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TA'ANACH, and TA'NACH (sandy soil), an old city of the Canaanites. Josh 12:21. Joshua conquered its king, and it was in the territory of Issachar, but assigned to Manasseh, and then to the Levites. Josh 17:11-18; Josh 21:25; Jud 1:27. Barak's victory was gained at Tabor, not very near Taanach, as some assert. Jud 5:19. In later times, with Megiddo and other places, this city formed a part of one of Solomon's commissariat districts. 1 Kgs 4:12. The Aner of 1 Chr 6:70 may possibly be the same as Taanach. Taanach was situated on the south-western edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles south of Megiddo, 13 miles southsouth-west of Nazareth, and 48 miles north of Jerusalem. The village is situated on the southern side of a large isolated hill, or tell which is covered with ruins, cisterns, and rock-hewn tombs. The modern village is a mean one bearing the name of Taanak.

TA'ANATH-SHI'LOH (approach to Shiloh), one of the landmarks on the border of Ephraim. Josh 16:6. It has been regarded by some as identical with Shiloh, but Conder suggests Khurbet Thala, a mound of ruins, 10 or 12 miles east of Shechem.

TAB'BAOTH (rings), the ancestor of Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:43; Neh 7:46.

TAB'BATH (celebrated), a place noted in the account of the flight of the Midianite host. Jud 7:22. Grove suggests its identity with Tubukhat-Fahil, a remarkable mound or bank about 600 feet high, east of the Jordan, opposite Beisan (Beth-shean).

TA'BEAL (God is good), the father of one who was proposed king of Judah by the army of Pekah, the son of Remaliah. Isa 7:6. The name is Syriac, and it has been conjectured that he was a descendant of Naaman.

TA'BEEL (God is good), a Persian officer in Samaria during the reign of Artaxerxes. Ezr 4:7.

TAB'ERAH (a burning), a place in the wilderness of Paran. Num 11:3; Deut 9:22. It was also called Kibroth-hattaavah, from the pestilence which followed upon the excess of the Israelites in eating quails. The Israelites rested there for at least a month.

TA'BERING. This obsolete word occurs in Nah 2:7. It means "to beat as a taber" or "tabret." The picture is of a company of Ninevite women beating upon their breasts as players upon a taber. A taber is a small drum beaten by one stick, to accompany a pipe.

TAB'ERNACLE probably means a tent or movable dwelling-place. Ex 25:9. In this sense it is used in Num 24:5; Job 11:14; Ps 22:23; Matt 17:4, but in the Scriptures generally it is applied to the structure which was prepared by Moses, under the divine direction, in which the Jews were to worship.

There is undoubted mention in the O.T. of two sacred tabernacles, the one erected in the wilderness and the other that in which David put the ark, and where it remained until the completion of the temple. 2 Sam 6:17; 1 Kgs 8:1; 1 Chr 16:1. The old tabernacle, meanwhile, was at Gibeon. It is uncertain whether Solomon removed it or the Davidic tabernacle into the temple - most likely the latter. 1 Kgs 8:4. Some commentators claim that prior to the Sinaitic tabernacle there was a tent used for divine worship. They appeal to Ex 33. The tabernacle there referred to was, they say, either the tent Moses had set apart for this purpose, or a sacred tent the Israelites had possessed in Egypt. But if the Hebrew verbs, which are all in the future in this passage, are read in the future tense, then the tabernacle meant is that constructed in the wilderness after the divinely-revealed plan. See Lange, Commentary on Exodus, p. 137.

Our Version often confounds "tent" and "tabernacle," as in Ex 33:7-11, where the word should be "tent" throughout. The importance of this distinction is manifest. The Bible account in regard to this structure is derived from Ex 26 and Ex 36:8-38. In this article we follow 841 in the main Mr. Fergusson's article "Temple" in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible.

"The tabernacle comprised three main parts - the tabernacle, strictly so called, its tent, and its covering. The tabernacle itself was to consist of curtains of fine linen woven with colored figures of cherubim, and a structure of boards which was to contain the holy place and the most holy place; the tent was to be a true tent of goats' hair cloth, to contain and shelter the tabernacle; the covering was to be of red rams' skins and sealskins, and was spread over the goats'-hair tent as an additional protection against the weather." - Bible Commentary, in loco.

South East view of the Tabernacle, covered by its Tent. (After fergusson.)

The court of the tabernacle was surrounded by canvas screens. Those of the tabernacle were 5 cubits (about 8 feet) in height, and hung from brazen pillars, 8 feet apart, by hooks and fillets of silver. Twenty of these pillars were on each side, and ten on each end, , The space thus enclosed was 150 feet by 75. The enclosure was only broken on the eastern side by the entrance, 30 feet wide, which was closed by a curtain of fine-twined linen with embroidered figures of cherubim. This curtain could be drawn up or aside at pleasure. The pillars were kept firm by cords and tent-pins of bronze, had their capitals overlaid with silver, and stood on bases of bronze. Ex 27:9-18.

At the upper end of this enclosure, and facing the entrance, which was toward the east, stood the tabernacle itself. This tabernacle proper was 45 by 15 feet, and 15 feet high. The sides and rear were enclosed with boards, and the front was open. Each of these boards was furnished with two tenons at its lower extremity, which fitted into silver sockets placed on the ground. At the top, at least, they were fastened together by bars of acacia-wood run through rings of gold. The middle bar, which reached from end to end, was, properly speaking, the ridge-pole of the tent. Accordingly, we must conceive of the tabernacle, not as having a flat roof, but a pitched one, like an ordinary tent. See illustration, by which the arrangements of the coverings will also be understood. 842 Over the top was thrown a rich, gorgeous fabric of various materials, the connection and disposition of which, as well as of the other parts of the covering, are prescribed with the utmost minuteness. Ex 26:1-30. The entrance or door of the tabernacle was covered with a beautifully-embroidered curtain suspended on five columns. The interior was subdivided into two apartments, separated, each from the other, by a richly-wrought curtain hanging entirely across and reaching from the top to the bottom. This was called "the veil," or "second veil," Heb 9:3, because the first entrance was also curtained. The outer apartment was called the "holy place," or "sanctuary," or the "first tabernacle," and the inner was the "second tabernacle," or the "most holy place," or the "holiest of all." Heb 9:2-8.

As to the furniture of the court, there were - (1) The altar of burnt-offering, which stood near the centre of the enclosure. See Altar. (2) The brazen laver, Ex 30:18, corresponding to the molten sea, 1 Kgs 7:23, which stood between the altar and the tabernacle, in its shape resembling an urn. It contained water for washing the hands and feet of the priests when they were about to enter the sanctuary. See Sea, Brazen.

As to the furniture of the tabernacle itself, there were - (1) The golden candlestick, standing on the left of a person entering the sanctuary. See Candlestick. (2) The table of shew-bread, opposite to the candlestick. See ShewBread. (3) The altar of incense, between the shew-bread and the candlestick, and in front of the ark. See Altar. (4) The ark of the covenant. See Ark.

The tabernacle and its court were finished with perfect exactness according to the pattern or model supernaturally revealed to Moses. Heb 8:5. It is estimated that the silver and gold used in its construction (to say nothing of the brass or copper, the wood, the curtains and canopies, the furniture, etc.) amounted in value to $1,250,000.

When it was finished, after about nine months' labor, it was consecrated, with very solemn and imposing rites, to the service of Jehovah. Ex 30:23-33; Ex 40:9-11; Heb 9:21.

While passing through the wilderness the tabernacle was always pitched in the midst of the camp. The tents of the priests and Levites surrounded it in appointed order, and at some distance from them the residue of the tribes, in four great divisions consisting of three tribes each, and each division with its appropriate name and standard or banner. Num 2:2-34. The tabernacle and its furniture were so constructed as to be conveniently taken down, transported, and set up again, and particular individuals or classes had their respective duties assigned to them. Every encampment and removal, and even the order of the march, was directed expressly by Jehovah. On the day the tabernacle was completed God revealed himself in a cloud, which overshadowed and filled it. By this cloud, assuming the shape of a pillar or column, their subsequent course was governed. When it rested over the tent the people always rested, and when it moved the tabernacle was taken down, and the whole host followed wherever it led. In the night this cloud became bright like a pillar of fire, and preceded them in like manner. Ex 40:35-38; Num 9:15-23. When the journeyings of the people were ended and they entered Canaan, the tabernacle was erected at Gilgal, Josh 4:19, where it continued until the country was subdued, and then it was removed to Shiloh, 1 Sam 1:3, where it stood between three hundred and four hundred years. It was thence removed to Nob, 1 Sam 21:1-9, and thence, in the reign of David, to Gibeon, 1 Chr 21:29, where it was at the commencement of Solomon's reign, 2 Chr 1:1-13; and when the temple was finished some suppose the sacred fabric, with its vessels and furniture, was removed into it. See Temple.

The "tabernacles" spoken of in Am 5:26 as existing in the northern kingdom of Israel were probably portable, carried upon the shoulders, and contained the idol.

TABERNACLE OF WIT'NESS, Num 17:7-8, TAB'ERNACLE OF TEST'IMONY. Ex 38:21. These terms may refer to the Law, which was deposited in the tabernacle, and which testified to God's authority and holiness, Ex 25:21, or they may refer to the revelations which God made

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General View of the Tabernacle. 844 of himself in the tabernacle, and by which he testified his presence and majesty in the most sublime and mysterious manner.

TAB'ERNACLES, FEAST OF, one of the three greatest Jewish feasts. The law for it is laid down in Lev 23:34-43, Num 29:12-40. It was designed to commemorate the long tent-life of the Israelites during the Wandering. The feast began on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, and lasted eight days - seven for the feast and one day for a "solemn assembly," a sabbath of rest. In Num 29:12-39 the proper sacrifices for each day are given. During the whole time, the people dwelt in booths. Like the other feasts, the place for keeping this one was Jerusalem. The city must have presented a very animated and picturesque appearance. The booths were erected on the tops of houses, in the courts of the temple, and in the streets and on the neighboring hills. There was also much innocent mirth; indeed, it was distinguished for this. It was commanded to rejoice before the Lord. On the first and last days there was a holy convocation. Deut 31:10-13 enjoins the reading of the Law to the whole people every seventh or sabbatical year at the feast of tabernacles. This regulation, as interpreted by later Jewish practice, is obeyed by reading, on the first day of the feast, certain portions of Deuteronomy.

In Ex 23:16 this feast is called "the feast of ingathering," because it came at the end of the harvest, 15th to 22d Tisri - September-October. References to the observance of the feast are found in the O.T. in Neh 8:13-18; Hos 12:9; Zech 14:16-19, and in the N.T. in John 7:2, John 7:37-38. In the latter passage our Lord is by some supposed to refer to a daily custom at the feast, adopted in later times. The Israelites, dressed in holiday clothes, repaired to the temple at the time of morning sacrifice. A priest then took a golden ewer, holding about two pints and a half, went to the pool of Siloam, filled his ewer, and returned to the temple by the Water-gate. His approach was the signal for a blast of trumpets. Before the people he ascended the steps of the altar, and poured the water into that one of the two silver basins which was on the eastern side. Into the other wine was poured. There were small openings in the bottoms of each, and so the two streams flowed, mingled together, through pipes, into the Kidron. But on the eighth day this ceremony was omitted. Hence our Lord on that day offers himself to the people as the Source of living waters.

Again, in John 8:12, some see an allusion to another post-biblical ceremony in this preeminently popular feast; viz. to the torch-feast - i.e., the lighting of the great golden candelabras in the court of the women on the evening of the first day of the feast. Before them the men performed a torchlight dance with music and singing.

TAB'ITHA (gazelle), an exemplary disciple of Christ at Joppa, whose deeds of benevolence had greatly endeared her to the people. After she was dead and her body prepared for the grave, she was miraculously restored to life through the instrumentality of Peter. Acts 9:36-40.

TA'BLE. The table of ancient times was nothing but a circular skin or piece of leather spread upon the matted or carpeted floor, and this, at home as well as by the way, answered for table and cloth. Near the edges of this leathern tray there are holes or loops, through which, when the meal is completed, a cord is drawn, by means of which the whole affair is compressed into a small compass and hung upon a nail. Bread was kneaded upon it.

The nearest approach to what we call a table is a mere stool, which is placed in the centre of the leather we have mentioned. This might be intended in Judg 1:7. Its only use is to hold the principal dish or dishes. There have been seen among the Arabian nobles and in cities long tables. These, however, were only a span high and not a yard wide, and were entirely uncovered, and usually held nothing but the dishes. More frequently all such conveniences are wanting, and the dishes stand on the leather.

Instead of a table-cloth, there is spread round the leathern tray a long cloth, or two such cloths, of a dark color, which prevent the soiling of the carpet. Among poorer people there is nothing of the kind, and every one uses his handkerchief by 845 way of napkin. Instead of plates, there are set thin, round cakes of a coarse kind. After the Captivity raised tables like ours became common, and the Persian practice of reclining on couches at meals was introduced. For the manner of sitting, see Seats, Eat.

In Mark 7:4 "tables" is a mistranslation for "beds" or "couches." The "writing-table" of Zacharias, Luke 1:63, was a waxed tablet, on which one wrote with a stylus.

TA'BLES, TO SERVE. Acts 6:2. This expression may denote either actual attendance upon the gathering and distribution of food for the poor, or attention to the pecuniary affairs of the church. The word is used for the "tables" of money-changers. Matt 21:12; John 2:15.

TAB'LET. See Book, Table.

TA'BOR (mound, height). 1. A mountain of Palestine; by Greek and Roman writers called Itabyrion and Atybyrion; now known by the Arabic name of Jebel et-Tor. Tabor is situated on the north-eastern edge of the great plain of Esdraelon, and on the borders between Zebulun and Naphtali. It is 6 miles south of east from Nazareth, and 10 miles south of west from the southern extremity of the Sea of Tiberias.

History. - The position of Tabor, overlooking the great battle-plain of Palestine, Esdraelon, made it a suitable place for the Israelites to assemble for battle. There Barak gathered his forces - 10,000 men - for the overthrow of Sisera. Jud 4:6-14. Some of Israel's warriors had been slain there by the Midianites before Gideon's victory. Jud 8:18. Tabor is extolled with Hermon in Ps 89:12, and mentioned with Carmel in Jer 46:18. Idolatries practised upon that mountain were a "net spread upon Tabor." Hos 5:1. Tabor is not mentioned in the N.T. A tradition dating certainly as early as Origen and Jerome made this the Mount of Transfiguration. Mark 9:2-10. But the summit of Tabor must at that time have been covered with houses, since the town was then existing which Antiochus the Great founded, b.c. 218, on the top of the hill. Furthermore, the Mount of Transfiguration was probably in the region of Caesarea-Philippi, as the transfiguration occurred only a few days after Christ had arrived at that place and solicited the great confession of Peter. However, the legend attached to Tabor led to the erection, before the end of the sixth century, of three churches, in memory of the three tabernacles. Afterward the Crusaders erected a church and a monastery, which were destroyed by the Muslims.

Present Appearance. - Mount Tabor is one of the most remarkable of the mountains of Palestine. It rises from the plain as an isolated mass, only connected on the west by a low and narrow ridge with the hills of Nazareth. Its appearance varies with the point of observation. From the south it has the form of a dome or the arc of a circle; from the west-north-west, that of a truncated cone. It rises from the surrounding table-land to the height of 1053 feet, and its summit is 2018 feet above the Mediterranean. The ascent is steep and rugged, but persons can reach the summit on horseback. The time required for ascending is about an hour. The southern slope is of barren limestone rock; the other sides are wooded with the oak, terebinth, mockorange, and trees "resembling the scattered glades in the outskirts of the New Forest." The soil is fertile, yielding luxuriant pasture. Partridges, hares, foxes, and other kinds of game abound. Porter speaks of seeing jackals, wolves, and a panther while he was visiting Tabor. The mountain has a flat summit a little less than a quarter of a mile long and an eighth of a mile wide. Two monasteries of comparatively modern date occupy the top of the hill, one belonging to the Greeks and the other to the Latins. There are also ruins of towers, fortifications, vaults, cisterns, and other structures of various periods, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Christian, Saracenic, Frank, and Turk, blended together in a confused mass. The view from the summit of Tabor is the best in all Central Palestine. To the north and east are Mount Hermon, the Sea of Galilee, the mountains of Bashan and Gilead; to the south and west, the great plain of Esdraelon, Gilboa, Carmel, and the Mediterranean. Standing on this spot, the traveller sees why Tabor was the gathering-place of the northern tribes, and can trace out the great battlefields below.

  1. A city in Zebulun, assigned to the
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Mount Tabor. (After a Photograph.) 847 Levites. 1 Chr 6:77. Probably the same as Chisloth-tabor, which see.

TABOR, THE PLAIN OF. This should rather be the "oak" or "terebinth of Tabor." It is mentioned only in 1 Sam 10:3. What is meant by "Tabor" it is impossible to say. It has been suggested that "the oak of Tabor" was the same as the "Allonbachuth" the oak under which Deborah was buried. Gen 35:8. But Conder proposes to identify this Tabor with el Bukeia, a plain south of Jerusalem.

TAB'RET, See Timbrel.

TAB'RIIION (Rimmon is kind), the father of Benhadad I., king of Syria, a contemporary of Asa, king of Judah. 1 Kgs 16:18.

TACH'ES were hooks or clasps of gold and copper, used in connecting the curtains of the tabernacle. Ex 26:6, Rev 1:11.

TACH'MONITE, a corruption for "Hachmonite." the appellation of Jashobeam. 2 Sam 23:8; cf. 1 Chr 11:11.

TACK'LING. Isa 33:23; Acts 27:19. Strictly, in the former passage, it is used for the ropes attached to the mast; in the latter it is used loosely, and imports the sails, cordage, baggage, and indeed all the instruments of sailing except the anchors or what was indispensable to the preservation of the ship.

TAD'MOR(Heb. Tamar-,"palms"), a city in the wilderness, built by Solomon. 1 Kgs 9:18; 2 Chr 8:4. There is no

Temple of the Sun. Tadmor (Palmyra). Street of Columns.

other Scripture mention of this city, and hence no other clue to its site or after-history. It has usually been identified with the famous city of Palmyra. Some critics, indeed, assert that there is little authority for the insertion of the letter d in the name mentioned in these passages, and would make the place built rather Tamar, on the south of the confines of Judah. Eze 47:19. Palmyra was within the extensive empire of Solomon, and it is most natural to identify Tadmor with it.

Situation. - Palmyra occupied the most favorable position on the great caravan-route between the rich cities of the East and the ports of the Mediterranean. A spring of good water makes it a natural halting-place. It was 120 miles northeast of Damascus and 60 miles from the Euphrates, according to the Biblical Educator, but Baedeker's Handbook makes it a five days' journey with camels, in long. 38┬░ 30' E. and lat. 33┬░ 58' N.

History. - Palmyra has no Scripture history, and hence only a brief sketch of it need be given here. It was mentioned by Pliny, Josephus, Jerome, and other early writers. About a.d. 200 it became famous in Roman history from 848 Zenobia, "the Queen of the East," a woman of extraordinary ability. After the assassination of her husband, Odenathus, she ruled the realm, and under her Palmyra reached the height of its glory, extending its supremacy over Syria, Mesopotamia, and even parts of Egypt. She was subdued by the Roman emperor Aurelian, and led through the streets of Rome to grace the emperor's triumphal procession. The inhabitants of Palmyra afterward revolted, and were slain in great numbers by the Romans. Later, Palmyra was merely a frontier-town in the direction of the wilderness, fortified by Justinian. In 1173 the rabbi Benjamin of Tudela found a considerable colony of Jews there. It then fell into oblivion until visited by members of the English factory at Aleppo, in 1678. Since then the city has been explored and described by many travellers.

Present Condition. - Porter says: "In describing the ruins of Palmyra, it would be almost impossible to exaggerate. There is nothing like them in the world. In no other spot in the world can we find such vast numbers of temples, palaces, colonnades, tombs, and monuments grouped together so as to be seen at a single glance. The ruins extend over a plain about 3 or 4 miles in circuit. The most noteworthy are,

" 1. The Temple of the Sun. - This was dedicated to Baal. The edifice was enclosed by an outer wall, 256 yards in length and 50 feet high, flanked by pilasters 68 feet high. On the north side this wall is still tolerably preserved. Round the whole of the interior ran a double colonnade or cloister like that surrounding the court of the Gentiles in the temple at Jerusalem. The number of columns was three hundred and ninety. Near the centre of the court is the temple proper, 65 yards long and 34 yards wide, and still well preserved. In the great court is an Arab village of some fifty houses.

"2. The Street of Columns.- This extends from the temple of the Sun westward across the plain, through the centre of the ancient city. It was 1240 yards in length, and consisted of rows of columns 55 feet high. Wood thought there were four rows of columns, making the original number about fifteen hundred.

Baedeker supposes a double row having seven hundred and fifty columns. About one hundred and fifty of these are yet existing.

"3. The Tombs. - Some of these are of great magnificence, and appear to have been intended for temples as well as tombs. The inscriptions show that these tombs mostly belong to the first three centuries of our era. The ancient name is still retained in the form of Thadmor."

TA'HAN (station, camp), an Ephraimite. Num 26:35; 1 Chr 7:25.

TA'HANITES, the descendants of Tahan. Num 26:35.

TAHAP'ANES. Jer 2:16. See Tahpanhes.

TA'HATH (station). 1. A Levite. 1 Chr 6:24, 1 Chr 6:37.

2, 3. Two Ephraimites. 1 Chr 7:20.

TA'HATH (place, station), one of the camping-stations of Israel in the wilderness. Num 33:26-27. Palmer notes that the difficulty at Kibroth-hattaavah began with the mixed multitude, "or riffraff," and he found a Wady Tahbmeh, and "Tahmeh" denotes, in Arabic, "a mixed multitude in a state of sedition." Tahath is probably to be found in the region of the Tyahah Arabs, and at Jebel et-Tih.

TAH'PANHES, a city on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, in Lower Egypt, and called Tahapanes and Tehaphnehes; possibly the Hanes of Isa 30:4; Jer 2:16; Jer 43:7-9; Jer 44:1; Jer 46:14; Eze 30:18. The name resembles that of the Egyptian queen Tahpenes, referred to in 1 Kgs 11:18-20. Jeremiah, after the murder of Gedaliah, was taken to this place, and Pharaoh had a palace built or restored there, made of clay in a brick-kiln. The children of Noph (Memphis) and of Tahapanhes are used to represent the entire body of the Egyptians. Jer 2:16. It is identical with the Daphne of the Greeks. The site of Daphne is supposed to be marked by a mound called Tel Defenneh, which lies nearly in a direct line between the modern Zan and Plusium.

TAH'PENES (head of the world?), the queen of Egypt, whose sister Hadad married. 1 Kgs 11:18-20. The Pharaoh belonged to the twenty-second dynasty.

TAHRE'A (cunning), a descendant 849 of Saul, 1 Chr 9:41; called Tarea in 1 Chr 8:35.

TAH'TIM-HOD'SHI, THE LAND OF. This is admitted to be an inaccurate text, but neither the Septuagint nor the Syriac version throws light on the true reading. The land was visited by Joab while taking the census of the land of Israel. 2 Sam 24:6. Some make it a proper name, some translate it as above; others translate the first part, and make "Hodshi" a proper name. This is done by Furst, who makes Hodshi a city in Northern Palestine. Porter (in Kitto) says it was manifestly a section of the upper valley of the Jordan, probably that now called Ard-el-Huleh, lying deep down at the western base of Hermon. Merrill locates it at the south end of the Sea of Galilee.

TAL'ENT. See Measures.

TAL'ITHA-CU'MI, a phrase in the Syro-Chaldaic language, the literal translation of which is given by the evangelist: "Damsel" (or "maiden"), "arise." Mark 5:41. Several scholars contend that Taleitha Kum is the true reading, corresponding with the Aramaic and with similar phrases in the Talmud.

TAL'MAI (brotherly).

  1. A son of Anak. Num 13:22; Josh 15:14; Judg 1:10.

  2. A king of Geshur, father-in-law of David. 2 Sam 3:3.

TAL'MON (oppressed), a Levite, one of the head-doorkeepers in the temple, whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 9:17; Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45; Josh 11:19; Neh 12:25.

TAL'MUD,THE (teaching,). This body of Jewish laws upon all topics is divided into two parts - the Mishna, or the text, and the Gemara, or commentary. The Mishna ("repetition") is a collection of various Jewish traditions, with expositions of Scripture-texts. These, the Jews pretend, were delivered to Moses on the mount, and were transmitted from him, through Aaron, Eleazar, and Joshua, to the prophets, and by them to the men of the Great Synagogue and their successors until the second Christian century, when Rabbi Jehuda reduced them to writing, and so he is the collector of the existing Mishna. The Gemara ("teaching") is the whole body of controversies and teachings which arose in the academies after the close of the Mishna. There are two of them, known, in connection with the Mishna, as the Jerusalem Talmud (third and fifth century), prepared by the rabbis of Tiberias, and the Babylonian Talmud (fifth century).

The Talmud is useful as an aid in studying the teaching of Christ. It explains some of his allusions, and, as a Teacher sent from God, proves his unique superiority to the Jewish doctors of the Law.

TA'MAH (laughter), the ancestor of Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 7:55; called Thamah in Ezr 2:53.

TA'MAR (palm tree).

  1. The wife of Er and Onan successively, the sons of Judah. The patriarch refused to give her his remaining son, Shelah, and therefore Tamar, in order to remove the reproach of childlessness, and likewise to be revenged on Judah, contrived to induce the latter to unintentionally commit incest. The story is told in Gen 38.

  2. The sister of Absalom, whom Amnon, by artifice, defiled. 2 Sam 13; 1 Chr 3:9.

  3. A daughter of Absalom. 2 Sam 14:27.

TA'MAR (palm tree), a place on the south-eastern frontier of Judah. Eze 47:19; Eze 48:28. According to Eusebius and Jerome, it was a day's journey south of Hebron toward Elim. Robinson identified it with the ruins of Kuruub, about a day's journey south of el-Milk (Malatha or Maladah); Wilton identifies it with Hazar-gaddah; but both these sites are as yet only conjectural. Some suppose that this, instead of Palmyra, was the "Tadmor in the wilderness" built by Solomon. See Tadmor.

TAM'MUZ (sprout of life), probably the same with the Adonis of Grecian mythology, who was fabled to have been killed by a wild boar while hunting, and to have been passionately bewailed by Venus. The worship of Tammuz, as conducted in Syria, was accompanied with obscene rites. It took place in July. Eze 8:14.

TA'NACH. Josh 21:25. See Taanach.

TAN'HUMETH (comfort), the father of a captain under Gedaliah. 2 Kgs 25:23; Jer 40:8.

TA'NIS. Eze 30:14, margin. See Zoan.

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TAN'NER. The occupation of tanning was considered disreputable in antiquity, especially by the Jews. Accordingly, tanners were obliged to carry on their trade outside of the town, as is the case in the East at the present day. Peter showed his independence in stopping with Simon, a tanner, at Joppa. Acts 9:43.

TA'PHATH (drop), Solomon's daughter, who married the son of Abinadab. 1 Kgs 4:11.

TAP'PUAH (apple tree), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:43.

TAP'PUAH (apple-region), a name for two places.

  1. A city in the plain-country of Judah, Josh 15:34; probably the same as Beth-tappuah, now Teffuh, 4 miles north-north-west of Hebron. Ganneau suggested its identity with Artuf.

  2. A place on the border of Ephraim and Manasseh, Josh 16:8; Gen 17:8,- probably the same as En-tappuah. Josh 17:7. Around the city was a district called the land of Tappuah; the city belonged to Ephraim, and the land to Manasseh. Josh 17:8. It was apparently near the torrent Kanah, but has not been identified. Which of the two places above mentioned is referred to in Josh 12:17 is uncertain.

TA'RAH (station), a station of the Israelites in the wilderness, between Tahath and Milcah, Num 33:27-28; possibly in the region of the Tawarah Arabs.

TAR'ALAH (a reeling), a city in Benjamin, between Irpeel and Zelah. Josh 18:27.

TA'REA (flight). See Tahrea.

TARES, bearded darnel (Lolium temulentam), a grass sometimes found in our own grain-fields, but very common in Eastern countries. Matt 13:25. Until the head appears its resemblance to wheat is very close. The seed is noxious, even when ground with wheat in small quantities producing dizziness, and in larger proportions convulsions and death. Many instances of such pernicious effects are on record, some having been observed in England. Owing to its smaller size, the grain of tares is readily separated from wheat by winnowing. Travellers describe the process of pulling up this grass and separating it from the genuine grain,

Tares.

and their descriptions perfectly accord with the language of our Saviour in the parable.

TAR'GET. 1 Sam 17:6. See Armor.

TAR'PELITES, THE, an Assyrian people sent to colonize Samaria. Ezr 4:9.

TAR'SHISH, and THAR'SHISH (rocky ground?).

1 Kgs 10:22; 1 Kgs 22:48. In the genealogies given in Genesis we find "Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands." Gen 10:4-5. We read of "the kings of Tarshish and of the isles." Ps 72:10. Solomon's "ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram; every three years once came the ships of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks." 2 Chr 9:21. Tarshish is mentioned with distant places: "The isles afar off." Isa 66:19. It must have been on the seacoast, for we frequently read of the "ships" and the "navy" of Tarshish. See 1 Kgs 10:22; Ps 48:7; Isa 2:16; Isa 23:1, Num 23:14; Isa 60:9; Eze 27:25. It was the seat of a vast and profitable commerce with Tyre. Eze 27:12-25. Jonah embarked from Joppa for Tarshish. Jon 1:3; Num 4:2.

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Situation. - There has been much discussion as to the site of Tarshish.

  1. Some have identified it with Tarsus in Cilicia. There is a similarity in the names, and there has always existed an extensive commerce between Joppa and Tarsus, so that vessels were constantly passing from one port to the other. The Arabs identify Tarshish with Tarsus. But this opinion is very slenderly supported.

  2. Most scholars would identify Tarshish with the southern part of Spain and with Tartessus. This was a Phoenician colony, the emporium for the products of Spain as well as the Phoenician depot for the exports from Great Britain. Thus there was an extensive trade in the various products mentioned as carried by the ships of Tarshish. Eze 27:12; comp. Jer 10:9. But from the fact that ships of Tarshish sailed also from Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea, 1 Kgs 9:26; 1 Kgs 22:48; 2 Chr 9:21; 2 Chr 20:36, some have inferred that there was also a Tarshish in the remote East. Others, however, suppose that "ships of Tarshish was the general name for a certain class of vessels fitted for long voyages, like the British East Indiamen, and hence not necessarily trading to an Eastern port of the name of Tarshish.

TAR'SUS, celebrated as the birthplace of the apostle Paul. Acts 9:11, 1 Kgs 20:30; Eze 11:25; Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3. It was the capital of Cilicia, in Asia Minor, and "no mean city." It stood in the centre of a spacious and fertile plain, 12 miles from the Mediterranean, "which lay to the south, and about the same distance from the Taurus range, on the north. The city stood on both banks of the river Cydnus, which has since changed its channel. At the mouth of the river were docks, and the port of Tarsus was a place of much commerce, being, indeed, identified by some writers with Tarshish, which see.

Tarsus was said to have been founded by the Assyrian Sardanapalus. It suffered severely during the civil wars following the assassination of Caesar. Augustus made it a free city. It possessed a Roman stadium and gymnasium, and became famous as the seat of one of the three great universities of the pagan world, ranking next to Athens and Alexandria. The imperial family of Rome selected tutors from the literati of Tarsus. Hence the boyhood of the apostle Paul was passed in a city not only of great commercial importance, but one offering opportunities for secular learning as well. The modern city is called Tersons. It stands about a mile from the Cydnus, and is a mean Turkish town with narrow and filthy streets and low, flat-roofed houses. The population is about 30,000 during the winter season. In summer it is reduced to 4000 or 5000 by the migration of the inhabitants on account of the miasma, which renders the city unhealthy.

TAR'TAK (prince of darkness), one of the gods of the Arvites, colonists whom Shalmaneser placed in Samaria to occupy the land after the original inhabitants had been removed. 2 Kgs 17:31. It has been identified with the Accadian god Turtak, who specially watched over the Tigris.

TAR'TAN. 2 Kgs 18:17. It is the name of an office - commander-inchief of an army - not a proper name.

TAT'NAI (gift), a Persian governor in Palestine. Ezr 5:3, 1 Chr 24:6; 1 Kgs 6:6, Lev 6:13.

TAVERNS, THE THREE, a place where some of the "brethren" came to meet Paul on his journey to Rome, and by their coming the apostle took fresh courage. Acts 28:13-15. It was on the Appian Way, 33 miles south-east from Rome, and 10 miles from Appii Forum. It was also at the junction of the road from Antium, and a great number of travellers passed through it. It may have taken its name from the three taverns or places of refreshment for travellers. But Luke docs not translate the Roman word, but simply transfers it into Greek as "Tres Tabernae." There are no remains of The Three Taverns by name at the present day, but the site may be placed near the modern Cisterna.

TAXES. As the government of the Jews shifted from the lax rule of the Judges to the firmer hold of the kings, and from a domestic to a foreign power, the taxes and the mode of their collection likewise altered. Taxes were first exacted for religious purposes - for the support of the priests and Levites. They were called the Tithes, First-fruits, 852 and the Redemption-money (see separate titles). "The payment by each Israelite of the half shekel as atonement-money for the service of the tabernacle on taking the census of the people, Ex 30:13, does not appear to have had the character of a recurring tax, but to have been supplementary to the freewill-offering levied for the construction of the sacred tent." Ex 25:1-7. The taxes were light; when the Jews got a king their burdens were largely increased. In addition to forced military service, heavy taxes were laid upon the productions, monopolies sprang up. 1 Kgs 10:28-29. We find the most detailed account of these taxes in the history of Solomon's reign, but doubtless the same phenomena appeared in all subsequent reigns. Great complaints were made. 1 Kgs 12:4. The idolatry of the king occasioned less anxiety than his extravagance. The pocket is touched sooner than the heart. The Persians, like all conquerors, required the conquered to pay heavily. A wise man like Nehemiah did what he could to lessen the evils, but he was only partially successful. He exercised economy, and refused for himself the usual supplies furnished for the governor. Neh 5:14. Read Neh 5:1-11 for a sad picture of the times. This taxation led, apparently, to such a neglect of the tithes that a special poll-tax of one-third, Neh 10:33, afterward increased to one-half, a shekel was laid for the temple-services. The latter amount was exacted in N.T. times. Matt 17:24.

During the Graeco-Egyptian period, which followed, there was a continuance of oppression, owing to the wretched system of "farming" the revenues. This, of course, led to incalculable troubles. After the Romans had made themselves masters of Palestine they left the collection of the taxes to the native kings, who were required to send a large tribute yearly to Rome. But when the Jewish kings gave way to Roman governors, then the system of tax-collection so familiar to us by the N.T. came into vogue. It was a tax on poll and ground, on product of field and hand. "There were duties to be paid at harbors and the gates of cities, and there was also a house-tax in Jerusalem, but Agrippa I. remitted it." Under these payments the people groaned, but particularly because it was a galling proof of their subjection.

TAXING, DAYS OF THE, mentioned in Luke 2:2. Properly it was an enrolment, like our census, but, as its object was taxation, there was a registration of property. It was held, under an imperial order, through all the Roman world. We read of another enrolment in Acts 5:37. That Joseph and Mary were enrolled proves that the Roman and the Jewish usages were employed - tribal registration, which was the Jewish usage, supplemented by family, "for the Romans required the enrolment of women, and possibly their actual presence at the place of enrolment. This mixture of Roman and Jewish usage, so likely to occur in an enrolment made under a Jewish king, yet by order of the Roman emperor, is a strong proof of the accuracy of Luke's account." And yet upon this circumstance depended the Bethlehemic birth of Jesus ! "The Saviour of the world was registered in the first census of the world." There is no direct proof that Augustus ordered a universal census, but it is reasonably inferred, from the known fact that he prepared a list of all the resources of his empire, which was read in the senate after his death. Herod manifestly could not resist such an order, inasmuch as he was but a tributary king. And, as Dr. Woolsey says, "if the census was made under the direction of the president of Syria, by Jewish officers, it would not greatly differ from a similar registration made by Herod, nor need it have alarmed the Jews if carefully managed."

The interesting question in connection with this enrolment is, "How can we vindicate the veracity of Scripture in saying that it was first made when Cyrenius (P. Sulpicius Quirinius) was governor of Syria?" To this question, for a long time, no definite answer could be given. It formed one of the commonplaces of infidelity. Josephus states that Quirinius came to Judaea as imperial legate, and in a.d. 6 or 7 he completed a census. But this date is ten years after our Lord's birth. The best explanation of the difficulty is to maintain that Quirinius was twice governor of Syria, as lately 853 proved - the first time before Christ's birth, or b.c. 4-1; the second time, a.d. 6 onward. See Cyrenius.

TEARS. Allusion is supposed to be made in Ps 56:8 to an ancient custom, which was preserved among the Romans, of collecting the falling tears of mourners at funerals and putting them into a bottle or urn, called a "lachrymatory." or "tear-bottle." The vessel was afterward fixed upon the sepulchres of the dead, thus seeming to preserve a memorial of the affection and grief of the survivors.

TE'BAH (slaughter), eldest of the sons of Nahor by his concubine Reumah. Gen 22:24.

TEBALI'AH (Jehovah purifies), third son of Hosah, of the children of Merari. 1 Chr 26:11.

TE'BETH. Esth 2:16. See Month.

TEETH. Gen 49:12. See Tooth.

TEHAPH'NEHES. Eze 30:18. See Tahpanhes.

TEHIN'NAH (cry for mercy), the father or founder of Ir-nahash - the city of Nahash - and son of Eshton. 1 Chr 4:12.

TEIL TREE. The word thus rendered in Isa 6:13 is translated "elm" in Hos 4:13 and "oak" in many passages, which are mentioned under Oaks. See also Nuts. In most, perhaps all, of these places the terebinth (Pistacia of several species) is doubtless meant.

This tree has pinnate leaves, small red berries, and belongs to the order of the sumac. According to the writer's observation, the terebinth was most abundant in the North of Palestine, and especially above Lake Merom, where some of these trees were very symmetrical, dense, and spreading, with luxuriant foliage of a blue-green, affording a delightful shelter, if not appropriated as Arab burying-places. Such specimens show that the terebinth, if suffered to reach age, is a noble tree, and that Absalom might easily have been caught in riding under one of them. It is an Eastern idea that this tree lives a thousand years, and when it dies the race is renewed by young shoots from the root; so that the tree may, in a sense, be called perpetual. Hence the allusion in Isa 6:13.

"In Smyrna, Constantinople, and other Eastern cities the cypress overshadows the Muslim's grave, but the terebinth the Armenian's. They say that this homeless people brought this tree with them from the shores of Lake Van, and love to see those who are dear to them sheltered in their last sleep by its ancestral shade." - Warburton.

TE'KEL. Dan 5:25. See Mene.

TEKO'A, AND TEKO'AH (pitching of tents), a city on the borders of the desert to which it gave its name: "The wilderness of Tekoah." 2 Chr 20:20; Jer 6:1. It was colonized by Asher, 1 Chr 2:24; 1 Chr 4:5; fortified by Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:6. The "wise woman" who interceded for Absalom resided here, 2 Sam 14:2, 2 Sam 14:4, 2 Sam 14:9, and here also was the birthplace and residence of the prophet Amos. Am 1:1. Tekoa was situated about 5 miles south of Bethlehem, at a place still called Tek'na, on a broad hilltop. The region is bleak and desolate, and the inhabitants wild and uncivil. There is a fine view toward the east, and the Dead Sea is visible. "The ruins at this place are extensive [covering 4 or 5 acres], but uninteresting. To the east are many excavated caves and cisterns, but the town itself is simply a heap of ruins, the stones of which are small and friable." There are ruins of a Greek church and baptismal font and of a fortress.

TEKO'ITES, inhabitants of Tekoa. 2 Sam 23:26; 1 Chr 11:28; 1 Chr 27:9; Neh 3:5, Gen 1:27.

TEL'ABIB (corn-hill), a city of Chaldaea or Babylonia, on the river Chebar, the residence of Ezekiel. Eze 3:15.

TE'LAH (breach), an Ephraimite. 1 Chr 7:25.

TEL'AIM (young lambs), the place where Saul collected and numbered his host before his attack on Amalek. 1 Sam 15:4. Possibly it may be identical with Telem, as suggested by Wilton, who supposes it to have been at El Kuseir, a ruin between the Dead Sea and Beersheha. See Telem.

TELAS'SAR, and THELA'SAR (the hill of Aushur), a place inhabited by the "children of Eden" and subdued by the Assyrians. 2 Kgs 19:12; Isa 37:12. Rawlinson puts it in Western Mesopotamia, near Harran and Orfa; Layard at Tell Afer, 40 miles west of Mosul.

854

TE'LEM (oppression), a temple porter. Ezr 10:24.

TE'LEM (oppression), a city in the South of Judahi, occurring between Ziph and Bealoth. Josh 15:24. It is possibly identical with Telaim, which see. Wilton associates it with Dhullam, a district south-east of Beersheba, in the neighborhood of Moladah (el-Milk), and perhaps, it may be, at Kubbet el-Baul.

TEL'HARE'SHA, and TELHAR'SA (forest hill), a place in Babylonia from which some Jews who could not prove their pedigree returned to Judaea with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:59; Neh 7:61. Rawlinson thinks it was in the low country near the sea; Furst places it in Upper Mesopotamia, on the Chebar.

TEL-ME'LAH (salt hill), a place in Babylonia from which persons of doubtful pedigree returned. Ezr 2:59; Neh 7:61. Rawlinson would identify it with a city near the Persian Gulf, the Thelme of Ptolemy; Furst would place this also near to Tel-harsa, in Upper Mesopotamia.

TE'MA (south desert), an Ishmaelite tribe descended from Tema, Gen 25:15; 1 Chr 1:30, and settled in Arabia. Tema is mentioned with Sheba, Job 6:19, and with Dedan. Isa 21:14; Jer 25:23. On the great caravan-road from Damascus to Mecca and on the eastern border of Syria is a town called Teyma', near Dumah and Kedar, which is supposed to represent Tema.

TE'MAN (south desert), a country named from the oldest son of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. Gen 36:11. These people were called Temani, or Temanites, and seem to have been noted for wisdom. Jer 49:7; Ob 9. They are especially mentioned in the prediction against Edom. Jer 49:7; Eze 25:13; Am 1:12; Ob 9; Hab 3:3. Their country seems to have been the south-eastern part of Edom, the land of "the sons of the east." Eusebius and Jerome mention a Teman 15 miles from Petra.

TEMANI, and TE'MANITE. Gen 36:34; Job 2:11, etc. See Teman.

TEM'ENI, the father of Tekoa. 1 Chr 4:6.

TEM'PERANCE, in the A.V., does not mean moderation only in the use of wine or other drink, but self-control leading to moderation in every thing. It is to be regretted that this good word should be doubly perverted - first in the direction mentioned above, and second to mean total abstinence from drink. This perversion leads to inaccurate thinking. 1 Cor 9:25.

TEM'PLE, the sacred edifice erected at Jerusalem upon Mount Moriah. See Jerusalem. In its general form it resembled its prototype, the tabernacle, after which it was modelled. There are three temples mentioned in the Bible. We shall treat them in their historic order.

  1. The Temple of Solomon. - The idea of building a temple to take the place of the tabernacle as the permanent place of worship for the Jewish Church was first, it would seem, the idea of David. 1 Chr 17:1. And, although forbidden by the Lord from beginning the work, he ever held it in mind, and joyfully accumulated from the spoils of his enemies and from the revenue of his kingdom a fund for this purpose. In 1 Chr 22:14 the amount is thus given in the chronicler's report of David's speech to Solomon: "I have prepared for the house of the Lord one hundred thousand talents of gold and one million talents of silver, and of brass and of iron without weight." Reckoning the talent of silver at 3000 shekels of silver, and the talent of gold as worth sixteen times that of silver, this amount of money, put into our coinage, would be, according to Lange (Commentary, in loco): Silver, $1,710,000,000; gold, $2,737,500,000: total, $4,447,500,000- "a sum incredibly high for the requirements of worship at that time." But, reckoning the shekel after the king's weight, or half the value of the shekel of the sanctuary, then the above sum is cut down one-half, and we can parallel it from secular history.

Besides gold and silver, David collected immense quantities of brass (bronze or copper), iron, stone, timber, etc., and he secured skilful mechanics and artificers for every branch of the work. 1 Chr 22; 1 Chr 29:4, 1 Chr 29:7. He also furnished the design, plan, and location of the building; in all which he was divinely instructed. 1 Chr 21-22; 1 Chr 28:11-19. He was not permitted, however, to see a single step taken in its erection. 1 Kgs 5:3. The superintendence of the building was committed to Solomon, the son on 855 and successor of David, who commenced the work in the fourth year of his reign. There were 183,600 Jews and strangers employed on it - of Jews 30,000, by rotation 10,000 a month; of Canaanites, 153,600, of whom 70,000 were bearers of burdens, 80,000 hewers of wood and stone, and 3600 overseers. The parts were all prepared at a distance from the site of the building, and when they were brought together the whole immense structure was erected without the sound of hammer, axe, or any tool of iron, 1 Kgs 6:7, and at the end of seven and a half years it stood complete in all its splendor, the glory of Jerusalem, and the most magnificent edifice in the world, b.c. 1005.

Level of the Temple-Platform. (After Beswick, 1875.)

Like the tabernacle, it had its front toward the east. All the arrangements of the temple were identical with those of the tabernacle, and the dimensions of every part exactly double those of the previous structure.

We shall give an idea of the temple of Solomon by condensing the account in Stanley's History of the Jewish Church, Lecture 27. On the eastern side was a cloister or colonnade. The later kings, however, continued it all around. This portico opened on a large quadrangle, surrounded by a wall, partly of stone, partly of cedar, and planted with trees. Within this quadrangle was a smaller court, on the highest ridge of the hill, which enclosed the place of David's sacrifice - the rocky threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. This rock was levelled and filled up, so as to make a platform for the altar, which was a square chest of wood, plated outside with brass, filled inside with stones and earth, with the fire on a brass grating at the top, the whole placed on a mass of rough stone. South of the altar was the brazen laver, supported on twelve brazen bulls. This was used for the ablutions of the priests as they walked to and fro barefooted over the rocky platform. On each side were the ten lesser movable vessels of brass, on wheels, for the washing of the entrails. Round about the lesser court, in two or three stories raised above each other, were chambers for the priests and other persons of rank. 2 Chr 31:11; Jer 36:10. In the corners were the kitchens and boiling-apparatus. Eze 46:20-24. Each had brazen gates. 2 Chr 4:9. In the court was the "temple" properly so called. In front towered the porch, in height more than 200 feet. Behind it was a lower edifice, lessening in height as it approached its extremity. On the sides were small chambers, entered only from without through a sandalwood door on the south, and gilded chambers above them accessible to the king alone. 1 Kgs 6:8. The two elaborate pillars called Jachin and Boaz stood immediately under the porch. Within, another pair of folding-doors led into the holy place. It would have been almost dark were it not that, in place of the original single seven-branched candlestick, ten now stood on ten tables, five on each side. 1 Kgs 7:49. Within the chamber were the table of shew-bread and altar of incense. The holy of holies was separated from the holy place by a "wall of partition," penetrated, however, by folding-doors of olive-wood, over which hung a party-colored curtain embroidered with cherubs and flowers. 1 Kgs 6:31. The holy of holies was a small square chamber, absolutely dark except by the light received through this aperture. In it were two huge golden figures, standing upright on their feet, on each side of the ark, which rested upon a protuberance of rough rock. Above the ark the wings of these cherubim met. The wails of the chambers which ran round the rest of the building were not allowed to lean against the outer walls of this sanctuary. 856 The quarries of Solomon have recently been discovered under the present city of Jerusalem, near the Damascus-gate. They are very extensive, and to-day exhibit, in partially-excavated blocks of stone, the evidence of the monarch's architectural tastes and requirements.

The temple of Solomon stood, altogether, four hundred and twenty-four years, but it was plundered by Shishak, king of Egypt, during the reign of Rehoboam. 1 Kgs 14:25-26. After this it was frequently profaned and pillaged, and was at last broken down and destroyed by the king of Babylon, and the nation itself carried into captivity, 2 Kgs 25:8-9, 2 Kgs 25:13-17; 2 Chr 36:18-19, b.c. 598.

  1. The Temple of Zerubbabel. - In b.c. 536, Cyrus the Persian, conqueror of Babylon, gave permission to the Jews to return. Many availed themselves of the opportunity, and returned in a great caravan under Zerubbabel. The latter, as Jewish governor, and Joshua, the high priest, superintended the people in rebuilding the temple. Cyrus permitted and encouraged them to do this work, and in the second year after their return They laid the foundation. Ezr 3:8. Owing to the opposition of their enemies, it was not, however, completed until twenty years had gone by, b.c. 515. The story of this long struggle and trouble is told in the book of Ezra.

This second temple, though inferior in many respects to the first - having no ark, no mercy-seat, no visible revelation of the divine glory, no sacred fire, no Urim and Thummim, and no spirit of prophecy, Ezr 3:12-13 - still was in breadth and height, in almost every dimension, one-third larger than Solomon's. In three particulars the general arrangements differed from those of the ancient sanctuary: (1) There were no trees in the courts; (2) At the north-western corner was a fortress-tower, the residence of the Persian, afterward of the Roman, governor; (3) The court of the worshippers was divided into two compartments, of which the outer enclosure was known as the court of the Gentiles or heathens. It furnished a fixed place of worship for the nation, and ultimately became the theatre of far more glorious illustrations of the divine attributes than the first temple ever witnessed. Hag 2:6-9; Mal 3:1; Col 2:9; 1 Tim 3:16.

  1. The Temple of Herod. - The temple of Zerubbabel had stood nearly five hundred years and was much decayed when Herod the Great, with a view to secure the favor of the Jews and obtain to himself a great name, undertook to rebuild it; so that it was not a new edifice, strictly speaking, but rather a complete repair of the second temple. He began the work twenty years before the birth of Christ, and completed the main building in one year and a half, and the

Reconstruction of the Temple.

  1. According to Wilkinson; 2. According to Fergusson; 3. According to Porter; 4. According to Lewis.

adjoining buildings in eight years. But the work was not entirely ended till a.d. 61, under Herod Agrippa II. So the statement in John 2:20 is correct. We shall describe the temple as it stood in the days of our Saviour, condensing in the main the statements of F.R. and C.R. Conder in the Handbook to the Bible (N. Y., 1879). The temple was located in the present Haram enclosure, the wall of which has been most carefully and elaborately surveyed. See Quarterly Statement for January, 1880, of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The building stood upon the top of Mount Moriah. but not in the middle of the area, which was 500 cubits square (cubit = 16 in.). Along the ramparts of 857 the temple-hill ran double cloisters or arcades, and there the money-changers sat. Matt 21:12. The royal cloister was triple, and was on the south side; Solomon's Porch was on the east. The pillars could hardly be spanned by three men; two of them still exist. The enclosure was entered through five gates. The gate Shushan was directly opposite to the temple proper. There were several courts about the temple which were upon different levels. The outer court, or court of the Gentiles, came first, then the court of the women, the court of Israel, the court of the priests, and then the temple itself. Between the first two came the "soreg" ("interwoven"), or "middle wall of partition." Eph 2:14. It had thirteen openings; upon it, at intervals, were square pillars with Greek inscriptions, threatening death to the uncircumcised intruder. The charge that Paul had brought such a Greek into the enclosure aroused the Jerusalem mob. Acts 21:28. The court of the women, had 4 chambers, and was so called, not because it was set apart exclusively for their use, but because they were not allowed to come any nearer the temple. There were three gates, of which the eastern, covered with gold, was the larger. The women had a gallery above the cloister, erected in order to avoid the crowding at the feast of tabernacles. In this court were probably the thirteen money-chests, Mark 12:41. The court of Israel, 10 cubits by 135, was fifteen steps higher up, and upon them the fifteen Songs of Degrees (Ps 120-134, inclusive) were sung. The musical instruments were kept there. It was merely a platform, and had no cloisters or columns. Only men especially purified could enter it. The court of the priests, or sanctuary, 135 by 176 cubits, was 2 1/2 cubits higher than the court of Israel, the wall being 1 cubit high, with three steps above it. On the wall there was a platform, from which the priests blessed the people. There was no communication between this court and the lower, except through the side-chambers of the gate Nicanor, which stood above the fifteen steps already mentioned. The court of the priests had seven gates. The south-eastern gate was called the Water-gate, because the water used in the feast of tabernacles was brought through it.

There were no cisterns within the court, and the altar was joined to the earth, having no excavations under it. The north-western gate was called Moked ("hearth"), and was the guard-house of the priests who kept watch round the fire, whence the name. The north-eastern gate was called Nitzotz ("prominence"), because it was a kind of outstanding tower. Above the Water-gate was a room called Aphtinas, in which the incense was made. The Sanhedrin, which see, sat in the so-called Pavement, or chamber of hewn stone, which opened on this court. In this court, directly before the temple, was the altar, which was built of solid stone, cemented, whitewashed at intervals, and had a line of red paint drawn round it. See Altar. Lieut. Conder points out that the Talmudic description indicates a much ruder structure than is usually supposed. There were holes in the foundation through which the blood flowed into drains, and a man-hole to facilitate the examination of the drains. To the left was the laver.

We come now to the temple, and, continuing to take the guidance of the Handbook, give the following facts: The facade of the temple was a square of 100 cubits, and was gilded. The entrance of the temple was 20 cubits wide and 40 high. Over it hung the golden vine, supported, probably, by nails. The temple was of two stories; in the lower there were thirty-eight chambers in three tiers; in the upper, none. The holy house was entered from the porch by a gate 20 cubits high and 10 broad, with double doors, opening out and in; before it hung a veil of equal width with the doors. Before the entrance to the holy of holies hung two veils or two curtains, 1 cubit apart, and, inasmuch as the opening of the outer curtain was upon the north, while the inner was on the south, no glimpse of the holy of holies could be obtained by any one but the high priest. (See Handbook to the Bible, p. 123.)

The allusions to the second (third) temple are neither many nor important. The scene of the purification of Mary, Luke 2:22, must have been at the gate Nicanor, since here it took place. The Child Jesus was found amid the doctors of the Law, who sat on the steps of the

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Plan of Herod's Temple. 1. The Holy of Holies. 2. The Holy Place. 3. The Court of the Priests. 4. Altar of Burnt-Offering. 5. Inner Gate of Temple. 6. Court of the Women.

temple-courts. Luke 2:46. The Beautiful Gate, Acts 3:2, was probably the entrance from the Tyropoeon bridge to the beautiful southern cloister built by Herod. The castle of Antonia, from which, by a secret passageway, the Roman soldiery could be poured down into the temple-area to preserve order - as notably to rescue Paul, Acts 21:31-32 - was situated upon the north-western corner of the outer cloister, and had four towers with a large interior space. It was arranged by John Hyrcanus for a residence, and enlarged by Herod.

This third temple was destroyed by the Romans on Friday, 9th day of Ab (August), a.d. 70, and the prophecy of Jesus was literally fulfilled. Matt 24:2. The emperor Julian endeavored to rebuild it, a.d. 363. To this end he advanced funds from the public treasury and applied the contributions from the Jews, who were enthusiastic over the proposition. But the work met with a check from an unexpected quarter. God used Nature to defeat the plan: "As the workmen dug down to the foundations terrific explosions took place: what seemed balls of fire burst forth; the works were shattered to pieces; clouds of smoke and dust enveloped the whole in darkness, broken only by the wild and fitful glare of the flames. Again the work was renewed by the obstinate zeal of the Jews; again they were repelled by this unseen and irresistible power, till they cast away their implements and abandoned the work in humiliation and despair." - Milman: History of Christianity, vol. iii. p. 27.

There stands to-day, upon the site of the temple, a Mohammedan mosque, the Dome of the Rock, so called from the famous Sakhrah, or Holy Rock, which, 859 according to Mohammedan tradition, attempted to follow Mohammed on his memorable night-journey to heaven, but was held back by the hand of the archangel Gabriel: in proof, both the "footprint of Mohammed" and the "handprint of Gabriel" are shown. Some consider that this rock was the site of the great altar of burnt-offering. In confirmation is adduced the hole in the rock, and the cave under it, which, upon this hypothesis, was the cesspool.

Up to quite recent times the Haram, as the enclosure containing the site of the temple is called, was closed to all non-Mohammedans, but the pressure brought to bear after the Crimean war (1856) was too great, and now travellers find no difficulty in gaining admittance.

TEMPLE, CAPTAIN OF. See Captain of the Temple.

TEMPT, Matt 22:18, TEMPTA'TION. Luke 4:13. These words are used in various senses. The ordinary import of them is allurement or enticement to sin. Hence our great adversary the devil is called "the tempter." Matt 4:3. They also denote the trial of a person's faith or obedience. Gen 22:1; Jas 1:2-3, or the trial of God's patience and forbearance. Ex 17:2; 1 Cor 10:9. The prayer. "Lead us not into temptation," Matt 6:13, does not imply that God leads us into sin, Jas 1:13-14, but it is a prayer that he may guard and protect us from temptation. When it is said that the lawyer and others tempted our Saviour, Matt 16:1; Josh 19:3; Mark 10:2; Luke 10:25, it is meant that they tried to ensnare him or lead him into the commission of some offence.

TEN COMMAND'MENTS, THE. By this title the writing contained on the two tables of stone given on Mount Sinai is usually designated. But the phrase, in the original, is "the ten words," and it were well to retain it. The Greek word decalogue exactly expresses the Hebrew. " The word of the Lord," the constantly-recurring term for the fullest revelation, was higher than any phrase expressing merely a command, and carried with it more the idea of a self-fulfilling power. Other phrases for the ten words are "the words of the covenant," "the tables of testimony," or more briefly "the testimony." Ex 25:16; Ex 31:18, etc. The chest which contained the two tables was therefore called the ark of the covenant; the tent under whose cover the tables rested became the tabernacle of witness or of testimony. Ex 38:21; Num 17:7; 2 Chr 24:6, etc. The ten words, originally spoken, Ex 20:1, were written by the finger of God on two stone tablets, Ex 24:12; but Moses having broken them in his anger, those the Jews possessed were duplicates. Ex 34:1.

It is common to assign four "words" to the first table and six to the second. But the command to honor parents is based upon the Fatherhood of God, and is a religious duty. St. Paul, in Rom 13:9, enumerates only five commands as applying to man exclusively.

It is at least possible that all the commandments were in the concise legal form in which some are expressed. The "reasons annexed" are probably mere scholia, or notes, which crept into the text, or else verbal commentary of God, made at the time. In this way the discrepancy between Ex 20 and Deut 5 is easiest removed.

The number ten symbolizes the comprehensiveness and completeness of this moral law. The first table, with five commandments, enjoins the duties to God; the second, with five commandments, the duties to our neighbor. All these duties are comprehended and summed up in this: Thou shalt love God supremely, and thy neighbor as thyself. Love is the fulfilment of the whole law. Matt 22:37-38; Rom 13:9; Gal 5:14; Jas 2:8.

The civil and ceremonial law of the Jewish theocracy rested on the Decalogue, and is divided into seven groups, each with ten commandments.

TENT. See Dwellings.

TENTH DEAL. See Measures.

TENT-MAKERS. Acts 18:3. Tent-making is said to have been Paul's trade, but the word so translated is supposed to refer to the manufacture of tent-cloth rather than to the preparing of tents. Some suppose that he made military tents, the material of which was goatskins.

TE'RAH (loiterer), the father of Abraham, who accompanied him to Haran, in Mesopotamia. where he died at the age of two hundred and five, Abraham 860 being then seventy-five years of age. Gen 11:31-32.

TER'APHIM (givers of prosperity). The word is sometimes left untranslated; elsewhere "images," Gen 31:19, John 9:34-35; 1 Sam 19:16; "idolatry." 1 Sam 15:23. The derivation is not settled. Gesenius takes it from a root meaning "to be rich," so the teraphim dispensed prosperity. From the passages quoted it is plain that this word denotes household idol-gods or images. But since these were used as means of supernatural knowledge, they might be found in possession of those who were not idolaters. There is a very remarkable occurrence of the word in Hos 3:4, where teraphim are associated with idolatry. They were

Teraphim.

small images, resembling the human form, and were regarded as oracles.

The use of teraphim came to the Hebrews from the family of Laban, for they were Aramaic deities. But, once introduced, they were tenaciously held to. We find them mentioned in a familiar way in the historical books. Jud 18:17; 1 Sam 19:13, 1 Sam 19:16; 2 Kgs 23:24, etc. They were not idols in the worst sense. They were used by Jehovah-worshippers acquainted with the second commandment. Thus we find a Levite in Micah's family using them, and in David's house were teraphim. 1 Sam 19:13. But in the days of the prophets they were denounced as idolatrous, and Josiah destroyed them, 2 Kgs 23:24, margin - an indication of the growth of correct religious feeling and the spread of knowledge.

In regard to their size and appearance nothing definite is known. Probably they were varied. They may best be compared to the household penates of the classic world.

TER'EBINTH. See Teil Tree.

TE'RESH (severe), one of two eunuchs who conspired against Ahasuerus. Esth 2:21; Esth 6:2.

TER'TIUS (the third), Paul's amanuensis, to whom he dictated the Epistle to the Romans. Rom 16:22.

TERTUL'LUS (diminutive of "Tertius"), a lawyer, probably a Roman, who, in consequence of their lack of familiarity with Roman forms of law, was hired by the Jews to act as prosecutor in the case of Paul before Felix. Acts 24:1-9.

TES'TAMENT. Heb 9:15. The word "testament," when applied to our Scriptures (as "the Old and New Testaments"), is used in the same sense with "covenant." The old covenant is spoken of in Ex 24:8, and the new in Matt 26:28. The former was ratified by the blood of sacrifices, and the latter (of which the other was a type) was ratified by the blood of Christ.

TES'TAMENT, OLD, NEW. 2 Cor 3:6. See Bible.

TESTIMONY, TES'TIMONIES. Ps 119:88, Ps 119:99. These terms sometimes denote the whole revelation of God's will. They frequently occur in this sense in the above Psalm. They also refer to the tables of stone, which were part of the covenant between God and the people of Israel, Ex 25:16; and hence the ark in which they were deposited is called "the ark of the testimony." Ex 25:22. See Ark. The gospel is also called "the testimony" in 1 Cor 1:6; Rev 1:2, and elsewhere. See Witness.

TE'TRARCH. This title was given to a sovereign prince, and strictly denotes one who governs the fourth part of a province or kingdom. Matt 14:1. In our Scriptures, however, it is applied to any one who governed a province of the Roman empire, whatever portion of the territory might be within his jurisdiction. 861 The tetrarch had the title of king;. Matt 14:9.

THAD'DAEUS. Matt 10:3. See Jude.

THA'HASH (a badger, or seal), a son of Nahor by Reumah, his concubine. Gen 22:24.

THA'MAH. Ezr 2:53. See Tamah.

THA'MAR. Greek form of Tamar, 1. Matt 1:3.

THAM'MUZ. See Tammuz.

THANK-OFFERING. See Offerings.

THA'RA. Luke 3:34. See Terah.

THAR'SHISH (fortress), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 7:10.

THAR'SHISH, a more accurate form of Tarshish, which see. 1 Kgs 10:22; 1 Kgs 22:48.

THE'ATRE, a place of public amusement, where popular assemblies, courts, elections, etc., were often held. Acts 19:29, 1 Chr 24:31.

"The taste for theatrical amusements was never strongly developed among the Jews, though some of their later rulers, especially the Herods, favored them and established theatres in Palestine. Herod the Great introduced Greek actors at his court in Jerusalem, greatly to the scandal of the Jews, and built a theatre and amphitheatre at Caesarea." - Hackett.

THEBES. See No-amon.

THE'BEZ (brightness), the town where Abimelech was killed. Jud 9:50; 2 Sam 11:21. It is now Tubas, a place 11 miles north-east of Shechem (Nablus), on the road to Beth-shean (Beinan). It is a handsome village, situated in the midst of groves of olive trees, on the west slope of a basin, but possessing no spring.

THELA'SAR. 2 Kgs 19:12. See Telassar.

THELAS'SAR. See Telassar.

THEOPH'ILUS (lover of God), a distinguished individual, probably of Greece or Rome, to whom, as his particular friend or patron, Luke addressed both his Gospel and his history of the Acts of the Apostles. Luke 1:3. The title "most excellent" probably denotes official dignity. Acts 23:26; 1 Sam 24:3; and Gen 26:25.

THESSALO'NIANS, EPIS'TLES TO. They were written by the apostle Paul to the church of the Thessalonians, and are the earliest of his writings and the oldest portions of the N.T. They were probably written, near the close of a.d. 52 or the beginning of 53, from Corinth, not from Athens, as the subscription states. The first was composed in consequence of the reception of Timothy's on the whole cheering intelligence about the Thessalonian church. But Paul learned that his favorite theme of the speedy coming of Christ had given rise among some of them to the erroneous impression that their dead were separated from Christ so much that they could not join in the triumphs of his return. Others of them had grown careless, paralyzed by the hope. Accordingly, he devotes his Epistle to the removal of these troubles, the more particularly since unauthorized prophets had fanned their enthusiasm and occasioned, on the part of the sober-minded, contempt for the prophetic gift. "The apostle therefore wrote to confirm them in the faith, to strengthen them against persecution, to rectify mistakes, and to inculcate purity of life." But, this Epistle not fully answering its purpose, Paul wrote a second shortly after. Some one had forged a letter in his name, advocating the very delusion he deprecated. 2 Thess 2:2. He therefore corrected the mistake and tried to put a stop to the ensuing evils.

We thus analyze the Epistles: First Thessalonians. - I. After a salutation, 1 Thess 1:1, Paul gives thanks to God for their conversion and advancement in the faith, 1 Thess 1:2-2:16, and then expresses his desire to see them and his loving care over them. 1 Thess 2:17-3:13. II. In the didactic and hortatory part he exhorts them to holiness and brotherly love, 1 Thess 4:1-12; he speaks of Christ's advent, 1 Thess 4:13-5:11; and adds various admonitions. 1 Thess 5:12-24. He then concludes with a charge that the Epistle be generally read, with greetings and a benediction. 1 Thess 5:25-28.

Second Thessalonians. - Besides the salutation, there are three sections, answering to the three chapters: I. A thanksgiving and prayer for the Thessalonians. 2 Thess 1:3-12. II. Instruction and exhortation in regard to the "man of sin." 2. III. Sundry admonitions: (1) To prayer, with a confident expression of his hope respecting them. 2 Thess 3:1-5; (2) To correct the disorderlv. 2 Thess 3:6-15. He 862 then concludes with a special remark, showing how his letters were thereafter to be identified, and the usual salutation and apostolic benediction. 2 Thess 3:16-18.

THESSALONI'CA, a city of Macedonia. It was anciently called Thermae ("hot baths"), but Cassander, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, rebuilt the city, and called it, after his wife, Alexander's sister, Thessalonica. The city was situated at the north-east corner of the Thermaic Gulf. It was in Paul's time a free city of the Romans, the most populous city in Macedonia, and the capital of one of the four Roman divisions of Macedonia, which extended from the river Strymon on the east to the Axius on the west.

Scripture History. - Paul and Silas, in a.d. 58, came to Thessalonica from Philippi, which was 100 miles northeast, on the Via Egnatia. There was the synagogue of the Jews. For at least three Sabbaths the apostles preached to their countrymen. A church was gathered, principally composed of Gentiles. At length the persecution became so violent as to drive the apostle away. He desired to revisit the church there, and sent Timothy to minister to them. Among his converts were Caius, Aristarchus, Secundus, and perhaps Jason. Acts 17:1-13; Acts 20:4; Acts 27:2; comp. Phil 4:16; 2 Tim 4:10. Paul wrote two Epistles to the Thessalonian church from Corinth. 1 Thess 1:1; 2 Thess 1:1.

Thessalonica.

The "rulers" of the city. Acts 17:6, 1 Kgs 15:8, are called, in the original, "politarchs." This is a peculiar term, not elsewhere found in the N.T., but this very word appears in the inscription on a triumphal arch believed to have been erected after the battle of Philippi. The names of seven politarchs are given. During several centuries Thessalonica was an important centre of Christianity in the Oriental Church, and from it the Bulgarians and Slavonians were reached.

Present Condition. - Thessalonica still survives as a Turkish town, under the name of Salonika. It has a conspicuous and beautiful situation on a hill sloping back from the gulf, and its palaces and mosques present a fine appearance. Its walls are some 5 miles in circumference. The streets are narrow and irregular. Many of the mosques were formerly Christian churches. It is also the seat of a Greek metropolitan, and contains numerous churches and schools of different denominations. Its commerce is extensive; some four thousand vessels visit its harbor every year, representing the trade of France, Austria, Italy, England, Greece, Switzerland, Belgium, the United States, etc. The population is about 80,000, of whom 30,000 are Jews and 10,000 Greeks. Among the most important of the ancient monuments are a hippodrome, a colonnade built under Nero, the triumphal arch commemorating the battle of Philippi, and another triumphal arch, of the time of Constantine.

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THEU'DAS (thanksgiving), an insurrectionary chieftain mentioned by Gamaliel. Acts 5:36, Josephus mentions a similar character of this name, but his insurrection occurred some eleven years after Gamaliel's speech. An explanation of the difficulty is to identify Theudas with Matthias, an eloquent and popular Jewish teacher, who headed a band in the days of Herod and destroyed the Roman eagle set up by the king over the great gate of the temple, being outraged by Herod's impiety. "The name 'Matthias' in Greek would be 'Theodorus,' and this is equivalent to 'Theudas.'" But perhaps it is best to say that this Theudas was an obscure individual who is not mentioned elsewhere. The name was a common one.

THIEF, THIEVES, THE TWO. Theft is always severely punished in rude societies. The Mosaic Law is severe. The thefts would naturally be, among the Jews, of live-stock most frequently; accordingly, the Law, Ex 22:1-4, limits itself to only this class of cases. Restitution was obligatory - five oxen in return for one stolen, four sheep for one. Resistance to robbery even to the death was innocent. If the thief did not or could not restore, he was to be sold for his theft. Prov 6:31 mentions a sevenfold restitution, and Lev 6:1-5 also apparently conflicts with Exodus, because it lays down a trespass-offering and the restoration of the principal and the fifth part more. Perhaps the Law varied. It added to the ignominy of our Lord's position that he was crucified between thieves, or, more properly, robbers. Tradition calls the penitent thief Demas, or Dismas; the impenitent, Gestas. It is probable that at first they both reviled him, but his noble courage softened the heart of "Dismas" into admiration, love, and belief. Luke 23:32, Luke 23:39-43.

THIGH. The practice of putting the hand under the thigh might denote the obedience or subjection of the individual, or it might be connected with the rite of circumcision as a token of God's faithfulness. Gen 24:2. The inscription upon the thigh. Rev 19:16, alludes to the custom of inscribing the names and deeds of conquerors on their garments and weapons. The name might be inscribed on the sword, which was girded on the thigh, or on that part of the dress which covered the thigh. Jacob's thigh was smitten by the angel, Gen 32:25, to show that he had supernatural power, and that he yielded in mercy and not from necessity. See Jacob.

THIM'NATHAH, now Tibneh, north-east of Lydda. Josh 19:43. See Timnah, 1.

THISTLES and THORNS. Gen 3:18. Palestine abounds in all manner of such plants, as is indicated by the fact that about eighteen different Hebrew words for them are found in the O.T. These are translated by "bramble," "brier," the above terms, and a few others, without much method or consistency.

The figurative use of these plants denotes desolation. Prov 24:31; Isa 5:6; Hos 2:6; Isa 9:6; Hos 10:8; the visitations of Providence, Num 33:55; Jud 2:3; 2 Cor 12:7; difficulties and hindrances, Prov 15:19; and troubles. Prov 22:5.

The "crowning with thorns," Matt 27:29, was probably the wanton invention of the Roman soldiery, and made no part of the established punishment. Very possibly the Saviour's enemies used for this purpose the twigs of the Christ-thorn (Zizyphus spina-Christi), which are slender,

Palestine Thorn (Zizyphus spina-Christi).

yet armed with terrible spines, and are still found growing in the vicinity of Jerusalem.

In the Holy Land various kinds of buckthorn, with other allied and equally formidable shrubs, are abundant, as is also the box-thorn (Lycium Europaeum). True thistles and thistle-like centaureas are common. In the Jordan valley a solanum (S. sanctum) grows from 3 to 5 864 feet high, clothed with spines. Tristram observed that the common bramble (Rubus fructicosus) was very abundant between the ancient Beth-shean and the fords of Succoth, and these were perhaps the thorns of Jud 8:7, Ex 17:16. The most formidable of all is that herbaceous plant the acanthus, well called by botanists spinosus. These are a few of the multitude of thistles and thorns that cover the land and often choke the very crops. Matt 13:7.

Of the shrubby burnet Miss M. E. Rogers justly says: "No plant or bush is so common on the hills of Judaea, Galilee, and Carmel as this. It is used extensively for fuel, especially for the bakers' ovens, and the 'crackling of thorns under a pot,' Eccl 7:6, may often be heard in Palestine."

This low burnet is commonly pulled up and laid upon the tops of the mud walls enclosing houses or gardens. Being held in place with clay, few animals or men will attempt to cross a wall thus guarded. Often the still more formidable Christ-thorn is used for the same purpose, illustrating Hos 2:6.

A traveller in Judaea remarks: "As we rode through Riphah we perceived it to be a settlement of about fifty dwellings, all very mean in their appearance, and every one fenced in front with thorn-bushes, while a barrier of the same kind encircled the whole of the town. This was one of the most effectual defences which they could have raised against the incursions of horse-riding Arabs, the only enemies whom they have to dread, as neither will the horse approach to entangle himself in these thickets of brier, nor could the rider, even if he dismounted, get over them, or remove them to clear a passage without assistance from some one within.

"There are a great many more thorny plants in Palestine than in America, and these plants love the wheat-fields. The farmers have a habit of going out before these thorns go to seed and gathering them with a sickle and forked stick, and burning them or threshing them out for the donkeys to eat. But some farmers are lazy and do not take this trouble, and sometimes even an industrious farmer will neglect a corner of his field, and it will presently be overrun with coarse thorns. But the stalks of these thorns rot away and disappear in the winter, and only their seeds remain concealed in the ground at the season of sowing. The earth looks like that of the rest of the field, and the farmer ploughs in his seed with a good heart in hopes of an abundant return. But the thorns spring up with the wheat, and, being much stronger, their roots soon twine about those of the wheat and absorb all the water from the ground in which they both grow together, and their branches overshadow the green blades, and so the plants either make no seeds, or so few and poor ones that the farmer does not care to pick out the stalks from the thorns, and he either burns them together or threshes out all as food for his donkey. Matt 13:18-23." -Post.

THOM'AS (twin), one of the twelve apostles, was also called " Didymus " ("the twin"). We know little of his history. He seems to have been of singular temperament, cautious, sceptical, thoughtful, and gloomy, yet holding fast tenaciouslv what he once believed. John 11:16; Deut 14:5; John 20:20-29. He represents the honest, truth-loving scepticism among the apostles; he would not believe in the resurrection till he had tangible evidence of it, but then he exclaimed, "My Lord and my God!" Those who, not having seen, yet believe, are highly commended. There are various traditions in regard to his history after the ascension of Christ. The earlier represent him as preaching in Persia; the later, in India. He suffered martyrdom.

THORN IN THE FLESH, PAUL'S. In two passages, 2 Cor 12:7-10 and Gal 4:14-15, Paul alludes to some circumstance or infliction which hindered his ministry; but, as he does not say what it was, but calls it merely a "stake in the flesh," there have been numerous conjectures. This is one of the questions, as Dean Stanley well says, "where the obscurity for us is occasioned by the very fact that it was plain to contemporaries." The explanations which have at various times been advanced may be divided into three classes:

  1. Spiritual trials. - Either sensual temptations, as is the favorite view of Roman Catholic writers, or temptations to unbelief, doubts arising from the
865

memory of his sinful past; so Luther and Calvin and other of the Reformers.

  1. External calamities. - Either his persecutions and sufferings or else his Judaizing opponents, as Chrysostom and the Greek Fathers thought. But some of the ancient and mediaeval as well as the modern commentators have been dissatisfied with these explanations because they do not meet the difficulty, and accordingly have favored -

  2. Some bodily ailment. - Almost every disorder - pleurisy, the stone, defect of utterance, hypochrondria, headache, earache, epilepsy, acute ophthalmia - has been suggested and advocated by the fathers and schoolmen. Tradition supports the notion that the "thorn" was some sort of pain in the head. According to modern opinion, the choice lies between epilepsy and acute ophthalmia. In favor of the former is the life Paul led, his trances, his enthusiasm followed by depression, his enormous nervous strain; this would be enough to shatter his system. But against any such notion is Paul's physical activity, his balanced mind, his self-control, and his confidence. No such objection seems to lie against acute ophthalmia - a disease which is quite common in the East. It may well have been caused in his case by the bright light which fell upon his eyes at his conversion, and increased, or at least not lessened, by his wandering, laborious life. There are many indications that this interpretation of the "thorn" is correct. Paul says that the Galatians would have plucked out their eyes and given them to him, Gal 4:15; the very word he uses, 2 Cor 12:7 - "stake," not "thorn" - would, as Canon Farrar says, "most appropriately express the incisive pain of ophthalmia, which is as if a splinter were run into the eye." The disfigurement it causes would have made him the object of contempt and loathing he represents himself to have been. Gal 4:14; 2 Cor 10:10. Paul's failure to recognize the high priest. Acts 23:5; his dread of being left alone, shown by his allusions to it as a trial, 1 Thess 3:1; 2 Tim 4:16; his expression, "Ye see with what large letters I write unto you with my own hand," Gal 6:11; his employment of an amanuensis for at least the major part of his Epistles, cf. Rom 16:22, - these are facts looking in the same direction. Accepting this interpretation, what light it throws upon the life of Paul! How it elevates our conception of his heroism! how it in creases our respect for his work! We see that he was not able to move about or write as he would, but was dependent upon others; and yet, notwithstanding his suffering and his persecutions, his dimmed vision and his interrupted toil, he struggled and labored for his Master unto death.

THORNS. See Thistles.

THREE TAVERNS. See Taverns, The Three.

THRESH, THRESH'ING FLOOR. The ancient threshing places were selected on the highest summits, open on every side to the wind. Hence the point of rock over which the temple stood had been used for this purpose by Oman. 1 Chr 21:15-28. Though called "floors," they were nothing but flats of ground from 50 to 100 feet in diameter, annually levelled and rolled, so as to be as hard as a floor. Often there was, as is still frequently the case, but one such place for a village, and each husbandman, in a fixed order, must take his turn for using it.

The sheaves were thrown together in a loose heap, and the grain beaten out by a machine or by the feet of oxen. Deut 25:4. The threshing-machine was formed of a heavy square frame with rollers, each of which was encircled by three or four iron rings or wheels serrated like the teeth of a saw. Isa 41:15-16. The machine was drawn by a pair of oxen, the driver sitting on a cross-piece fastened into the frame; and as the heavy rollers passed over it the grain was crushed out on- every side, and the straw, by being torn, was rendered suitable for fodder.

Threshing-Instrument(upper view).

Sometimes this frame was so constructed as to resemble a cart, Isa 28:27-28, and furnishes 866 a striking figure of violence and destruction. Am 1:8; Hab 3:12. As the grain accumulated it was formed into a great heap in the centre of the floor, around which the oxen were driven. It was customary for the owner to sleep near by to protect the grain from thieves. Ruth 3:2-14. Tender cereals were beaten out with a stick. Isa 28:27. After the grain was threshed and winnowed (see Fan), the chaff was collected on a neighboring hill and burned. Isa 5:24; Matt 3:12. The fruits of the harvest were then doubtless sometimes stored in caves, as is now a common Syrian custom. Here grain is safe partly by superstition, and partly by a stifling gas which it generates in such

Threshing-Instrument (side view).

close places (Underground Jerusalem, p. 481).

Tristram says: "When winnowed and sifted the wheat is stored in underground pits. These 'silos,' or granaries, are hollow chambers about 8 feet deep, carefully cemented to exclude the damp, and with a circular opening about 15 inches in diameter, which could easily be concealed. In such receptacles the corn will keep good for several years. Many such may still be seen in different parts of the country. I have found them on Mount Carmel, often close to an ancient wine-press, and about many of the deserted cities of Southern Judah. Such a storehouse as those on Mount Carmel is probably alluded to in Jer 41:8.

"Generally, owing to the insecure state of the country, these storehouses are made under the house, especially under the most retired portion, the apartments of the women." 2 Sam 4:6; 2 Sam 17:18-19. In the latter passage the well is probably the storehouse under the women's chamber.

In the interesting passage, Isa 41:15-16, "a new sharp threshing-instrument having teeth" is mentioned. One of these instruments is thus described by a traveller in Syria in 1837: "The threshing-instrument is a board about 3

Threshing-Sledge of Palestine. A, Upper side; B, Lower side.

feet wide, 6 or 8 feet long, and 3 inches thick. On the lower side many holes are made, from 1 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter, in which are fastened pieces of stone, flint, or iron. These project, it may be, from a half to three-quarters of an inch from the face of the board, and serve as teeth to tear the beards of the grain in pieces. Oxen are fastened to the forward end of the board and driven round the floor, drawing it after them. The driver of the oxen usually stands or sits on the instrument. This is the common threshing-instrument in these countries. I saw it everywhere, and I have seen no other. The oxen are usually without muzzles, and are often, as they pass around, taking up from time to time a few straws and feeding on them. I do not recollect of seeing the horse used in any instance on the barn-floor - the oxen very often." See Agriculture.

THRONE, the seat of a king on state occasions. In the East the usual position is squatting or reclining; hence a chair is a seat of some dignity. 2 Kgs 4:10. The word "chair," with the notion of royalty, is the Hebrew word for "throne," the chair of the king, such as David, 2 Sam 3:10, and Solomon sat upon, 1 Kgs 2:12; 1 Kgs 7:7, when they dispensed judgment. The throne of Solomon was quite unique. 1 Kgs 10:20. It was made of wood inlaid with ivory and covered with gold, except where the ivory showed. It was approached by six steps, each step having upon it two lions; thus the twelve lions symbolized the twelve tribes. The chair had arms, upon which were lions. (See cut.) The back was rounded. When the king sat 867 upon his throne he was clad in royal robes. 1 Kgs 22:10; Acts 12:21. Naturally, the throne being the sign

A Chair of State or Throne. (From Assyrian Monuments at Khorsabad. After Layard.)

of royalty, the word is applied to the centre of divine authority and used in other figurative ways.

THUM'MIM. Ex 28:30. See Urim.

THUN'DER is very rare in Palestine from the middle of April to the middle of September. Hence it was a striking miracle when, in answer to Samuel's prayer, God sent thunder and rain in wheat-harvest (May 18 to June 15). 1 Sam 12:17. Thunder was regarded as Jehovah's voice. Job 37:2; Ps 18:13; Ps 81:7; Isa 30:30-31. When the people heard God's voice, they said that it thundered. John 12:29. Thunder accompanied the giving of the Law. Ex 19:16. It was a symbol of divine power, implying possible vengeance upon wrong-doers. 1 Sam 2:10; 2 Sam 22:14; Isa 29:6; Rev 8:5.

THYATI'RA, a city of Asia Minor, on the northern border of Lydia, near the road from Pergamos to Sardis, and some 27 miles from the latter city. It lay near the river Lycus and was a Macedonian colony, bearing successively the names of Pelopia, Semiraiuis and Euhippia. Dyeing was an important branch of its business from Homer's time, and the first N.T. mention of Thyatira, Acts 16:14, connects it with the purple seller, Lydia. Three votive inscriptions have been found among its ruins purporting to have come. from the guild of "The Dyers." It has been supposed that perhaps Lydia returned to her own city and aided in establishing Christianity there. Thyatira was the seat of one of the seven churches of Asia. Rev 2:18-29. Its population was made up of various races, and it is a question what is meant by the reference to Jezebel. A shrine stood outside the walls, in the midst of the "Chaldtean's court," dedicated to Sambath, a sibyl, Chaldaean, Jewish, or Persian. Grotius refers it to the wife of the bishop.

Present Condition. - The city is now called ak-Hissar, or "white castle." The scarlet cloth dyed there has the reputation of being unsurpassed for brilliancy and permanence of color. The population is estimated at from 17,000 to 20,000. There are a Greek church and several mosques.

THY'INE-WOOD. This was obtained

Thyine- Wood (Thuya Articulata).

from a small tree (Thuya articulata) belonging to the cone-bearing order

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Thyatira. (From a sketch by Arundell) 869 and resembling our cedar and arborvitae. It was highly valued by the Romans, in the days of their luxury, for cabinet-work, being very compact and fragrant and of a handsome brown, often variegated by knots. It was obtained in Northern Africa, and from it is still collected the true gum-sandarach. Rev 18:12.

TIBE'RIAS, a town of Galilee, situated on the western bank of the Sea of Galilee, which is called "the Sea of Tiberias " only by John, who was the last of the N.T. writers. John 6:1; Jud 21:1.

History. - The city is only once mentioned in the N.T. John 6:23. Although it was an important and busy town in Christ's time, there is no record that he ever visited it. It was then a new city, built by Herod Antipas, a.d. 16-22, and named in honor of the emperor Tiberias. Josephus, who mentions the city very frequently, says that Herod built it on a site where were ancient sepulchres belonging to an extinct and forgotten city. Thus it was unclean to the Jews, and Herod brought in many strangers, foreigners, and slaves. A palace was erected, with an amphitheatre, bathhouses, temples, and costly works of art. An aqueduct 9 miles long brought in fresh water. During the Jewish wars Josephus fortified Tiberias. After Jerusalem was destroyed the Sanhedrin settled here, and for many centuries it was one of the most celebrated seats of Jewish learning. The Jewish Mishna or ancient traditional law, and the Masorah were compiled here.

Present Condition. - The modern city called Tubariyeh stands on the southwestern shore of the lake, some 4 miles from its southern extremity, in lat. 32░ 46' 14". It occupies only a small portion of the ground covered by the ancient city, the remains of which stretch southward for a mile and a quarter, to the hot springs. Many of the old stones have been removed for use in the modern buildings, but some very fine specimens of polished marble and black basalt remain. For view, see Galilee, Sea of.

The modern city is surrounded on the land-side by a wall much broken and not repaired. The great earthquake on New Year's day, 1837, overthrew the city and destroyed six hundred lives. A small church standing on the reputed site of St. Peter's house, and a mosque half in ruins, are the principal buildings to attract attention. Although the town is extremely picturesque as seen from the distance, with its wall, minaret, and palm trees, it is found on closer acquaintance to be in a state of filth which even in the East can be scarcely paralleled. This is aggravated by the excessive heat, the temperature often attaining 100 Fahr. Tiberias is still one of the four holy cities of the Jews, and more than one-half of the inhabitants are Jews of the poorer class, who live, in great measure, on the alms sent by their coreligionists in various parts of the world. Many of the Jews are immigrants from Poland. There are also Mohammedans and Christians. The population is some 3000 or 4000. The famous hot springs, to the south, are still much resorted to for medicinal purposes. The temperature ranges from 131 to 142 Fahr. On a slight eminence, 1 mile west of the town, lies the Jewish burial-ground, in which some of the most celebrated of the Jewish Talmudists are interred.

TIBE'RIAS, THE SEA OF. John 6:1; Jud 21:1. See Galilee, Sea of.

Head of Emperor Tiberius. (From a Coin.)

TIBERIUS, CLAU'DIUS NERO (full title), Luke 3:1, was the 870 step-son and successor of Augustus, Luke 2:1, and, though with some apparent virtues, was one of the most infamous tyrants that ever scourged the empire of Rome. All the events of Christ's manhood took place during this reign. He began well, but quickly "degenerated into a gloomy despot." Madness was probably the excuse for his cruelties. He began his reign a.d. 14, reigned during the eventful period of the succeeding twenty-three years, and was finally murdered by suffocation.

TIB'HATH (butchery). 1 Chr 18:8. See Betah.

TIB'NI (building of Jehovah), a claimant to the throne of Israel, and one who for four years headed half the people in a struggle against Omri, whom the army had proclaimed king after Zimri's death. Tibni was defeated, and probably killed. 1 Kgs 16:21-22.

TI'DAL (great son), a king who joined Chedorlaomer. Gen 14:1-9.

TIG'LATH-PILE'SER (my help is the son of Esarras - i.e., Adar), "the second Assyrian king mentioned in the Scriptures as having come into contact with the Israelites," and the second of the name. He invaded Samaria. 2 Kgs 15:29, and after some years he returned and did much more damage, destroying Damascus and taking many captives, 1 Chr 5:26. The occasion of the first attack was probably the refusal of Pekah to pay tribute; of the second, the call of Ahaz upon him for assistance against Pekah and Rezin, the king of Syria. Tiglath-pileser at Damascus met Ahaz, who became his vassal. 2 Kgs. 16:10. His wars were insignificant. He reigned b.c. 747-739, having probably usurped the throne.

TI'GRIS. Gen 2:14. See Hiddekel.

TIK'VAH, TIK'VATH (expectation).

  1. The father-in-law of Huldah the prophetess. 2 Kgs 22:14; 2 Chr 34:22.

  2. The father of Jahaziah. Ezr 10:15.

TILE, TILING. See Dwelling, p. 243

TIL'GATH-PILNE'SER, a corruption of Tiglath-pileser, which see.

TI'LON (lofty), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:20.

TIMAE'US (polluted?), the father (bar is Aramaic for "son")of a man whom Jesus cured of blindness. Mark 10:46.

TIM'BREL, a musical instrument, supposed to have resembled very nearly the instrument of modern days called the tambourine. Ex 15:20. A skin is stretched over a rim like the end of a drum; around the rim are hung little

Timbrel. (After specimen in Kensington Museum, London.)

bells, and the player strikes the skin with the knuckles of one hand and shakes it with the other hand. It was used in ancient times chiefly by women.

TIME. See Days, Hours, Watches of the Night.

TIM'NA, TIM'NAH (restrained).

  1. The concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and mother of Amalek. Gen 36:12, Josh 11:22; 1 Chr 1:39.

  2. An Edomite sheik. Gen 36:40; 1 Chr 1:51.

TIM'NAH (portion assigned), a name of two towns.

  1. A town on the northern border of Judah, Josh 15:10, occupied by the Philistines. 2 Chr 28:18. This is probably the same place which is called Thimnathah, Thamnatha, and Timnath, and which apparently belonged to Dan. It is now represented by the modern Tibneh, a ruin on a hill 740 feet above the sea-level and 2 miles west from Bethshemesh.

  2. A town in the mountains of Judah, south of Hebron, Josh 15:57,- probably a ruin called Tibna, near Jeba, and about 9 miles south of west of Bethlehem.

TIMNATH, and TIM'NATHAH (portion assigned), the name of two places.

  1. A place to which Judah was going when he was met by his daughter-in-law
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Tamar, Gen 38:12-14; perhaps identical with Timnah, 1.

  1. The home of Samson's wife, Jud 14:1-2, 1 Chr 6:5; probably also identical with Timnah, above, the modern Tibneh, west of Beth-shemesh. There are traces of ancient cultivation and rock-hewn winepresses, suggesting the vineyards in which he slew the lion.

TIM'NATH-HE'RES. Jud 2:9. See Timnath-serah.

TIM'NATH-SE'RAH (portion of abundance), and TIM'NATHHE'RES (portion of the sun), a city in Ephraim assigned to Joshua, and the place of his residence and burial. Jud 2:9; Josh 19:50; Matt 24:30.

  1. Christian tradition points to a Tibneh (not that under Timnath), on the Roman road from Jerusalem to Antipatris and some 14 1/2 miles north-north-west of Jerusalem as the site of ancient Timnathserah. Jerome speaks of this place as on the border between the possessions of Dan and Judah. The ruin of Tibneh has a remarkable rock-cemetery, containing nine tombs, south of the site of the town; one of these tombs is large, with a portico supported on rude piers of rock. There are niches for over two hundred lamps, once burning in front of the tomb-entrance. Within there is a chamber with fourteen graves, or kokim, and a passage leads into an inner chamber with only one koka. There is no direct evidence of the date of this tomb, which some have regarded as the tomb of Joshua, but this is hardly probable. Another curious fact is that near the tomb is a great oak tree called sheikh et-Teim, "the chief of the servant of God." There is also a village, about 3 miles to the east, called Kefr lshu'a, or "Joshua's village."

  2. Another site proposed for Timnathheres or -serah is at Kefr Haris, 9 miles south of Nablus (Shechem). The Samaritans state that Joshua, son of Nun, and Caleb were here buried. The two tombs of Caleb and Joshua were noticed here by Rabbi Jacob of Paris, a.d. 1258. Conder inclines to this as the burial place of Joshua, since Jew and Samaritan both point to it. (See picture of the tomb of Joshua under Joshua.)

TIM'NITE, THE (i.e., the Timnathite), Samson's father-in-law. Jud 15:6.

TI'MON (honoring), one of the seven deacons ordained by the apostles on the election of the Jerusalem church. Acts 6:5.

TIMO'THEUS (honoring God), the Greek name of Timothy, used generally in A.V. Acts 16:1.

TIM'OTHY (honoring God), an evangelist and pupil of St. Paul. he was a Lycaonian, a native of either Derbe or Lystra. His father was a Greek and a heathen; his mother, Eunice, was a Jewess, and a woman of distinguished piety, as was also his grandmother, Lois, 2 Tim 1:5, and by them he was early educated in the holy scriptures of the O.T. 2 Tim 3:15. Paul found him in one of the cities above named, and, being informed of his good standing among the Christians there, selected him as an assistant in his labors, and, to avoid the cavils of the Jews, performed on him the rite of circumcision. 1 Cor 9:20. He afterward became the companion of Paul, and that he was the object of the extraordinary affection and solicitude of that apostle his letters plainly show. He was left in charge of the church at Ephesus, and that, probably', when he was quite young, thirty-four or thirty-five. 1 Tim 4:12. The post-apostolic tradition makes him bishop of Ephesus. In that case he would be the "angel" of that church addressed in Rev 2:1-7, or his predecessor.

Epistles of Paul to. These, with that to Titus, are commonly spoken of as the Pastoral Epistles because they are predominantly given up to directions about church work. The First is supposed to have been written about the year 64, and contains special instructions respecting the qualifications and the duties of sundry ecclesiastical officers and other persons, and the most affectionate and pungent exhortations to faithfulness. The Second Epistle was written a year or two later and while Paul was in constant expectation of martyrdom, 2 Tim 4:6-8, and may be regarded as the dying counsel of the venerable apostolic father to his son in the Lord. It contains a variety of injunctions as to the duties of Christians under trials and temptations, and concludes with expressions of a full and triumphant faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and in all the glorious promises made to his true followers.

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TIN, a well-known metal in use at a very early period, Num 31:22, and an article of Tyrian commerce, probably obtained from Spain or England. Eze 27:12. Captain Burton has recently found tin-ore in the land of Midian.

In Isa 1:25 the word "tin" doubtless means a sort of dross.

TINK'LING. See Bell, Clothes.

TIPH'SAH (ford), a name for two places.

  1. A city on the western bank of the Euphrates. The name connected with the Hebrew word signifies "to pass over," which is represented in Greek and Latin by Thapsacus, a town situated at one of the most frequented fords of the Euphrates. The city was large and flourishing, being a great emporium of trade between Assyria and the West, and in a direct line from Tadmor. It has been found that the only practicable ford of the Euphrates is at Hammum, 181 miles higher up the river than Deir, which was formerly thought to be the true position, but where the river is not fordable. 1 Kgs 4:24.

  2. Menahem, king of Israel, "smote Tiphsah and all that were therein, and the coasts thereof." 2 Kgs 15:16. This place has been identified with the above, but some leading scholars would put this Tiphsah in Palestine, near to Tirzah, or a ford of the Jordan. Conder suggests its identity with the ruin Tafsak, south of Shechem.

TI'RAS (desire?), the youngest son of Japheth. Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5. Probably the Thracians are meant.

TI'RATHITES, THE (gate), one of three families of Levites at Jabez. 1 Chr 2:55.

TIRES. This generally denotes an ornamental head-dress, but it may mean other parts of the attire; and in Isa 3:18 the original probably signifies a necklace, the parts of which might have resembled the moon in shape.

TIR'HAKAH (exalted?), king of Ethiopia and Upper Egypt. 2 Kgs 19:9; Isa 37:9. In legends he was one of the greatest conquerors of antiquity. His triumphs westward are said to have reached the Pillars of Hercules. But in the East he seems to have been twice badly beaten by the Assyrians and shut up in his own domains. Still, he was formidable enough to cause Sennacherib great uneasiness; for when the latter heard of his coming he demanded the immediate surrender of Jerusalem. 2 Kgs 19:9. Tirhakah reigned, probably, twenty-eight years. The dates are uncertain, but perhaps his rule extended from b.c. 695 to 667.

TIR'HANAH (favor), a son of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:48.

TIR'IA (godly fear), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:16.

TIR'SHATHA, THE (lord of the province), the title of the Persian governors. Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:65, Neh 7:70; Rom 8:9; Dan 10:1.

TIR'ZAH (charm), the youngest of the five daughters of Zelophehad. Num 26:33; Deut 27:1; Isa 36:11; Josh 17:3.

TIR'ZAH (delight), one of the thirty-one cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua, Josh 12:24, and for fifty years the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel, until Omri built Samaria. 1 Kgs 14:17; 1 Kgs 16:21, 1 Kgs 16:33; 1 Kgs 16:6, 1 Kgs 16:23. It is also mentioned in the reign of Menahem, b.c. 772, 2 Kgs 15:14, 2 Kgs 15:16, and its fame for beauty appears from Song 6:4. Tirzah has been usually identified with Telluzah, situated on a hill 2 miles north-east of Mount Ebal, 5 miles east of Samaria, and 30 miles north of Jerusalem. The village occupies a fine elevation in the midst of immense olive-groves. Wilson and Conder, however, dispute this identification, and favor instead that at Teidair, an important and ancient site, standing in the midst of a well-wooded country on the main road from Nablus (Shechem) to Beisan (Beth-shean), and 12 miles east of Samaria. There are numerous ancient sepulchres and caves north of the village, which may perhaps include the tombs of the first four kings of Israel, buried at Tirzah. 1 Kgs 16:6.

TISH'BAH, the birthplace of Elijah, 1 Kgs 17:1, who is therefore called the Tishbite, probably identical with El-Istib, or Listib, 22 miles in an air line south of the Sea of Galilee, and 10 miles east of the Jordan, in the Wady March, amid the hills of Gilead. Parchi, a learned Jewish traveller in Palestine in the fourteenth century, mentions El-Istib as the probable site, but the credit of the identification belongs to Dr. Selah Merrill, who in 1876 found the spot.

TISH'BITE. See Tishbah.

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TIS'RI. See Month.

TITHES, or TENTHS, a form of tax known long before the time of Moses, Gen 14:20; Gen 28:22. and practised under the civil and religious government of heathen nations. It was introduced into the Levitical code, and consisted in rendering a fixed proportion of the produce of the earth, herds, etc., to the service of Hod their King, whom they were taught to consider as the proprietor of all. One-tenth of this produce went to the use of the Levites, who had no part in the soil, and of course were dependent on their brethren for the means of subsistence. One-tenth of their tenth they paid in their turn to the priests. Num 18:21-32.

The nine parts were tithed again, and of this second tithe a feast was made in the court of the sanctuary, or in some apartment connected with it. If, however, the Jew could not with convenience carry his tithe thither, he was permitted to sell it and to take the money, adding one-fifth of the amount - that is, if he sold the tithe for a dollar, he should bring, in money, a dollar and twenty cents - and to purchase therewith what was required at the feast after he came to the sanctuary. Lev 27:31; Deut 12:17-18; Deut 14:22-27.

At this feast of thanksgiving they entertained their families and friends, and also the Levites, It has been supposed by some, from Deut 14:28-29, that in every third year a third tithe was required, but it is more probable that in the third year the second tithe above mentioned was consumed at home, instead of at the sanctuary, so that the poor neighbors and friends, and especially such as were aged and infirm, might partake of it.

The cattle were tithed by letting them pass out of an enclosure, under a rod held by some person, who touched every tenth beast, which thereupon became the property of the Levites; so that, if exchanged, both were forfeited. Lev 27:32-33.

It does not appear that the tithe of herbs was demanded. The Pharisees, however, tithed their mint, anise, cummin, and rue; nor was it for this that our Saviour condemned them, but for neglecting weightier things, as mercy, judgment, and faith, while they were so scrupulously exact in matters of inferior moment. Matt 23:23.

TIT'TLE, the very least point, Matt 5:18; used of the fine stroke by which some letters were distinguished. To omit this stroke condemned the entire copy of the Law made by the scribe.

TI'TUS, a Gentile by descent, and probably converted to Christianity under the preaching of Paul. Tit 1:4. he, however, refused to subject him to the rite of circumcision, though, as some have inferred, he was strongly urged so to do. Gal 2:3-5. Titus was the companion of Paul in many of his trials and missionary-tours, 2 Cor 8:6, 2 Cor 8:16, 2 Cor 8:23, and was entrusted with several important commissions. 2 Cor 12:18; 2 Tim 4:10; Tit 1:5.

Epistle OF Paul to, was designed to instruct Titus in the right discharge, of his ministerial offices in Crete, a difficult field, owing to the character of the inhabitants, who were noted for lying, idleness, and gluttony. Tit 1:12. The Epistle was probably written from Asia Minor in the year 65, when Paul was on his way to Nicopolis.

TI'ZITE, THE, the designation given to Joha, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr 11:45.

TO'AH (inclined), a Kohathite Levite, 1 Chr 6:34; called Tohu in 1 Sam 1:1.

TOB (good), the place or district beyond the Jordan to which Jephthah fled, Jud 11:3, 1 Chr 6:5; also called Ish-tob. 2 Sam 10:6, 2 Sam 10:8. It lay beyond Gilead, toward the eastern deserts. There is a modern place called Taiyibet, an Arabic form of "Tob," 12 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, which would identify it with the southern part of Bashan.

TOB-ADONI'JAH (good is my Lord Jehovah), one of the Levites sent by Jehoshaphat to teach Judah the law of the Lord. 2 Chr 17:8.

TOBI'AH (goodness of Jehorak).

  1. One whose descendants came from Babylon with Zerubbabel, but who could not prove whether they were of Israel, owing to the loss of their family-tree. Ezr 2:60; Neh 7:62.

  2. An Ammonite of considerable influence, and a leader in the opposition which was made to the rebuilding of the temple by Nehemiah. Being connected by marriage with some influential

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families, he became the head of a formidable party, and maintained a correspondence with the nobles of Judah adverse to the interests of Nehemiah and his party, and even descended to threats, expecting by these to deter him from the prosecution of his purpose. During the absence of Nehemiah from Jerusalem, Tobiah obtained apartments in the temple for his private residence; but Nehemiah, as soon as he returned to Jerusalem, expelled him and his furniture from the holy place, and ordered the chamber which had been thus desecrated to be thoroughly cleansed. Neh 2:10, etc.

TOBI'JAH (goodness of Jehovah).

  1. A Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the Law. 1 Chr 17:8.

  2. One to whom a memorial crown was given by the prophet. Zech 6:10, 2 Kgs 22:14.

TO'BIT (my goodness; contracted from goodness of Jehovah), the hero of the book named below.

TO'BIT, BOOK OF, one of the most interesting of the Apocrypha of the O.T., but devoid of historical value and plainly a romance. The story of Tobit may be thus given. He was a Naphtalite who remained faithful to the temple service amidst the defection of his countrymen, but, notwithstanding, he shared with them in their misfortunes and was carried to Nineveh by Shalmanezer. His wealth and his position at court gave him opportunity to help his people and thus win their regard, and for a time his life was enviable. But a change of rulers changed his fortune. When Sennacherib came to the throne, he was compelled to flee from the king's wrath at his conduct in burying the Jews whom the king had killed. All his property was confiscated. But on the entreaty of a nephew, the new king, Esarhaddon, who succeeded Sennacherib, allowed him to return to Nineveh. Shortly thereafter he lost his eyesight through the injury his opened eyes received from the warm swallows' dung which fell upon them, causing albugo - i.e., white, hard flakes on the eyes, which are of greater or less extent, and not transparent. A quarrel with his wife about a kid led to her reproaches, under which he wept grievously and in sorrow prayed. At this point the episode of Sarra, of Ecbatana in Media, is introduced. She was the wife of seven who were successively killed on the wedding-night by Asmodaeus. Her prayer for death was made at the same time with Tobit's prayer for the same. "And Raphael was sent to heal them both" - that is, to scale away the white spots from Tobit's eyes - "and to give Sarra for a wife to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodaeus the wicked demon." This was thus brought about: Tobit sent his son to Media to recover some money lent in the days of his prosperity to one Gabael. He improved the occasion to give his son much good advice. The angel Raphael, in the guise of "Azarias, son of Ananias the great," saluted Tobias and made the journey in his company. The capture of a fish put in Tobias' hands the means of curing his father and ridding Sarra of the demon. His journey was eminently successful. He recovered the money loaned, married Sarra, to whom Raphael introduced him, and returned home with these treasures, greatly to the delight of Tobit, who had begun to be a little fearful for his safety. The book ends with the restoration of Tobit's eyesight and prosperity, his consequent psalm of gratitude, which is a worthy echo of the canonical Psalms and the best piece of writing in the book, and mention of the death of Tobit and Tobias.

The above narrative is plainly far beneath the dignity of Scripture, and study of the book leads to the discovery of many serious errors, not only historical, but moral, such as the meritoriousness of good works, a reliance upon angels, and a belief in demons. The book is indeed a romance, a good specimen of its class, but devoid of probability and in part based upon Job.

The author of the book was undoubtedly a Jew, and probably one who lived in the far East. Critics are much divided in regard to the time of composition. Various dates, from b.c. 333 to a.d. 250, have been assigned to it, but it may perhaps with most reason be set down to the period near the close of the Maccabaean wars.

TO'CHEN" (a measure), a place in Simeon, 1 Chr 4:32; not identified.

TOGAR'MAH, a descendant of Japheth. Gen 10:3.

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TOGAR'MAH, the name of a people descended from the race of Gomer, the Cimmerians, and remotely from Japheth. Gen 10:3; 1 Chr 1:6. The "house" or race of Togarmah are mentioned in Eze 38:6, with their swarms of mercenary troops, as belonging to the extreme north. In Eze 27:14. Togarmah is described as furnishing horses and mules to the Tyrian markets. Hence, Togarmah seems to be Armenia, derived from Thorgom, a descendant of Gomer, according to tradition, and rich in horses. See Armenia.

TO'HU. 1 Sam 1:1. See Toah.

TO'I (wandering), king of Hamath, 2 Sam 8:9-10; called Tou in 1 Chr 18:9-10.

TO'LA (worm).

  1. Eldest child of Issachar, progenitor of the Tolaites. Gen 46:13; Num 28:23; 1 Chr 7:1-2.

  2. A judge of Israel, Abimelech's successor; judged twenty-three years. Jud 10:1-2.

TO'LAD (birth), a city in the South of Judah. 1 Chr 4:29. See El-tolad.

TO'LAITES, descendants of Tola. Num 26:23.

TOLL. In Ezr 4:13; Num 7:24 there is mention of "toll, tribute, and custom" as the three branches of the Persian king's revenue from the Jews. The "tribute" was the money-tax imposed on each province, and apportioned out to the inhabitants by the local authorities. The "custom," or provision, was the payment in kind, which was an integral part of the Persian system. The "toll" was probably a payment required of those who used the bridges, fords, and Persian highways. See Taxes, Tribute.

TOMB. Matt 27:60. See Burial.

TONGUES, CONFU'SION OF. Originally "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." Gen 11:1. This biblical statement is confirmed by the researches of philologists, which show a great resemblance between the different families of languages spoken by the descendants of the Babel-builders. The Bible states that the present differences are due to the divine intervention. God confused the speech of the builders, so that they were obliged to abandon their work, thus forestalling "the wide dialectical differences which ordinarily require time and difference of place and habits to mature." - Fausset. See Language.

TONGUES, GIFT OF, one of the mysterious phenomena connected with the work of the apostles. It belongs to the miraculous gifts which adorned the primitive age of the Church. Our Lord, immediately before his ascension, promised his disciples that they should speak with new tongues. Mark 16:17. This promise had the beginning of its fulfilment on the day of Pentecost. Acts 2. We must, however, distinguish between the proper essence of this speaking with tongues, as a gift of the apostolic Church in general, and the particular form under which it made its first appearance on that day. Only in this way can we understand 1 Cor 14. Luke does not describe as a common event the phenomenon of Pentecost, nor was that wondrous scene repeated in the house of Cornelius. Acts 10:46. Pentecost stands alone, and the subsequent gift of tongues must be looked upon as a different manifestation of one and the same Spirit. This can be made evident.

  1. The tongues of Pentecost were tongues like flames of fire. Their coming upon the disciples was preceded by violent noises. It seemed a literal possession. They spoke involuntarily, and with strange power. But in the Corinthian church there was no such thing. The speaking took place in the meetings of the church. It was done quietly. It came in as part of the service. It could be omitted or suppressed. 1 Cor 14:28.

  2. On Pentecost the disciples spoke strange languages, understood by those to whom they were native. Acts 2:6. The words employed plainly indicate that the miracle was with the disciples. But in the Corinthian church the words spoken under this influence were not understood until the speaker had himself interpreted his words or been interpreted. 1 Cor 14:13, 1 Cor 14:27.

We may, however, find resemblances between the Pentecostal phenomenon and those in the Corinthian church. In each case the speaking with tongues was primarily an address to God, and not to men. It was an act of worship, performed, not to impress unbelievers, but out of the joy of their hearts. Acts 2:4; cf. 1 Chr 24:6; 1 Cor 14:26. Again, it appeared 876 to unfriendly or listless hearers as madness or intoxication. Acts 2:13; 1 Cor 14:23. To those who understood, however, the speaking was edifying.

It should be remarked that the Corinthians were by no means the only Christians who enjoyed this spiritual gift of utterance. It formed, indeed, part of the work of the Spirit upon these primitive believers. See Acts 10:46. Nor did it die out in the first century. Irenaeus, a father of the latter half of the second century, writes: "We hear many brethren in the church, having prophetical gifts, and by the Spirit speaking in all kinds of languages." We define this phenomenon, in the case of these Christians, as an involuntary praying or singing in an ecstatic state in which the Holy Ghost rules the human mind and plays, as it were, upon it as an instrument. "Vehemently borne along by the Spirit, forgetting the world and himself, enraptured in the immediate enjoyment of the Deity, the speaker with tongues broke forth in a communication of divine mysteries or a song of praise for the wonderful works of eternal love." The interpretation of this strange speech could be made only by those in a similar ecstasy. St. Paul advises that where there is no interpreter there be no such speaking.

It will be seen that we hold the ability of speaking in a foreign language without any study therein was not part of this gift of tongues; that was done only on Pentecost. Paul was a master in speaking with tongues, but he was ignorant of the language of Lycaonia. Acts 14:11-14. There is a primitive and reliable tradition that Peter used Mark as his interpreter in Rome. The fact of the Greek language being so widespread precluded the necessity of such miraculous power. The instances of the "speaking" cited in the N.T. are all of one description - not evangelistic, but declarative: Christian to Christian, not to foreigner. Indeed, the expression "'to speak with new tongues' seems of itself not to point to foreign dialects - for they were not new - but to a language different from all dialects in use, a language of the new Spirit poured out upon the disciples."

In modern times, in the congregation of the Rev. Edward Irving, in London, 1830, there was a marvellous phenomenon similar in some respects to that described in 1 Cor 14. It continued for some time in connection with prophetic utterances. Out of the excitement it caused grew the so-called Catholic Apostolic Church, of which Mr. Irving was first leader, although it was not fully organized till after his death.

TOOTH. The law of retaliation allowed the Jewish magistrate to give to one who had been deprived of a tooth or an eye the tooth or eye of the aggressor in revenge. Ex 21:24. The Jews construed this law to justify private revenge, and this construction and the whole principle of the law were condemned by our Saviour, and the law of forbearance and forgiveness commended. Matt 5:39. Cleanness of teeth is a figurative expression for famine. Am 4:6. Gnashing the teeth indicates terror, rage, and despair. Matt 8:12. The phrase in Eze 18:2 denotes that the children suffer for the sins of their fathers.

TO'PAZ. Eze 28:13; Rev 21:20. It seems quite agreed that this was the modern chrysolite, a rather soft and transparent or translucent gem, usually of a pale green. It is also called peridot and olivine.

The true topaz is ordinarily- pellucid and of a yellowish tint, but sometimes of a brown, blue, or green hue, or even colorless. A single gem of this kind has been sold (it is said) for upwards of $1,000,000. The finest specimens are found in the East Indies.

The "topaz of Ethiopia," Job 28:19, or Southern Arabia (see Ethiopia), was probably distinguished for its beauty and value. That the most precious stones were once found there profane history asserts.

TO'PHEL (lime), a place east of the Arabah. Deut 1:1. It is identical with the Tufileh of Robinson, a large village with about six hundred houses, a little south-east of the Dead Sea. Numerous springs and rivulets and plantations of fruit trees - apples, apricots, figs, pomegranates, and olives - make the place very attractive, and it might naturally be selected as a landmark.

TO'PHET, and once TO'PHETH. 2 Kgs 23:10. Various interpretations are given: "drum," "garden," 877 "place of burning" or "burying," "abomination." "pleasant," and "tabret-grove." Tophet was in "the valley of the son of Hinnom," which is "by the entry of the east gate." 2 Kgs 23:10. Hence it lay in the valley, east or south of Jerusalem, and the supposition is that it was originally a beautiful place, watered from the pool of Siloam, a part of the king's garden, and perhaps a music- or tabret-garden. But afterward it became polluted by abominable idolatrous rites, sacrifices to Baal and Moloch, Jer 7:31-32; Luke 19:13; was made a receptacle for all the filth of the city; fires were kept burning to destroy the refuse; and hence "Tophet" became the synonym for the place of punishment and for fearful judgments. Jer 19:6, Jer 19:11-14. In the terrific wars waged around Jerusalem, Tophet became the receptacle for innumerable dead bodies. Isa 30:33. See Hinnom.

TORCH'ES. John 18:3. Resinous wood, or the twisted fibres of wool or flax saturated with inflammable matter, served for torches, and in some parts of the Old World at this day the like substances are borne aloft in iron frames.

TORMENT'ORS. This probably means the keepers of the prison, who were often employed to torture criminals in various ways. Matt 18:34.

TOR'TOISE. This translation, Lev 11:29, is doubtful. Bochart's view has most adherents - that the creature intended was the dhabb of the Arabs, a slow-moving lizard, sometimes attaining the length of 2 feet, and found in the Syrian and Arabian wilderness. The Septuagint has, in place of "tortoise," "land-crocodile," but this reptile seems to be meant by the "chameleon" of the next verse. A large land-tortoise is found in all these regions, and, like the dhabb is eaten by the natives. There is also in Palestine a water-tortoise.

TO'U. 1 Chr 18:9. See Toi.

TOW the coarse part of flax. Jud 16:9. See Flax.

TOWER. Matt. 21:33. Towers were common in vineyards, Isa 5:2, and are often seen at the present day. They are sometimes 30 feet square and 60 feet high, and are a kind of pleasure-house, serving as a shelter for the watchmen and as a summer retreat for the owner, affording an extensive prospect and fresh air.

TOWER OF BABEL. See Babel,Tower of, Languages, Tongues, Confusion of.

TOWER OF EDAR, Gen 35:21, or TOWER OF THE FLOCK, as it is called in Mic 4:8. This is supposed to have been a particular tower about a mile from Bethlehem, and to have been erected, like other towers, for the use of shepherds and herdsmen to superintend their flocks and descry the approach of danger. 2 Chr 26:10. Some have supposed that the phrase "tower of the flock" had prophetic reference to Bethlehem as the birthplace of the Saviour.

TOWER OF SHE'CHEM. This seems to have been a very strong and spacious citadel overlooking the town of Shechem, to which the inhabitants fled for refuge when the town was besieged by Abimelech. Fearing that this would not protect them, they escaped to the temple of one of their idol-gods, which was also fortified, and the supposed sanctity of which they hoped would deter Abimelech from attacking it; but he surrounded it with fire made of green boughs, and burned or suffocated the whole multitude. Jud 9:46. See Millo, House of.

TOWER OF SILOAM, supposed to have been a high structure erected near the fountain or pool of Siloam. Luke 13:4. Christ's reference to its destructive fall shows how far he rose above the current superstition which considered individual misfortunes as individual punishments.

TOWN-CLERK, an office of rank and dignity in Ephesus, as is evident from the conduct of this functionary as recorded in Acts 19:35, 1 Chr 4:41. He appears to have been the keeper of the archives of the city, presided over municipal gatherings, put matters to vote, and performed the duties of the chief magistrate when the latter was away. The speech which the town-clerk delivered on the occasion referred to was very ingenious, revealing great tact and ability to subdue popular excitement.

TOWNS. See Cities.

TRACHONI'TIS (a rugged region), one of the five Roman provinces into which the district north-cast of the 878 Jordan was divided in N.T. times. It lay to the east of Ituraea and Gaulonitis and to the south of Damascus, and included the remarkable region of the modern Lejah (see Argob) and part of the western slopes of Jebel Hauran. The emperor Augustus entrusted it to Herod the Great on the condition that he should clear it of robbers. Herod Philip succeeded to the tetrarchy. Luke 3:1. He died a.d. 33, and the emperor Caligula bestowed the province of Trachonitis upon Herod Agrippa I. Later it was part of the dominions of Herod Agrippa II., a.d. 53.

TRADI'TION, a precept or custom not contained in the written law, but handed down from generation to generation. Matt 15:2. The Jews maintain that God gave Moses, besides the law which we have in the O.T., a variety of precepts, which he made known to Joshua, by whom they were communicated to the elders, and by them to the judges, prophets, etc.; that they were finally collected from various sources and recorded in what is called the Talmud, which see. Many of their traditions were in direct opposition to the law of God, a striking example of which is given by our Saviour in connection with the passage above cited. There were, however, a variety of traditions or doctrines and precepts which persons divinely inspired taught by word of mouth. 2 Thess 2:15 and 2 Thess 3:6. The only way in which we can know satisfactorily that any tradition is of divine authority is by its having a place in those writings which are generally acknowledged to be the genuine productions of inspired men. All traditions which have not such authority are without value, and tend greatly to distract and mislead the minds of men.

TRANCE. This word occurs only twice in the O.T., Num 24:4, Ex 17:16, and in both instances is supplied by the translators, and not found in the original. In the A.V. of the N.T. it occurs three times. Acts 10:10; Neh 11:5; Gen 22:17. The word is translated elsewhere by "astonishniient," "amazement." Mark 5:42; Luke 5:26. The word etymologically denotes a state of mind in which external objects are entirely unnoticed and forgotten, and the soul seems for the time to have passed out of the body, and to be occupied in purely spiritual contemplations. This state may sometimes be the effect of natural causes; but in the case of Peter there was an interposition of supernatural power.

TRANSFIGURATION, THE. This event marks the culminating-point in Christ's life. It is recorded almost in the same words by the three synoptists. Matt 17:1-13:Mark 9:2-13; Luke 9:28-36, but John characteristically omits all mention of it. The term denotes a change of aspect or appearance, not of substance or body. The change was seen in the face of the Redeemer and in his apparel. It was exceedingly majestic and glorious, and is particularly described by the evangelists and alluded to by Peter. 2 Pet 1:16-18. The design of this miraculous event was manifold, but chiefly to attest in the most solemn and mysterious manner the divinity of the Messiah's person and mission; to support the faith of the disciples by evidence of the existence of a separate state, which was furnished by the appearance and conversation of Moses and Elias:and as showing, by the audible declaration of the Father, a broad distinction between this Prophet and all others: "This is my beloved Son, hear ye him." The place of the Transfiguration was probably the southern slope of Hermon, as it occurred a few days after the confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi, which lay at the foot of Mount Hermon. and on the eve of Christ's last journey to Jerusalem. Mount Tabor, the traditional site, does not answer the conditions. Its summit was then a fortified and occupied camp.

The time of the event was most likely the night, as then it could be better seen; besides, the disciples were awakened by the light. Again, it was the next day before they descended. Luke 9:37. Peter, James, and John were the sole spectators; our Lord, Moses, and Elijah, the actors. It was partly an objective appearance, partly a spiritual vision.

TRANSGRES'SION. Heb 2:2. The two words "transgression" and "disobedience" used in this passage are by common usage nearly synonymous. The former may be considered as passing over the bounds prescribed by a law, or doing the things we ought not to do, and 879 "disobedience" as a refusal to do what it enjoins, or not doing; the things we ought to do. The two words are here united, so that every violation of the command may be included.

TREASURE-CITIES. Ex 1:11, TREASURE-HOUSES. Ezr 5:17. The kings of Judah had keepers of their treasure both in city and country, 1 Chr 27:25, and the towns where these treasures were deposited were called "treasure-cities," and the magazines or houses for their safekeeping were called "treasure-houses." See Pithom.

TREAS'URY, John 8:20, TREAS'URIES, 1 Chr 9:26, the place in the temple where gifts were received. See Temple.

TREE OF KNOWLEDGE. Gen 2:9. See Adam.

TRES'PASS usually denotes an offence committed against or an injury done to another. Lev 6:2. It implies a departure from duty in respect to God or man. Matt 6:15.

TRES'PASS-OF'FERING. Lev 5:6. See Offering.

TRI'AL. Judicial procedure was usually very swift and simple; no such formalities as are common with us could have existed in the patriarchal or the Mosaic days. The patriarchs were the natural guardians of the public peace. When the Israelites had multiplied into a great nation and were living in the wilderness, Moses found his attempted imitation of the patriarchal judgeship was too laborious, and therefore gladly adopted the suggestion of Jethro and appointed inferior judges for minor cases. Ex 18:13-26; Deut 1:9-17. There is an appearance of appellate courts in Judah in the days of Jehoshaphat. Originally, it is probable, each man or woman pleaded for himself or herself; but when the Jews passed under the Roman domain, they were required to hire pleaders. Acts 24:1-9. Judges are repeatedly exhorted to act justly. Deut 16:18-19; Isa 1:23-24; Luke 18:1-6. In criminal cases at least two witnesses were necessary. Deut 17:6; 1 Kgs 19:15. If the witnesses swore falsely, then they were to be punished as the accused would have been had he been guilty. Deut 19:16-21. The cases of Christ and Stephen illustrated how short an interval elapsed between sentence and execution.

TRIBE. The posterity of each of the twelve sons of Jacob is called a tribe. Ephraim and Manasseh, the sons of Joseph, founded, Gen 48:5, two tribes, and are therefore mentioned in the list of the families in Num 26:28. In the distribution of the Promised Land, however, only twelve shares were made, for the tribe of Levi were to minister in the temple and to be supported by the contributions of the rest. See Levites, Tithes, etc. The twelve tribes continued to be one people until after the death of Solomon, when ten of them revolted and became a separate monarchy under Jeroboam, and were called the kingdom of Israel, leaving the tribes of Benjamin and Judah under the government of Rehoboam, with the name of the kingdom of Judah. See Hebrews, Israel, Kingdom of, Judah, Kingdom of.

Each was headed by a prince - an arrangement which lasted, it would seem, during the monarchy. Num 1:16; cf. 1 Chr 27:22. The tribes possessed considerable independence; they were a confederacy rather than a union. Thus they waged wars separately. Judg 1:3; 1 Chr 4:41, 1 Chr 4:43; 1 Chr 5:10, 1 Chr 5:18-22. The judges were, in some instances at least, of only local jurisdiction. The period preceding the monarchy contained more than one outbreak of hereditary jealousy between the tribes, especially between the powerful tribes of Judah and Ephraim, 2 Sam 2:4-9; 2 Sam 19:41-43, in so much that it was deemed best to anoint Rehoboam in Shechem. 1 Kgs 12:1. We see further confirmation of this state of feeling in the fact that when the disruption took place the rallying-cry of the ten tribes was "Israel!" as if this shout was territorially understood.

The tribal idea is kept up in the N.T. Our Lord appointed twelve apostles, and in the Revelation the seer of Patmos carries the division into heaven itself in the number of the seals, the gates, and the foundation. Rev 7:4-8; Rev 21:10-21.

The names of the twelve tribes were, arranged alphabetically and not according to seniority: Asher, Benjamin, Dan, Ephraim, Gail, Issachar, Judah, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, Zebulun. 880 The tribe of Levi, as already remarked, was scattered among the other tribes.

TRIBES. Characteristics and Prominent Members of each of the Twelve Tribes. - In this article will be contained in a condensed form information about each tribe additional to and of a different kind from that given under the respective titles, which see.

Asher. - The tribe of Asher was descended from the eighth son of Jacob, the second son of Zilpah, Leah's maid. The name means "happy," in reference to Leah's feeling at his birth. Gen 30:12-13. Our definite knowledge of Asher is of the slightest. Four sons and one daughter, besides two grandchildren, accompanied him into Egypt. Gen 46:17-18. He stood in the remarkable group around Jacob's deathbed, and received the promise of a fruitful land: "Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties." Gen 49:20. The tribe went out of Egypt under Moses, and sent its spy from Kadesh-barnea. Num 13:13. Its position on the march was between Dan and Naphtali, on the north side of the tabernacle. Num 2:27. The territory of Asher has already been described. See Asher. It is noticeable that the blessing of Moses. Deut 33:24-25, like that of Jacob, related merely to fruitfulness and general prosperity, so the tribe was never distinguished for mental qualities, although it was possessed of a rich territory and increased very rapidly. Comp. Num 1:40 with Num 26:47. With the exception of Simeon, it is the only tribe west of the Jordan which furnished no hero or judge to the nation; the prophetess Anna, however, was an Asherite. Luke 2:36.

Benjamin. - As in the case of Asher, so with Benjamin, the prophetic blessing of Jacob was fulfilled. Gen 49:27. Fierceness, courage, cunning, and ambition were tribal traits. On the other hand, it was not distinguished for zeal for Jehovah, like the tribe of Levi. The fact that the tribe produced Ehud, Jud 3:15; Saul, 1 Sam 9:1; Shimei. 2 Sam 19:16, and the nameless but infamous libertines of Gibeah, Judg 19. shows that Benjamin was all through its history inclined to lawless conduct. But there is a light upon the dark cloud. Out of Benjamin came Mordecai, the deliverer of the Jews, Esth 2:5, and no Christian can utterly condemn a people which produced, though late in its history, so grand a man and so great a leader as the apostle Paul. Rom 11:1; Phil 3:5. As he was proud of his own Benjamite birth, we must give the tribe credit for some excellence, inasmuch as it produced one of Israel's first judges, her first king, and the great apostle to the uncircumcision. The political fortunes of Benjamin were linked with those of Judah, and cannot well be separated. But, although these two tribes were so closely united, they differed greatly. One minor but distinguishing characteristic was the prevalence of left-handed slingers. Jud 20:16. The city of Jerusalem was partly on Benjamite territory. The tribe did not at first acknowledge the kingship of David, 2 Sam 2:8-9, although afterward the situation of the capital was a strong reason for fidelity to the Davidic kings.

Dan. - These descendants of Jacob's concubine Bilhah were admitted to full tribal standing. Gen 49:16. Their great man is Samson. Jud 13:2, Jud 6:24. In numbers in the wilderness they ranked next to Judah, the largest of the tribes. Num 1:38. It was the last tribe to receive its inheritance. Josh 19:48; and, although among the largest tribes, it was assigned the smallest territory, and even all of that did not come to them. The divine intention in this may have been to incite them to further conquests; at all events, this was the effect, for we soon find them sending out five men upon an expedition to the northward with a view to new settlements on their report. The city Laish was afterward taken by the tribe. Judg 18. The chapter explains "the warlike and independent character of the tribe, betokened in the fact, specially insisted on and reiterated, Matt 18:11, Judg 18:16-17, of the complete equipment of their six hundred warriors, and in the lawless and freebooting style of their behavior to Micah."

Ephraim. - This tribe was the great rival to Judah, the chief fomenter of trouble, and the staunch supporter of revolt from the yoke of Rehoboam. It 881 was energetic, restless, conscious of its strength, and full of conceit, wishing to have the lead in every matter. Ephraim and Manasseh were usually interested in the same enterprises, but the former, though really the smaller tribe, was the more important. Deut 33:17. Ephraim acted badly toward every leader who did not take special pains to please them - e.g., toward Gideon, Jephthah, and David, Jud 8:1; Neh 12:1; 2 Sam 19:41-43. In one instance, however, they nobly interposed to clothe, feed, and restore to freedom their captive brethren of Judah. 2 Chr 28:9-15. The seventy eighth Psalm was designed to soothe their tribal soreness at the transference of the religious capital from Shiloh to Jerusalem. David had numerous Ephraimites among his state officers- e.g., 1 Chr 27:10, 1 Chr 27:14, The political history of Ephraim after the disruption is treated under Israel, Kingdom of.

Gad. - One of the tribes on the east side of the Jordan, because predominantly shepherds, but who joined, according to agreement, in the Conquest. Josh 1:16. They were very warlike, men of might and of war, fit for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces were the faces of lions, and as swift as the roes upon the mountains. 1 Chr 12:8. The tribe produced three men famous in different ways - Jephthah, the conqueror and judge, Jud 11:1; Barzillai, the noble-hearted friend of David, 2 Sam 17:27-29; 2 Sam 19:31-40; and that meteor, the prophet of evil, who appeared and departed so abruptly, Elijah, the man of God. 1 Kgs 17:1. The territory of Gad was for a long time the battlefield between Syria and Israel. 2 Kgs 10:33. Tiglath-pileser finally carried Gad away captive, and the Ammonites occupied their cities. 2 Kgs 15:29; 1 Chr 5:26; Jer 49:1.

Issachar. - The "blessing" of Jacob upon Issachar was rather equivocal: Issachar is a strong he-ass crouching down between the cattle-pens, and he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a slave unto tribute. The prophecy indicated an easy-going people who preferred farming and agricultural labors to political distinction, and who would purchase ease at the sacrifice of liberty. And the rich territory of the tribe favored just this life. However, it was not without national feeling, for it responded to the call of Deborah; indeed, some have supposed the battle took place in its tribal limits. Jud 5:15, Acts 1:19. In David's time it was able to furnish 145,000 soldiers. 1 Chr 7:1-5. "The descendants of Issachar," says Dr. Kalisch, "were men of prudence and wise calculation. Having, therefore, gained abundant wealth and resolved to enjoy it, they pursued a domestic and foreign policy calculated to realize this end. Their shrewdness not only enabled them safely to keep aloof from all external dangers and peacefully to yield themselves to secure tranquillity, but to win the esteem and deference of the fraternal tribes by useful and valuable councils." Cf. 1 Chr 12:23, 1 Chr 12:32. Issachar seems to have put itself under the protection of Zebulun. But the tribe produced some men of mark. Tola, one of the Judges, was of Issachar. Jud 10:1-2. The Omri who was prince of Issachar during David's reign may have been the forefather of the Omri who usurped the throne of Israel. 1 Chr 27:18; 1 Kgs 16:16. Baasha, another usurper, and a ferocious man, was also of Issachar. Some men of this tribe responded to the invitation of Hezekiah, and, although not properly cleansed, partook of the Passover. 2 Chr 30:18. Shortly after this came for them the Assyrian captivity.

Judah. - See Judah, Tribe of, Kingdom of.

Levi. - See Levite.

Manasseh. - One of the largest of the northern tribes, and distinguished by its possession of territory on both sides of the Jordan. It did not, however, play a very prominent part, leaving the leadership to Ephraim, with whom it shared. The prominent men in Jewish history who were Manassites are the judges Gideon, Jud 6:11; Jair, Neh 10:3; Jephthah. Dan 11:1. Manasseh joined the side of Ish-bosheth, but finally submitted to David. 1 Chr 12:31. After the disruption the people 882 followed the example of Ephraim, fell into idolatry, and so prepared the way for their downfall. There were some, however, in the tribe of better mind, who came to Jerusalem to take part with their brethren in the religious revivals under Asa, 2 Chr 15:9; Hezekiah, 2 Chr 30:1, 2 Chr 30:10-11, 2 Chr 30:18; 2 Chr 31:1; and Josiah. 2 Chr 34:6-9.

Naphtali. - "A hind let loose, he giveth goodly words;" so does Jacob describe the tribe, indicating grace and eloquence. Barak is the most noted member of the tribe. The "hind" symbolized a swift warrior. 2 Sam 2:18; 1 Chr 12:8. In Barak these qualities come out. The song of Deborah is also his composition, and, as has been said, "Even if the tribe gave no other proof of its poetical genius, of the careful culture of the mind, and of the artistic conceptions of which it was capable, it amply deserved the encomium bestowed upon it that it uttered 'goodly words' (words of beauty)." The territory of Naphtali belonged to the northern kingdom, and therefore was exposed to all its foes. Ben-hadad, king of Syria, plundered it, 1 Kgs 15:20; Tiglath-pileser took the inhabitants captive. 2 Kgs 15:29. But upon God's book of remembrance there stood his prophecy of a better day for Naphtali, Isa 9:1-2, and God, who "watches the turning of the ages," at last carried it out, and upon the hills of Naphtali walked the Light of the world. Matt 4:3-16.

Reuben. - One of the trans-Jordanic tribes, but without a striking point in their history. They fell into idolatry, like their neighbors, were carried into captivity, 1 Chr 5:26, and their territory was occupied by Moab. Comp. Josh 13:16-21 with Isa 15.

Simeon. - Although one of the most numerous tribes at Sinai, Num 1:23, they had become the smallest at Shittim. Gen 26:14. They are altogether omitted from Moses' blessing. Both facts are to be traced to the same cause - the shameless conduct of the tribe in the matter of Baal-peor, in which they had the example of their chief. Lev 25:14. Jacob foretold that Simeon would "be scattered in Israel," Gen 49:7, and, as a matter of fact, it was so small that its lot was assigned "within the inheritance of the children of Judah," Josh 19:1-9, although the ostensible reason was that "the part of . . . Judah was too much for them." "No eminent person is recorded as of this tribe, though the Jews have a tradition that it furnished schoolmasters to the rest of the nation." -Ayre.

Zebulun. - As already remarked, the fortunes of Issachar and Zebulun were closely united, as in Moses' blessing: "Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out; and, Issachar, in thy tents." Deut 33:18. The tribe of Zebulun possessed the fisheries of Galilee's lake. Their bravery received the praise of Deborah. Jud 5:18. Their most noted men were Elon, the judge, Jud 12:11-12, and Ibzan, his predecessor, but the great man was Jonah. 2 Kgs 14:25.

TRIB'UTE, that which is paid to rulers in token of subjection and for the support of government. Gen 49:15. By the Jewish law, Ex 30:13, a tribute or capitation-tax was half a shekel, or twenty-five cents, which was expended in the temple-service. The conversation of our Saviour with Peter on the subject of paying this tribute-money was designed to show him that, being himself the Son of God, the King for whose service the tribute was paid, he might justly be exempted from paying it; but, to prevent any needless irritation on the part of the officers or nation, he by miraculous power provided the means of paying the required tribute, which amounted to fifty cents for both. Matt 17:24.

TRO'AS, a city of Lesser Mysia, in the north-eastern part of Asia Minor, on the sea-coast, 6 miles south of the entrance to the Hellespont, and 4 miles south of the Homeric Troy. It stood on a gentle eminence, having Mount Ida behind it and the island of Tenedos in front. Alexandria Troas, as its name implies, owed its origin to Alexander the Great. He chose the site with his usual happy discernment, but did not live to cover it with buildings. These were built by Antigonus, whose name the city consequently' bore for a short time. The city was improved by Lysimachus, the famous king of Thrace, and received a Roman colony during the reign of Augustus. It was to the Romans, in fact, that most of the buildings whose ruins still remain were due. Even the walls 883 were repaired and strengthened by them, and it was under their rule that the commercial prosperity of the city reached its height. Its port was excellent, and made Troas for many centuries the key of the commerce between Asia and Europe. Paul visited Troas twice, and perhaps three times. The first visit was on his second missionary journey. It was from Troas that, after the visit of the "man of Macedonia," he sailed to carry the gospel into Europe. Acts 16:8-11. On his return journey he stopped at Troas for eight days and restored Eutychus to life. Acts 20:5-10. Upon one visit he left his cloak and some books there. 2 Tim 4:13.

Present Condition. - Troas is now an utter ruin. The walls can still be traced for a circuit of several miles. The exploration of the ruins is somewhat fatiguing, as the ground is thickly strewn with stones and other fragments of ancient buildings, and planted with a forest of valonia oaks, whose branches make riding difficult and finding one's way still more so. Without a guide well acquainted with the place, it would be impossible to discover any road at all among the mazes of the wood. There are the remains of a gymnasium, 413 feet long and 224 feet wide. This structure Prof. A. II. Sayce describes (1880) as "a vast ruin whose desolation was only equalled by the solitude of the forest in the midst of which it stood. It had the shape of a hall, with pilasters along the sides, in front of which must have risen the columns that supported the vaulted roof. The line of the hall was broken in the centre by four square apartments formerly adorned with marble pillars and cornices. The break had the appearance of a transept in a Gothic cathedral, the two cross- aisles being entered through lofty arches, one of which still remains perfect. Within, all is a confused chaos of stone and brick, of fallen columns and disfigured ornaments. Only enough is left to tell us that the building was a gymnasium with baths attached. The Turks, who call it the Ral Serai, or 'honey palace,' have long used it as an inexhaustible quarry for the neighboring villages, and repeated earthquakes have aided their endeavors to undermine the solid masonry of St. Paul's contemporaries. At the northeastern angle of the building are a few ruined arches, which once supported an aqueduct, and at a little distance, among the trees, are the scanty relics of a Doric temple.

"There are ruins of another large building of brick, which belongs to the Roman period. All that now remains of it is a vaulted chamber of considerable size, which opens into smaller chambers on each of its four sides. Above are other chambers, similarly vaulted, while the whole structure is surrounded by an enormous platform of brick. What its original use can have been is a matter of dispute. According to one conjecture, it was a temple; according to another, a bathhouse; but neither conjecture is supported by the form and structure of the building. All we can say with certainty is that the present ruins represent but a small part of the original edifice, the foundations of which can still be traced among the grass and brambles."

The harbor is blocked by a sand-bar. The place is now called Eski Stamboul, or "Old Constantinople," and it is said that Constantine hesitated between Troas and Constantinople as the site of his capital.

TROGYL'LIUM, a town and cape on the western coast of Asia Minor, between Ephesus and the mouth of the Meander, opposite Samos, at the foot of Mount Mycale. Paul there spent a night on his third missionary journey. Acts 20:15. An anchorage a little east of the point is still called St. Paul's Port.

TROOP, BAND, often means a small body of marauders, as in Gen 49:19; 2 Sam 22:30; Jer 18:22; Mic 5:1.

TROPH'IMUS (foster-child), a native of Ephesus, Acts 21:29, and a convert to the faith of the gospel, probably under Paul's ministry. Acts 20:4. He became one of the apostle's companions and helpers in missionary travels and labors. 2 Tim 4:20.

TROW, in Luke 17, means to "think," "believe."

TRUM'PET. The trumpet differed little from the horn, and in particulars which are no longer discoverable. Ex 19:16. The silver trumpets were

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Trumpets.

used by the priests alone in publishing the approach of festivals and giving signals of war.

TRUMPETS, FEAST OF. This feast - enjoined Num 29:1-6; Lev 23:24 - was the New Year's day of the civil year, coming on the first of Tisri (October), and was further called by the Rabbins "the birthday of the world," because in Tisri the late fruits were gathered and seed was sown. It was characterized by the use of both the straight trumpet and the cornet in the temple, by the blowing of trumpets everywhere, unless the festival fell on a Sabbath (in this case no trumpets were blown outside of the temple), and by the offering of a young bullock, a ram, and seven first-year lambs, with meat-offerings and a kid for a sin-offering in addition to the daily sacrifices and the eleven victims of the new moon, the ordinary feast of the first day of the month. It was one of the seven days of holy convocation. The feast differed from the other feasts of new moon, which also had their trumpet-blowings over the burnt-offerings, by its being a day of rest and service.

TRYPHE'NA, and TRYPHO'SA, two women of Rome whom Paul commended for their zeal. Rom 16:12.

TSEB'AOTH, LORD OF. This is a transliteration from the Hebrew which is more accurate than the common form "Sabaoth," which occurs in Rom 9:29; Jas 5:4. See Sabaoth.

TU'BAL fifth son of Japheth, whose descendants probably peopled a country lying south of the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Aranes, whose inhabitants were the Tibareni of the Greeks. Gen 10:2. The Circassians, who inhabit this region, are slave-dealers, and they of Tubal traded in the "persons of men." Eze 27:13; 38:2; comp. Rev 18:13.

TU'BAL-CAIN (hammer-blows of the smith?), a son of Lamech by his wife Zillah. Gen 4:22. He is said to have been an instructor of every artificer in brass (copper) and iron. Thus he was the original maker of tools.

TUR'BAN. See Clothes.

TURTLE-DOVE. The word "turtle," and words of similar sound in Latin and Hebrew, are imitative of the plaintive notes of several species of doves. Ps 74:19. By the Jewish Law, the poor who could not afford a more costly sacrifice were permitted to bring two turtle-doves or two young pigeons. Lev 12:6-8. As the former are not domesticated and breed everywhere in prodigious numbers, this provision was a great boon to the needy. The outward circumstances of Christ's parents are thus indicated in Luke 2:24.

The turtle-dove is a bird of passage. Jer 8:7; Song 2:12. Early in April, Palestine everywhere suddenly swarms with these creatures, while a few days before not one was to be found. The most common species (Turtur auritus) also breeds in England and in many parts of Europe. The palm-turtle nests in the tree from which it is named, and therefore could have been obtained by Israel in the valleys of the Sinaitic desert, where this tree is found. The collared turtle is the only other species found in Palestine. By reason of its pairing for life and its unusual fidelity to its mate, this bird is the symbol of purity. See Dove.

TU'TORS means "guardians." Gal 4:2.

TYCH'ICUS, a companion of Paul, Acts 20:4, and evidently a devoted and faithful disciple. Eph 6:21-22; Col 4:7-8.

TYRAN'NUS (tyrant), the name of the Greek rhetorician of Ephesus in whose lecture-room Paul delivered discourses daily for two years. Acts 19:9. Paul and he must have occupied the same room at different hours. He may have been a convert.

TYRE, and TY'RUS (Heb. Tsor, "rock;" Arabic Sur), a celebrated city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the

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Modern Tyre (After a Photograph) 886 Mediterranean Sea, 21 miles south of Sidon, in lat. 33░ 17' N.

Situation and Extent. - Tyre was situated upon what was originally an island, or perhaps two islands, about 1 mile long, and lying parallel to the shore at the distance of half a mile. There was also a city called "Palaetyrus" ("Old Tyre") upon the mainland. Pliny gives the circumference of the island Tyre at 2 1/2 miles, and of the whole city, including Palaetyrus, at 17 miles.

History. - Phoenician and Greek traditions make Tyre a very ancient city. According to Herodotus, the priests at Tyre told him the city was founded b.c. 2750. The first Scripture mention is in the time of Joshua, b.c. 1-144, and it was then "a strong city." Josh 19:29. It was coupled with the Zidonians. Jer 47:4; Isa 23:2, Ex 6:4, Jud 4:12; Josh 13:6; Eze 32:30. The two cities Tyre and Sidon, being only 21 miles apart, were intimately associated. Indeed, Tyre must have included not only the city proper, but some of the adjacent country. See Phoenicia. Tyre, under King Hiram, held friendly relations with Israel, under David and Solomon. David's census extended thither to embrace the Jews. 2 Sam 24:7. The Tyrians furnished the timber for the temple and great buildings of Jerusalem. The cedars of Lebanon were floated from Tyre to Joppa, some 85 miles, and thence taken to Jerusalem. Tyrian artists also were skilful in the fine work required. As a reward for his services, Hiram was presented with twenty cities in Northern Galilee, but he was not well pleased with them and called them "Cabul" ("displeasing" or "despicable"). 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:1; 1 Kgs 7:13; 1 Kgs 9:11-12; 1 Chr 14:1; 2 Chr 2:2-3, 2 Chr 2:11. Hiram and Solomon were also associated in commercial enterprises. 1 Kgs 9:27; 1 Kgs 10:11-22; 2 Chr 8:17, 2 Chr 8:18; 2 Chr 9:21. From Tyre came the many fatal influences toward idolatry which corrupted the chosen people. See Zidon and Phoenicia. At a later period the friendly relations were changed to hostility. Tyre rejoiced in the distress of Israel, and God's prophet predicted the terrible overthrow of the proud heathen citv. Isa 23:1, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Kgs 15:8, Gen 5:15-17; Jer 25:22; 1 Sam 27:3; Jer 47:4; Eze 26:2-15; Eze 27:2-8, Matt 27:32; Eze 29:18; Hos 9:13; Joel 3:4; Am 1:9-10; Zech 9:2-3; comp. Ps 45:12; Ps 83:7; Ps 87:4. The prophecies were notably fulfilled. Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, besieged Tyre in b.c. 721. The siege lasted for five years, but the city was not taken. Nebuchadnezzar besieged it for thirteen years, ending with b.c. 592; whether he captured and destroyed this city is, strange to say, a matter which history does not enable us to determine. Josephus does not make it clear, and the passage in Eze 29:18, "Yet had he no wages, nor his army, for Tyrus," is differently interpreted, some understanding that he did not take the city at all, and others that he took it, but found no adequate booty to compensate for the long siege. At any rate. Tyre came under the Persian dominion and furnished that power with a large fleet. This excited the hostility of Alexander the Great, who determined to destroy the power of the city. Not being able to reach the walls with his engines, he collected together all the remains of the ancient city Palaetyrus - stones, timber, rubbish - and threw them into the narrow channel. Thus was fulfilled in a most remarkable manner the prophecy of Ezekiel. Eze 28:3-4, Jud 4:12, 2 Chr 11:21. After a siege of seven months the city was taken. Some 8000 men were slain in the massacre which followed; 2000 were crucified, and 30,000 men, women, and children were sold into slavery. The city was also set on fire by the victors. Zech 9:4; Joel 3:7. After Alexander's death Tyre fell under the dominion of the Seleucidse, having been besieged for fourteen months by Antigonus; at a later period the Romans possessed it.

In N.T. times Tyre was a populous and thriving city. Christ referred to it and visited its "borders." Matt 11:21-22; Acts 15:21;Mark 7:24. Whether he went into the city itself cannot be determined. The borders of the territory of Tyre ("its coasts") reached southward to Carmel and eastward to Ituraea, according to Josephus. Paul spent seven days at Tyre. Acts 21:3-4, which early became the seat of a Christian bishopric. In the fourth century Jerome speaks of it as the most noble and beautiful city of Phoenicia, and as still trading with all the world. During the Middle Ages it was a place of some consequence, and was regarded as 887 well nigh impregnable. On the side next the sea it had a double, and on the land side a triple, wall. After being subject to the Romans for four hundred years, Tyre came under the dominion of the Saracens in the seventh century. In a.d. 1124 the Crusaders captured it. In 1291 the Muslims gained possession of the city, which was destroyed by them, and has never since regained its prosperity.

There is an interesting description of the siege of Acra (Ptolemais) and the possession of Tyre by the army of the sultan of Egypt and Damascus. It is given by Marinus Sanutus, a Venetian, in the century following the capture: "On the same day on which Ptolemais was taken, the Tyrians, at vespers, leaving the city empty, without the stroke of a sword, without the tumult of war, embarked on board their vessels, and abandoned the city to be occupied freely by their conquerors. On the morrow the Saracens entered, no one attempting to prevent them, and they did what they pleased." About a.d. 1610-11 it was visited by Sandys, who said of it: "But this once famous Tyre is now no other than a heap of ruins; yet have they a reverent aspect, and do instruct the pensive beholder with their exemplary frailty. It hath two harbors, that on the north side the fairest and best throughout all the Levant (which the cursours enter at their pleasure), the other choked with the decayes of the city." Maundrell (1697) says of Tyre: "On the north side it has an old Turkish castle, besides which there is nothing here but a mere Babel of broken walls, pillars, vaults, etc., there being not so much as an entire house left. Its present inhabitants are only a few poor wretches that harbor in vaults and subsist on fishing." - Smith's Bible Dictionary, vol. iv., p. 3337.

Present Condition. - The present town lies at the north-west end of the former island, which has an area of about 125 acres. The large embankment or causeway thrown up by Alexander the Great was 60 yards wide and one-fourth of a mile long. But this has been widened, by the gradual deposit of sand, to a mile on the main land and 600 yards where it reaches the old ramparts. The west and south sides of the island are now used for gardens and burial-grounds. Traces of the ancient wall are found. One stone is 17 feet long and 6 1/2 feet thick. There are huge stones and fragments of marble columns along the shore and beneath the water. They are bare as the top of a rock, and there the fishermen spread their nets - a wonderful fulfilment of a prophecy uttered nearly twenty-four hundred years ago: "I will make thee like the top of a rock; thou shalt be a place to spread nets upon." Eze 26:11. The most interesting of the old buildings yet remaining is the church of the Crusaders, which probably occupies the site of a church consecrated a.d. 323, when Eusebius preached the sermon.

The modern city has miserable streets and dilapidated houses. Its shipping consists of a few fishing-boats. Cotton, tobacco, and millstones from the Hauran are exported. The population numbers about 5000, nearly half of whom are Muslims, while the other half consists of Christians and a few Jews. A Franciscan monastery and a convent of the French order of the Sisters of St. Joseph are established here, and schools have been founded by an English mission. A short distance from the city, on the main land, is the traditional tomb of Hiram; the remains of the ancient aqueduct by which the city was supplied with water from Ras el 'Ain can be traced.

TYROOCE'ON. See Jerusalem.

TY'RUS. See Tyre.

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