« Antioch, School of Antioch, Synod of Antiochus, Kings »

Antioch, Synod of

ANTIOCH, SYNOD OF, 341 A.D.: Records of more than thirty synods held at Antioch in Syria in the early days of the Church are preserved. Of these the more important fall within the period of the controversy about the person of Christ, and are treated in connection with it. That of the year 341 requires separate treatment. It was held in connection with the consecration of the so-called Golden Basilica begun by Constantine and completed by Constantius. Athanasius says that ninety bishops were present; Hilary says ninety-seven. The synod passed twenty-five canons, and promulgated three creeds with a design to remove the Nicænum. The first canon confirmed the decision of the Nicene council on the celebration of Easter, and the second enforced participation in the complete liturgy. Most of the others dealt with questions of ecclesiastical organization, such as the relations of dioceses and the development of the metropolitan system. Priests were forbidden to wander from one diocese into another; schismatic assemblies were prohibited; persons excommunicated by one bishop were not to be reconciled by another; and strangers were not to be received without “letters of peace.” The provincial system gained a firmer foothold by the reiteration of the fifth canon of Nicæa, requiring synods to be held twice a year. The position of the chorepiscopus suffered a corresponding depression in the eighth and tenth canons. Abstinence from interference with other dioceses and strict guardianship of church property are enjoined upon the bishops, who are also forbidden to name their successors. These canons formed an element of ecclesiastical law for both East and West, and were included in the Codex canonum used by the Council of Chalcedon.

(A. Hauck.)

Bibliography: Neander, Christian Church, i. 605-606, ii. 187, 193, 205, 432-434, 436, 761; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, i. 502-530, Eng. transl., ii. 56-82; F. Maassen, Geschichte der Quellen des kanonischen Rechts, i. 65 sqq., Gratz, 1870.

« Antioch, School of Antioch, Synod of Antiochus, Kings »
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