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Africa

AFRICA.

I. The Continent as a Whole.

1. Geographical Description.

2. The Races of Africa.

3. The Opening of Africa.

The Arabs and Portuguese (§ 1).

The General European Invasion (§ 2).

The Prohibition of the Slave-Trade (§ 3).

Later Explorations and the Partition of Africa (§ 4).

4. Religion and Missions.

Native Religions (§ 1).

Mohammedanism (§ 2).

Protestant Missions (§ 3).

Colonists and Missions (§ 4).

The “Ethiopian Movement” (§ 5).

II. The Political Divisions of Africa

III. African Islands.

I. The Continent as a Whole:

1. Geographical Description:

Africa extends southward from the Mediterranean Sea nearly 5,000 miles. The equator crosses it nearly in the middle of its length; but by far the greater part of its mass lies north of the equator, the breadth of the continent from Cape Verde to Cape Guardafui being about 4,600 miles. Its area is about 11,500,000 sq. miles; and the adjacent islands add to this 239,000 more. Easily accessible to Europe by the Mediterranean Sea through 2,000 miles of its northern coast, and touching Asia at the Isthmus of Suez, this continent has ever invited investigation, and has received notable influences from both of its active neighbors. The Sahara Desert, however, severing the Mediterranean coast regions from the southern and equatorial regions of the continent, has proved for centuries a bar to extended intercourse. “Had it not been for the River Nile,” says Sir H. H. Johnston, “the negro and the Caucasian might have existed apart even longer without coming into contact.” In fact, the great rivers of Africa are quite as important as aide to foreign intercourse in these days as the Desert has been an obstruction to it in the past. The greatest of the African rivers are the Nile, the Kongo, the Niger, and the Zambesi. Closely connected with the rivers, again, are the great lakes of central Africa, namely, Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyassa, which belong, respectively, to the Nile, the Kongo, and the Zambesi systems. A further characteristic of the continent, noteworthy for all who seek entrance to its interior districts, is the insalubrity, one might say the deadliness, of the climate of its coasts both east and west throughout its tropical zone. The low-lying coast regions, extending in some cases 200 miles inland are sown with the graves of white men, germs of strange and fatal fevers lying in wait as it were for all strangers who venture to set foot unprepared upon that black and seething soil. The greatest mountains of Africa are all in its east central section. Kilimanjaro in German East Africa, east of the Victoria Nyanza, is 19,600 feet high; Mweru, close by, is about 16,000 feet; and Ruwenzori, west of the Victoria Nyanza and on the border of the Kongo Independent State, is over 20,000 feet. Among the high lands of the interior the most notable section is a broad causeway of elevated plateaux which stretches from Abyssinia southward almost to Cape Colony, and which offers to the white man an almost ideal residence at a height of from 5,000 to 6,000 feet through a long range that is hardly broken save by the Zambesi River.

2. The Races of Africa:

The puzzle of the races in Africa which the casual visitor classes under the comprehensive term negroes is insoluble at this day. But the key to the puzzle may probably be found in the repeated mingling of Asiatic and European blood in varying degrees and at divers distinct epochs with the blood of the African of the projecting jaw and the woolly locks. The history of Africa is practically the history of Egypt and then of her Carthaginian rival until well toward the Christian era. Only then did the Mediterranean coast of North Africa begin to have a tale of its own. The mention of this is significant; it suggests the repeated entrance of Asiatica into Africa through the whole period when Egypt was a world power, and of various sorts of Europeans into North Africa during a thousand years before the Mohammedan era.

The races now inhabiting Africa are a perpetual subject of discussion and theory because of the difficulty of accounting for the resemblances as well as the differences between them. Along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa the Arab race rules; but in all the countries of this coast from the west frontier of Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean the Berber race forms the larger part of the population, and even extends into the Sahara. A little further south, negroes of a low and degraded type are found on the west of the Nile; and they appear at different points throughout the continent as far west as the Atlantic coast. In Egypt the larger part of the population is a mixture of Arabs with the ancient Egyptian race, commonly classed as Hamites. This name distinguishes this people from the Semitic races, without throwing light on their origin. Arabs appear also at intervals along the coast of East Africa as far south as Portuguese East Africa in considerable numbers. In the northern section of this coast, along with the Arabs is found a race of negroes commonly called Nubians, the result apparently of mixtures of Arab, Egyptian, and 61 negro races. Abyssinia, the Somali coast, and the Galla country contain a large block of people of the Hamite race, divided into groups, however, by language as well as by religion. Along the Upper Nile as far as the borders of Uganda and eastward well toward the coast are found tribes of another type of negroes generally called the Nilotic group. The negroes of the western part of Africa north of the equator are not all of the degraded type that appears along the western coast. The Fulahs are of an entirely different race, resembling the Hamites, excepting in language. The Mandingoes of the interior of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast, are also of a higher type, although their languages show no traces of northern or Asiatic influence.

Throughout Africa north of the equator small detached bodies of Arabs are found at different points; and in general the religious control of this whole great region is with the Mohammedans. For this reason north Africa is frequently spoken of as “Mohammedan Africa.” It should be borne in mind, nevertheless, that throughout the region, many pagan tribes exist under Mohammedan rulers. South of the equator, generally speaking, the inhabitants of central Africa, and indeed to the borders of Cape Colony, are of the Bantu stock, often warlike and of a much higher type of intelligence than the negroes of the western coast. In the southwestern part of the continent are remnants of the Hottentots and Bushmen, once numerous in Cape Colony, while throughout Cape Colony proper the natives are known as “colored people,” and represent a residue of mixtures of races during centuries. A considerable number of Dutch and of British are found in South Africa; and Portuguese, as well as many Portuguese half-breeds, are numerous in Angola and Portuguese East Africa. European colonists are slowly entering the country on all sides and from all nations, but more than half of the continent can never be a fit residence for Europeans and must remain in the hands of the negro races.

This mixture of races stands in the place of a historical record concerning the people of Africa. Neither the Africans nor any others can read the record. It is the misfortune of the people of this continent to have no history except as appendages to the outside world; and the whole mass of allusions to them in ancient history has the vague quality of tradition. Even the Roman records lack precision, and remain generalities which throw little light on the history of the actual people of the continent.

3. The Opening of Africa:

1. The Arabs and Portuguese.

The Mohammedan conquest, beginning about 640, added little to knowledge of the continent, although the Arabs in time gave to the rest of the world information about the fertile negro land beyond the desert in the unlimited region to which they gave the name Sudan, “the Country of the Blacks.” Eight hundred years later the Portuguese undertook a wonderful series of explorations of the African coasts, which between 1446 and 1510 began the process of stamping the continent as a possession of Europe. Portugal named every important feature of the African coast as though she owned the whole continent, which in fact she did as far as the coasts were concerned. She ruled the west coast and the Cape of Good Hope from Lisbon, and the east coast, as a part of India, from Goa; and there were none but the Arabs to dispute her sway. She introduced missions also into her African possessions. But, after the fashion of the times, a mission had no objections to raise against maltreatment of the people to whom the land belonged.

2. The General European Invasion.

At last in the seventeenth century began what may be called the third period of the opening of Africa, the Arab invasion and the Portuguese occupation having been the first and second. The characteristic of this third period was a rush by every European nation that could handle ships to make the most money possible out of a vast territory whose inhabitants had not the ability to object. The Dutch took the Cape of Good Hope; and the British, the French, and the Spaniards all gained foothold in different parts of the western coast, and imprinted the nature of their enterprises upon the region by names which persist to this day; such as the “Gold Coast,” the “Ivory Coast,” the “Grain [of Paradise] Coast” and the “Slave Coast.” When the slave-trade began, in the seventeenth century, the Germans, the Swedes, and the Danes also made haste to acquire territory whence they could despoil the continent. North Africa, however, remained in the fierce grip of Islam. The history of Africa was still a history of outsiders working their will upon the country. At the end of the eighteenth century the nations of the lesser European powers had all been dispossessed. Portugal held to her ancient acquisitions about the mouths of the Kongo and the Zambesi and began to try to discover what lay back of these; Great Britain had replaced the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope, thus securing an extensive region in which white men could live and thrive; while France and Spain had some small settlements on the northern part of the west coast of the continent.

The slave-trade, during nearly 200 years as far as Europe is concerned, and during uncounted centuries as concerns the Asiatic countries, sums up history for the African people. They know little else of their past; but they know that. That fearful traffic transported Africa westward, until from the Ohio River in the United States away southward to the valley of the Amazon in Brazil and throughout the West Indies, the population became strongly and often predominantly African.

3. Prohibition of the Slave-Trade.

A fourth era begins for Africa with the prohibition of the slave-trade by Denmark, Great Britain, Holland, France, and Sweden (1792-1819). It was the slave-trade and its horrors which turned Protestant missionary activity toward Africa in the earliest days of the nineteenth century; and it was the discussion which preceded the prohibition of slave-trading which suggested the beginning of a systematic exploration of Africa.

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4. Later Explorations and the Partition of Africa.

A fifth period of African history is that of effective exploration of the interior by Europeans between 1840 and 1875. In this period the missionary Livingstone preceded Stanley. But Stanley, following Burton and Speke and Grant and Cameron, and seeking to find Livingstone, turned the attention of the world to the vast commercial value of Africa. A sixth period is the period of partition, beginning when Great Britain, after taking possession of many of the best territories in the southern part of the continent, occupied Egypt in 1882. In the eager rush of the European powers which followed, the great continent, has been parceled out as a gold-field is parceled out by prospectors who protect by men with guns the stakes they have hastily driven into the soil, and who only then sit down to estimate the value of what they have secured in the scramble. So to the present day the history of Africa is a history of what outsiders have done in the continent rather than of what the people of the country have done or thought or planned.

4. Religion and Missions:

1. Native Religions.

A rapid survey of the modern political divisions of Africa will be given under the name of each. It seems well, however, to make here a few general remarks upon some religious and social peculiarities of the people of the continent as a whole. The religion of Africa in its untouched and natural condition is not properly idolatrous. There is almost always some sense of a supreme being, who is a spirit, and from whom all power has originally proceeded. The actual religious observances of the people, however, except where they have been affected by Mohammedanism or by Christianity, are forms of spirit-worship connected with the use of fetishes (see Fetishism).

2. Mohammedanism.

Mohammedanism has become an indigenous religion in Africa. It rules absolutely the religious thought of nine-tenths of the people of the northern parts of the continent, and controls in a less degree millions south of the Sahara from the Nile to the Niger. As a civilizing force Mohammedanism has value. The first thing the awakened negro does under Mohammedan influence is to obtain a decent robe wherewith to cover himself. Islam wherever it goes ends cannibalism. Its scheme of religious motive in life is to commend religion by making it “easy” to those who find restraint hard. It teaches a certain proportion of the people to recite Arabic litanies of praise to God, and to read Arabic; but to the great mass of the negroes its effect includes neither knowledge of Arabic nor information on the dogmas of Islam. It encourages war in a positive and very real sense; its slave-raids know no amelioration through the change from the tenth to the twentieth century; and they are barely less brutalizing than the man-eating raids which they have displaced. The weakness of Mohammedanism as a civilizing force is that it can not raise men to a level higher than the old Arabian civilization which it is proud to represent. And it is a fact of the deepest meaning, from the missionary point of view, that negroes who have become Mohammedans are equipped with an assurance of righteousness and knowledge which makes them almost impervious to Christian instruction.

3. Protestant Missions.

The Protestant missions, on the other hand, bring to their converts the Christian civilization of the twentieth century with its blessings and enlightenment. The belief that the commonest man will be elevated by study of the Bible, makes the literary culture of African languages a first principle in every mission. More than 100 of the tribal dialects have been reduced to writing, and have been given an elementary Biblical study apparatus which improves as the capacity of the people develops. In the process the language itself becomes in some degree purified, and its words enriched by more profound meanings, until the language receives power to express feelings. In South Africa hundreds of native Protestant churches lead independent ecclesiastical lives under native pastors. It is perhaps too soon to claim that anything is proved by the moderate successes of a century of Protestant missions; but at least it is not out of place to emphasize the wide difference of aim between the two great branches of the Christian Church now working for the regeneration of the tribes of Africa.

4. Colonists and Missions.

African missions encounter difficulty from the European colonists. Their aim is quite different from that of the colonists. This alone would make friction and mutual opposition probable. But the aim of the colonist is sometimes aggressively opposed to that of the missionary. That aim was frankly stated by the German Koloniale Zeitschrift early in 1904 as follows: “We have acquired this colony not for the evangelization of the blacks, not primarily for their well-being, but for us whites. Whoever hinders our object must be put out of the way.” Such assumption of the right of might is found not only in German Southwest Africa; but in the Portuguese colonies, where the slave trade is still brutally active; in some of the French colonies, where the cruelties of the local administration broke De Brazza’s heart; and in the Kongo Independent State, where mutilations and other cruelties mark the Belgian rubber trade and are glossed over by the assurance that the cutting off of hands is an old native custom. The same spirit often appears in British colonies in Africa, but there it is repressed by the government. Where the colonist acts on the “might is right” principle the missionary works a stony soil.

5. The “Ethiopian Movement.”

The colonist has had occasion from the very beginning of missions in Africa to complain that one effect of them is to make the people self-assertive. This is not a fault, provided the self-assertion does not pass the limits of mutual right. During the last five or six years a movement among the native Christians of South Africa has attracted much attention. It is what is known as the “Ethiopian movement.” Its watchword is “Africa for the Africans”; and its aim is to place all African churches under strictly African leadership. 63 There is a political sound in some of the utterances of the “Ethiopian” leaders; and the local governments are on the alert to check any developments along that line, more especially since American Africans have taken a hand in the movement. There appears to be some connection between this movement and the revolt of the tribes in the south of German Southwest Africa. Whatever the final outcome, it appears certain that as the African tribes learn to think for themselves they must assert their manhood; and, however foolish and futile some of the manifestations of this growing manhood may be, the fact itself is a token that ought to be welcomed. Through it Africa may yet have a history of its own.

II. The Political Divisions of Africa:

Abyssinia: The only Christian country of Africa which resisted the Mohammedan irruption. It consists for the most part of a mountain knot in which rise the Atbara River and the Blue Nile, and lies between the Egyptian Sudan and the Red Sea. Area about 150,000 sq. miles; population about 3,500,000; religion, a debased form of the Coptic Church with over 3,000,000 adherents. There are also between 60,000 and 100,000 Jews (called Falashas, “exiles”), and about 50,000 Mohammedans, besides 300,000 pagans. The prevailing language is the Amharic with dialects in different sections. The sacred books of the church are in Ethiopic or Geez. The Gallas in the south have a language of their own. In 1490 Portuguese explorers introduced the Roman Catholic religion into Abyssinia. In 1604 a Jesuit mission was established which finally won the adhesion of the emperor. Intrigues led to their expulsion after about thirty years. The Carmelites and Augustinians also engaged in the work, but with no lasting results; the mission was entirely abandoned in 1797. All attempts to reestablish Roman Catholic missions were thwarted until the early part of the nineteenth century. The Lazarists succeeded about 1830 in gaining a foothold in various provinces. They were again expelled from the interior provinces, and now have their headquarters in the Italian territory of Eritrea (see below). A strong missionary advance into Harrar is also being made from Jibuti.

The earliest effort to establish a Protestant mission in Abyssinia was that of Peter Heyling, a law student of Lübeck. He went there in 1640, won favor with the Abyssinian court circles, and began to translate the Bible into colloquial Amharic. He was captured by Turks in 1652, and, refusing to become a Mohammedan, was decapitated, leaving no trace of his work. In 1752 Christian Frederick William Hocker, a Moravian physician, began a persistent effort to establish a mission in Abyssinia. But the mission got no further than Egypt, and was recalled after the death of Hocker in 1782. In 1830 the Church Missionary Society established a mission in Abyssinia, which was broken up in 1838. Later the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews sent missionaries to the Falashas. Suspicions of political designs hampered the missionaries; and in 1863 they were imprisoned by the emperor. A British military expedition stormed Magdala, the capital, in 1868 and freed the captives; but the mission was not again undertaken. In 1866 the Swedish National Missionary Society began a mission in the border of the province of Tigre, near Massowah. For fifteen years the mission made little progress, suffering through the hostility of the people and through attacks of disease. Then the earliest converts were baptized, the first a Galla slave, and next a Mohammedan. In 1904 the society had ten stations in Eritrea (see below) and had succeeded in sending, with the consent of the authorities, native preachers into the southern Galla country west of Gojam. The Bible has a limited circulation in Abyssinia in several versions. The old Ethiopic Church version has been revised, and printed by the British Bible Society. The whole Bible has been translated into Amharic (1824), and into the southern Galla dialect (1898). The New Testament has been rendered (1830) into the Tigré dialect of the Geez, and single Gospels into Falasha, into two Galla dialects, and into Bogos. See Abyssinia and the Abyssinian Church.

Algeria: A French possession in northern Africa extending southward from the Mediterranean a somewhat uncertain distance into the Desert of Sahara. Area about 184,474 sq. miles; population about 4,739,000. The Algerian Sahara has about 198,000 sq. miles in addition, with a population estimated at 62,000. Although Algeria is regarded as a part of France, it still remains a Mohammedan country. The Mohammedan population is rather vaguely estimated at about 4,100,000, considerable uncertainty existing as to the number of inhabitants of the military district in the hinterland. The Christian population of Algeria is chiefly Roman Catholic (527,000). There are also about 25,000 Greeks, Armenians, and Copts, and about 30,000 Protestants. The number of Jews is 57,000. The language of the country outside of the European colonies is Arabic with several dialects of the Berber language known here as Kabyle (i.e. “tribesman”). Algeria forms an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, and is the seat of the Algerian Missionary Society organized through the energetic efforts of Cardinal Lavigerie, for missionary enterprises on the edge of the Sahara and in Senegambia and other African districts as far south as Lake Tanganyika. Protestant missionary enterprises are represented in Algeria by the following: two French societies working among the Jews; Miss Trotter’s educational mission; the Plymouth Brethren, who have ten missionaries in different cities in Algeria, but publish no statistics; a small Swedish mission; and the North Africa mission, which occupies four stations and carries on a number of small schools for Mohammedans. None of these missions has a very large following among the natives. In fact missionaries are not allowed by the French authorities to engage in open evangelization among Mohammedans. The Arabic version of the Bible has a limited circulation in Algeria. A colloquial version of some of the Gospels has been prepared for the use of the common people who have difficulty in understanding the classical Arabic. Some parts of the Bible have 64 been translated into the Kabyle dialect; and this version, too, has a steady though small circulation. A painful historical interest attaches to the town of Bugia in Algeria as the scene of the martyrdom in 1315 of Raymond Lully, the missionary to the Mohammedans.

Angola: A colony of Portugal in West Africa, with a coast-line extending from the mouth of the Kongo River to the borders of German Southwest Africa. It extends into the interior to the Kongo Independent State. Area 484,000 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, of whom 1,000,000 are rated as Roman Catholics. The Portuguese carried Roman Catholic missions to Angola in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and a century later established a full ecclesiastical hierarchy in the old kingdom of Kongo, which lay on the left bank of the Kongo. Large numbers of the people of the old kingdom were converted to Christianity, even the king of the Kongo tribes being baptized in 1490. The residence of the king was at the place now known as San Salvador, in the northern part of Angola. This was the seat of the first Roman Catholic bishops. The residence of the bishop was afterward removed to St. Paul de Loanda on the coast, and the buildings at San Salvador fell into ruin as well as the human edifice of the Church in that region. During a hundred years or more the Church gave its blessing to the slave-trade, even the missionaries engaging in it and the bishop encouraging it. This confusion of missionary and mercantile enterprises perhaps accounts for the little progress made by early Christianity in Angola. The present Roman Catholic missionary force is in connection with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary, the mission being connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon (Ulysippo).

Protestant missions in Angola were commenced in 1879 by the Baptist Missionary Society of England, which occupied San Salvador and the northern part of the Loanda district as a part of its Kongo mission. The American Board opened a mission partly supported by Canadian Congregationalists, in the Benguela district in 1880. In 1882 the Livingstone Inland Mission (English) established a station, in connection with its Kongo mission, in Portuguese territory at Mukimvika on the left bank of the Kongo. This mission was turned over to the American Baptist Missionary Union two years later. In 1886 Bishop William Taylor opened seven missionary stations in the district of Loanda, which are now carried on by the American Methodist Episcopal Church. The Plymouth Brethren also have a mission in Angola, and the Swiss Phil-African Mission under Heli Chatelain has a single station in Benguela, called Lincoln. All of these missions make use of education, industrial training, and medical aid to the suffering as instruments for evangelizing and elevating the people. Together these various Protestant missions report (1904) 65 missionaries (men and women), 142 native workers, 50 schools of all classes, 4,235 pupils, with about 4,000 reputed Christians. These Protestant missions have the commendation of the higher and the secret execration of the lower Portuguese officials; they are also hampered by the open hostility of the Portuguese traders and colonists; but they are encouraged by the growing desire of the natives to learn to read and to be men. The native tribes of the interior are numerous, and often separated by barriers of language, although chiefly of Bantu stock. Parts of the Bible have been translated into the Kimbundu, and the Umbundu dialects, and printed respectively at the presses of the Methodist Episcopal and the American Board missions.

Basutoland: A native protectorate in South Africa, governed by native chiefs under a British commissioner. It lies north of Cape Colony, with the Orange River Colony and Natal forming its other boundaries. Area 10,293 sq. miles; population (1904) 348,500, of whom 900 are whites. No white colonists are admitted to this territory. The Basutos belong to the Bantu race; and their language is closely allied to the Zulu-Kafir language. About 300,000 of the people are pagans; about 40,000 are Protestant Christians; and about 5,000 are Roman Catholics. The capital of the territory is Maseru, where the British commissioner resides. The Protestant missions in Basutoland are maintained by the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, which entered the country under Rolland and Semue in 1833, and by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, which began its work in 1875. These two societies have about twenty-eight principal stations and more than 200 outstations with schools, seminaries, printing establishments, etc. The Roman Catholic missions are erected into a prefecture apostolic. They have 6,000 converts. The missions are carried on by Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. Statistics are difficult to obtain, since the reports do not separate work in Basutoland from that of the Orange River Colony and Griqualand. The Bible has been translated by Casalis and Mabille of the Paris mission into the language of the Basutos, generally spoken of as Suto or Leesuto (1837). There is also quite a Christian literature in the same language.

Bechuanaland Protectorate: A British protectorate in South Africa; lying between the Molopo River and the Zambesi, with German Southwest Africa on the west, and Transvaal and Rhodesia on the east. Area 275,000 sq. miles much of it being desert; population (1904) 119,772, besides 1,000 whites. It is governed by native chiefs, Khama, Sebele, and Bathoen, each ruling his own tribe. The British commissioner, who supervises all, lives at Mafeking.

The country is traversed by the railway leading from Cape Town northward. Among the regulations is one which forbids the granting of licenses to sell liquor. Somewhat over 100,000 of the people are pagans, and about 15,000 are Christians. The Bible has been translated into the language of the chief tribes, which is called Chuan or Sechuan (1831) and single Gospels into Matabele and Mashona. Roman Catholic missions in this territory are under the charge of the Jesuits connected with the Zambesi mission. Statistics are very difficult to obtain, but the Roman Catholic Church seems to have about 3,000 adherents. Protestant missions are 65 carried on by the London Missionary Society, which extended its work to this territory in 1862, and by the Hermannsburg Missionary Society of Germany, which entered the territory in 1864. It is difficult to obtain the exact statistics of either of these societies, since the mission reports of both cover land beyond the borders of the Bechuanaland Protectorate. It is estimated, however, that the number of their adherents is not far from 12,000.

British East Africa Protectorate: A territory under British control in the eastern part of Africa, including coast lands ten miles wide nominally belonging to Zanzibar. The protectorate extends inland to the borders of Uganda. Area about 200,000 sq. miles. While the coast regions are on the whole not healthful, there is a broad belt of highland 300 miles back from the coast which is most suitable for European habitation; and it was upon this belt of highland that the British government invited the Hebrew Zionists to establish a colony. A railway has been constructed from Mombasa to Kisumu on the Victoria Nyanza. The population is estimated at 4,000,000, of whom 500 are Europeans and about 25,000 Hindus, Chinese, Goanese, and other Asiatics. Many Arabs are found in the coast districts, especially in the northern part of the territory; and with them are the mixed race called by the Arabs Suahili (“coast people”). Inland the larger part of the population is of the Bantu race; but there are some powerful tribes like the Masai and Nandi who are of Nilotic stock. In the northern part of the country Gallas and Somalis are found. The capital, Mombasa, has had a checkered history. It was founded by the Arabs, who were in possession when the Portuguese arrived in 1498. The Portuguese continued in power with various vicissitudes until their colony was destroyed 200 years later by the Arabs. The actual British acquisition of this territory dates from 1886 to 1890.

Roman Catholic missions were established on this coast by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, the stations being treated as an outlying district of the ecclesiastical province of Goa on the west coast of India. The missions followed the fortunes of the Portuguese occupation. They were reestablished in 1860 at Zanzibar. Protestant missions began with the arrival of Johann Ludwig Krapf, of the Church Missionary Society, in 1844. They were followed by the United Methodist Free Church in 1861, the Leipsic Missionary Society in 1886, the Neukirchen Missionary Institute in 1887, the Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America in 1892, and the African Inland Mission, an American enterprise, in 1895. The Church of Scotland Foreign Missions Committee is preparing to enter the country also. All of these societies together report 172 missionaries, 92 stations and outstations with schools and hospitals, and about 11,000 adherents. The languages of the tribes of this territory differ greatly from each other; and several versions of the Bible will have to be prepared for them. A beginning has been made in translating the Gospels into the Suahili, Nandi, Masai, Somali, and Galla languages.

The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, lying off the coast of German East Africa, politically belong to this territory. Area of the two islands 1,020 sq. miles; population 200,000, including 10,000 East Indians and about 200 Europeans. Zanzibar has played an important part in the history of East and Central Africa since the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the region was occupied by Arabs of Muscat. It became a great center of African trade, including the slave-trade. The domains of the Sultan of Zanzibar extended along the whole coast from Mozambique nearly to the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the influence of Great Britain has been gradually increasing, and so leading up to the present protectorate. Germany obtained the southern part of the possessions of Zanzibar on the mainland; Italy bought in 1905 its possession on the Somali coast; and a strip ten miles wide on the coast of British East Africa alone remains to the sultan of all his domains on the mainland, he himself being under the tutelage of a British official. Zanzibar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, with missions conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, in both islands and on the mainland. The mission has about 3,500 adherents. There are ten stations. Schools and hospitals, conducted by Roman Catholic sisters, have been built in the city of Zanzibar. Protestant missions are represented by the Universities Mission which, after abandoning the Shiré country in 1861, moved its headquarters to the city of Zanzibar. Here Bishops William George Tozer, Edward Steere, and Charles Alan Smythies prepared the way for advance into the interior. The mission has a very fine cathedral and hospitals and schools in the island of Zanzibar, besides a line of stations on the mainland in German East Africa, which extends to Lake Nyassa. What has already been said of versions of the Bible in British East Africa applies to Zanzibar also. The city of Zanzibar itself is a Babel of all African nations and tribes.

Cape Colony: A British colony occupying the southern part of the African continent; bounded on the north by German Southwest Africa, Bechuanaland, the Orange River Colony, Basutoland, and Natal. The colony was founded by the Dutch in 1652, was taken by the British in 1796, was again given up to Holland in 1803, was reoccupied by the British in 1806, and, finally, was ceded to Great Britain in 1814. Area (1904), including native states and Walfisch Bay on the coast of German Southwest Africa, 276,995 sq. miles; population (1904) 2,405,552, of whom 580,380 are white, and 1,825,172 are colored. Of the colored population about 250,000 are a mixture of various races; 15,000 are Malays; and the rest are Hottentots, Kafirs, Fingoes, Bechuanas, etc. About 1,118,000 of the population are Protestants; 23,000 are Roman Catholics; 20,000 are Mohammedans; 4,000 are Jews; while 1,226,000 are pagans. Roman Catholic missions were represented in the colony before the English occupation, by two priests riding in Cape Town. In 1806, when the British captured the colony, these priests were expelled. Sixteen years later two priests were again stationed at Cape Town, without liberty, however, to go into the surrounding country. The existing 66 mission in the colony did not commence until 1837, when Raymond Griffith arrived. He had been an Irish Dominican monk, was appointed vicar apostolic and consecrated bishop by the Archbishop of Dublin, Aug. 24, 1837. Roman Catholic missions now occupy about 100 stations and outstations in the colony. There are two vicariates and a prefecture apostolic.

Protestant Christians do not seem to have worked among the native population during the Dutch period. In 1737 the Moravian George Schmidt was sent to Cape Town, at the request of certain ministers in Holland, to try to benefit the Hottentots and the Bushmen. His success only served to anger the colonists; and he was sent back to Europe in 1742. Fifty years later, in 1792, the Moravians were permitted to reopen their mission in Cape Colony and it has been continued and expanded until the present time, now extending to the east and west. From 1822 to 1867 it had charge of the leper settlement at Hemel en Aarde and Robben Island. About 20,000 native Christians are connected with the Moravian mission. The London Missionary Society began a mission in Cape Colony in 1799 with Vanderkemp as its first missionary, and with such men as Moffat, Livingstone, Philip, and Mackenzie as his successors in a long and brilliant history which through many pains has added some 70,000 natives to the Christian body within the colony. The society has moved its missions northward into Bechuanaland and Rhodesia, one single station being still retained at Hankey in Cape Colony as an educational center. The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of England commenced a mission in the colony in the year 1814 with Barnabas Shaw as its first missionary. This mission afterward spread over the whole of the colony, and extended into Natal, Transvaal, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia. The care of the native congregations within the colony now rests with the South African Methodist Church, which has connected with it native Christians to the number of 113,600. The Glasgow Missionary Society in 1821 sent two missionaries into Kaffraria which has since been annexed to Cape Colony. The Scottish missions have been greatly extended and are now conducted under the United Free Church of Scotland, having given to missionary history such names as Ross and James Stewart, the latter called by the British High Commissioner “the biggest human” in the region. They extend through Kaffraria into Natal and have a native following of some 30,000. Their most prominent work is in the great educational establishments of Lovedale and Blythwood, which have tested and proved the ability of the Kafir-Zulu race to become civilized and useful. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel began a mission in Cape Colony in 1821. This mission is now practically merged into the diocesan work of the Anglican Church which reports some 20,000 baptized native Christians. The Paris Missionary Society felt its way into Basutoland from a station at Tulbagh (1830). The Berlin Missionary Society (1834) with 38 stations and 10,000 adherents, and the Rheniah (1829) and the Hermannsburg (1854) missionary societies of Germany also have extensive and successful missions in Cape Colony. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, the National Baptist Convention, the Seventh-day Adventists, all from the United States, the Plymouth Brethren, and the Salvation Army are also engaged in missionary work at various points in this great colony.

Among the achievements of missions must be reckoned the success of the Rev. Dr. John Philip of the London Missionary Society in securing attention on the part of the government to the infringement of ordinary rights of natives in the midst of a rush of colonists inclined to regard the natives as mere obstacles to be removed. Dr. Philip was calumniated and persecuted; but the authorities finally understood that righteous treatment of the blacks is a necessity to the prosperity of the colony. The appearance in recent years of the “Ethiopian movement” (see above, I., 4, § 5) has aroused much suspicion; nevertheless, the authorities aim to secure justice to all, and more and more rely on missions to raise the moral standard of the negro community. See Cape Colony.

Central Africa Protectorate (British): A territory lying west and south of Lake Nyassa, and popularly called Nyassaland. Its southern portion includes the Shiré highlands and extends southward along the Shiré River as far as to the mouth of the Ruo. Area 40,980 sq. miles; population estimated at 990,000. Religion chiefly fetish-worship. About 300,000 of the people are Mohammedans, and about 18,000 are Christians. There is, however, no regular census, and these figures are mere estimates. Europeans living in the protectorate number about 500; and there are about 200 East Indians connected with the military establishment. The language of the Angoni hillmen is a dialect of Zulu; that of the lake people is in several dialects of which that known as Nyanja (“lake”), is becoming prevalent; that of the eastern part of the Shim district is Yao.

Lake Nyassa was discovered by Dr. Livingstone in 1859. The country then was a select hunting-ground of Arab slave-raiders from Zanzibar and of the Portuguese from the Zambesi. Until 1895, when the slave-raids were stopped by the British authorities, it is said that about 20,000 men, women, and children each year were seized and made to carry ivory to the coast. There they were sold along with the ivory which they had painfully borne for 500 miles. Into such an environment missionaries went at the instance of Livingstone, risking, and with disheartening frequency sacrificing, life because they believed that the people could be saved by teaching them the principles of manhood. The Arabs and the Yao savages were against them, the climate sapped their strength, and even wild beasts attacked them. Yet the missionaries won the day, with their Bible, their practical lessons in kindliness, and with their schools, their industrial training, and their high moral principles. The story of the founding of the protectorate is a story of heroism and of the power of the Bible which the devoted missionaries gave to a people whose very speech was illiterate.

The Universities Mission, established at Livingstone’s request, entered the Shiré territory under 67 Bishop Charles Frederick Mackenzie in 1861. The hostility of the slave-raiders and the rigors of the climate broke up the mission for a time, but it is now thoroughly established at Likoma Island in Lake Nyassa, and in some sixty villages on the east shore of the lake and among the Yao tribesmen in the eastern part of the Shiré district. The Livingstonia Mission of the Free Church of Scotland, entered the country in 1875 and established its headquarters first at Cape Maclear at the south end of the lake, moving afterward to high land well toward the northern end of the lake, where the Livingstonia Institution now stands in a most salubrious spot overlooking the western shore. This mission has about 240 stations and outstations. The schools, printing-house, hospitals, and industrial training establishments of this mission are noteworthy for completeness and beneficent influence quite as much as for their conquest of the chaos which existed when the missionaries arrived on the field. The Church of Scotland founded a mission in the Shiré highlands in 1876. The site was chosen because the missionaries were too ill and exhausted to go farther than the little group of native huts which seemed a haven of rest. Close by that miserable village has arisen about the mission the little town of Blantyre, whose post office is now a recognized station of the Universal Postal Union. This mission has about forty stations and outstations and a fine group of schools and hospitals. The Zambesi Industrial Mission has taken up a large tract of land lying to the northwest of Blantyre and is teaching the natives to cultivate coffee and other valuable crops. It has about thirty schools in connection with its various settlements. The South African (Dutch) Ministers’ Union of Cape Town established a mission in 1901 in the Angoni hill-country west of Lake Nyassa. It has seven stations and is winning favor among the people. All of these missions have been greatly aided by a commercial enterprise known as the African Lakes Corporation, formed in 1878 by Scottish business men with the definite purpose of cooperating with the missions in civilizing the people of the protectorate. It has organized a regular steamboat service on the lake and the Shiré River to the coast at Chinde, and is at last on a paying business basis. The formal establishment of the British protectorate over the lake district took place in 1891. It is one of the marks of progress in the civilization of the tribes of the region that in 1904 a large section of the fierce Angoni tribe voluntarily accepted British control and British regulations. The missions named above have about 190 missionaries (men and women), 985 native preachers and teachers, 25,000 children in their schools, and about 16,000 professing Christians on their rolls. Several of the languages of the protectorate have been reduced to writing and the Bible is in process of publication in the Nyanja, several dialects of which, the Yao, the Konde, and the Tonga, are now being unified. The Angoni tribe, in the western part of the protectorate, being of Zulu race, are able to use the Zulu Bible, of which a considerable number of copies are brought from South Africa every year.

Nyassaland is carried on the lists of the Roman Catholic Church as a provicariate confided to the care of the Algerian Missionary Society. But beyond 10 missionaries, 2 schools, and 1,000 adherents little can be learned of the progress of the mission.

Dahomey: A French possession in West Africa having a coast-line of seventy miles between Togoland and the British colony of Lagos, and extending northward to the French territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The French gained their first footing on this coast in 1851, Area 60,000 sq. miles; population estimated at about 1,000,000, commonly of unmixed negro stock. Capital, Porto Novo on the coast. About sixty miles of railway have been built and 400 miles are projected. It is worth noting that of the whole value of the annual imports into Dahomey one-fourth represents the liquor traffic. A Roman Catholic mission has existed for some years under the direction of the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa. There are twenty-two missionaries and fifteen schools. The number of the Roman Catholics in the mission is estimated at about 5,000. The only Protestant mission is that of the Wesleyan Missionary Society with a central station at Porto Novo. It has two missionaries who are of French nationality and it occupies ten outstations in the interior. The number of professing Protestant Christians is about 1,000.

Egypt: A tributary province of the Turkish empire lying on the Mediterranean Sea east of Tripoli, and touching Arabia on the east at the Isthmus of Suez. Area (excluding the Sudan) about 400,000 sq. miles, of which the Nile Valley and Delta, comprising the most of the cultivated and inhabited land, cover only about 13,000 sq. miles. The country is ruled by a hereditary prince called the Khedive, under British tutelage and control. Population (1897) 9,734,405. Capital, Cairo. The Mohammedan population of Egypt numbers about 8,979,000. Of the Christians 648,000 belong to the Oriental Churches, 608,000 being connected with the Coptic or Old Egyptian Church. There are also 56,000 Roman Catholics and 27,000 Protestants. About 25,000 of the population are Jews. The Roman Catholic establishments in Egypt date from the beginning of the seventeenth century, being at that time connected with the orders in charge of the holy places at Jerusalem. The present apostolic vicariate of Egypt was established in 1839. Roman Catholic missions in Egypt are under the minor Franciscan friars and the Lyons Seminary for Missions. There are also Lazarists, Jesuits, and Sisters of the Order of the Good Shepherd, Sisters of the Order of the Mother of God, Sisters of the Order of San Carlo Borromeo, and Sisters of Our Lady of Sion. There are about ninety schools, besides orphanages, hospitals, and other benevolent establishments. Protestant missions are carried on by the American United Presbyterian Mission (1854), the Church Missionary Society (in its present form 1882), the North Africa Mission, the Egypt General Mission, the Church of Scotland Committee on Missions to the Jews, the London Jews Society, the American Seventh-day Adventist 68 Medical Missions, the (German) Sudan Pioneer Mission, and the (German) Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth (1857). The United Presbyterian Mission is the largest of these missions, occupying stations throughout the Nile Valley and in the Sudan. All together these missions report 166 stations and outstations, 154 missionaries, with 515 native workers, 171 schools, with over 14,000 pupils and students, ten hospitals and dispensaries, two publishing houses, and about 26,000 adherents. Under British control religious liberty is more or less assured. As a consequence Mohammedans are also included in small numbers among the mission converts. The Church Missionary Society’s mission publishes a weekly paper in Arabic and English expressly for Mohammedans. The Bible in Arabic, translated and printed at the expense of the American Bible Society in Beirut, is circulated throughout Egypt, Arabic being the language of the people. See Egypt.

Eritrea: An Italian possession in Africa extending 670 miles along the coast of the Red Sea and inland to Abyssinia and the Egyptian Sudan. Area about 85,500 sq. miles; population (estimated) 450,000, of whom about 3,000 are Europeans. The capital is Asmara. The native population of Eritrea is chiefly nomadic. In religion more than 100,000 may be reckoned Mohammedans; 17,000, Roman Catholic; 12,000, of the Eastern Churches; 1,000, Protestants; and 500, Jews. The remainder of the population is pagan, belonging to different races. Roman Catholic missionaries have made this region a basis of operations in Abyssinia for nearly three centuries, having been expelled from Abyssinia proper a number of times. Their central establishments are now at Massowah (Massaua) and Keran, where they have a hospital, schools, and two or three orphanages. Protestant missions in Eritrea also directed toward the Abyssinian population are carried on by the Swedish National Society. They have 10 stations on the borders of Tigré and in the province formerly known as Bogos with about 15 schools, a hospital, a dispensary, and a small but growing band of evangelical Christians. The Swedish missions have done good service in securing a translation of the Bible into the Galla language (1898), and through trained native workers have succeeded in establishing themselves among the Galla people in the south of Abyssinia.

French Guinea: A territory forming a part of the newly organized administrative region known as French West Africa. It lies on the coast between Portuguese Guinea and the British colony of Sierra Leone, extending inland some 400 miles to the district of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 95,000 sq. miles; population estimated at 2,200,000. About 1,000,000 are Mohammedans; more than 1,000,000 are pagans; 1,000 are Roman Catholics, and 500 are Protestants. The capital is Konakry; from which place a railway is now under construction to the Niger River. French colonization in this district began as long ago as 1685, but its development has only been of recent date (1843). The government is undertaking in this, as in all other parts of French West Africa, to introduce a uniform system of education. This, if carried out, will prove of inestimable advantage to the population. The Roman Catholic mission in French Guinea, is carried on by the Lyons Congregations of the Holy Ghost and of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. There are about 10 missionaries with 12 schools. A Protestant missionary enterprise, following one commenced in 1804 by the Church Missionary Society, is carried on in the Rio Pongas region by West Indian Christians aided by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The missionaries are colored men from the West Indies specially chosen for this work, which has been undertaken with the thought of making amends to Africa for the wrongs inflicted upon its people by England and her colonies. The New Testament has been translated into the Susu language (1858).

French Kongo: A French colonial possession which occupies the west coast of Africa between the Spanish possessions of the Rio Muni on the borders of the Kongo Independent State and Kamerun, and which extends inland to Lake Chad. The French occupation began in 1841 in a small colony on the Gabun River. Its extension to the Kongo River followed the explorations of De Brazza, between 1875 and 1880. Area about 450,000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 8,000,000 upward. Capital, Libreville on the Gabun. Adjoining this territory in the Lake Chad region, Bagirmi, comprising some 20,000 sq. miles, and Wadai, with 170,000 sq. miles, in 1903 submitted to the French control. These two territories are strongly Mohammedan. French Kongo proper has about 3,500,000 Mohammedans in its northern sections, the remainder of the people being pagans of the usual African type. In race the people of the coast are not of the Bantu stock found in the interior.

Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary and the Algerian missionary order. The ecclesiastical center is Santa Maria on the Gabun, where is the vicariate, erected in 1842 under the name, at first, of “the apostolic vicariate of both Guineas.” In the Roman Catholic mission there are about fifty priests and about thirty schools with about 5,000 adherents. Protestant missions were established in 1842 by missionaries of .the American Board. The mission was afterward transferred to the American Presbyterian Board (North), and later for political reasons the interior stations were passed over to the French missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. Together these two missions have 23 missionaries and about 1,200 adherents. The languages having been reduced to writing by missionaries, the Bible has been translated into Mpongwe (1850-74) and Benga (1858-88), and various parts have been translated into Dikele, Fang (also called by the French Pahouin), Bulu, and Galwa.

Gambia: A British colony and protectorate lying on both sides of the Gambia River, extending some 250 miles inland from its mouth and closely hemmed in by the French West African territory. The colony was commenced in 1662. Area, estimated (1903), 3,061 sq. miles; population, estimated 69 (1903), 163,781; capital, Bathurst on the Island of Saint Mary. There are about 90,000 Mohammedans in the colony, 56,000 pagans, 4,000 Roman Catholics, and 2,000 Protestant Christians. All of these figures, however, are estimates, excepting as to the colony proper. The Roman Catholic mission is under the care of the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa, and carries on two or three schools. The Protestant mission is carried on by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society which entered the colony in 1821. It has 7 outstations, 4 schools, and about 2,000 adherents in the colony. The Society of Friends established a mission in this colony in 1822, and schools were carried on by Hannah Kilham until her death in 1832, when the mission was given up. The history of the Protestant missions here includes a very considerable loss of life among the missionaries, due to the unhealthfulness of the country. The Arabic Bible is used to a limited extent, and parts of the Bible have been translated also into the Wolof and Mandingo languages.

German East Africa: A German colony and sphere of influence lying on the east coast of Africa, between British East Africa and Portuguese East Africa, and extending inland to Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika. Area about 384,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 7,000,000, including 1,437 Europeans. There are about 15,000 Arabs, Indians, Chinese, and other Asiatics in this territory. A railway has been built from Tanga on the coast about eighty miles inland to Korogwe; it is to be carried ultimately to Lake Tanganyika. In religion the people of the country are: pagans, about 6,500,000; Mohammedans, for the most part near the coast, 300,000; Hindus, Buddhists, etc., 12,000; Roman Catholics, 20,000; Protestants, 7,000. Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, the Trappists, the Benedictines, and the Algerian Missionary Society. They have extensive establishments about the northern and eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika, and report 58 stations, 195 missionaries, 77 nuns, and 295 schools with 17,823 scholars. It is possible that a part of the figures here given refer to missions lying beyond the border of the Kongo Independent State. Ecclesiastical jurisdiction centers at Zanzibar. The Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society, the Universities Mission, the German East Africa Mission, the Leipsic Missionary Society, the Moravian Church, and the Berlin Missionary Society. The two last-named societies are active at the north end of Lake Nyassa; and the Moravians are extending stations thence northward. The Universities Mission has stations along the Rovuma River and on the eastern shore of Lake Nyassa. The Berlin society has a station at Dar-al-Salam on the Indian Ocean; and the other German societies have their stations mostly along the northern boundary and in the foothills of Mounts Kilima-Njaro and Mweru. All these societies together report 60 central stations, 123 missionaries, and 230 schools with about 11,000 scholars. The Leipsic society has a printing-press, and publishes a newspaper at one of the Kilima-Njaro stations. The Suahili version of the Bible is used along the coast (completed in 1892). The New Testament has been translated into Yao (1880) and Gogo (1887). Some of the Gospels have been translated into Bondei, Chagga, Kaguru, Nyamwezi, Sagalla, Shambale, and Sukuma, and the translation is progressing in several of these as the people acquire a taste for reading.

German Southwest Africa: A German colony and protectorate on the west coast of Africa, lying south of Angola and bounded on the east and south by Cape Colony and the Bechuanaland protectorate. Area 322,450 sq. miles; population about 200,000, composed of Namaquas (Hottentots) and Damaras, with Hereros and Ovambos in the north, who are of Bantu stock. The European population numbers 4,682. Walfisch Bay on this coast is a British possession belonging to Cape Colony. The seat of administration is Windhoek. The chief seaport is Swakopmund, whence a railway of 236 miles leads to Windhoek. The Hereros in the north and the Namaquas in the south have been at war against the German authorities since 1904, and the colony has suffered much in consequence. Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Oblates of Hünfeld, and the Oblates of St. Francis of Sales (Vienna). The latter have 2 missionaries and 4 nuns. The other missions have been disturbed by the war, and statistics are not given. Protestant missions are carried on by the Rhenish Missionary Society of Germany, and the Finland Missionary Society. Together these societies had about 16,000 adherents before the war; but recent statistics are lacking, a number of the stations having been destroyed. The Bible has been translated into Namaqua (1881), and the New Testament into Herero (1877). Some Gospels have been completed in Kuanyama and Ndonga (Ovambo).

Gold Coast Colony: A British crown colony and territory stretching for 350 miles along the Gulf of Guinea, in West Africa, between the Ivory Coast and Togoland. Area 119,260 sq. miles; population 1,500,000. About 32,000 of the people are Mohammedans; 35,000, Protestants; 6,000, Roman Catholics; and the rest are pagans of the animist type with deep veneration for fetishes. The Roman Catholic missions are connected with the Lyons Seminary for African Missions, and have 16 missionaries with 13 schools. Protestant missions were commenced in 1752 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. As a result of this mission an African, Philip Quaque, was taken to England, educated, ordained, and returning to the Gold Coast, preached there for some fifty years. The missions now existing are those of the Basel Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (England), the National Baptist Convention (U. S. A.), and, since 1905, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. These missions together report 875 places of regular worship, 82 missionaries (men and women), 1,088 native workers, 235 schools with 11,557 scholars, and 34,835 Christian adherents. The missions make steady progress; but, at the same time, they point out that Mohammedanism is also making progress among 70 the pagans. Kumassi, the former capital of Ashantiland, is now connected with the coast by a railway 168 miles long; and light steamers are used on the Volta River. An artificial harbor is being constructed at Sekondi, the coast terminal of the railway. The Bible has been translated into Akra (1844-65) and Otshi (1870). The New Testament has been translated into Fanti (1884) and Ewé (1872). Progress has been made toward completing the Bible in both of these dialects.

Ivory Coast: A French territory included in the great administrative region known as French West Africa. It has its coast-line between Liberia and the British Gold Coast Colony, and extends inland to the territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The French first obtained possessions on this coast in 1843. Area 200,000 sq. miles; population about 3,000,000, of whom 300 are Europeans. In religion about 200,000 are Mohammedans; about 1,000, Roman Catholics; and the rest, pagans. The capital is Bingerville. A railway is being constructed inland from Bassani, of which 110 miles are nearly finished. The only missions in the country are carried on by the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa (Roman Catholic). There are said to be 16 priests, who have 7 schools and some orphanages.

Kamerun: A protectorate and colonial possession of Germany, occupying the west coast of Africa between French Kongo and Nigeria. Inland it extends in a northeasterly direction to Lake Chad. Area about 191,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 3,500,000, of whom (in 1904) 710 were whites. The native population is largely of the Bantu race, with tribes of Sudan negroes inland. Capital, Buea. The German annexation took place in 1884. Roman Catholic missions have been active in this region since 1889, and are in charge of the Pallotin Missionary Society of Limburg. They report 7 stations, 34 missionaries, 20 nuns, 2,418 pupils in their schools, and 3,780 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant missions were commenced by Alfred Saker of the Baptist Missionary Society (England) in 1844, he having been expelled from Fernando Po by the Spanish, government. With the German colonization of Kamerun (1880-82) difficulties arose, and the Baptist mission was turned over to the Basel Missionary Society, T. J. Comber and G. Grenfell of the Baptist mission going south to found a mission on the Kongo. A considerable body of the native Baptists declined to accept the transfer, and the German Baptists of Berlin sent missionaries to care for them. The German Baptist mission reports 14 missionaries, 1,400 pupils, and 2,170 professed Christians. The Basel Society’s mission, established in 1885, has extended inland, and reports (1905) 64 missionaries, 163 native workers, 6,452 pupils, and 6,422 professed Christians. The eagerness of the natives to learn to read is remarkable. The American Presbyterians (North) opened a mission in the southern part of the country in 1885-93, which has 30 missionaries, 27 stations and outstations, 15 schools, a hospital, and about 3,000 professing Christians. The entire Bible was translated into Dualla by the Baptista in 1868, and a version of the New Testament in the same language, which others than Baptists can use, was issued in 1902. The Benga Bible, used in the Rio Muni colony, is circulated to some extent in the south of Kamerun, and parts of the Bible have been translated into Isuba and Bala.

Kongo Independent State: A region occupying in general the basin of the Kongo River and its tributaries in West Central Africa. It touches the seacoast by a narrow neck that extends along the right bank of the river to its mouth. The left bank is held by Portugal. By international agreement in 1885 the state was placed under the sovereignty of King Leopold II. of Belgium. H. M. Stanley, who first explored the region, was its first administrator. International resolutions declare the navigation of the Kongo and its branches free to all, and proclaim the suppression of the slave-trade and the protection of the native inhabitants. The region has highlands well adapted to the residence of Europeans, and its natural wealth, although but slightly developed, is probably very great. The state appears to be administered upon the ancient colonial theory of deriving revenue from it at all hazards. Great tracts of its territory have been passed over to trading companies, the first condition of whose concessions is an obligation to pay the king of Belgium from 40 to 45 per cent. of their gains. The result has been abuses. The trading companies are charged with forcing the natives to work, treating them in fact as slaves, flogging and killing or mutilating them when they fail to obey orders. Missionaries made facts of this nature known, and King Leopold appointed a commission to examine the situation, with the result that many terrible outrages were found to be habitually committed by the armed guards organized by the trading companies. The commission, while inclined to justify severe measures, as necessary to lead the natives to work, recommended that the trading companies be forbidden to use armed guards or to require forced labor from the people of the districts which they administer. There is some hope of an amelioration of conditions in consequence. The capital is Boma, at the mouth of the Kongo River.

The area of the state is estimated at about 900,000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 15,000,000 to 30,000,000. The white people number 2,483. For the most part the people of the Kongo are of the Bantu race. Every tribe has its own dialect, so that the number of dialects is considerable. Roman Catholic missions were established in the Kongo region in the latter part of the fifteenth century. It should be remembered, however, that these early missions were almost entirely in what is now still Portuguese territory. Nothing seems to have been undertaken at that time in the interior of what is now Kongo State. At the present time the Roman Catholic missions extend along the river and in the Ubangi district. They have founded a number of stations also in the Tanganyika region. Schools, industrial work, and agricultural operations are carried on with considerable success. Some of the natives have been trained by the missionaries in Europe as physicians, and render good 71 service as such. Statistics of the missions are not clearly given, but seem to show about 20,000 converts. Protestant missions in this region quickly followed the explorations of H. M. Stanley. The Livingstone Inland Mission from England commenced work on the lower Kongo in 1878, but their stations were shortly transferred to the American Baptist Missionary Union. The Baptist Missionary Society of England established a mission on the upper river in 1879 having for its pioneers Grenfell, Comber, and Bentley; the Plymouth Brethren, led by F. S. Arnot, in the Garenganze region in 1881; the Regions Beyond Missionary Union, in the Balolo district of the upper Kongo in 1889; the American Presbyterians (South), led by S. N. Lapsley, on the Kassai River in 1891; the Swedish Missionary Society on the right bank of the lower Kongo in 1882. These missionary societies have about 200 missionaries and nearly 1,000 native workers, with schools, hospitals, industrial establishments, including printing-houses, and about 15,000 adherents. Several missionary steamers ply on the great river. Educational work is rapidly expanding, the natives showing the greatest eagerness to learn to read. The Belgian commission of inquiry in its report (1905) paid a high tribute to the value of these missions in singling out the field of the Baptist Missionary Society as a district where the natives have been taught to work and are noticeably industrious. Several of the dialects of the region have been reduced to writing by the missionaries. The whole Bible has been printed in Fioti (completed 1904); the New Testament, in Kongo (1893); and parts of the New Testament, in the Teke, Laba, Bopoto, Bolegin, Bangi, Nsembe, and Balolo. These latter translations are more or less tentative, and will hardly be enlarged more rapidly than the increase of readers may demand. In the mean time the Fioti Bible can be understood by people using other dialects in ordinary speech.

Lagos: A British colony and protectorate in Western Africa lying on the coast between Dahomey and Southern Nigeria, and extending inland to the French territories of the middle Niger. Area, including Yorubaland and the protectorate, 25,450 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000. The great mass of the population are pagan fetish-worshipers. There are some 7,000 Mohammedans, 15,000 Roman Catholics, and 32,000 Protestants. A railway has been built from Lagos to Ibadan in the Yoruba country, with a branch to Abeokuta. The Yoruba chiefs are allowed to govern their land under British supervision.

Roman Catholic missions are under the Lyons Seminary for African Missions. They report 27 priests, 24 schools, and several charitable institutions. The Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society and a native pastorate in cooperation with it; by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society; by the Southern Baptist Convention (1856); and by the National Baptist Convention (U. S. A.). The whole Protestant missionary body has 189 stations and outstations, 55 missionaries (men and women), 317 native workers, 110 schools with 7,000 scholars, and 3 hospitals and dispensaries. The government maintains Mohammedan and pagan schools, but the pupils availing themselves of this privilege of non-Christian education in 1902 were only 192. Abeokuta was evangelized in the first instance about 1842 by freed slaves who had been taught Christianity in Sierra Leone, 1,000 miles to the westward, and who led the people of the city to invite the Church Missionary Society to send missionaries there. This was done in 1846. A remarkable man connected with this mission in its early days was Samuel Crowther, rescued as a boy from a Portuguese slaver, educated, and sent as a preacher to Abeokuta where he found his relatives. He afterward was consecrated bishop of the Niger in Canterbury Cathedral, and rendered admirable service to the mission during a long life. The assistant bishop of Yorubaland, now, is a full-blooded African. In 1903 the paramount chief of Abeokuta visited London to do homage to the king, and at the same time called at the offices of the Church Missionary Society and the Bible Society to express thanks for great services rendered to his people. The Bible has been translated into Yoruban (1850), and the New Testament into Hausa (1857). One of the Gospels has been tentatively translated into Igbira.

Liberia: An independent republic in Western Africa which has grown out of an effort to colonize freed slaves from America. The first settlement was made in 1822. The republican government was organized in 1847. The coast of the republic extends from Sierra Leone to the Ivory Coast Colony. The territory extends about 200 miles inland, and is hemmed in on the east by French territory. Only a region extending about 25 or 30 miles inland from the coast, however, is effectively administered by the republic. Area about 45,000 sq, miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000, about 20,000 of whom are of American origin. The language of the republic is English. Several native dialects are found among the tribes of the interior. It is estimated that there are about 850,000 Mohammedans and somewhat over 1,000,000 pagans in Liberia, with about 500 Roman Catholics and 25,000 Protestant Christians. Roman Catholic missions are dependent upon their headquarters at Free Town in Sierra Leone. The missionaries belong to the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary. Since 1903 there has been a separate missionary jurisdiction confided to the Marist Fathers. Protestant missions in Liberia were commenced by the American Baptist Convention through the Rev. Lott Carey, who went to Monrovia in 1822. After disease had carried off many victims among the missionaries the mission was given up. The Presbyterian Church (North) established a mission in Liberia in 1833, which was also given up on account of the ravages of disease among the missionaries. The American Methodist Church established a mission at Monrovia in 1833, of which the Rev. Melville B. Cox was the pioneer. This mission is still carried on with a great measure of success. The American Protestant Episcopal Church established a mission at Cape Palmas in 72 1834, with the Rev. John (afterward Bishop) Payne as one of the first missionaries. This mission is still carried on with considerable success, about twenty of the mission clergy being from the Grebo tribe of natives. The American Board established a mission at Cape Palmas in 1834, the Rev. J. L. Wilson being one of the earliest missionaries. On account of the unhealthfulness of the region the missionaries and a number of their adherents removed in 1842 to the Gabun district in what is now the French Kongo colony, transferring their buildings and other immovables in Liberia to the Protestant Episcopal Mission. The National Baptist Convention established a mission in Liberia in 1853, and the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of North America also established a mission in 1860 which is doing good industrial work. These societies together report 92 missionaries and 182 native workers operating at 168 stations, with schools, hospitals, printing-presses, and industrial institutions. Parts of the New Testament have been translated into Grebo (1838). See Liberia.

Morocco: An independent Mohammedan empire in Northwest Africa having a coast-line on the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic Ocean. The country is gradually falling under the direction of France. Area 219,000 sq. miles (the southern frontier, however, is not definitely fixed); population (estimated) 5,000,000, being composed of Berbers, Tuaregs, and Arabs. In name, at least, the greater part of the population is reckoned as Mohammedan. There are about 150,000 Jews and about 6,000 Christians of the Roman Catholic and Eastern churches, with a few Protestants. An apostolic prefecture of the Roman Catholics was established at Tangier in 1859, and under it are about forty priests in different cities of Morocco. Protestant missions are carried on by the North Africa Mission (1881), the Gospel Mission Union (U.S.A., 1894), and the Southern Morocco Mission (1888); besides some workers among the Jews in Tangier. There is little religious liberty in Morocco, and there seems to be but little growth of the Protestant community.

Natal: A British colony in South Africa lying on the eastern coast between Cape Colony and Portuguese East Africa. It is bounded inland by the Transvaal, the Orange River Colony, and Basutoland. Area 35,306 sq. miles; population (1903) 1,039,787. Of these, 877,388 are Zulu-Kafirs; 97,857, Asiatics; and 82,542, Europeans. About 850,000 of the population are pagans, 30,000 are Hindus, 14,000 are Mohammedans, 15,000 are Buddhists or Confucians, 22,000 are Roman Catholics, and 73,000 are Protestants. The country takes its name from the whim of Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese navigator, who happened to arrive at the coast on Christmas day. Roman Catholic missions are under the care of the Oblates of Mary the Immaculate; they report 50 missionaries and 7 native clergy, with 55 schools and several orphanages and hospitals. Their ecclesiastical center is at Pietermaritzburg, the seat of a vicar apostolic. The local Anglican, Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed congregations all carry on missionary work; and, besides these, the following eleven missionary societies are at work in Natal: the American Board (1835), whose early missionaries were, Daniel Lindley, Robert Adams, Aldin and Lewis Grout, and Josiah Tyler; the United Free Church of Scotland; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, both of which entered Natal as an extension of work in Kaffraria; the Berlin Missionary Society; the Hermamusburg Missionary Society; the Norwegian Missionary Society; the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant; the Free Methodists of North America; the South Africa General Mission; the National Baptist Convention; and the Plymouth Brethren. All these societies together report 192 stations and outstations, 106 missionaries (men and women), 612 native workers, 161 schools with 7,016 pupils, 2 hospitals, and one printing-house. Many of the native churches formerly connected with the older missions are now independent and self-supporting, and do not appear on the mission statistics because reckoned as churches of the country. Many of the tribal chiefs, who are pagans and polygamists of a rank order, but who nevertheless treat missionaries as benefactors, oppose the Christian Church with all their might as tending to make their “subjects” think for themselves and question the commands of hereditary despots. The British authorities are inclined to hamper the freedom of the missions on account of their suspicion of “Ethiopianism.” At present a native preacher may not officiate in a church unless under the immediate supervision of a responsible white clergyman.

The Bible has been translated into Zulu (1851-83). This is one of the most important of the African versions published by the American Bible Society. It has a range of circulation extending to Lake Nyassa and into Bechuanaland.

Nigeria: A British territory and sphere of influence in West Africa lying on the coast between Lagos and Kamerun, and extending inland between the German and the French possessions as far as Lake Chad. It is divided into Northern and Southern Nigeria. Lagos with its protectorate is naturally a part of the region, but at present is separately administered. Area: Northern Nigeria, 315,000 sq. miles; Southern Nigeria, 49,700 sq. miles; population (estimated for the whole great region) 23,000,000. It is estimated that the Mohammedan part of the population numbers about 10,000,000, and the pagan part about 13,000,000. This is mere guesswork, since the country is not even explored. In all the coast regions the pagans, of the most degraded class of fetish-worshipers, predominate. In Northern Nigeria the Mohammedan element is the ruling one (under British restraint), but there are large sections occupied by pagan tribes. Christians are for the most part in Southern Nigeria, and their numbers are given as: Roman Catholics, 18,000; Protestants, 6,000. The seat of government in Northern Nigeria is Zungeru on the Kaduna River; that of Southern Nigeria is Old Calabar. Steamers ply on the Niger about 400 miles from its mouth. A railway is being constructed in Northern Nigeria from Zungeru toward Kano, a great trading center south of Lake Chad.

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Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. Ten missionaries are reported with 6 schools. Protestant missions are those of the United Free Church of Scotland in the Calabar region in Southern Nigeria (1846) and of the Church Missionary Society in the Niger delta (1857) and in Northern Nigeria (1902, after a failure in 1890), the Qua Ibo Mission on the Qua River (1887), and the African Evangelistic Mission (1901) and the Sudan United Mission (1903) in Northern Nigeria. The missions in Northern Nigeria are still in the early stage, with little more to show than the names of Wilmot Brooke, J. A. Robinson, and W. R. S. Miller who sacrificed life for that land. In Southern Nigeria there are 82 missionaries (men and women), and 157 schools with 2,482 scholars. The Anglican bishop of this region is assisted by a bishop who is a full-blooded negro. The Bible has been translated into Efik (1862); and tentative translations of single Gospels have been made into Akunakuna, into three or four dialects of Ibo, into Idzo, and into Umon. These are all dialects of Southern Nigeria. Gospels have been translated into the Igbira and Nupé languages besides the Hausa language, all in Northern Nigeria.

Orange River Colony: A British possession in South Africa. It has the Transvaal on the north, Natal and Basutoland on the east, and Cape Colony on the west and south. During forty-six years it was the Orange Free State and was annexed to the British crown in May, 1900, in consequence of its participation in the Boer attack on the adjacent British colonies. Area 50,100 sq. miles; population (1904) 385,045, of whom 143,419 are whites and 241,626 are colored. Capital, Bloemfontein. About 220,000 of the inhabitants are pagans. The predominating Christian body is the Dutch Reformed Church. The whole number of Protestants is about 100,000; of Roman Catholics, 5,000. The country is an excellent agricultural region. Diamonds and other precious stones are found in some sections; and the population tends to increase and to become more and more varied in its constituent elements. Roman Catholic missions are in charge of the Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. The statistics of their work in the colony are not separately given, but there seem to be 14 missionary priests and 2 native priests, with 13 schools. Protestant missionary activities are largely in the hands of the local churches. The Dutch Reformed Church has here shown, much more than elsewhere used to be the case, a purpose to work for the evangelization of the native pagans. The Wesleyan Church and the Anglican Church both have missions locally supported; but the work for whites and blacks is not separately reported. Besides this local church work, in beginning which the Paris Missionary Society had a part (1831), the Berlin Missionary Society (1834) is at work in the colony with 33 stations and outstations, 18 missionaries, 148 native workers, 27 schools, and about 8,000 professed Christians connected with its stations. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1863) has 4 stations among the natives, but its statistics are not separately given. The Zulu Bible, the Chuana version, and the Lesuto version used in Basutoland supply the needs of the people in this colony.

Portuguese East Africa: One of the oldest Portuguese possessions in Africa, situated on the east coast between German East Africa and Natal. It extends inland to British Central Africa, and on both banks of the Zambesi River to Rhodesia. It is composed of the districts of Mozambique, Zambesia, and Lourenço Marques. Area 293,400 sq. miles; population (estimated) 3,120,000. Much of the territory is in the hands of trading companies, which administer the laws in their respective districts. Delagoa Bay is connected by railway with Pretoria in the Transvaal, and another railway runs from Beira in Zambesia to Buluwayo in Rhodesia. The Portuguese began their colonies on this coast in 1505, and the Roman Catholic Church has had strong missions in the region ever since. The ecclesiastical organization was effected in 1612. At present missions in this territory are in the hands of the Society of Jesus, with stations extending along the Zambesi River into the interior. About 30 missionaries are reported. Protestant missions are carried on by the American Methodist Episcopal Church at Inhambane, by the Wesleyan Methodists of England in the Delagoa Bay district, by the Swiss Romande Mission in the south, and by the American Board among the Gaza tribes and at Beira, the chief seaport of the district of Zambesia. The Universities Mission has one station in this territory adjoining its field in Nyassaland. These societies together have 40 missionaries (men and women), 103 native workers, and about 7,000 adherents, with hospitals and schools. A printing-press at Inhambane is beginning to form a literature in two native languages. The New Testament has been translated into Tonga (1890), and the Gospels into Sheetswa (1891). A Gospel has been translated into Ronga by the Swiss Romande missionaries.

Portuguese Guinea: A Portuguese possession adjoining French Kongo on the West African coast, and surrounded by French territory on the land side. It is included in the administration of the Cape Verde Islands. Area, including the islands, 6,280 sq. miles; population, including the islands, 1,000,000. The population is generally given as including 260,000 Roman Catholics; and there are about 170,000 Mohammedans and over 500,000 pagans on the mainland. Roman Catholic missions were established on the mainland in 1832, and are connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon. They comprise eight Roman Catholic parishes. No Protestant missions have been established in this territory.

Rhodesia: An immense territory in South Africa, lying between the Transvaal and the Kongo Independent State, and having as its eastern boundary Portuguese East Africa, and as its western boundary Angola and German Southwest Africa. It is administered as British territory by the British South Africa Company under a British resident commissioner. In its northeastern portion, where it touches Lake Tanganyika, police duties are cared 74 for by the Nyassaland protectorate. It is divided into Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia by the Zambesi River. Area about 246,000 sq. miles; population about 900,000, of whom 12,000 are Europeans and about 1,100 are Asiatics. There are about 5,000 Roman Catholics and 20,000 Protestants in this country. The Roman Catholic missions are not conterminous with the boundaries of this territory, and it is impossible to give their statistics. The missionaries are of the Algerian Society with a certain number of Jesuits in the Zambesi region. Protestant missions in this region were commenced by Robert Moffat of the London Missionary Society in 1830. Livingstone explored the whole region for the same society and unsuccessfully attempted to establish stations among the Mashonas. John Mackenzie was a worthy successor of such pioneers. At present the Protestant missionary societies in Rhodesia are: the London Missionary Society in Matabeleland and at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika; the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society in Mashonaland and Matabeleland; and the Paris Missionary Society in Barotseland in the territory north of the Zambesi, which F. Coillard entered in 1885 as an extension of the Society’s work in Basutoland, the Barotses having the same speech as the Basutos. The Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society (U. S. A.) and the American Board have missions in the eastern part of Southern Rhodesia, near the Portuguese frontier. These societies together have 112 stations and outstations, 70 missionaries (men and women), 6,000 pupils in their schools, and 15,000 professed Christians. The construction of railways, connecting Rhodesia with Cape Town and the Portuguese seaports and opening up the country beyond the Zambesi, is bringing many colonists into the country; and their advent implies that a testing time of the reality of the Christianity of the native churches is at hand. The people use the Bible in Zulu, in Sechuana, and in Lesuto. Tentative translations of Gospels have been made in the Matabele and the Mashona languages.

Rio De Oro: A Spanish possession in North Africa stretching southward along the shore to the Atlantic Ocean from the Morocco frontier and extending inland to the French possessions of the Sahara. Area about 70,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 130,000, almost all Mohammedans. The territory is administered by the governor of the Canary Islands. Roman Catholic missions ecclesiastically connected with the Canary Islands are established at the points occupied by Spanish traders. There are no Protestant missions in the country.

Rio Xuni: Spanish possession in West Africa adjoining the German Kamerun colony and surrounded on the east and south by the territory of the French Kongo. Area 9,800 sq. miles; population (estimated) 140,000, including about 300 whites. Roman Catholic missions have existed here since 1855 and are carried on by the Spanish Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary, being ecclesiastically connected with the island diocese of Annobon and Fernando Po. A Protestant mission has been carried on in this territory by the American Presbyterians (North) who established themselves in 1855 on the island of Corisco, and later on the Benito River. They have 4 stations and outstations, 7 schools, and about 300 professed Christians. The Bible has been translated into the Benga language (1858), which has a somewhat extensive domain in the coast regions.

Senegal: A French colony in West Africa between the Gambia and the Senegal rivers. It consists of a narrow strip of coast land, forming the colony proper, together with certain ports on the Senegal River. Area 438 sq. miles; population (1904) 107,826, of whom 2,804 Are Europeans. The people of the colony proper are citizens, having the right to vote, and being represented by a deputy in the French parliament. The capital of the colony is St. Louis, on the seacoast. Roman Catholic missions have long existed in Senegal, and were placed under an ecclesiastical prefecture in 1765. There are about 5,000 native Roman Catholics in the colony. The only Protestant mission working in Senegal is that of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, which has a station at St. Louis (1863) and two or three small congregations in the vicinity. Besides the Arabic Bible, which is occasionally called for, some of the Gospels have been translated into the Wolof and Mandingo languages (1882).

Senegambia and the Niger: An immense French protectorate comprising the territories formerly called Western Sudan, with the larger part of the Sahara, having the colony of Senegal on the west, the colonies of the Ivory Coast, the Gold Coast, Dahomey, and Togoland on the south, and extending on the north to the Algerian Sahara. Area 2,500,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 10,000,000. The prevailing religion is Mohammedanism. Many pagan tribes exist who serve Mohammedan rulers and furnish slaves for the markets of Tripoli and the Barbary States. The capital is Kayes, on the Senegal River. This great territory, with the French colonies of Senegal, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Dahomey, forms a single region known as French West Africa, of which the governor-general resides at Dakar on the coast of Senegal. Steamers run regularly on the Senegal River some 400 miles to Kayes; and a railway has been constructed from Kayes 650 miles to some important points on the upper Niger. A feature of this region is that the French government has planned a universal system of education which it is endeavoring to apply throughout the territories effectively occupied. Roman Catholic missions have been carried on for a number of years at several of the posts on the Senegal and Niger rivers; the number of converts is reported as 10,000. No Protestant missions are reported in this great region.

Sierra Leone: A British colony and protectorate in West Africa, lying on the coast between Liberia and French Guinea, and extending inland about 180 miles, limited by the boundaries of the French possessions and of Liberia. Area about 34,000 sq. miles; population about 1,100,000. Of the people about 1,000,000 are pagans, 20,000 are Mohammedans, 5,000 are Roman Catholics, and 50,000 are 75 Protestants. The colony proper is limited to the Sierra Leone peninsula. It was the place whence in 1562 the first slaves were taken to the West Indies under the British flag. After slaves in England had been set free, in 1772, a district in Sierra Leone was set apart to be colonized by liberated slaves. Here, from 1786 on, freed slaves were landed and almost abandoned to their own resources except as to food—a great crowd of debased creatures from all parts of Africa, knowing no common language and having no principle of life except such evil things as they had picked up during slavery among Europeans. The situation of these freed slaves had a powerful influence in turning English missionary zeal to West Africa. The Roman Catholic establishment is under an apostolic vicariate erected in 1858 at Freetown. The missionaries are of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. The number of Roman Catholics is 2,800.

The Protestant missionary enterprise was commenced in the latter part of the eighteenth century by missionaries from Scotland; three having died soon after their arrival, the mission was given up. The Church Missionary Society sent missionaries to Sierra Leone in 1804; but they were instructed to go north and begin their mission in the Susu country on the Rio Pongas in what is now French Guinea. They were all Germans, chosen because of the difficulty of securing ordination of Englishmen for this society. The mission came to naught through the hostility of the slave-dealers, and was finally transferred (1814-16) to Sierra Leone. Here a solid work was soon organized among the freed slaves, and has grown ever since. The Protestant missionary societies now working in that field are: the Church Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America, the United Brethren (U. S. A.) in the Mendi region, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance (U. S. A.) in the eastern part of the protectorate. The Church Missionary Society field is almost wholly in the protectorate, the congregations in Sierra Leone being self-supporting and independent. Together the mission stations and outstations number about 131. There are 42 missionaries (men and women), 117 schools, and about 45,000 professed Christians connected with the missions. The English Bible is used in the colony. The New Testament has been translated into Temné (1866); parts of the New Testament into Mendi; and single Gospels, into Bullom and Kuranko. The Yoruba mission of the Church Missionary society was an outgrowth of the society’s work among freed slaves at Sierra Leone. See below, III., Lagos.

Somaliland (British): A British protectorate on the east coast of North Africa, lying between Abyssinia and the sea and between French Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. It is administered by a consul-general. Area about 60,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 300,000; religion, Mohammedan. Most of the people of this district are nomads and very fanatical in their intolerance of Christians. The English government has been at a considerable expense in money and men to pacify the tribes of the interior, who have attempted to drive the English from the country on religious grounds. No missions are reported in this district.

Somaliland (French): A French protectorate on the eastern coast of North Africa, near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, between the Italian colony of Eritrea and British Somaliland, extending inland to the Abyssinian border and including the colony of Obock. Capital, Jibuti. Area about 46,000 sq. miles; population about 200,000, mostly Mohammedans, with some 40,000 pagans, and in the colony of Obock about 8,000 Christians. A railway has been constructed from Jibuti to the Harrar frontier in Abyssinia. There has been for many years a Roman Catholic mission conducted by the French Capuchins who have two or three schools at Obock and Jibuti, and are reaching out toward Abyssinia.

Somaliland (Italian): An Italian possession on the eastern coast of North Africa, lying between the Gulf of Aden and Abyssinia, and between British Somaliland and the mouth of the Juba River, the frontier of British East Africa. The sovereign rights of the Sultan of Zanzibar over this coast region were bought by Italy in 1905. Area about 100,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 400,000, chiefly Mohammedans, with about 50,000 pagans. There are no records of missions established in this wild territory.

Sudan: This term is here limited to the Egyptian Sudan, the Western and Central Sudan being absorbed in the main into French spheres of influence to which other names have been given (see Senegambia and the Niger, above). The Egyptian Sudan is a territory extending south from the frontier of Egypt to Uganda and the Kongo Independent State, and west from the Red Sea to the unmarked boundary of the French sphere of influence. It is nominally a possession of Egypt, but in fact is ruled for Egypt by the British. English and Egyptian flags are used together throughout the territory. Area about 950,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000. The population of the country was much reduced during the sixteen years’ rule of the Mahdi and his dervishes, who as ardent Mohammedans wished to show the world how a country ought to be governed. General Gordon having been killed by the Mahdi’s party in 1885, one of the first acts of the English on recovering the land in 1898 was to found a great “Gordon Memorial” College at Khartum, the scene of his murder, and now the seat of the new administration. The majority of the people are Mohammedans, with an uncertain number of pagan tribes in the southern districts. A considerable number of Greek, Coptic, and Armenian traders is found in the Khartum district. Roman Catholic missions exist at Khartum and Omdurman and among the pagans at Fashoda; a Mission of the American United Presbyterian Church has been founded on the Sobat River; and the Church Missionary Society has established missionaries (1906) at or near Bor in the vacant pagan country between the two first-named missions. All of these missions are too newly established to have any visible fruit except attendance at schools. 76 The Arabic Bible is circulated in the Mohammedan parts of the Sudan. Gospels have been translated into the Dinka language.

Togoland: A German colony in West Africa, occupying the coast of the Gulf of Guinea between the Gold Coast Colony and Dahomey. It extends inland to the French territory of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 32,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000, chiefly pagan; capital, Lome. The German government carries on several schools for the instruction of the natives, and is training them for administrative posts. Roman Catholic missions here are conducted by the Steyl Society for Divine Work. The missionaries number 28, with 9 nuns, 52 schools, 2,119 pupils, and 2,203 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant missionary work is carried on by the North German Missionary Society (1847), and by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, which employs German Methodists for this field. The two societies report 78 stations and outstations, 31 missionaries (men and women), 69 schools with 3,111 pupils, and 4,600 professed Christians. The Ewé New Testament is used here, and a special translation of one of the Gospels, to satisfy local variations, has been tentatively prepared.

Transvaal: A colony of Great Britain in South Africa, lying north of the Orange River Colony and Natal, and west of Portuguese East Africa. Area 111,196 sq. miles; population (1904) 1,268,716 of whom 969,389 are colored, including Chinese and Hindus, and 299,327 are whites. The colony was settled in 1836-37 by Dutch who emigrated from Cape Colony. In 1899 dissensions with Great Britain respecting sovereignty culminated in war, and in 1900 Great Britain formally annexed the territory to her South African domains, the Boers accepting the annexation after two years. The capital is Pretoria. The religious statistics show the pagans to number nearly 1,000,000; Roman Catholics, 10,000; Protestants, 256,000; Jews, 10,000; Buddhists and Confucians, 15,000. The Dutch churches form the largest single group of Protestants. Chinese laborers at the mines are a recent addition to the population. Numbers of negroes from all parts of Africa are also drawn to Johannesburg for work in the mines, about 75,000 natives and other colored people being gathered there by opportunities for work. The Anglican, Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed local churches all carry on missions among the natives. Other Protestant missions are those of the American Board (1893), the Berlin Missionary Society (1859) opened by A. Merensky and Knothe, the Hermannsburg Missionary Society (1857), and the Swiss Romande Mission led by H. Berthoud (1875). These societies together report (not including the enterprises of the local churches) 112 missionaries (men and women), 2,344 native workers, 300 schools with 14,674 pupils, and 84,000 professing Christian adherents. Efforts to improve the character of the workers in the mining compounds of Johannesburg are meeting with some success. The Zulu Bible is much used in the Transvaal as well as the Chuana and Lesuto versions. The New Testament has been translated into Tonga and Sepedi, both in 1888.

Tripoli: A possession of Turkey on the north coast of Africa west of Egypt. It extends southward to the Sahara and includes the oasis of the Fezzan, but its southern limits are indefinite. This territory was seized by Turkey in the sixteenth century. Area about 400,000 sq. miles; population about 1,000,000, chiefly Berbers. There are about 6,000 Europeans (Maltese and Italians), who are mainly Roman Catholics; and there are also about 10,000 Jews. There is an extensive caravan trade with the Sudan and Timbuctoo; and the slavetrade is quietly fostered by this means. The only Protestant mission in Tripoli is that of the North Africa Mission, which has 1 station with 4 missionaries, a hospital, and 2 dispensaries. Arabic and Kabyle are the languages of the country.

Tunis: A French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa lying between Tripoli and Algeria. Area about 51,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,900,000, mainly Berbers and Arabs, with a foreign population (1901) of 39,000 French, 67,500 Italians, and 12,000 Maltese. The Tunisian ruler, called the Bey, is from a family which has been in power since 1575, and governs the country under the control of a French resident. The Roman Catholic Church in Tunis is under direction of the archbishop of Carthage, the see having been restored in 1884. There are 53 priests, 2 bishops, and several schools. Tunis was the scene of some of Raymond Lully’s efforts to convert Mohammedans in the thirteenth century. Protestant missions are carried on in Tunis by the North African Mission, the Swedish Young Women’s Christian Association, and the London Jews Society. Together these societies have 5 schools, 2 hospitals or dispensaries, and about 250 persons under instruction. Arabic is the prevailing language.

Uganda: A British protectorate in East Central Africa, lying between the Egyptian Sudan on the north, German East Africa on the south, British East Africa on the east, and the Kongo Independent State on the west. Within its boundaries lie part of the Victoria Nyanza and lakes Albert and Albert Edward. It comprises the native kingdom of Uganda and several smaller districts ruled by native kinglets under British control. Area 89,400 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, of whom about 1,000,000 are in the kingdom of Uganda. The religious divisions of the population in the whole protectorate are: pagans, 3,500,000; Mohammedans, 50,000; Roman Catholics, 146,000; and Protestants, 250,000. A railway connects Mombasa on the coast of British East Africa with Kisumu, formerly called Port Florence, on the Victoria Nyanza. The seat of the British administration is Entebbe, and that of the kingdom of Uganda is Mengo. Henry M. Stanley visited Uganda in 1875, and found the king Mutesa a recent convert to Islam but inclined to ask questions on the religion of the Christians. He gave the king some instruction and had the Lord’s Prayer translated for him into Suahili written in Arabic characters. At this time Uganda was like any other African kingdom a place of superstition, degradation 77 of women, and bloodthirsty cruelty and oppression. Stanley was really the first of Christian missionaries there; for the slight teachings that he gave the king were not forgotten, and his translation of the Lord’s Prayer was copied and recopied. On leaving Uganda Stanley wrote a letter to the London Telegraph describing Uganda and the willingness of King Mutesa to receive Christian instruction. He then addressed the missionary societies in these words: “Here, gentlemen, is your opportunity. The people on the shores of the Nyanza call upon you.” This challenge was at once taken up by the Church Missionary Society; and in 1876 its first missionaries reached Uganda. The first converts were baptized in 1882, and persecution soon set in, when a number of the Christians were burned alive. Alexander Mackay, a layman and a member of the mission, was a man of indomitable energy and wonderful devotion; and upon him rested to a great degree the responsibility for the defense of the mission. Several of the missionaries were murdered, including Bishop James Hannington (1885), by order of King Mwanga, Mutesa’s successor. Roman Catholic missionaries appeared on the scene; and quarrels and strife ensued between the two denominations. Mohammedans also intervened, trying to profit by the dissensions between the Christians. The British protectorate was declared in 1894. In 1897 the Sudanese troops in British employ revolted and attempted to seize the country in the Mohammedan interest. The valor of the Christians weighed largely in deciding this fierce little war against the mutineers. In it George Laurence Pilkington, a notable lay missionary lost his life. With the defeat of the mutineers and the assignment of the Mohammedans to separate reservations peace was finally established, and the whole protectorate is in a prosperous condition.

The Church Missionary Society has now in the protectorate 90 missionaries (men and women), 2,500 native workers, 170 schools with 22,229 scholars, and 53,000 baptized Christians. It had established a considerable industrial enterprise for the development of the people; but in 1904 this department of its work was turned over to the Uganda Company, a commercial body chartered in England to develop the country. The Roman Catholic missions were established by the Algiers Society for African Missions. There are now 88 stations and about 80,000 baptized Roman Catholic Christians. At Kaimosi, about twenty-five miles north of Port Florence, is a mission of the American Society of Friends, which is instructing the people in various industries. Altogether Uganda is after thirty years of missionary labor a remarkable instance of the change in a people which can be produced by the attempt to follow the principles of the Bible. The overthrow of barbarism in the native customs was effected before any outside political forces entered upon the scene. The Bible has been translated into Ugandan (1888), and Gospels have been rendered into Nyoro and Toro.

III. African Islands:

Annobon. See Fernando Po.

Canary Islands: A group of islands lying north-west of Africa and belonging to Spain, of which they form a province. Area 2,807 sq. miles; population 358,564, reckoned as entirely Roman Catholic, the first Roman Catholic see having been erected here in 1404.

Cape Verde Islands: A group of fourteen islands lying off the west coast of Africa and belonging to Portugal. Area 1,480 sq. miles; population (1900) 147,424, of whom about two-thirds are negroes and nearly one-third of mixed blood. The religion is Roman Catholic.

Comoro Isles: A group of small islands about half way between Madagascar and the African coast. Area 620 sq. miles; population about 47,000, chiefly Mohammedans. The islands are ecclesiastically under the jurisdiction of Mayotte, but it does not appear that any mission exists upon them.

Corisco. See Fernando Po.

Fernando Po, Annobon, Corisco, and Elobey: Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Spain. The area of these islands taken together is about 780 sq. miles; population 22,000. Roman Catholic missions are carried on in the islands by the Spanish Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary. Nineteen clergy are reported in Fernando Po, with about 4,000 Roman Catholics. There is a Protestant mission in Fernando Po, established by the Primitive Methodist Missionary Society in 1870, a mission established by the Baptist Missionary Society of England having been driven from the country by Spanish intolerance a number of years before. One of the Gospels was translated into Adiya, a dialect of Fernando Po, in 1846. It is now obsolete. There is a station of the American Presbyterian Church on the island of Corisco (see above, under Rio Muni).

Madagascar: An island off the southeastern coast of Africa, from which it is separated by the Mozambique Channel at a distance of 240 miles, measuring between nearest points. It is 980 miles long, and 360 miles in its greatest breadth. It is a possession of France, whose claim dates from a concession made to a trading company by the king of France in 1642. The claim was not recognized by the native rulers. After a struggle lasting intermittently from 1882 to 1896 the formal annexation to France took place. Area 224,000 sq. miles; population (1901) 3,000,000, including 15,000 Europeans and some hundreds of Africans and Asiatics. The people are of Malay stock with an infusion of African blood. The principal tribe, which ruled the larger part of the island until the French occupation, is called Hova. Sakalava, Betsileo, and Sihanaka are the names of other important tribes. The history of Madagascar during many years is connected with the story of its evangelization through the London Missionary Society, beginning in 1818. The mission had great success during fifteen years. The language was reduced to writing; schools were established; the New Testament was translated and printed; and numbers of the people professed Christianity. In 1835 the reigning queen drove out the missionaries and proscribed Christianity. After bloody persecutions it was made a capital crime to profess the religion of Christ. 78 This proscription ended in 1861; the missionaries returned; and in 1868 the then queen made public profession of Christianity. At the time of the French occupation there were about 450,000 Protestants and 50,000 Roman Catholics in the island. Roman Catholic missions were commenced in Madagascar in 1844, having their center in the island of Nossi-Bé and the adjacent islands until 1850, when the care of the missions was entrusted to the Jesuits. There are now 348 Roman Catholic mission stations in the island with nearly 100,000 adherents. At the time of the French occupation the Protestant missions were looked upon with great suspicion. In anticipation of being obliged to withdraw from the islands, the London Missionary Society invited the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society to take over some of its stations.

After a period of misunderstanding and friction with the Jesuit missionaries, religious liberty was made effective, and difficulties have gradually been removed. The Protestant societies now laboring in the island are: the London Missionary Society (1818), the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1843), the Friends Foreign Missionary Association (1867), the Norwegian Society (1867), the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America (1892), the (Free) Lutheran Board of Missions (U. S. A., 1895), and the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society (1896). These societies together report 196 missionaries, 4,914 native workers, 2,729 schools with 133,262 pupils, and about 200,000 baptized Christians. The effect of the French school laws may probably affect the higher missionary schools; but on the whole conditions are rapidly taking a satisfactory form. The Bible was translated into Malagasy in 1835 and revised in 1886.

Madeira: An island forming a province of Portugal and lying west of North Africa. Area 505 sq. miles; population 150,574. The island was colonized by the Portuguese in 1420, and has been Roman Catholic for two centuries, the ancient inhabitants being entirely extinct. The American Methodist Episcopal Church has a mission in Madeira.

Mauritius: An island colony of Great Britain, lying in the Indian Ocean 500 miles east of Madagascar. Area 705 sq. miles; population (1901) 378,195. The religious classification under the census of 1901 was as follows: Hindus, 206,131; Mohammedans, 41,208; Roman Catholics, 113,224; Protestants, 6,644. Besides the parish priests there are 6 Jesuit missionaries and 11 from the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society. A large section of the population is of African or mixed blood, and the number of Chinese in business in the island is increasing.

Mayotte: An island belonging to France, situated between Madagascar and the African coast. It is under the governor of Reunion. Area 140 sq. miles; population 11,640, which is diminishing. There are 6 Roman Catholic priests and about 3,000 Roman Catholics in the island.

Reunion: An island belonging to France, situated about 420 miles east of Madagascar. Area, 945 sq. miles; population (1902) 173,395, of whom 13,492 are British Indians, 4,496 are natives of Madagascar, 9,457 are Africans, and 1,378 are Chinese. The rest of the inhabitants are reckoned as Roman Catholics. The island is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and it forms a part of the ecclesiastical province of Bordeaux in France.

Saint Thomas (Thomé) and Principe: Two islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal, of which they are reckoned as a province. Area 360 sq. miles; population (1900) 42,000, of whom 41,000 are negroes. These islands are a source of revenue to the Portuguese government, producing quantities of coffee, cocoa, and cinchona. The products are cultivated by slave labor still imported by the Portuguese “under contract” through Angola from central Africa. About 4,000 of these “laborers” are carried to the islands every year; and it is said that none return. A Roman Catholic diocese was established in these islands in 1584, and a large part of the population is reckoned as Roman Catholic. There are no Protestant missions in this colony.

Zanzibar: See British East Africa Protectorate, above.

Henry Otis Dwight.22Part of the information concerning Roman Catholic missions in this article has been furnish by Prof. John T. Creagh.

Bibliography: I. Collections of titles: J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs à l’Afrique et à l’Arabie, San Remo, 1875; P. Paulitschke, Die Afrika-Literatur in den Zeit 1500-1750, Vienna, 1882; G. Kayser, Bibliographie de l’Afrique, Brussels, 1889.

Geography and Atlases: P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents, Vienna, 1880; idem, Die geographische Erforschung der Adal-Länder in Ost-Afrika, Leipsic, 1884; A. H. Keane, Africa, 2 vols., London, 1895 (a compend); A. Poskin, L’Afrique équatoriale. Climatologie, nosologie, hygiène, Paris, 1897 (the one book on the subject); R. Grundemann, Neuer Missions-Atlas, Stuttgart, 1896 (German missions only); K. Heilmann, Missionskarte der Erde, Gütersloh, 1897; H. P. Beach, Geography and Atlas of Protestant Missions, New York, 1903.

Ethnology: T. Waitz, Anthropologie der Naturvölker, vol. ii., Leipsic, 1860; R. Hartmann, Die Nigritier, Berlin, 1877 (argues for unity of African peoples); idem, Die Völker Afrikas, Leipsic, 1879; H. Spencer, Descriptive Sociology, part iv., African Races, London, 1882; A. Featherman, Social History of the Races of Mankind: Nigritians, ib. 1885; F. Ratzel, Völkerkunde, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1886-88, Eng. transl., History of Mankind, London, 1896-97; Natives of South Africa, London, 1901.

Languages: R. N. Cust, A Sketch of the Modern Languages of Africa, 2 vols., ib. 1883 (by a master); C. R. Lepsius, Nubische Grammatik mit einer Einleitung über die Völker und Sprachen Afrikas, Berlin, 1880.

Exploration: D. Livingstone, Travels and Researches in South Africa, London, 1857; J. H. Speke, Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile, ib. 1863; R. F. Burton, Wanderings in West Africa, 2 vols., ib. 1864; H. M. Stanley, How I Found Livingstone, ib. 1874; idem, In Darkest Africa, ib. 1874; V. L. Cameron, Across Africa, ib. 1877; C. E. Bourne, Heroes of African Discovery, 2 vols., ib. 1882; K. Dove, Vom Kap zum Nil, Berlin, 1898; J. Bryce, Impressions of South Africa, with three maps, London, 1899; C. A. von Götsen, Durch Afrika von Ost nach West, Berlin, 1899; A. B. Lloyd, In Dwarf Land and Cannibal Country, London, 1899; L. Lanier, L’Afrique, Paris, 1899 (geographical, historical, bibliographical); P. B. du Chaillu, In African Forest and Jungle, New York, 1903; A. H. Keane, South Africa. A Compendium of Geography and Travel, London, 1904.

African partition and colonization: J. S. Keltie, The Partition of Africa, 21 maps, London, 1893 (excellent, succinct); 79 Holub, Die Colonization Afrikas, Vienna, 1882; H. H. Johnston, History of the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races, in Cambridge Historical Series, Cambridge, 1894; H. M. Stanley, Africa; Its Partition and Its Future, New York, 1898.

Missions: D. Macdonald, Africana: Heathen Africa, 2 vols., London, 1882; R. Lovett, History of the London Missionary Society,1795-1895,, 2 vols., ib. 1899; F. P. Noble, Redemption of Africa, New York, 1899; E. Stock, History of the Church Missionary Society, 3 vols., London, 1899; Ecumenical Missionary Conference, New York, 1900, Reports, New York, 1900; C. F. Pascoe, Two Hundred Years of the SPG, London, 1901; J. Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Continent; or Africa and its Missions, ib. 1903; H. O. Dwight, H. A. Tupper, E. M. Bliss, Encyclopedia of Missions, New York, 1904.

Catholic Missions: M. de Montroud, Les Missions catholiques dans les parties du Monde, Paris, 1869; L. Bethune, Les Missions catholiques d’Afrique, ib. 1889; O. Werner, Orbis terrarum catholicus, Freiburg, 1890 (geographical and statistical); Missiones Catholicæ, Rome, 1901.

Native religion: T. Hahn, Tsuni-Ggoam, the Supreme Being of the Ghoi-Ghoi, London, 1882; A. B. Ellis, Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast, ib. 1887; W. Schneider, Die Religion der afrikanischen Naturvölker, Münster, 1891; J. Macdonald, Religion and Myth, London, 1893 (on religion and society); M. A. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, ib. 1897; idem, West African Studies, ib. 1901; R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa, New York, 1904 (covers native religion and society).

II. Algeria: R. L. Playfair, Bibliography of Algeria, London, 1888 (covers 1541-1887); A. Certeux and E. H. Carnoy, L’Algérie traditionnelle, 3 vols., Algiers, 1884 (on customs and superstitions); Gastu, Le Peuple Algérien, Paris, 1884; R. L. Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom: Annals of British Relations with Algeria, London, 1884; E. C. E. Villot, Mæurs et institutions des indigènes de l’Algérie, Algiers, 1888; F. A. Bridgman, Winters in Algeria, New York, 1890; F. Klein, Les Villages d’Arabes chrétiens, Fontainebleau, 1890; A. E. Pease, Biskra and the Oases . . . of the Zihans, London, 1893; J. Lionel, Races Berbères, Paris, 1893; A. Wilkin, Among the Berbers of Algeria, London, 1900.

Angola: J. J. Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo, 2 vols., London, 1895 (the one book); F. A. Pinto, Angola e Congo, Lisbon, 1888; H. Chatelain, Folk-Tales of Angola, Boston, 1894.

Basutoland: J. Widdicombe, Fourteen Years in Basutoland, London, 1892; E. Cosalis, My Life in Basutoland, ib. 1889; Mrs. Barkly, Among Boers and Basutos, ib. 1893; E. Jacottet, Contes populaires des Bassoutos, Paris, 1895; M. Martin, Basutoland; Its Legends and Customs, London, 1903.

Bechuanaland: L. K. Bruce, The Story of an African Chief, Khama, London, 1893; E. Lloyd, Three African Chiefs, Khamé, Sebelé, and Barthæng, ib. 1895; J. D. Hepburn, Twenty Years in Khama’s Country and the Batauna, ib. 1895; W. D. Mackenzie, John Mackenzie, South African Missionary and Statesman, ib. 1902.

British East Africa and Zanzibar: J. Thomson, Through Masai Land, London, 1885; Handbook of British East Africa including Zanzibar, ib. 1893 (English official publication); H. S. Newman, Banani: the Transition from Slavery to Freedom in Zanzibar, ib. 1899; S. T. and H. Hinde, Last of the Masai, ib. 1901.

Cape Colony: G. McC. Theall, History of South Africa, 4 vols., London, 1888-89 (exhaustive); E. Holub, Seven Years in South Africa, ib. 1881; A. Wilmot, Story of the Expansion of South Africa, ib. 1895; A. T. Wirgman, History of the English Church in South Africa, ib. 1895; South African Year Book for 1902-3, ib. 1902 (official); J. Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Continent, ib. 1903; H. A. Bryden, History of South Africa, 1652-1903, ib. 1904; D. Kidd, The Essential Kafir, ib. 1904.

Central Africa Protectorate: H. H. Johnston, British Central Africa, London, 1897; J. Buchanan, The Shiré Highlands as Colony and Mission, ib. 1885; D. J. Rankin, Zambesi Basin and Nyassaland, ib. 1893; A. E. M. Morshead, History of the Universities Mission to Central Africa, ib. 1897; W. A. Elmalie, Among the Wild Ngomi, Chapters . . . of Livingstonia Mission, ib. 1899; J. W. Jack, Daybreak in Livingstonia, New York, 1901.

Dahomey. A. Pawlowski, Bibliographie raisonnée . . . concernant le Dahomey, Paris, 1895; Aspe-Fleurimont, La Guinée francaise, ib. 1890; E. F. Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomeans, 2 vols., London, 1851; J. A. Skertchley, Dahomey as it is, ib. 1874, A. L. d’Albéca, La France au Dahomey, Paris, 1895; E. Foa, Le Dahomey, ib. 1895 (on history, geography, customs, etc.); R. S. Powell, The Downfall of Prempeh, London, 1896.

Egypt (for missions): G. Lansing, Egypt’s Princes. A Narrative of Missionary Labor in the Valley of the Nile, New York, 1865; M. L. Whately, Ragged Life in Egypt, London, 1870; idem, Among the Huts in Egypt, ib. 1870; A. Watson, The American Mission in Egypt, Pittsburg, 1898; M. Fowler, Christian Egypt, London, 1900; and see Egypt.

Erìtrea: La Colonia Erîtrea, Turin, 1891; E. Q. M. Alamanni, L’Aveñire della colonia Eritrea, Asti, 1890; M. Schveller, Mitteilungen über meine Reise in . . . Eritrea, Berlin, 1895.

French Kongo: A. J. Wauters and A. Buyl, Bibliographie du Congo, 1880-95, Paris, 1895 (3,800 titles); P. Eucher, Le Congo, essai sur t histoire religisuse, ib. 1895; A. Voulgre, Le Loango et la vallée du Kouilou, ib. 1897; and see below Kongo.

French Guinea: L. G. Binger, Du Niger au golfe de Guinée, 2 vols., Paris, 1891; C. Madrolle, En Guinée, ib. 1894; P. d’Espagnat, Joura de Guinée, ib. 1898.

German Africa: Deutsch-Ost-Afrika, Wissenschaftlicher Forschungaresultate über Land und Leute, Berlin, 1893 and later (exhaustive); P. Reichard, Deutsch-Ostafrika, Land and Bewohner, Leipsic, 1892; H. von Schweinitz, Deutsch-Ost-Afrika in Krieg und Frieden, Berlin, 1894; Ch. Römer, Kamerun; Land, Leute und Mission, Basel, 1895; E. Zintgraff, Nord-Kamerun, 1886-92, Berlin, 1895; F. J. van Bülow, Deutsch-Südwestafrika . . . Land und Leute, ib. 1897; K. Hörhold, Drei Jahre under deutsche Flagge in Hinterland von Kamerun, ib.1897; M. Dier, Unter den Schwarzen, Steyl, 1901 (missionary); F. Hutter, Wanderungen und Forschungen in Nord-Hinterland von Kamerun, Brunswick, 1902; and see below, Kamerun.

Gold Coast: A. B. Ellis, History of the Gold Coast, London, 1893; F. A. Ramseyer and J. Kühne, Four Years in Ashantee, New York, 1877 (missionary); C. Buhl, Die Basler Mission an der Goldküste, Basel, 1882; C. C. Reindorf, History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti from c. 1500, London, 1895; G. Macdonald, Gold Coast, Past and Present, ib. 1898; D. Kemp, Nine Years at the Gold Coast, ib. 1898.

Ivory Coast: Bonnesu, La Côte d’Ivoire, Paris, 1899 (historical and geographical); M. Mounier, France noire, Côte d’Ivoire et Soudan, ib. 1894.

Kamerun: In G. Warneck, History of Protestant Missions, transl. from seventh Germ. ed., London, 1901; E. B. Underhill, Alfred Saker, Missionary to Africa, ib. 1884; and see above, German Africa.

Kongo Independent State: H. M. Stanley, Congo and the Founding of the Free State, 2 vols., London, 1878; W. H. Bentley, Life on the Congo, ib. 1890; idem, Pioneering on the Congo, 2 vols., New York, 1903; Mrs. H. G. Guinness, The New World of Central Africa; the Congo, London, 1890; F. S. Arnot, Garenganze; or Seven Years’ Pioneer Mission Work in Central Afrika, ib. 1889; idem, Bihe and Garenganze, ib.1893; S. P. Verner, Pioneering in Central Africa, New York, 1903; E. Morel, King Leopold’s Rule in Africa, London, 1904.

Lagos: R. F. Burton, Abeokuta and the Cameroon Mountains, 2 vols., London, 1863; Miss C. Tucker, Abbeokuta: the Yoruba Mission, ib. 1858; J. A. O. Payne, Table of Events in Yoruba History, Lagos, 1893.

Liberia: J. H. T. McPherson, African Colonization: History of Liberia (Johns Hopkins University Studies, series 9, No. 10), Baltimore, 1891; G. S. Stockwell, The Republic of Liberia, New York, 1868 (historical and geographical); J. Buettikofer, Reisebilder aus Liberia, Leyden, 1890; F. A. Durham, The Lone Star of Liberia, London, 1892; E. W. Blyden, A Chapter in the History of Liberia, Freetown, 1892.

Morocco: R. L. Playfair and R. Brown, Bibliography of Morocco . . . to end of 1891, London, 1893; R. Kerr, Pioneering in Morocco; Seven Years’ Medical Mission Work, ib. 1894; E. de Amicis, Morocco, Its People and·Places, New York, 1892; W. B. Harris, The Land of an African Sultan, London, 1879; Géographie générale de Maroc, Paris, 1902; A. J. Dawson, Things Seen in Morocco, London, 1904; Morocco Painted by A. S. Forrest and described by S. L. Bensusan, ib. 1904.

Natal: R. Russell, Natal, the Land and Its Story, London, 1900; L. Groat, Zululand, or Life among the Zulu-Kafirs, Philadelphia, 1864; H. Brooks, The Colony of Natal, London, 1870; T. B. Jenkinson, Amazulu, the Zulus, ib. 1882 (on people and country); J. Bird, Annals of Natal, 2 vols., Pietermaritzburg, 1888-89; J. Tyler, Forty Years among 80 the Zulus, Boston, 1891; F. W. van Wernedorff, Ein Jahr in Rhodesia, Berlin, 1899; J. Robinson, A Lifetime in South Africa, London, 1900.

Nigeria: C. H. Robinson, Hausaland, London, 1897; idem, Nigeria, 1900 (both authoritative); H. Goldie, Calabar and Its Mission, ib. 1890; R. H. Bacon, Benin, the City of Blood, ib. 1897; H. Bindloss, In the Niger County, ib. 1899; W. R. Miller, Hausa Notes, ib. 1901.

Orange River Colony: South African Republic, Official Documents, Philadelphia, 1900; G. McC. Theal, The Boers, or Emigrant Farmers, London, 1888; A. H. Keane, Africa, in E. Stanford’s Compendium of Geography, 2 vols., ib. 1893; H. Cloete, History of the Great Boer Trek, and the Origin of the South African Republics, ib. 1899.

Portuguese Africa: W. B. Warfield, Portuguese Nyassaland, London, 1899; R. Monteiro, Delagoa Bay, Its Natives and Natural History, ib. 1891; P. Gillmore, Through Gaza Land, ib. 1891; J. P. M. Weale, Truth about the Portuguese in Africa, ib. 1891.

Rhodesia: H. Hensman, History of Rhodesia, London, 1900; E. F. Knight, Rhodesia of To-day; Condition and Prospects of Matabeleland and Mashonaland, ib. 1895; A. G. Leonard, How we Made Rhodesia, ib. 1896; A. Boggie, History of Rhodesia and the Matabele, ib. 1897; S. J. Du Toit, Rhodesia Past and Present, ib. 1897; H. L. Tangye, In New South Africa; . . . Transvaal and Rhodesia, ib. 1900.

Sierra Leone: J. J. Crooks, History of the Colony of Sierra Leone, London, 1903; D. K. Flickinger, Ethiopia, or Twenty Years of Mission Work in Western Africa, Dayton, 1877; E. G. Ingham, Sierra Leone after One Hundred Years, London, 1894; T. J. Alldridge, The Sherbro and its Hinterland, ib. 1901; C. George, The Rise of British West Africa, ib. 1904.

Somaliland: H. L. Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland, London, 1903; C. V. A. Peel, Somaliland . . . Two Expeditions into the Far Interior, ib. 1903; F. S. Brereton, In the Grip of the Mullah, ib. 1903.

Sudan: A. S. White, Expansion of Egypt under Anglo-Egyptian Condominion, New York, 1900; C. T. Wilson and R. W. Felkin, Uganda und der ägyptische Sudan, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1883; Slatin Pasha, Fire and Sword in the Sudan, London, 1896; D. C. Boulger, Life of Gordon, ib. 1897; H. S. Alford and W. D. Sword, The Egyptian Sudan, Its Loss and Its Recovery, ib. 1898; H. H. Austin, Among Swamps and Giants in Equatorial Africa, ib.1902.

Transvaal: E. Farmer, Transvaal as a Mission Field, London, 1903; W. C. Willoughby, Native Life on the Transvaal Border, ib. 1900; J. H. Bovill, Natives under the Transvaal Flag, ib. 1900; D. M. Wilson, Behind the Scenes in the Transvaal, ib. 1901.

Tripoli and Tunis: G. E. Thompson, Life in Tripoli, London, 1893; De H. Wartegg, Tunis, Land and People, ib. 1899; M. Fournel, La Tunisie; le christianisme et l’islam dans l’Afrique septentrionale, Paris, 1886; V. Guerin, La France catholique en Tunisie . . . et en Tripolitaine, ib. 1886; A. Perry, Official Tour along the Eastern Coast of . . . Tunis, Providence, 1891; D. Bruun, The Cave Dwellers of Southern Tunisia, Edinburgh, 1898; H. Vivian, Tunisia and the Modern Barbary Pirates, London, 1899; J. L. Cathcart, Tripoli; First War with the United States, La Porte, 1902.

Uganda: H. H. Johnston, Uganda Protectorate, London, 1904; W. J. Ansorge, Under the African Sun: A Description of Native Races in Uganda, ib. 1899; Mackay of Uganda; Story of his Life by his Sister, ib. 1899; R. P. Ashe, Two Kings of Uganda; or Life by the Shores of Victoria Nyanza, ib. 1890 (missionary); S. G. Stock, Uganda and Victoria Nyanza Mission, ib. 1892; F. J. Lugard, Rise of our East African Empire, . . . Nyassaland and Uganda, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1893; idem, Story of the Uganda Protectorate, London, 1900; C. F. Harford-Battersby, Pilkington of Uganda, ib. 1899; A. R. Cook, A Doctor and his Dog in Uganda, ib. 1903 (on medical missions).

III. African Islands: Madagascar: J. Sibree, The Great African Island, London, 1879 (the best book); idem, Madagascar before the Conquest, ib. 1896; W. Ellis, The Martyr Church, ib. 1869; W. E. Cousins, The Madagascar of To-day, ib. 1895; H. Hansen, Beitrag zur Geschichte der Insel Madagaskar, Gütersloh, 1899; J. J. K. Fletcher, Sign of the Cross in Madagascar, London, 1901; T. T. Matthews, Thirty Years in Madagascar, ib. 1904.

Other Islands: A. B. Ellis, The West African Islands, London, 1885; C. Keller, Madagascar, Mauritius, and other African Islands, ib. 1900; N. Pike, Subtropical Rambles in the Land of the Aphanapteryx, ib. 1873 (on Mauritius); J. C. Mellis, St. Helena, ib. 1875 (scientific); H. W. Estridge, Six Years in Seychelles, ib. 1885; A. S. Brown, Madeira and the Canary Isles, ib. 1890.

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