for supposing, as I said before, that it was the earlier guests who were compelled.  Wherefore, if the power which the Church has received by divine appointment in its due season, through the religious character and the faith of kings, be the instrument by which those who are found in the highways and hedges—that is, in heresies and schisms—are compelled to come in, then let them not find fault with being compelled, but consider whether they be so compelled.  The supper of the Lord is the unity of the body of Christ, not only in the sacrament of the altar, but also in the bond of peace.  Of the Donatists themselves, indeed, we can say that they compel no man to any good thing; for whomsoever they compel, they compel to nothing else but evil.


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