ARTAXERXES, ār´´tax-erk´sîz: The name of a Persian king mentioned in Nehemiah
and Ezra, where, however, the word occurs in the form of Artachshashta, by which
is doubtless meant Artaxerxes I. Longimanus, 465–425 B.C. In the Persian
cuneiform inscriptions the name is written Artakhshathra, “righteous” or “sublime
Ezra iv. 7,
Artaxerxes Longimanus is meant, not the Pseudo-Smerdis; so
Ezra vii. 1, 11
where, following Josephus Ant., XI. v. 1, Xerxes has been read.
In the twentieth year of Artachshashta or Artaxerxes, that is, in the year 445–444
B.C. Nehemiah, the cup-bearer of the king, went as governor to Jerusalem.