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PREFACE


This encyclopedia presents in a condensed and modified form that great body of Protestant learning called the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, edited by Professor Albert Hauck, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., the famous church historian of Germany. The German work is the third edition of that religious encyclopedia which was originally edited by the late Professor Johann Jakob Herzog and bore his name popularly as a convenient short title. The late Professor Philip Schaff was requested by his intimate friend Dr. Herzog to adapt the encyclopedia to the American public and this he did. To this combination of German and American scholarship the publishers gave the happy title of The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge. This name has been familiar to thousands of the religious public on both sides of the sea for the past twenty-five years and so has been preserved as the title of this publication, with the prefix “New.”

The history of this encyclopedia up to the present is this: In December, 1853, there appeared at Gotha the first part of the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, which was the Protestant reply to the challenge of the Roman Catholic scholars engaged upon the Kirchenlexikon oder Encyklopädie der katholischen Theologie und ihrer Hülfswissenschaften, which had been appearing at Freiburg im Breisgau since 1846. The credit for suggesting the latter work must be given to Benjamin Herder (1818-88), one of the leading publishers of Germany. Its editors were Heinrich Joseph Wetzer (1801-53), professor of Oriental philology in the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, a layman, and Benedict Welte (1805-85), a priest and professor of theology in the University of Tübingen. The proposition to do as much for Protestant theology and research was mooted by a company of Protestant theologians, and Matthias Schneckenburger (1804-18), professor of theology in Bern, had been chosen editor of the projected work. But the political troubles of 1848 prevented the carrying out of the scheme and the death of Schneckenburger that year made it necessary to find another leader. At this juncture Friedrich August Tholuck (1799-1877), professor of theology in Halle, where Johann Jakob Herzog was professor from 1847 to 1854, was consulted and he named his colleague. It was an ideal choice, as Professor Herzog was a competent scholar, a friend of progress in theology, moderate in his views, and a persona grata to all parties among the Protestants. The publisher of the Protestant encyclopedia was Christian Friedrich Adolf Rost (1790-1856), who was carrying on the business of Johann Conrad Hinrichs, and under that name.

Both the Roman Catholic and Protestant religious encyclopedias were conspicuous successes and came to be called popularly, by the names of their editors, “Wetzer and Welte” and “Herzog” respectively. The former was finished in 1856 in twelve volumes, followed by an index volume in 1860; the latter in 1868 in twenty-two volumes including the index. In December, 1877, the Herders entrusted a new edition of “Wetzer and Welte” to Joseph Hergenröther (1824-80), at that time a professor of theology in Munich. On his elevation to the cardinalate in 1879 he transferred his editorial duties to Franz Philipp Kaulen (1827-1907), Roman Catholic professor of theology in Bonn, and under him the new edition was finished in 1901 in twelve volumes, each one much larger than those of the first edition. In September, 1903, the index volume appeared. In 1877 the first volume of the second edition of “Herzog” appeared, edited by Professor Herzog with the assistance of his colleague in the theological faculty in Erlangen, Gustav Leopold Plitt (1836-80). On Plitt’s death Herzog called in another colleague, Albert Hauck (1845-), the professor of church history, who survived him and brought the work to its triumphant close in 1888 in eighteen volumes, including the index. In the spring of 1896 appeared the first part of the third edition of “Herzog” with Hauck, who meanwhile had gone to Leipsic as professor of church history, as sole editor. It is upon this third edition that the present work is based.

The idea of translating “Herzog” in a slightly condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus Bomberger (1817-90), a minister of the German Reformed Church, and then president of Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa., and in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose title-page reads thus: The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translation of Herzog’s Real Encyclopedia. With Additions from Other Sources. By Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D.D., Assisted by Distinguished Theologians of Various Denominations. Vol. I. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, x 1856. In this work he associated with himself twelve persons, all but one ministers. In 1860 he issued the second volume. But the Civil War breaking out the next year put a stop to so costly an enterprise and it was never resumed. The first volume included the article “Concubinage,” the second “Josiah.” It had been issued in numbers, of which the last was the twelfth.

In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff (1819-93) was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an English reproduction of the second edition of his encyclopedia, and this work was fairly begun when, in the autumn of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff’s study in the Bible House, New York City. The next year Dr. Schaff’s son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff, now professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., joined the staff. The original publishers were S. S. Scranton & Company, Hartford, Conn., but a change was made before the issue of the first volume and the encyclopedia was issued by Funk & Wagnalls. The title-page read thus: A Religious Encyclopædia: or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology. Based on the Real-Encyklopädie of Herzog, Plitt, and Hauck. Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. Associate editors: Rev. Samuel M. Jackson, M. A., and Rev. D. S. Schaff. Volume I. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 10 and 18 Dey Street. The first volume was issued Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, and the third Tuesday, March 4, 1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1-847; volume II. pp. xvii. 848-1714; and volume III. pp. xix. 1715-2631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the Encyclopedia of Living Divines and Christian Workers of All Denominations in Europe and America, Being a Supplement to Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Edited by Rev. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., and Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson, M. A. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place, 1887. In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the Encyclopedia of Living Divines, with an appendix, largely the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the biographical and literary notices down to December, 1890. The entire work was repaged sufficiently to make it one of four volumes of about equal size, and it is this four-volume edition which is known to the public as the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, the volumes being respectively of pp. xlviii. 679 and four pages unnumbered; 680-1378; 1379-2086; iv. 2087-2629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was overtaken by the time “S” had been reached, the “Schaff-Herzog” from that letter on was based on the first edition of “Herzog.” Therefore much of its matter is now very old. Yet it has been a useful work, and in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of “Herzog” which had been appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the beginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date. This end has been accomplished by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to “Herzog” condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in many instances been brought down to date, and second by calling on department editors for supplementary matter.

As appears from what has been said above, this encyclopedia is not entirely anew work. It is really an old work reconstructed. Its list of titles is largely the same and it follows the same general plan as in the old work. The points of identity are: (1) that at its base lies the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche, once associated with the name of Herzog, now with the name of Albert Hauck, professor of church history in the University of Leipsic, and the author of the authoritative history of the Church in Germany; (2) that it gives in condensed form the information in that work, and takes such matter directly from the German work in most instances, although occasionally while the topic is the same the treatment is independent of the German contributor’s; (3) that it has much matter contributed by the editorial staff and specially secured contributors; (4) that in Biblical matters it limits its titles to those of the German base, so that it should not be considered as a Bible dictionary, although the Biblical department comprehends the principal articles of such a dictionary. The points of dissimilarity are these: (1) It contains much matter furnished directly by those contributors to the German work who have kindly consented to condense their articles and bring them within prescribed limits. These limits have often been narrow, but in no other way was it possible to utilize the German matter. (2) It contains hundreds of sketches of living persons derived in almost every instance from matter furnished by themselves. In writing these sketches much help has been received, principally in the suggestion of names, from the English and American Who’s Who and from the German Wer ist’s (which is a similar work for Germany), and we desire to acknowledge our indebtedness with thanks. But comparison between the sketches in this book and those given of the same individual in the books referred to will reveal many differences and be so many proofs of the xi extensive correspondence carried on to secure the given facts. Every person sketched herein, with almost no exception, has been sent a blank for biographical data. Some thought to save themselves the trouble of filling out the blank by referring to a dictionary of living persons, but it has generally turned out that the requirements of this blank were not met by the book referred to and it has been necessary to write to the subject, and frequently more than once, before the desired information could be secured., (3) The matter in proof has been sent to persons specially chosen for eminence in their respective departments. These departments with the names of those in charge of them are: Systematic Theology, Rev. CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D., professor of systematic theology, Chicago Theological Seminary; Minor Denominations, Rev. HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D., one of the corresponding secretaries of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York City; Liturgies and Religious Orders, in the first volume, Rev. JOHN THOMAS CREAGH, D.D., professor of canon law, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., in subsequent volumes, Very Rev. JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D., president of St. Joseph’s Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.; the Old Testament, Rev. JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D., professor of Oriental languages, University College, Toronto; the New Testament, Rev. HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D., professor of the literature and interpretation of the New Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.; Church History, Rev. ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D., professor of church history, Baylor Theological Seminary (Baylor University), Waco, Texas. Besides reading the proofs they were requested to make such additions as would not only bring them up to date but represent the distinctive results of British and American Scholarship. (4) A much more thorough bibliography is furnished. The attempt has been made to give sources so that students may pursue a subject to its roots; second, to supply the best literature in whatever language it occurs; third, to supply references in English for those who read only that language. (5) All articles based on German originals have been sent in proof to the writers of the original German articles when these writers were still living. Some of them had furnished the articles and they had merely been translated, but in the great majority of cases the German authors had not given that cooperation; not a few, however, have kindly read our condensations and made corrections and additions. For this cooperation thanks are due.

We here mention with gratitude the permission given by the publisher of the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, Mr. HEINRICH ROST, the head of the great publishing house of J. C. HINRICHS of Leipsic, and by the editor of its third edition, Professor ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., of the University of Leipsic, to use its contents in our discretion. Dr. Hauck has done far more than give permission. He has manifested a kindly interest in our work, has revised the condensations of his articles, and facilitated our efforts to secure from his contributors advance articles. This helpfulness is much appreciated, and we would fain give it prominent recognition.

Rev. DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D., who holds the chair of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., whose father was the founder of this work and who was himself one of its original associate editors, felt unable on account of other duties to assume any editorial responsibility for the present work, as he had been asked to do by the publishers when the new edition was determined on, but he entered heartily into the arrangement whereby the sole responsibility of general editor should be lodged with his former associate editor, and has cooperated by bringing down to date almost all the articles which he and his father contributed to the first edition.

The labor of coordinating the material sent in by the many persons who have cooperated to bring out this work has fallen upon the managing editor, CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN, who has discharged his difficult duties with conscientious fidelity and marked ability. xiiThe bibliography, which is probably the greatest novelty of this encyclopedia and is a feature certain to be greatly appreciated, has been prepared by Professor GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, late of Bangor Theological Seminary, and the author of Hurst’s Literature of Theology. The work of condensing and translating the articles from the contributors to the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche has been done by BERNHARD PICK, Ph.D., D.D., Lutheran pastor, Newark, N. J.; ALEXIS IRÉNÉE DU PONT COLEMAN, M.A. of Oxford University, instructor in English in the College of the City of New York; ALFRED STOECKIUS, Ph.D., of the Astor Library; WILLIAM PRICE; and HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D. of Leipsic. The pronunciations have been supplied by FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A., managing editor of the Standard Dictionary.

When the contributors to the Realencyklopädie have chosen not to condense their articles themselves, but have preferred that this work should be done by the editors of the New Schaff-Herzog, the fact is indicated by the use of parentheses enclosing the signature. Editorial addition’s or changes in the body of signed articles for which the contributors should not be held responsible are indicated by brackets. A double signature indicates that an article originally prepared by the contributor whose name appears first (in parentheses) has been revised by the contributor whose name follows. The cross (†) following the name of a contributor indicates that he is dead.

September 15, 1907.

THE EDITOR.

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