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Anacletus

ANACLETUS, an´´a klî´tus: The name of one pope and one antipope.

Anacletus I.: Roman presbyter at the close of the first century. The hypothesis of Volkmar, that he had no historical existence is opposed by the prevailing unanimity of the Greek and Latin lists of the popes. These differ, however, in the place which they ascribe to him, some naming him fourth and some third. The latter is the older order. As the name in Greek is sometimes written Anenklētos and sometimes Klētos, the Catalogus Liberianus and other early authorities were betrayed into the mistake of making two distinct persons. It is impossible to determine his date. Twelve years is the longest time assigned to his pontificate. The assertion, that he, as well as Linus and Clemens, was consecrated by St. Peter, sprang from the tendency to connect him as closely as possible with the beginnings of the Church. That he met a martyr’s death under Domitian, or, as Baronius and Hausrath assert, under Trajan, can not be adequately demonstrated. His festival in the Roman Catholic Church falls on July 13.

(A. Hauck).

Bibliography: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, vol. i., pp. lxix.-lxx., 52; G. Volkmar, Ueber Eunodia, Eunodius, und Anaclet, in Baur and Zeller, Theologische Jahrbücher, xvi. 147-151, Tübingen, 1857; A. Hausrath, Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte, iii. 391, Heidelberg, 1875; J. B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, I. i. 201 sqq., London, 1890; A. Harnack, in Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1892, 617-658; idem, Litteratur, II. i. 70 sqq.

Anacletus II. (Pietro Pierleoni): Antipope, 1130-38. He was descended from a Jewish family which had grown rich and powerful under Gregory VII, studied in Paris, and later became a Cluniac monk. Paschal II. recalled him to Rome, and in 1116 made him a cardinal. He accompanied Gelasius II. on his flight to France, and after his death took a leading part in the elevation of Calixtus II., who made him legate to England and France in 1121, and, conjointly with Cardinal Gregory, who was to be his rival for the papacy, to France in 1122. It is impossible to determine how far the description of him as an immoral and avaricious prelate is based on the enmity of his later opponents; but it is certain that even under Paschal II. he was already laying his plans to be made pope. On February 14, 1130, he attained his aim so far as to be chosen by a majority of the cardinals, though not to be enthroned before nine of them had elected Gregorio Papareschi as Innocent II. Anacletus used both his own resources and those of the Church to win over the Romans, and Innocent was obliged to flee. In September, 1130, Anacletus allied himself with Roger of Sicily, and thus made a decided enemy of Lothair the Saxon, who was already inclined to support Innocent, and now, with England and 164 France, declared for him. In Oct., 1131, Innocent excommunicated Anacletus at Reims; in the following spring he set out for Italy; and in Apr., 1133, entering Rome in Lothair’s company, he took possession of the Lateran, while Anacletus held the Vatican. Lothair pronounced the latter an outlaw and a criminal against both the divine and the royal majesty; but he was himself forced to leave Rome in June, and Anacletus forced Innocent once more to flee to Pisa. In the autumn of 1136 Lothair returned, and succeeded in compelling southern Italy to recognize Innocent. The end of the schism was, however, due less to him than to Bernard of Clairvaux, who succeeded in separating not only the city of Milan, but many of the principal Romans from Anacletus’s party (see Bernard, Saint, of Clairvaux). Negotiations were even opened with Roger of Sicily, his last supporter; but at this juncture Anacletus died, Jan. 25, 1138. His letters and privileges are in MPL, clxxix. 689-732, and in Jaffé, Regesta, i. 911-919.

(A. Hauck).

Bibliography: A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, ii. 408, 3 vols., Berlin, 1867-70; P. Jaffé, Geschichte des deutschen Reichs unter Lothar, Berlin, 1843; Bower, Popes, ii. 464-470; W. Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg, Leipsic, 1879; W. Martens, Die Besetzung des päpstlichen Stuhls, 323 sqq., Freiburg, 1886; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, v. 406 sqq.; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, pp. 315 sqq., Bonn, 1893; Hauck, KD, iv. 128-138.

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