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EDITORS


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor-in-Chief.)

Professor of Church History, New York University.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN GEORGE WILLLAM GILMORE, M.A.

Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on "The New International Encyclopedia," New York.

New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.
DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME II.
CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D. JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Seminary.

(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D. HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

One of the Corresponding Secretaries of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D. ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders.)

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary (Baylor University), Waco, Tex.

HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D. FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A

(Office Editor.)

Formerly of the Editorial Staff of the "Encyclopædia Britannica" Company, New York City.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the Standard Dictionary, etc., New York City.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME II.
ERNST CHRISTIAN ACHELIS, Th.D., KARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Practical Theology, University of Marburg. Professor of Church History, University of Königsberg.
SAMUEL JAMES ANDREWS (†), D.D., IMMANUEL GUSTAF ADOLF BENZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,
Late Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church, Hartford, Conn. Formerly Privat-docent in Old Testament Theology, University of Berlin, Member of the Executive Committee of the German Society for the Exploration of Palestine, Jerusalem.
CARL FRANKLIN ARNOLD, Ph.D., Th.D.,  
Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Breslau.  
FERENCZ BALOGH, SAMUEL BERGER (†), D.D.,
Professor of Church History, Reformed Theological Academy, Debreczin, Hungary. Late Librarian to the Faculty of Protestant Theology, Paris.
EDUARD BARDE (†), CARL ALBRECHT BERNOULLI, Th.Lic.,
Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, School of Theology, Geneva. Professor in Berlin.
HERMANN BARGE, Ph.D., CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,
Gymnasial Professor in Leipsic. President of the Society for Innere Mission, and Pastor of St. Michael's Church, Hamburg.
SAMUEL JUNE BARROWS, D.D, WILLIBALD BEYSCHLAG (†), Th.D.,
Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association of New York. Late Professor of Theology, University of Halle.
JOHANNES BELSHEIM, AMY GASTON BONET-MAURY, D.D., LL.D.,
Pastor Emeritus in Christiania, Norway. Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity, Paris.
vi
GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH, Th.D., THEODOR GEROLD, Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Göttingen. President of the Consistory, Strasburg.
FRIEDRICH BOSSE, Ph.D., Th.Lic., GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.,
Extraordinary Professor of Theology, University of Greifswald. Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary, Associate Editor of the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia.
GUSTAF BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D., WILHELM GLAMANN,
Pastor Emeritus, Stuttgart. Pastor at Siebeneichen, near Löwenberg, Prussia.
JOHANNES FRIEDRICH THEODOR BRIEGER, Ph.D., Th.D., WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic. Honorary Professor of Geography, Technische Hochschule, and Professor, Military Academy, Munich.
CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D., Litt.D., CASPAR RENÉ GREGORY, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D., D.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.
FRANTS PEDER WILLIAM BUHL, Ph.D., Th.D., PAUL GRUENBERG, Th.Lic.,
Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen. Pastor in Strasburg.
KARL BURGER (†), Th.D., GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,
Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Munich. Extraordinary Professor of Church History and of the New Testament, University of Heidelberg.
WALTER CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.Lic., REINHOLD GRUNDEMANN, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Practical Theology, Pedagogics, and Didactics, and University Preacher, University of Erlangen. Pastor at Mörz, near Belzig, Prussia.
JACQUES EUGÈNE CHOISY, Th.D., HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,
Pastor in Geneva, Switzerland. Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.
FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lic., ADOLF HARNACK, M.D., Ph.D., Th.D.,
Consistorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Hanover. Professor of Church History, University of Berlin, and General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.
ALEXIS IRENÉE DU PONT COLEMAN, M.A., ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D.,
Instructor in English, College of the City of New York. Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic, Editor-in-Chief of the Hauck-Herzog Realencyklopädie.
GUSTAF HERMAN DALMAN, Ph.D., Th.D., HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic, and President of the German Evangelical Archeological Institute, Jerusalem. Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.
SAMUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH, Th.D., JOHANNES HAUSSLEITER, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Berlin. Professor of the New Testament, University of Greifswald.
FRANZ WILHELM DIBELIUS, Ph.D., Th.D., CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG HEINRICI, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Supreme Consistorial Councilor, City Superintendent and Pastor of the Kreuzkirche, Dresden. Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.
JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D., EDGAR HENNECKE, Th.Lic.,
President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y. Pastor at Betheln, Hanover.
HENRY OTIS DWIGHT, LL.D., HERMANN HERING, Th.D.,
Recording Secretary of the American Bible Society, Coeditor of the "Encyclopedia of Missions," New York. Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halle.
EMIL EGLI, Th.D., MAX HEROLD, Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Zurich. Dean, Neustadt-an-der-Aisch, Bavaria, Editor of Siona.
DAVID ERDMANN (†), Th.D., JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Late Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Breslau. Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen, Founder of the Hauck-Herzog Realencyklopädie.
ALFRED ERICHSON (†), Ph.D., Th.D., ALFRED HEGLER (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Late Professor of Theology, University of Strasburg. Late Professor of Church History, University of Tübingen.
CARL FEY, Ph.D., JOHANNES HESSE,
Pastor at Cösseln, near Halle. Former Editor of the Evangelisches Missions-Magazin and President of the Publishing Society at Calw, Württemberg.
JOHN FOX, D.D., PAUL HINSCHIUS (†), LL.D.,
Corresponding Secretary of the American Bible Society, New York. Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.
EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG, Dr.Jur., HERMANN WILHELM HEINRICH HOELSCHER, Th.D.,
Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public and German Law, University of Leipsic. Pastor of the Nikolaikirche, Leipsic, Editor of the Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung and of the Theologisches Literaturblatt.
vii
KARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D. KARL JOHANNES NEUMANN, Ph.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Berlin. Professor of the History of Art, University of Kiel.
ALFRED JEREMIAS, Ph.D., Th.Lic., ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,
Pastor of the Lutherkirche, Leipsic. Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary (Baylor University), Waco, Tex.
MARTIN KAEHLER, Th.D., JULIUS NEY, Th.D.,
Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, University of Halle. Supreme Consistorial Councilor in Speyer, Bavaria.
ADOLF KAMPHAUSEN, Th.D., FRIEDRIK CHRISTIAN NIELSEN (†), Th.D.,
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn. Late Bishop of Aalborg, Denmark.
PETER GUSTAF KAWERAU, Th.D., FRIEDRICH AUGUST NITZSCH (†), Ph.D.,
Consistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology, and University Preacher, University of Breslau. Late Professor of Theology, University of Kiel.
RUDOLF KITTEL, Ph.D., HANS CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic. Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Religion, University of Basel.
FRIEDRICH HERMANN THEODOR KOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D., MARGARET BLOODGOOD PEEKE
Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.  Inspectress-General of the Martinist Order of America.
HERMAN GUSTAF EDUARD KRUEGER, Ph.D., Th.D., CHARLES PFENDER,
Professor of Church History, University of Giessen. Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.
JOHANNES WILHELM KUNZE, Ph.D., BERNHARD PICK, Ph.D., D.D.,
Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of Greifswald. Pastor of the First German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Newark, N. J.
L. A. VAN LANGERAAD, Ph.D. FREDERICK DUNGLISON POWER, LL.D.,
Lekkerkerk, Holland Pastor of the Garfield Memorial Church, Washington, D. C.
LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D. WILLIAM PRICE,
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg. Formerly Instructor in French, Yale College and Sheffield Scientific School, New Haven, Conn.
EDUARD LEMPP, Ph.D. FRANZ PRAETORIUS, Ph.D.,
Superintendent of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart. Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Halle.
AUGUST LESKIEN, Ph.D. GEORG CHRISTIAN RIETSCHEL, Th.D.,
Professor of Slavonic Languages, University of Leipsic. Professor of Practical Theology and University Preacher, University of Leipsic.
FRIEDRICH ARMIN LOOFS, Ph.D., Th.D., SIEGFRIED RIETSCHEL, Dr.Jur.,
Professor of Church History, University of Halle. Professor of German Law, University of Tübingen.
ANDERS HERMAN LUNDSTRÖM, Th.D., HENDRICK CORNELIUS ROGGE (†), Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, Royal University of Upsala, Sweden. Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam.
JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D., EUGEN SACHSSE, Th.D.,
Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto. University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology in the Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Bonn.
PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D., DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,
Supreme Consistorial Councilor and Member of the Royal Consistory, Hanover. Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa.
CARL THEODOR MIRBT, Th.D., PHILIP SCHAFF (†), D.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Marburg. Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York, Founder of the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia.
ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL MUELLER, Th.D., REINHOLD SCHMID, Th.Lic.,
Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen. Pastor at Oberholzheim, Württemberg.
GEORG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D., RICHARD KARL BERNHARD SCHMIDT, Dr.Jur.,
Councilor for Schools, Leipsic. Professor of Jurisprudence and Civil and Criminal Procedure, University of Freiburg.
JOSEF MUELLER, Th.D., JOHANN SCHNEIDER,
Pastor in Ebersdorf, Reuss. Pastor at Neckar-Steinach, Hesse.
NIKOLAUS MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D., THEODOR SCHOTT (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Extraordinary Professor of Christian Archeology, University of Berlin. Late Librarian and Professor of Theology, University of Stuttgart.
CHRISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE, Ph.D., Th.D.,  
Professor in the Theological Seminary at Maulbronn, Württemberg.  
viii
JOHANN FRIEDRICH RITTER VON SCHULTE, Dr.Jur., PAUL TSCHACKERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of German Ecclesiastical Law and of the History of Law, University of Bonn. Professor of Church History, University of Göttingen.
VICTOR SCHULTZE, Th.D., JOHANN GERHARD UHLHORN (†), Th.D.,
Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, University of Greifswald. Late Consistorial Councilor, Hanover.
HANS SCHULZ, Ph.D., MARVIN RICHARDSON VINCENT, D.D.,
Gymnasial Professor at Steglitz, near Berlin. Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Criticism, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
LUDWIG SCHULZE, Ph.D., Th.D., WILHELM VOGT (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock. Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Rostock.
OTTO SEEBASS, Ph.D., STACY REUBEN WARBURTON,
Educator in Leipsic, Germany. Assistant Editor of The Baptist Missionary Magazine, Boston.
REINHOLD SEEBERG, Th.D., BENJAMIN BRECKINRIDGE WARFIELD, D.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin. Professor of Didactic and Polemical Theology, Princeton Theological Seminary.
EMIL SEHLING, Dr.Jur., AUGUST WILHELM WERNER, Th.D.,
Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University of Erlangen. Pastor Primartus, Guben, Prussia.
FRIEDRICH ANTON EMIL SIEFFERT, Ph.D., Th.D., FRANCIS METHERALL WHITLOCK,
Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn. Pastor of the Bethlehem Congregational Church, Cleveland, O.
EMIL ELIAS STEINMEYER, Ph.D., RICHARD PAUL WUELKER, Ph.D.,
Professor of German Language and Literature, University of Erlangen. Professor of English, University of Leipsic.
GEORG EDUARD STEITZ (†), Th.D., AUGUST WUENSCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Late Pastor in Frankfort-on-the-Main. Titular Professor in Dresden.
ALFRED STOECKIUS, Ph.D., THEODOR ZAHN, Th.D., Litt.D.,
Astor Library, New York. Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Introduction, University of Erlangen.
HERMANN LEBERECHT STRACK, Ph.D., Th.D., HEINRICH ZIMMER, Ph.D.,
Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, University of Berlin. Professor of Celtic Philology, University of Berlin.
  OTTO ZOECKLER (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
  Late Professor of Church History, University of Greifswald.

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