« Aquarii Aquaviva, Claudio Aquila »

Aquaviva, Claudio

AQUAVIVA, ɑ̄´´cwa-vî´va, CLAUDIO: Fifth general of the Jesuits; b. at Naples Sept. 14, 1543; d. at Rome Jan. 31, 1615. He studied at Rome, joined the order in 1567, and was chosen its general in 1581. He showed himself a highly capable ruler in the midst of difficulties both within the order and without. The Spanish Jesuits organized a revolt against him and had the support of the Inquisition, King Philip II., and Pope Clement VIII., but he ultimately established himself all the firmer from the very attacks which were intended to overthrow him. In the dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits following the publication of Molina’s book on free will (see Molina) he supported the latter skilfully and successfully. It was under Aquaviva’s leadership that the order reached its assured position in the world. He wrote Industriæ pro superioribus ad curandos animæ morbos (Florence, 1600), and compiled the oldest Ratio studiorum (Rome, 1586) and the Directorium exercitiorum sancti Ignatii (1591). His letters addressed to the members of the order are in the Epistolæ prœpositorum generalium societatis Jesu, Antwerp, 1635, and have been printed in other editions.

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