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Chapter 11.—By What Rule in the Scriptures It is Understood that the Son is Now Equal and Now Less.

22. Wherefore, having mastered this rule for interpreting the Scriptures concerning the Son of God, that we are to distinguish in them what relates to the form of God, in which He is equal to the Father, and what to the form of a servant which He took, in which He is less than the Father; we shall not be disquieted by apparently contrary and mutually repugnant sayings of the sacred books. For both the Son and the Holy Spirit, according to the form of God, are equal to the Father, because neither of them is a creature, as we have already shown: but according to the form of a servant He is less than the Father, because He Himself has said, “My Father is greater than I;”120120    John xiv. 28 and He is less than Himself, because it is said of Him, He emptied Himself;”121121    Phil. ii. 7 and He is less than the Holy Spirit, because He Himself says, “Whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven Him.”122122    Matt. xii. 32 And in the Spirit too He wrought miracles, saying: “But if I with the Spirit of God cast out devils, no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you.”123123    Matt. xii. 28 And in Isaiah He says,—in the lesson which He Himself read in the synagogue, and showed without a scruple of doubt to be fulfilled concerning Himself,—“The Spirit of the Lord God,” He says, “is upon me: because He hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek He hath sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives,”124124    Isa. lxi. 1; Luke iv. 18, 19 etc.: for the doing of which things He therefore declares Himself to be “sent,” because the Spirit of God is upon Him. According to the form of God, all things were made by Him;125125    John i. 3 according to the form of a servant, He was Himself made of a woman, made under the law.126126    Gal. iv. 4 According to the form of God, He and the Father are one;127127    John x. 30 according to the form of a servant, He came not to do His own will, but the will of Him that sent Him.128128    John vi. 38 According to the form of God, “As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself;”129129    John v. 26. [In communicating the Divine Essence to the Son, in eternal generation, the essence is communicated with all its attributes. Self existence is one of these attributes. In this way, the Father “gives to the Son to have life in himself,” when he makes common (κοινωνεῖν), between Himself and the Son, the one Divine Essence.—W.G.T.S.] according to the form of a servant, His “soul is sorrowful even unto death;” and, “O my Father,” He says, “if it be possible, let this cup pass from me.”130130    Matt. xxvi. 38, 39 According to the form of God, “He is the True God, and eternal life;”131131    1 John v. 20 according to the form of a servant, “He became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.”132132    Phil. ii. 8—23. According to the form of God, all things that the Father hath are His,133133    John xvii. 15 and “All mine,” He says, “are Thine, and Thine are mine;”134134    John xvii. 10 according to the form of a servant, the doctrine is not His own, but His that sent Him.135135    John vii. 16


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