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Chapter 47.—109.  Petilianus said:  "But the same Psalmist has sung the praises of our baptism.  ‘The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want.  He maketh me to lie down in the green pastures:  He leadeth me beside the still waters.  He restoreth my soul:  He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for His name’s sake.  Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,’—though the persecutor, he means, should slay me,—‘I will fear no evil:  for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thy staff comfort me.’  It was by this that it conquered Goliath, being armed with the anointing oil.  ‘Thou hast prepared a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:  Thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.  Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.’"21272127     Ps. xxiii.

110.  Augustin answered:  This psalm speaks of those who receive baptism aright, and use as holy what is so holy.  For those words have no reference even to Simon Magus, who yet received the same holy baptism; and because he would not use it in a holy way, he did not therefore pollute it, or show that in such cases it should be repeated.  But since you have made mention of Goliath, listen to the psalm which treats of Goliath himself, and see that he is portrayed in a new song; for there it is said, "I will sing a new song unto Thee, O God:  upon a psaltery, and an instrument of ten strings, will I sing praise unto Thee."21282128     Ps. cxliv. 9.   And see whether he belongs to this song who refuses to communicate with the whole earth.  For elsewhere it is said, "O sing unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the Lord, all the earth."21292129     Ps. xcvi. 1.   Therefore the whole earth, with whom you are not in unity, 559sings the new song.  And these too are the words of the whole earth, "The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want," etc.  These are not the words of the tares, though they be endured until the harvest in the same crop.  They are not the words of the chaff, but of the wheat, although they are nourished by one and the same rain, and are threshed out on the same threshing-floor at the same time, till they shall be separated the one from the other by the winnowing at the last day.  And yet these both assuredly have the same baptism, though they are not the same themselves.  But if your party also were the Church of God, you would certainly confess that this psalm has no application to the infuriated bands of the Circumcelliones.  Or if they too themselves are led through the paths of righteousness, why do you deny that they are your associates, when you are reproached with them, although, for the most part, you console yourselves for the scantiness of your section, not by the rod and staff of the Lord, but by the cudgels of the Circumcelliones, with which you think that you are safe even against the Roman laws,—to bring oneself into collision with which is surely nothing less than to walk through the valley of the shadow of death?  But he with whom the Lord is, fears no evils.  Surely, however, you will not venture to say that the words which are sung in this song belong even to those infuriated men, and yet you not only acknowledge, but ostentatiously set forth the fact that they have baptism.  These words, therefore, are not used by any who are not refreshed by the holy water, as are all the righteous men of God; not by those who are brought to destruction by using it, as was that magician when baptized by Philip:  and yet the water itself in both kinds of men is the same, and of the same degree of sanctity.  These words are not used except by those who will belong to the right hand; but yet both sheep and goats feed in the same pasture under one Shepherd, until they shall be separated, that they may receive their due reward.  These words are not used except by those who, like Peter, receive life from the table of the Lord, not judgment, as did Judas; and yet the supper was itself the same to both, but it was not of the same profit to both, because they were not one.  These words are not used except by those who, by being anointed with the sacred oil, are blessed in spirit also, as was David; not merely consecrated in the body only, as was Saul:  and yet, as they had both received the same outward sign, it was not the sacrament, but the personal merit that was different in the two cases.  These words are not used except by those who, with converted heart, receive the cup of the Lord unto eternal life; not by those who eat and drink damnation to themselves, as the apostle says:21302130     1 Cor. xi. 29.   and yet, though they are not one, the cup which they receive is one, exerting its power on the martyrs that they should obtain a heavenly reward, not on the Circumcelliones, that they should mark precipices with death.  Remember, therefore, that the characters of bad men in no wise interfere with the virtue of the sacraments, so that their holiness should either be destroyed, or even diminished; but that they injure the unrighteous men themselves, that they should have them as witnesses of their damnation, not as aids to health.  For beyond all doubt you should have taken into consideration the actual concluding words of this psalm, and have understood that, on account of those who forsake the faith after they have been baptized, it cannot be said by all who receive holy baptism that "I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever:"  and yet, whether they abide in the faith, or whether they have fallen away, though they themselves are not one, their baptism is one, and though they themselves are not both holy, yet the baptism in both is holy; because even apostates, if they return, are not baptized as though they had lost the sacrament, but undergo humiliation, because they have done a despite to it which remains in them.


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