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YARN, LINEN. 1 Kgs 10:28. There is a diversity of opinion as to the meaning of this term. There is very strong reason to doubt the correctness of the rendering in our translation, and to substitute for it "the drove" - i.e., of horses. See Eze 27:7.

YEAR. The Jewish year had two commencements. The religious year began with the month Abib (April), the civil with Tisri (October). The year was solar. There were two seasons, summer and winter, Ps 74:17; Zech 14:8; Jer 36:22; Am 3:15. The months were lunar, of thirty days each, and twelve in number, although a thirteenth was sometimes necessarily intercalated. It was called Ve-adar. The festivals, holy days, and fasts of the year were as follows:

  1. The feast of the Passover, the 14th day of the first month.

  2. The feast of unleavened bread, in the same month, from the 15th to 21st, inclusive.

  3. The feast of Pentecost, called also feast of harvest and "day of first fruits," on the day which ended seven weeks, counted from the 16th of the first month, that day being excluded.

  4. The feast of trumpets, on the first day of the seventh month.

  5. The day of atonement, a fast, on the 10th day of the seventh month.

  6. The feast of tabernacles, or of gathering, from the 15th to the 22d day, inclusive, of the seventh month.

The post-Mosaic festivals are Purim, in the twelfth month of Adar, 13th to 15th day, and dedication, on the 25th day of the ninth month.

YEAR OF JUBILEE. Lev 25:8-10. See Jubilee, Year of.

YEAR, SABBAT'ICAL. In the seventh year all agricultural labor was suspended, and spontaneous productions were left to the poor, the traveller, and the wild beasts. Lev 25:1-7. This was (1) For the sake of the ground; (2) For the preservation of wild beasts; and (3) To make the people provident and sensible of dependence. The people could fish, hunt, take care of bees and flocks, repair buildings, manufacture clothes, and carry on commerce. This year was religiously observed, Deut 31:10-13. There was, moreover, a general release-, no debt to a Jew was allowed to stand, but must be forgiven. Deut 15:1-11.

It has been inferred from 2 Chr 26:21 that this sabbatical year was neglected during seventy Sabbatical cycles - i.e., four hundred and ninety years. Whether it was ever observed is not a matter of certain record, but there is an allusion to it in 1 Mace. 6:49, and Luke 6:1 has been interpreted to refer to the "first Sabbath of the second year in the cycle."

YOKE. This was much lighter than ours, and probably much larger, so that the cattle stood farther apart and the plough could more easily be made to avoid obstructions. It was simply a stick

Yoke in Use in Palestine.

a, b, timber of the yoke; c, d, the bows; e, f, pegs between which, at g, the end of the shaft comes, the shaft itself having been run through the rope between f and the cross-piece of wood h, i.

laid upon the necks of the cattle, to which it was held by thongs instead of wooden bows, and in a similar manner it was attached to the plough-beam. In modern Syria wooden pins are sometimes used instead of thongs, the lower ends of which are held by a parallel stick under the necks of the oxen.

The yoke was an appropriate emblem of subjection and of slavery, imprisonment, and severe rule, while the removal of it indicated the corresponding deliverance. Gen 27:40; Jer 2:20; Matt 11:29-30. Breaking the yoke also represents the rejection of authority. Nah 1:13.

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