« Baden (In Baden), Conference of Bader, Johann Baentsch, Bruno Johannes Leopold »

Bader, Johann

BADER, bɑ̄´der, JOHANN: Leader of the Reformation at Landau in the Palatinate (18 m. n.w. of Carlsruhe); b., probably, at Zweibrücken (50 m. w. of Speyer), Rhenish Bavaria, about 1470; d. at Landau shortly before Aug. 16, 1545. Of his early years almost nothing is known. He seems to have studied at Heidelberg in 1486 and succeeding years and then appears as chaplain in Zweibrücken, where he was also tutor to Duke Ludwig (b. 1502). In 1518 Bader was called as minister to Landau, where he labored till his death. From 1522 he openly opposed Roman abuses and especially auricular confession. Called to appear before the spiritual court at Speyer, he followed the summons and, after many proceedings, was bidden, July 17, 1523, to preach in future the holy gospel only and to obey the imperial mandates. As he believed that he had been preaching the pure gospel, he did not feel called upon to change his former manner, and, upheld by the confidence of his congregation, he opposed the teachings of the Church the more, and openly attacked the doctrine of purgatory, mass for the dead, invocation of the saints, monastic vows, and fasts. For this he was again summoned to Speyer, Mar. 10, 1524. His proposal, to prove his teachings from the New Testament, was rejected, and he was excommunicated. Not in the least intimidated, he appealed to a future council, published his appeal with all the documents, and, supported by the city-council, steadfastly continued his reformatory work. He devoted great care to the instruction of the youth, 419 and assembled the “young people" of the city and instructed them in the Christian faith. About Easter, 1526, he published his Gesprächsbüchlein, which may be regarded as the oldest evangelical catechism. In this he gives an exposition of the Lord’s Prayer, the Apostles’ Creed, the doctrine of baptism, and the ten commandments. In 1527 he opposed the Anabaptists, but afterward he was strongly influenced by Schwenckfeld, as appears especially in his Katechismus published in 1544, a new edition of his earlier work, containing a treatment of the Lord’s Supper not found in the Gesprächsbüchlein. He states that where the principal requisite for a true celebration of the Lord’s Supper—a church of true believers—is lacking, it is better not to celebrate. And indeed, after 1541, Bader could no more be induced to celebrate the Lord’s Supper at Landau, because he did not regard the congregation there as sufficiently holy.

Julius Ney.

Bibliography: J. P. Gelbert, Magister Johann Baders Leben und Schriften, Neustadt, 1868. For a full account of the debate on infant baptism at Landau, Jan. 20, 1527, between Hans Denk and Bader, cf. Bader’s Brüderliche Warnung für den newen Abgöttischen Orden der Widertäuffer (1527), of which copies are to be found in Munich and in the library of the University of Rochester. Bader strongly opposed Denk at the time, but later he adopted most of his views; cf. L. Keiler, Ein Apostel der Wiedertäufer, pp. 196-200, Leipsic, 1882.

« Baden (In Baden), Conference of Bader, Johann Baentsch, Bruno Johannes Leopold »
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