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SABACHTHA'NI (thou hast forsaken me), one of the words uttered by Christ on the cross. Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34. It is part of the phrase in SyroChaldee.

SAB'AOTH, or SABA'OTH (hosts). The phrase "Lord of Sabaoth" occurs twice in the N.T. - in Rom 9:29 and Jas 5:4. It is a common blunder to understand it as referring to the Sabbath or as implying rest. But it is the Greek transliteration of the Hebrew Tsebaoth, "hosts" or "armies," so often recurring in the O.T., "the Lord of hosts," Isa 1:9, "the Lord God of hosts" - i.e., the heavenly bodies, the angels, or the people of God. Sometimes it means nothing more than that God will guide Israel to victory.

SAB'BATH (rest). The word first occurs in Ex 16:23. but the institution of a day of rest is much older - is founded, indeed, in man's nature, and, like marriage, was instituted in Paradise. Gen 2:2-3. The word usually indicates the seventh day of the week, which by God's appointment was set apart for his service, but it is used also of other days or times separated and sanctified in a similar way. Lev 19:3, 1 Kgs 20:30; Lev 25:4, and in the original text of the N.T. for a whole week. Matt 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor 16:2. In a spiritual sense it designates the eternal rest in heaven. Heb 4:9 (marg. and Greek). In the Christian Church the first day of the week has been substituted for the last. There is no explicit command on the subject, but the Church naturally commemorated the great event which was in a sense her birth, the resurrection of Christ. By changing the day the Church threw off the Jewish regulations which had loaded down the Sabbath, and turned it into a day of ecclesiastical bondage. The Jews were not peculiar in their day of rest. It is a natural institution, and was observed also by some pagan nations quite independent of Judaism. Originally it was devoted to simple rest from worldly toil. The fourth commandment, Ex 20:8-11; Deut 5:12-15, enjoins no specific religious service, except in the general direction to keep it holy. But the opportunity thus given was improved. Subsequent legislation made it a day of holy convocation. The sacrifices of the temple were doubled; the shew-bread was changed; the inner court of the temple was opened for solemn services; the prophets and the Levites took the occasion for imparting religious instruction to the people. It was a day of holy joy. There was freedom for so much social enjoyment. Indeed, the fear was that the day would be "wasted by idleness and degraded by sensuality and drunkenness" because it was so joyous. Neh 8:9-12; Hos 2:11.

But after the Captivity arose the school of the Pharisees, and by them the attractive character of the Sabbatic observances was destroyed. In place thereof they imposed upon the people the yoke of a pedantic, scrupulous, slavish Sabbatarianism which made the Sabbath an end instead of a means, hampered the spirit of true worship, and laid greater stress upon a punctilious obedience to mere human regulations than upon the commands of the Law. Some of their ridiculous prohibitions are the following: Walking in the grass on the Sabbath, because the bruising would be a kind of threshing; wearing nailed shoes, because they would be a sort of burden; mounting a tree, lest a twig should be broken.

It was against this perversion of the commandment that our Lord protested. He refused his sanction to Pharisaic legalism. Much to the consternation of the religious party of the day, he vigorously defended his Sabbath miracles. The example of Christ represents the Sabbath, not as a day of gloom, but as a pleasant and healthful day of rest, quiet religious service, and Christian benevolence.

He kept the Sabbath in the highest sense of the term. He observed every jot and tittle of the Mosaic Law in the freedom 748 of the spirit. From him we learn that religion is the uppermost business of the day, that acts of necessity and mercy are to be performed, that worldly occupations are to be put as far as possible out of our thoughts. It is true we transfer the fourth commandment to the first day of the week, but we do not thereby violate the spirit of the divine law: for what God asked for was the entire seventh of our time. We may therefore claim the blessing which God has pronounced upon those who keep the day holy.

It is a matter of secondary importance, and yet it shows the natural basis of the fourth commandment, that this division of time is scientifically correct. The night's sleep does not restore all the waste of the day; additional rest, therefore, is demanded for health. It is an interesting fact that the blasphemous abolition of Sunday by the French Revolutionists and the substitution of a day of rest every ten days was found poor policy, as the rest was insufficient.

The Christian Church keeps the first day of the week, which celebrates the close of the spiritual creation, just as the last day celebrated the close of the physical creation. We have the fullest warrant for this change. Upon the first day of the week Christ arose from the dead. We find the disciples, before the Ascension, assembled on that day, and Jesus appeared to them. John 20:26. According to tradition, which is confirmed by every probability, the outpouring of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost was on Sunday. Paul preached at Troas on the first day of the week - evidently, among those Christians, the day of religious service. Acts 20:7. Paul tells the Corinthians that every one is to lay by him in store upon the first day of the week as he is prospered. 1 Cor 16:2. It was upon the Lord's day - and by this name he calls it - that John on Patmos saw through the opened door into heaven. Rev 1:10.

The first day of the week is therefore the Christian Sabbath, the day of rest and worship. And God has further confirmed the change by giving it his blessing, as he blessed the Sabbath of creation-week.

Around the Lord's day we do well to throw safeguards. It is, in a sense, the palladium of Christian liberty. The various states and cities have good laws for the protection of the civil Sabbath and against its open desecration. The positive observance of the religious Sabbath can, of course, not be enforced by law, and must be left to the individual conscience. The American churches are unanimously in favor of a quiet Sabbath, in opposition to the evils of the so-called "continental Sunday," and earnest efforts have been made to protect us against them. Our Lord states the case most concisely: "The Sabbath was made for man." Mark 2:27. It is the divine gift, which, when accepted and properly used,contributes to man's physical, moral, and spiritual happiness and welfare, and gives a foretaste of the saint's everlasting rest in heaven.

The following are among the leading passages of the Bible respecting the Sabbath and its proper observance: The divine institution of the Jewish Sabbath. Gen 2:2-3; Ex 20:8-11; Deut 5:12, 2 Sam 20:15; Eze 20:12; Eze 44:24. Servile labor forbidden. Ex 16:23, 1 Chr 2:29; Ex 20:10-11; Ex 23:12; Ex 34:21; Ex 35:2-3; Deut 5:14-15; Jer 17:21-22; Mark 15:42; Mark 16:1-2; John 19:14, 1 Chr 24:31, 1 Chr 2:42.

The profanation of the Sabbath the cause of national judgments. Neh 13:15-18; Eze 20:15-16; Eze 23:38, Eze 23:47.

The Jewish Sabbath re-established under the gospel dispensation. Matt 5:17; Josh 12:12; Mark 2:27.

The change of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week. Gen 2:2; Ex 20:11; Luke 23:56; John 20:19; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor 16:2; Rev 1:10.

The duties of the Sabbath enjoined. Lev 19:30; Num 26:2; Eze 46:3; Mark 6:2; Luke 4:16, 1 Chr 24:31; Acts 13:14-16, Gen 1:27, 1 Chr 2:42, Jer 48:44; Acts 17:2-3.

Works of necessity and mercy to be done on this day. Matt 12:1, Num 1:3, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Kgs 15:7, Jud 4:12, 2 Kgs 11:13; Mark 2:23, Gen 1:27; Mark 3:2-4; Luke 6:9; Luke 13:15-16; Lev 14:3, Deut 14:5; John 5:8-10, 1 Sam 30:18; John 7:22; John 9:14.

Blessings promised to those who keep the Sabbath. Isa 56:2, Ex 6:4, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Kgs 15:7; Isa 58:13-14.

Threatenings against Sabbath-breakers. Ex 31:14-15; Num 35:2; Num 15:32-36; Jer 17:27; Eze 20:13, Ex 17:16, Heb 12:23, Jud 6:24; Rev 22:8, Acts 22:14, Eze 22:26, Eze 22:31; Eze 23:38, Eze 23:46. 749 Sabbath privileges taken away. Isa 1:13; Lam 1:7; Am 2:6; Hos 2:11; Am 8:10-11. See Lord's Day.


SABBATICAL YEAR. Ex 23:11. See Year, Sabbatical.

SABE'ANS. Two tribes of this name are mentioned in the A.V.

  1. Descendants of Seba, Isa 45:14; it should be simply "people of Seba," son of Cush.

  2. In Joel 3:8 the descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan, are meant. Possibly a third tribe is spoken of in Job 1:15. The translation "Sabeans" in Eze 23:42 is incorrect; read, as in the margin, "drunkards."

SAB'TA, SAB'TAH (striking), the third son of Cush. Gen 10:7; 1 Chr 1:9.

SAB'TECHA, SAB'TECHAH (striking ?), the youngest son of Cush. Gen 10:7; 1 Chr 1:9.

SA'CAR (hire).

  1. The father of Ahiam, a warrior of David's, 1 Chr 11:35; called Sharar in 2 Sam 23:33.

  2. A Levite porter, and the fourth son of Obed-edom. 1 Chr 26:4.

SACK'BUT. A sackbut is a wind instrument, but that meant in the original of Dan 3:5, etc., was a stringed instrument of a triangular shape, played with the fingers. It had four strings, and had a very penetrating sound. In process of time the strings were increased to twenty. See Music.

SACK'CLOTH. This was a coarse

Sitting in Sackcloth.

fabric, as the Hebrew word "sack" means, made of black goats' hair and other materials, and worn either as a sign of repentance. Matt 11:21, or as a token of mourning. Gen 37:34; 2 Sam 3:31; Esth 4:1-2; Job 16:15; Ps 30:11; Isa 20:2; Rev 6:12. Hence the frequent occurrence in Scripture of figurative language connecting sackcloth with mourning and darkness. Isa 3:24; Eze 7:18; Eze 27:31; Am 8:10.

SACRIFICE. Gen 31:54. Sacrifices were in use from the earliest periods of the world, and among all nations. The universality of sacrificial rites is a powerful argument on behalf of their naturalness; they meet the demand of the sinner for some way of appeasing the offended divinity. But Christians have no need of them, simply because of the one perfect Sacrifice once offered on the cross. See Offerings.

SACRILEGE, the crime of violating or profaning sacred things. Rom 2:22. The Jews at some periods were eminently guilty in this particular, inasmuch as they withheld the tithes and offerings which God required of them, Mal 3:8-10, and converted his holy temple into a market. Matt 21:12-13.

SAD'DLE. Lev 15:9. Among the ancients saddles were very simple - merely a mat or quilted cloth; such is the present Oriental saddle.

SAD'DUCEES, a Jewish sect often mentioned in the N.T. The origin of the term and its meaning are involved in obscurity, but the most satisfactory theory is that the sect was derived from Zadok and constituted a kind of "sacerdotal aristocracy." This explains Acts 5:17. The Zadok spoken of is the famous high priest of that name whom Solomon appointed to succeed the deposed Abiathar. 1 Kgs 2:35. The Sadducees were a small party, of limited influence among the people, and of a rationalistic turn of mind. From their connection with the high priests, they were men of position, and probably of more or less wealth. They were worldly-minded and had only a superficial interest in religion. They are the forerunners of the modern reform Jews.

Their theology was in direct contradiction to the Pharisaic, and, from its nature, could not be popular. It embraced four principal tenets: (1) A denial of the divinity and consequent 750 authority of the oral Law, the body of commentary on the written Law which the Pharisees, without any historic evidence, maintained was handed down by tradition from the lawgiver himself. (2) The Sadducees accepted the teaching of Moses only, and seem to have rejected the later books of the O.T. (3) The denial of man's resurrection - the soul dies with the body. Matt 22:23. Of course the doctrine of future rewards and punishments fell with it; likewise belief in angel or spirit. Acts 23:8 (4) Their fourth principal tenet was that man had the most absolute moral freedom, for upon this freedom was dependent the moral quality of his actions. This tenet was, however, so far "pushed as almost entirely to exclude the divine government of the world."

In the N.T. they are not spoken of with the same bitterness as the Pharisees; yet they were determined foes to our Lord, and made common cause with them in condemning him to the cross. Annas and Caiaphas were Sadducees. The sect disappears from history after the first Christian century. They have their successors in the worldly Jews and Christians of the present day.

SA'DOC (just), one of our Lord's ancestors. Matt 1:14.

SAF'FRON. Song 4:14. Undoubtedly this is the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), which, with other species of this plant, abounds in Palestine. This kind is in high repute as a perfume; hence its mention among spices. The pistils of its blossoms, gathered, dried, and pressed into cakes or ground, became the saffron of commerce, which is used as an orange dye and is also employed in medicine in the East. This substance is also valued for adding flavor and aroma to food and drink.

SAINTS, the title given by the sacred writers to believers in Christ, Heb 6:10, or the people of God. Ps 16:3; Rom 1:7; Ezr 8:27. A saint is one who is separated from the world and consecrated to the service of God. It does not necessarily imply entire personal holiness, but that believers are called to holiness and are to strive after it. The special application of the term to apostles and evangelists and a select number of men who constitute as it were a spiritual nobility is not biblical, but dates from the fourth century.

SA'LA, SA'LAH (sprout), a descendant of Shem, Gen 10:24; Gen 11:12-15; Luke 3:35; in 1 Chr 1:18, 1 Chr 1:24 the name is given as Shelah.

SAL'AMIS (peaceful, or beaten), a seaport-town with a good harbor, on the eastern coast of Cyprus. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey. Acts 13:5. The city was once the capital of Cyprus, and stood on the north side of the river Pediaeus. The land is low in this region, and this river is the only true one in the island, the other streams being merely winter-torrents. We read of "synagogues," from which it is evident that the Jewish population in the city was numerous. The island was productive, and its trade in fruit, wine, flax, and honey, and the farming out of the copper-mines by Augustus to Herod, would naturally attract many Jews to this city. In the time of Trajan and Hadrian, there were great insurrections of the Jews; Salamis was partially destroyed, and its demolition completed by an earthquake, but it was rebuilt by a Christian emperor and named Constantia. Its site is now traced by broken cisterns and columns and the foundations of ancient buildings. The ruins are known as Old Famugusta.

SALA'THIEL (I have asked God), a descendant of David, 1 Chr 3:17; most often called Shealtiel.

SAL'CAH, and SAL'CHAH (pilgrimage ?), a city on the eastern frontier of Bashan; captured by the Israelites and assigned to the half tribe of Manasseh, but close to the border of Gad. Deut 3:10; Josh 12:5; Acts 13:11; 1 Chr 5:11. Salcah is identical with modern Sulkhad, 56 miles east of the Jordan, at the southern end of Jebel Hauran. Near it begins the great desert, which stretches to the Euphrates. The city occupies a commanding position; on the summit of a hill is a castle dating back to a period as early as the Romans, and surrounded by a deep moat now partially filled with stone. On several of the portals there are Roman eagles and Arabic and Greek inscriptions. Some of the latter have been found bearing the dates a.d. 196 and a.d. 246. There are about eight hundred stone 751 houses, many of them in a good state of preservation, but occupied by only a few families. The view from this site embraces the ruins of many other cities.

SA'LEM (peace), the place of which Melchizedek was king Gen 14:18; Heb 7:1-2. This word is only used elsewhere in Ps 76:2. Some would interpret it, in the first two passages, not as signifying a place, but that Melchizedek was "king of peace." The majority understand it to mean a place, and it is usually interpreted as referring to Jerusalem. Thus Josephus understood it. The name "Jireh," from Gen 22:14, was supposed to have been added to "Salem" to form "Jerusalem," but this is uncertain. Jerome made the Salem of Gen 14:18 and the Shalem of Gen 33:18 identical, and fixed it 6 miles from Scythopolis, while Van de Velde discovered the name in that neighborhood; but if such a Salem existed, it cannot be proved to be the town of Melchizedek. There might be an identity between Salem and Salim. See Salim.

SA'LIM (peace, or fountains ?), a place named to mark the locality of AEnon, where John baptized. John 3:23. Some identify it with Salem. Eusebius and Jerome mention Salim as near the Jordan, 8 Roman miles south of Scythopolis. Robinson suggested that it was identical with the village of Salim, 3 miles east of Nablus. Barclay proposed to identify it with Wady Selim, 5 miles north-east of Jerusalem, a wild ravine running down from Anathoth, but Conder appears to adopt the location suggested by Robinson. See Enon.

SAL'LAI (basket-maker).

  1. A Benjamite who returned to Jerusalem. Neh 11:8.

  2. A priest who returned with Zerubbabel. Neh 12:20.

SAL'LU (weighed). 1, 2. A Benjamite and a priest. Neh 11:7; Acts 12:7; 1 Chr 9:7.

SAL'MA, or SAL'MON (clothed, a garment). The son of Nashon, prince of Judah, and father or ancestor of Boaz, the husband of Ruth. Ruth 4:20 and marg.; 1 Chr 2:11; Matt 1:4-5. He is conjectured to be the same with the son of Caleb, the son of Hur, 1 Chr 2:51, since it is possible that Caleb adopted him.

SALMANA'SAR. 2 Kgs 17:3. See Shalmanezer.

SAL'MON (shady), Ps 68:14, or ZAL'MON, Jud 9:48, was one of the high hills which environed the ancient Shechem and afforded pasturage for Jacob's flocks. See Zalmon.

SALMO'NE (clothed), a promontory forming the eastern extremity of the island of Crete, and noticed in the account of Paul's voyage to Rome. Acts 27:7. It is a bold headland, visible at a considerable distance, and usually identified with Cape Sidero. One writer has suggested a promontory several miles south of this point, known to the natives as Plaka, and to sailors as Cape Salmone.


  1. The wife of Zebedee, and the mother of James the elder and John the Evangelist, and probably the sister of the Virgin Mary, John 19:25; was one of the followers of Christ, Matt 27:56; Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1, though she seems, like many others, to have at first mistaken the true nature of his kingdom. Matt 20:21.

  2. The name of "the daughter of Herodias" who danced before Herod. Matt 14:6; Mark 6:22. She is not named in the N.T., but by Josephus (Antiq. 18,c.5,'4). The graphic account of Herod's feast may be traced to Chusa, the wife of Herod's steward, Luke 8:3, who was probably present. Salome married her uncle Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, and next Aristobulus, king of Chalcis.

SALT is abundant in Palestine. The famous Jehel Usdum is substantially a mountain of rock-salt about 7 miles long, from 1 1/2 to 3 miles wide, and several hundred feet high. This ridge, almost entirely composed of this mineral, extends to the south from the south-west corner of the Dead Sea. Besides the rock-salt to be obtained from this ridge and its vicinity, the Jews used, and preferred for domestic purposes, salt obtained by evaporation from the waters of the Mediterranean and Dead Seas. On the eastern shore of the latter it is found in lumps often more than a foot thick, in places which the lake had overflowed in the rainy season. The stones on the shore are covered with an incrustation of lime or gypsum. Branches and twigs which fall into the water from the bushes become encased in salt; and if a piece of wood is thrown in, it soon acquires a 752 bark or rind of salt. From this fact some have attempted to explain the transformation of Lot's wife into a pillar of salt. Gen 19:26; while others suppose that the expression is figurative, denoting that she was made an everlasting monument of divine displeasure (salt being an emblem of perpetuity), and others still think that she was miraculously transformed into a solid column of salt.

At the south-western extremity of the Dead Sea there is a plain of considerable extent east of Jebel Usdum, the soil of which is entirely covered with salt, without the slightest trace of vegetation. This is believed by Robinson to be the "valley" (or plain) "of salt," where David's army vanquished the Edomites, 2 Sam 8:13; 1 Chr 18:12; 2 Chr 25:11.

By the "salt-pits," Zeph 2:9, we are not to understand quarries from which rock-salt is extracted, but such pits as the Arabs, even at this day, make upon the shore of the Dead Sea, in order that they may be filled when the spring freshets raise the waters of the lake. When the water evaporates, it leaves in the pits a salt crust about an inch thick, which furnishes the salt used throughout the country. Pits of this sort seem to be alluded to in Eze 47:11. In Josh 15:62 a "city of salt" is mentioned, in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea.

The uses of salt are sufficiently known. Most food would be insipid without it. Job 6:6. Salt being thus essential to the enjoyment of food, the word was used to denote the subsistence which a person obtained in the service of another. Thus, in Ezr 4:14, the words translated "we have maintenance from the king's palace" are in the original "we salt" (or are salted) "with the salt of the palace." And even now, among the Persians and East Indians, to "eat the salt" of any one is to be in his employment. Salt was also used in sacrifices. Lev 2:13; Mark 9:49. In the last passage reference is had to the perpetuity of suffering.

New-born children were rubbed with salt. Eze 16:4.

Salt, as a preservative from corruption, symbolized durability, fidelity, and purity. Hence an indissoluble and perpetual covenant is called a "covenant of salt." Num 18:19; Lev 2:13; 2 Chr 13:5. The idea of sacred obligation to the king is involved in the above quotation from Ezra. Among the modern Arabs, to "eat salt" with any one is a pledge of perpetual and mutual friendship.

No plants can germinate in a soil covered with salt. Hence a "salt land" is an unfruitful, desert land. Jer 17:6. Salt was also used as a visible emblem of sterility. When Abimelech took Shechem, Jud 9:45, he "beat down the city and sowed it with salt," as a token that it should continue desolate. In like manner, the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, when he destroyed Milan, in the year 1162, caused the ground to be ploughed and strewed with salt.

On the other hand, as salt renders food savorv, it is employed as an emblem of holy life and conversation. Mark 9:50; Col 4:6. In Matt 5:13, Christ calls his disciples "the salt of the earth" - i.e., of mankind, because the latter was to be enlightened and purified by their agency and preserved for their sake. There is reference in the remainder of the verse to the fact that, as Oriental salt often contains mineral impurities, by exposure to rain or dampness this material may lose its savor or valuable part, and become "good for nothing but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men."

SALT, CIT'Y OF, the fifth of the six cities possessed by the children of Judah, and situated in the wilderness of Judah. It is mentioned between Nibshan and En-gedi. Josh 15:62. Several sites have been suggested for this city.

  1. Van de Yelde found a Nahr Malch ("salt"), one of four ravines forming the Wady el-Bedim, and would locate the city of salt in that vicinity.

  2. Others propose to place it at the ruin Um-baghek, or Em-berhek, lying a short distance north of the salt mountain of Jebel Usdum.

  3. Conder suggests that it is identical with the present large ruin, Tell el-Mihl, 15 miles east of Beersheba.

SALT SEA, or DEAD SEA. Names. - This sea is called in the Scriptures the "sea of the plain," Deut 4:49; 2 Kgs 14:25; the "salt sea," Deut 3:17; Josh 3:16; 1 Chr 12:3; the "east sea," Joel 2:20; Eze 47:18; Zech 14:8; and "the sea." Eze 47:8. It also appears as the "vale of Siddim."


The Salt or Dead Sea. (After Sketch by Major Wilson.)

The figures denote the depression below the Mediterranean Sea. 754 Gen 14:3. In 2 Esd. 5:7 it appears as the "Sodomitish sea;" in the Talmud as the "sea of Sodom" and the "sea of salt;" in Josephus as the "asphaltic" and "Sodomitic lake." The title "Dead Sea" was not found in Jewish writers, but was introduced at an early period by the Greek authors. The Arabs give it the same name, but more commonly call it the Bahr Lut, or "Lake of Lot."

Situation and Extent. - The Salt or Dead Sea is situated only 16 miles from Jerusalem, in a straight line, and is plainly visible from the Mount of Olives. It occupies the deepest portion of the great depression which extends from the range of Lebanon on the north to the Gulf of Akabah on the south. It lies between 31░ 6' and 31░ 46' N. lat., and 35░ 24' and 35░ 37' E. long. The sea is 46 miles long, 10 1/2 miles in its greatest width, and covers an area of nearly 300 square miles, varying somewhat with the season of the year, as the flats are submerged by the rise of water from the winter floods and laid bare by the excessive evaporation of the summer.

Physical Features. - The sea is of an oblong shape, and fills the lower end of an oblong depression. The enclosing mountains on each side run due north and south in parallel lines, and overhang the sea at a height of more than 1500 feet, coming on the east side close to the water's edge. At the southern end the shore, for some 2 or 3 miles, is flat as far as the base of Jebel Usdum, "the salt mountain." The oval contour is interrupted by the Lisan Peninsula, or "the tongue," a broad promontory extending northward from the southeast corner for a distance of 10 miles, and having a breadth of from 5 to 6 miles. It was visited by Lynch, but to Palmer and Drake is ascribed the credit of being the first thoroughly to explore this curious spot. It is described by Palmer as a plateau of soft chalk marl, encrusted with salt, and containing large quantities of sulphur in a very pure form. The surface is for the most part perfectly flat, but a few plateaus rise up here and there upon it. The strip of land which connects it with the shore is low, and the promontory appears to have been an island at some period when the level of the sea was higher than it is at present. The ruins of a tower built of solid masonry and of a small reservoir were discovered. On the site were some broken columns of considerable architectural pretensions, and many pieces of glass and pottery lying in the ash-heap contiguous to the ruins, but nothing could be found to indicate the date.

Depth and Level. - The soundings of Lynch showed that the bottom of the lake was a comparatively level plain of blue mud and sand, with crystals of salt. The greatest depth is 1310 feet; the mean depth north of the Lisan Peninsula, 1080 feet; the greatest depth south of the peninsula, 11 feet. The level of the surface varies from 10 to 15 feet, according to the season of the year: the mean level below the Mediterranean Sea is 1293 feet (Lynch made it 1316 feet); below Jerusalem, 3697 feet. Tristram found the height of the crest of the beach to be 18' feet above the level of the water, and the line of driftwood somewhat less. A French geologist, M. Lartet, found the ancient deposits of the Dead Sea at least 300 feet above the present surface of the lake, so that the water must once have stood at that level. The bottom is still subsiding, as is shown by a curious fact. Drake says: "At the southern end the fords between the Lisan and the western shore are now impassable, owing to the depth of the water, though I have been told by men who used them that they were in no places more than 3 feet deep some fifteen or twenty years ago. Again, the causeway which connects the Rijm el-Bahr with the mainland has, according to the Arabs, been submerged for twelve or fifteen years, though before that time it was frequently dry." Earthquakes, as in 1834 and 1837, throw up large quantities of bitumen from the bottom of the lake at its southern end. It was formerly supposed that the lake was at some early historic period connected with the Red Sea. but recent geological researches have shown any such connection very improbable, since a hill of cretaceous formation, 781 feet above the sea, separates the waters of the Dead Sea from those of the Gulf of Akabah, and the streams north of the hill flow northward into the Dead Sea.

Tributaries. - The river Jordan empties into the Dead Sea at its northern end. There are numerous wadies upon


The Dead Sea at 'Ain Feshkah : North-west Side. (After Tristram.)

The Dead Sea from Jebel Usdum (Mountain of Salt) : South end. (After Tristram.) 756 the east, south, and west sides, the most of which are winter-torrents, completely dry in summer. The principal streams, mostly perennial, are, beginning at the north-east and following southward: the Zerka Main (the ancient Callirrhoe, and Grove suggests possibly the more ancient En-eglaim), the Mojib (Arnon of the Bible), Kerak, Sidliyeh (brook Zered), Sufieh, and, on the west, the 'Ain Jidy (Engedi).

The water has a clearness and purity - in color, at least - unequalled. The turbid flood of the Jordan in times of freshet can be distinctly traced by its coffee-brown color for a mile and a half into the lake. It has been estimated that 6,000,000 tons of water fall into the Dead Sea daily, the whole of which enormous quantity must be carried off by evaporation, as the lake has no outlet. Hence the water is impregnated with mineral substances containing on an average twenty-five per cent, of solid substances, one-half of which is chloride of sodium (common salt). Among the other substances are chloride of magnesium, which gives the water its bitter taste, and chloride of calcium, which makes it smooth and oily to the touch. There is also a large amount of bromine, and many other mineral substances exist in smaller quantities. The quantity of solid matter is more than eight times as great as in sea-water. The specific gravity varies from 1.021 to 1.256 - that is, if a gallon of distilled water weighs 10 pounds, a gallon of water from the Dead Sea would sometimes weigh 12 1/4 pounds.

From its density it seemed, in the storm encountered by the boats of Lynch's party, "as if their bows were encountering the sledge-hammers of the Titans instead of the opposing waves of an angry sea." But when the wind abated the sea as rapidly fell. "Within twenty minutes from the time we bore away from a sea which threatened to engulf us, we were pulling away at a rapid rate over a placid sheet of water that scarcely rippled beneath us." Tristram also noted the rapid subsidence of the surface after a storm: "Such a mass of water, so absolutely stagnant, I never saw before. In the morning it had been lashed by the gale; now it at once suggested, as its appropriate description, 'a sea of molten lead.'"

The spray leaves incrustations of salt upon clothes, hands, and faces, conveying a prickly sensation wherever it touches the skin, and exceedingly painful to the eyes, lips, and nostrils, which smart excessively.

Bathing. - Most visitors try a bath in the waters of the Dead Sea. Bathers can float with equal ease upon their backs or breasts, sit upon the water as one would upon a feather-bed, and place themselves in any attitude they please without fear of sinking. Swimming is made difficult by the tendency of the feet to rise to the surface with a suddenness that produces an unpleasant and sometimes painful effect upon the back, and there is a constant tendency to roll over.

Josephus says that when Vespasian went to see the Dead Sea, "he commanded that some who could not swim I should have their hands tied behind them and be thrown into the deep; when it so happened that they all swam as if wind had forced them upward." A salt crust is soon formed over the body by the rapid evaporation, and the water leaves a greasy feeling on the skin. Asphalt lies in large masses at the bottom of the sea, and sometimes large fragments, loosened by storms and earthquakes, rise to the surface.

Animal and Vegetable Life. - Tristram observed that among the rounded pebbles of the beach dead land-shells were thickly strewn. Quantities of very small dead fish lay on the gravel, killed by the salt water and thrown up by the flood, and on these various birds were feeding.

Among the birds noticed were the partridge, raven, thrush, bulbul, sparrow, wild duck, brown-necked raven, kingfisher, gull, dunlin, teal, redshank, wagtail, pochard, duck, cormorant, heron, golden eagle, plover, stork, crane, grakle, snipe, catbird, hawk, and quail, and Lynch saw a duck upon the water about a mile from the shore. So the report that a bird trying to fly over the sea would fall dead, is without foundation.

Among the wild beasts are the jackal, fox, coney, hare, ibex, porcupine, leopard, wild boar, and hyaena. These facts are enough to show how absurd are the stories about the shores of this sea being destitute of birds and animals. At the same time, it is quite certain that no form of either vertebrate or molluscous 757 life can exist for more than a very short time in the sea itself, and that all that enter it from the Jordan are almost immediately poisoned.

Various experiments have been made by putting sea-fish into the waters, and it was found that they invariably died very speedily.

Plants. - Among the trees and plants are the pistachio (the terebinth of Scripture), spina Christi (Christ thorn), tamarisk, osher, oleander, lily, yellow henbane, nightshade, mallow, mignonette, and a species of kale resembling that on the shores of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. About the springs are clumps of tamarisk trees, canebrakes 20 feet high, and dense bushes, through which the wild boar beats paths. Wherever there is fresh water the climate stimulates a luxuriant vegetation.

Warm springs are numerous. The 'Ain Ghuweir shows a temperature of 96░ in January. Another sulphur spring, within 6 inches of the sea, had a temperature of 95░, and its heated water extended out for 200 yards into the lake.

Climate. - The climate, owing to the great depression of the valley, is semitropical. On the 14th of January, Tristram noted that the thermometer reached 84░ during the day, and at 1 a.m. stood at 62░ Fahrenheit. Warren found the heat at 'Ain Jidy (En-gedi), in July, to be 110░ after sunset. See Climate, under Palestine.

Present Appearance. - Lynch describes the scene near Ras es-Fechka as "one of unmixed desolation. Except the canebrakes clustering along the marshy stream, . . . there was no vegetation whatever; barren mountains, fragments of rocks blackened by sulphureous deposits, and an unnatural sea, with low dead trees upon its margin, all within the scope of vision, bore a sad and sombre aspect. We had never before beheld such desolate hills, such calcined barrenness." When the members of the British Ordnance Survey found themselves on the shores of the Dead Sea, "the sky was overcast with clouds, and a dense haze, obscuring the mountains, made the landscape as dreary and monotonous as it could be. In an aspect such as this the Dead Sea seemed more than ever to deserve its name. Not a sign of life was there - not even any motion save a dull mechanical surging of the water. The barren shore was covered with a thick incrustation of salt, relieved only by occasional patches of black, rotting mud or by stagnant pools of brine. All along the dismal beach large quantities of driftwood are thickly strewn, and amongst them might be detected the blackened trunks of palms." See Deut 34:3.

Tristram describes the appearance at the north end of the sea as follows: "The beach is composed of a pebble gravel, rising steeply and covered for a breadth of 160 yards from the shore with driftwood. Trunks of trees lay tossed about in every possible position, utterly devoid of bark, grim and gaunt, a long and disorderly array of skeleton forms. There was a great variety in the species of timber, but a very large proportion of the trees were palms, many with their roots entire. These must have been tossed for many years before they were washed up along this north shore. The whole of the timber is indeed so saturated with brine that it will scarcely burn, and when it is ignited emits only a pale blue flame. It is difficult to conceive whence such vast numbers of palms can have been brought, unless we imagine them to be the collected wrecks of many centuries, . . . accumulating here from the days when the city of palm trees extended its groves to the edge of the river." - Land of Israel p. 247.

Below 'Ain Feshkah, on the west shore, the lake is fringed with canebrake, separated from the water by a narrow strip of shingle and conglomerate. Farther south are huge boulders, rolled down on the narrowing beach from the hills above. The coast-line shows many indentations and irregularities.

Bible History. - The earliest mention of this body of water is in Gen 14:3, where we read that the confederate kings were joined together in "the vale of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea." Most writers have identified this vale of Siddim with the portion of the Dead Sea south of the Lisan Peninsula, which is very shallow, but some recent explorers incline to a northern location, in the Ghor of the Jordan. The Salt Sea is mentioned as one of the boundaries of the land of Canaan and of the tribes. Num 34:3, Jud 4:12; Deut 3:17; Deut 4:49; Josh 15:2, 1 Chr 6:5; Josh 18:19 2 Kgs 14:25. In Eze 47:18 758 and Joel 2:20 it is mentioned as "the east sea," in distinction from "the west sea," which was the Mediterranean.

The cities of the plain, which were destroyed by "brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven," were near the Dead Sea. Gen 19:24. The supposition formerly most common was that these cities were submerged by the waters of the sea at the time of the great catastrophe - a theory which appears to be inconsistent with the geological and physical character of the region.

For the disputed question respecting the sites of the cities of the plain, see Sodom and Gomorrah.

The Salt or Dead Sea is not mentioned in the N.T.

SALT, VAL'LEY OF, more accurately a "ravine," and the battlefield between Judah and Edom, It is five times mentioned in Scripture in connection with two remarkable victories of the Israelites.

  1. That of David over the Edomites when 18,000 of them were slain. 2 Sam 8:13; 1 Chr 13:12; and compare the title to Ps 60.

  2. The victory of Amaziah, who slew 10,000 Edomites and hurled 10,000 more over the "rock" (Petra). 2 Kgs 14:7; 2 Chr 25:11. It has been proposed to locate this valley near the salt mountain Jebel Usdum, in the plains south of the Salt Sea: but Grove objects to this, and holds that "salt" is not necessarily the right translation of the Hebrew melach, and infers that Amaziah brought his prisoners to Selah (margin, "the rock," or Petra); hence that he would scarcely carry so many prisoners for 50 miles through a hostile country. It would seem more likely, therefore, that the Valley of Salt was in Edom, near to Petra.

SA'LU (weighed), a Simeonite chief. Num 25:14.

SALUTES Matt 10:12. SALUTA'TION. Luke 1:41. The salutations of the Jews were usually of a religious character - at least, in form - and were attended with much ceremony, as they are to this day among the Orientals, even the Bedouins of the desert. Sometimes there was nothing but the simple exclamation, "The Lord be with you!" or "Peace be with you!" To this last and most common form striking allusion is made by our Saviour. John 14:27; Matt 20:19, Acts 11:26. It passed into the epistolary salutation. Rom 1:7, etc. The time occupied in the ceremonies of salutation, repeatedly bowing, kissing the beard, etc., was often very considerable,

Modes of Salutation in the East.

Gen 33:3-4, and hence the caution in 2 Kgs 4:29; Luke 10:4 against saluting.

SALVA'TION, or deliverance, supposes evil or danger. Ex 14:13; comp. Ps 106:8-10 with Isa 63:8-9. But in its ordinary use, in the N.T. especially, the term denotes the deliverance of sinners from sin and death through faith in Christ. "The day of salvation," 2 Cor 6:2, "the gospel of your salvation," Eph 1:13, and other like phrases, are employed in this sense. They all suppose mankind to be lost and ruined by sin, and hence to be in a state of guilt and deplorable misery and exposed to the just penalty of the divine law. The salvation which the gospel offers includes in it the pardon of sin and deliverance from its power, pollution, and consequences, and also sanctification of the soul and the joys of the eternal world. Matt 1:21; Gal 3:13; 1 Thess 1:10; Heb 5:9. Hence it is justly called a great salvation. Heb 2:3.

SAMA'RIA (watch-post), a noted city of Central Palestine, founded by Omri, king of Israel.

Situation. - The city of Samaria was 30 miles north of Jerusalem and 6 miles north-west of Shechem, and situated near the centre of a beautiful basin about 6 miles in diameter and surrounded by hills. The hill of Samaria was to the east of the centre of this basin, and about 1542 feet in height above the level of the sea. It was of 759 an oblong form, with steep and terraced sides. The whole region about it is fertile, the site being a strong one for defence and the view from the summit very beautiful. From its top the Mediterranean Sea can be plainly seen.

History. - Shemer sold the ground upon which Samaria was built to Omri, the king of Israel, for two silver talents, and the latter built a city, calling it Samaria, b.c. 925. 1 Kgs 16:23-24. It appears that previous to this Shechem had been the capital, and Tirzah the court-residence in summer. 1 Kgs 15:21, 1 Kgs 15:33; 1 Kgs 16:1-18. But Omri now made Samaria the capital of Israel - a position which it continued to hold for two hundred years, until the fall of the northern kingdom, b.c. 721. It was the seat of many idolatrous practices. Ahab erected a great temple to Baal; Jehu destroyed it, and massacred the priests. 1 Kgs 16:32-33; 2 Kgs 10:18, 2 Kgs 10:28. Twice the city was besieged by the Syrians - in the reign of Ahab, b.c. 901, and in the reign of Joram, b.c. 892. 1 Kgs 20:1. At the latter siege the people were reduced to the most terrible distress by famine, but were wonderfully delivered, in accordance with the prophecy of Elisha. 2 Kgs 6:24-33; 2 Kgs 7:1-20. About one hundred and seventy years later the city was captured by the king of Assyria, after a siege of nearly three years; the northern kingdom was destroyed, and the ten tribes carried into captivity. 2 Kgs 18:9-12. Colonists from Assyria were sent to repeople the country. 2 Kgs 17:24; Ezr 4:9-10. The city of Samaria continued to be a place of some importance. It was captured by Alexander the Great, who peopled it with Syro-Macedonians; it was again taken by John Hyrcanus, after a year's siege, and razed to the ground, b.c. 109. It was rebuilt and adorned by Herod the Great, who named it Sebaste in honor of Augustus, who gave it to him, and settled a colony of six thousand persons there, composed of veteran soldiers and peasants. He enlarged the city, and surrounded it with a wall and colonnade.

In N.T. times, Philip preached the gospel in Samaria, Acts 8:5, Gal 1:9, and the place became an episcopal see. Septimius Severus planted a Roman colony there in the third century of the Christian era, but politically it was secondary to Caesarea. The city was

Ruins of the Colonnade of Samaria.

also surpassed in prosperity by Neapolis (Sichem). During the siege of Jerusalem, Samaria fell into the hands of the Muslims, but the Crusaders established a Latin bishop there, thus reviving the old episcopal see. In a.d. 1184, 760 Saladin marched through the city; and notices of the place occur in the accounts of travellers from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries.

Present Condition. - The ancient city of Samaria is now represented by the modern village Sebastiyeh (from "Sebaste"), situated upon the slope of the hill, having houses built of stones taken from the ancient remains. In and among the houses are scattered many fragments of ancient buildings, such as hewn blocks, shafts of columns, capitals, and portions of entablatures. Vines grow luxuriantly around the bases of broken shafts, grain is planted amid shattered columns, sculptured blocks of limestone are embedded in the rude terraces of the vineyards. The most imposing ancient building is the half-ruined church of John the Baptist, now turned into a mosque. Tradition states that John the Baptist was buried here. The church stands in a conspicuous position on the brow of a hill, the present edifice being the work of the Crusaders of the twelfth century. On the round hill above the village, to the west, are the remains of the palace erected by Herod the Great in honor of Augustus. On the terrace to the south runs the famous colonnade, about 2000 feet in length, of which one hundred columns still remain, some standing, some overthrown or buried beneath the soil. Besides the tomb of John the Baptist, tradition points out the resting-place of Obadiah and Elisha under a stone slab near the ruined church. The prophet declares, "I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, and as plantings of a vineyard: and I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley, and I will discover the foundations thereof." Mic 1:6. This prophecy has been literally fulfilled.

SAMA'RIA, KINGDOM AND COUNTRY OF, a territory which lay north of Judah, and, in N.T. times, between that country and the region known as Galilee.

Situation and Extent. - The kingdom of Samaria, as referred to in the O.T., was synonymous with the kingdom of Israel. This varied in extent at different times, at one period embracing all the territory allotted to the ten tribes, at others covering a more limited region. In the days of Jeroboam it extended on both sides of the Jordan; but this territory was much reduced, first by the invasion of Pul, and later by that of Tiglath-pileser, when the Israelites on the east side were taken captive. The extent of the kingdom was then confined to the region between the Jordan and the Mediterranean, and to that portion north of the kingdom of Judah, it being, in fact, only a subject province of Assyria. See Israel, Kingdom of.

In N.T. times Samaria was the region between Galilee on the north and Judaea on the south. Its boundaries have been traced by the British Ordnance Survey in accordance with the description by Josephus. The northern limit is defined by the towns of Beth-shan (Beisan), En-gannim (Jenin), and Caphar-outheni (Kefr Adhan), being properly commensurate with the northern boundary of Manasseh. Beth-shan and the valley of Jezreel at one time belonged to Samaria, but were subsequently taken by the Jews. The southern boundary, as noted by Josephus, appears to have been the great valley called Wady Deir Ballut, which rises near the Libben (the ancient Lebonah), and leaves Shiloh in the territory of Judah. Antipatris (Ras el-Ain), Annath (Aina), and Borceas (Brukin) are found on the frontier-line. According to Josephus, Samaria had no sea-coast, since the whole plain of Sharon up to Ptolemais belonged to Judah. It is doubtful, also, what portion of the west Jordan valley belonged to Samaria, but it probably did not extend south of the Wady Far'ah. The Roman highway from Galilee to Jerusalem ran along the Jordan by way of Jericho, and was the one commonly used by pilgrims. It is important to note this position of Samaria as throwing light upon the route pursued by Jesus and other Galileans in going up to Jerusalem, for they would avoid, as far as possible, passing through the territory of their neighbors, the Samaritans.

History. - The history of the country of Samaria to b.c. 720 belongs to the kingdom of Israel. After Israel was carried into captivity the history of the Samaritans, as such, begins. Who were these Samaritans? The word occurs only once in the O.T., 2 Kgs 17:29, and then it seems to be used rather of 761 the Israelites. But after they were carried away, men from Assyria were brought as colonists into the cities of Samaria, 2 Kgs 17:24, and these were the ancestors of the Samaritans mentioned in N.T. times. A much-debated question has been whether those Samaritans were of purely foreign extraction or were of mixed Jewish blood. The latter opinion seems most reasonable. It is hardly to be supposed that all the Jews could have been carried away out of the land, and this opinion is supported by the fact that money was contributed from the cities of Manasseh and Ephraim to repair the temple in Josiah's time, 2 Chr 34:9, and idols were destroyed in the same region. 2 Chr 34:6-7. The Assyrian colonists obtained a priest to teach them "the manner of the God of the land," and combined some forms of Jehovah-worship with their idolatry. 2 Kgs 17:25-41.

When the Jews returned from the Captivity with a spirit more exclusive than ever, the contrast between Jew and Samaritan was very strongly marked. The Samaritans wished to have a share in rebuilding the temple, but the Jews refused to allow them to co-operate. The breach widened, and the Samaritans succeeded in hindering the work at Jerusalem by misrepresentations to the Persian kings. Ezr 4; Neh 4, Neh 6.

At length the opposition culminated in the setting up of a rival temple by the Samaritans on Mount Gerizim. The occasion of this seems to have been the expulsion from Jerusalem by Nehemiah of a son of the high priest, who was a son-in-law of Sanballat. Neh 13:28. According to Josephus, the person expelled was Manasseh, whose father-in-law, Sanballat, obtained from Alexander the Great permission to erect the temple. But the temple was probably erected at an earlier date. After this time the city of Samaria declined, and Shechem increased in importance. This temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus after standing for two hundred years.

Conflicts between the Jews and the Samaritans were frequent. A party of Samaritans defiled the temple at Jerusalem with bones of the dead. There was a general insurrection among them in the time of Pilate, whose severity resulted in his removal from office. A crowd arrayed themselves against Vespasian, and he slew 11,600 of them. The bitter animosity between the two races must be understood in order to comprehend many facts in the N.T. history. Thus the Galileans avoided going through Samaria, as far as possible, in their journeys to Jerusalem, since they were exposed to insult, assault, and even danger of death. The Seventy were not to go among the Samaritans, Matt 10:5, and the inhospitality of that people excited the blazing indignation of James and John. Luke 9:52-56. Yet Jesus showed himself to be far superior to the narrow feeling of race by his parable of the Good Samaritan, Luke 10:30, 2 Kgs 18:37; his commendation of the healed Samaritan, Luke 17:11-19; and his conversation with the woman of Samaria. John 4:1-42. This interview throws light upon the Samaritan character and claims. The woman asserts for them Abrahamic descent - "our father Jacob" - but this the Jews would not allow. It was probable that the people had become more and more of a mixed blood, since, according to Josephus, many renegade, apostate, and law-breaking Jews sought refuge among the Samaritans. The gospel gained some success there. Acts 1:8; Acts 8:5-26. But most of the Samaritans adhered to their old religion, and therefore frequently came into collision with Christianity and with the Roman emperors, particularly in a.d. 529. About this time they martyred Christians and destroyed churches. Justinian subdued them and slew many of the insurgents. During the Crusades they are not mentioned. In the twelfth century Benjamin of Tudela found about a thousand adherents of the sect of the Samaritans at Nabltis, and a few also at Ascalon, Caesarea, and Damascus. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries various letters passed between the Samaritans and Western scholars in regard to their Pentateuch.

Present Condition. - The only representatives of the Samaritans are found in a community living at Nablus (Shechem). and consisting of some forty to fifty families. They possess the Pentateuch, in the old Hebrew or Samaritan writing, which has attracted great attention from scholars as a very ancient 762 version. Three times a year, at the feast of unleavened bread, the feast of weeks, and the feast of tabernacles, they make a

Cylinder enclosing the Samaritan Pentateuch at Nablus.

pilgrimage to the sacred Mount Gerizim. They celebrate all the Mosaic festivals, and at the Passover they offer sacrifices.

SAMAR'ITANS, the inhabitants of Samaria, 2 Kgs 17:29, but in the N.T. the term is applied to the people that were planted in Samaria, in the place of the exiled Israelites, by the Assyrian king. 2 Kgs 17:24. This defiled origin, Ezr 4:1, the course pursued by the Samaritans before the Persian kings, Neh 4:1, connected with their construction of the Mosaic Law, Deut 27:11-13, and their separation from the Jews in their place of worship, Luke 9:52-53; John 4:20-21, rendered the animosity between them very bitter, Matt 10:5; John 4:9; and hence the very name "Samaritan" was, with the Jew, a term of reproach and contempt. John 8:48. The Samaritans expected a Messiah. John 4:25. and many of them followed Christ. Acts 8:1; Acts 9:31; Acts 15:3. See Samaria, Kingdom of.

SAM'GAR-NE'BO (sword of Nebo), a Babylonish prince. Jer 39:3.

SAM'LAH (garment), an ancient Edomite king. Gen 36:36-37; 1 Chr 1:47-48.

SA'MOS (a height), an island in the AEgean Sea, a few miles from the main land, and 42 miles south-west of Smyrna, The island is 27 miles long, 10 miles wide, and has an area of 165 square miles. It was the seat of Juno-worship, the birthplace of Pythagoras, and noted for its valuable pottery. Paul visited the island on his third missionary journey. Acts 20:16. Samos was then the capital of the island. Two miles to the west was the temple of Juno; there was a sacred way, which can still be traced, from the city to the temple. The modern name of the port at which Paul landed is Tiqani. The island now contains about 60,000 inhabitants, and is noted for its productions of oil, wine, oranges, grapes, raisins, and silk.

SAMOTHRA'CIA (Thracian Samos), an island in the north-eastern part of the AEgean Sea, and a conspicuous landmark to sailors. It is 8 miles long and 6 miles broad. Homer says that from its lofty ridges the battlefield of Troy might be seen, and one of its mountains has an elevation of 6248 feet, affording a wide view. Paul visited it on his first missionary journey. Acts 16:11. The island is still called Samoihraki, and contains from 1000 to 2000 inhabitants, subject to Turkey.

SAM'SON (sunlike), son of Manoah, of the tribe of Dan, and for twenty years a judge of Israel. The circumstances 763 attending the annunciation of his birth are remarkable. Jud 13:3-23. See Manoah. He was distinguished for his gigantic strength, and is the Hercules of the Hebrews. Contrary to the wishes of his parents, who were observers of the Law, Ex 34:16; Deut 7:3, he married a woman of Timnath. a Philistine city. On his way to that city he slew a lion, Jud 14:5-9, and afterward found in the carcass of the beast a swarm of bees, and he ate of the honey himself and took some to his parents. This occurrence gave rise to an enigma, which he propounded at his marriage-feast, promising a valuable present to any who would solve it within seven days, provided they would make a like present to him if they failed. Unable to solve the riddle themselves, they resorted to Samson's wife, who, by the most urgent entreaties, had obtained from him a solution of it. By cruel threats they extorted from her the secret, and told it to him. But he knew their treachery; and, though he kept his word and made them the present, it was at the expense of the lives of thirty of their countrymen. He also forsook his wife, who had been thus false to him. See Riddle.

On returning to Timnath with a view to a reconciliation with his wife, he found she had married again, and he was not permitted to see her. He immediately caught three hundred foxes, and, fastening a firebrand to every pair of them, let them loose upon the fields and vineyards of the Philistines, and spread fire and desolation over the country. The Philistines, to be avenged, set fire to the house where Samson's wife lived, and she and her father were burnt in it. This wanton barbarity again drew upon them the vengeance of Samson, who came upon them and routed them with immense slaughter. Jud 15:1-8.

He then took up his abode on the rock Etam, in the territory of Judah, whither the Philistines came to revenge themselves, laying waste the country on every side. Three thousand of the men of Judah remonstrated with Samson for thus exciting the resentment of the Philistines, and he consented that they should bind him and deliver him into their hands. This they did; but in the midst of their exultations he burst his bands and fell upon his enemies, putting a thousand of them to death and the residue to flight. Jud 15:9-19. It was on this occasion that he was miraculously supplied with water from a fountain opened on the spot - not in the jawbone with which he had slain the Philistines, but in the place where the bone was found and used. Jud 15:17, margin.

His sensual nature betrayed him into an illicit connection with a woman in Gaza. His enemies meanwhile surrounded the place, expecting to kill him in the morning, but at midnight he arose and carried off the gates of the city. Jud 16:3. After this, Samson went to the valley of Sorek, where he attached himself to Delilah, a mercenary woman, by whom, after a variety of arts and stratagems, the secret of his great strength was discovered to lie in the preservation of his hair, for he was a Nazarite. Jud 16:17. The Philistines came upon him while he was asleep, removed his hair, bound him with fetters of brass, put out his eyes, carried him to Gaza, and threw him into prison. Having thus secured their formidable foe, the Philistine nobles assembled for a feast of joy, and, to add to their merriment, they proposed to have Samson brought. So a lad led him in and sat him down between the two main pillars of the house where the nobles and a multitude of people, both men and women, were assembled, besides three thousand persons upon the roofs of the cloisters around, beholding the cruel sport. Samson requested the lad who had charge of him to let him rest himself against the pillars on either side of him. This being granted, he prayed for strength, and, laying hold of the pillars, he bowed with all his might, carrying the pillars and the whole structure with him, and burying himself and the vast multitude within and around the courts in one common destruction. Samson is ranked with the heroes of the faithful. Heb 11:32-33. But we must, of course, not judge him from the standpoint of the N.T. He lived in the wild anarchical period of the Judges, when might was right, and he was just the man for that time.

SAM'UEL (heard of God), the son of Elkanah and Hannah, was a celebrated Hebrew prophet, and the last of their judges. He is one of the purest and noblest characters in the O.T. history. 764 While he was a child he officiated in some form in the temple, and was favored with revelations of the divine will respecting the family of Eli, the high priest, under whose care and training his mother had placed him. 1 Sam 3:4-14. See Eli.

After the death of Eli, Samuel was acknowledged as a prophet, and soon commenced a work of reformation. Idolatry was banished, the worship of the true God was restored, and Samuel was publicly recognized as a judge in Israel. Residing on his patrimonial estate in Ramah, he made annual circuits through the country to administer justice until his infirmities forbade it, and then he deputed his sons to execute this duty. They proved themselves unworthy of the trust, and so general was the dissatisfaction of the people that they determined on a change of government. To this end they applied to Samuel, who, under the divine direction, anointed Saul to be their king, and Samuel resigned his authority to him. 1 Sam 12. After Saul was rejected for his disobedience in the matter of Agag, Samuel was instructed to anoint David as king, after which he returned to Ramah, where he died. 1 Sam 25:1. See Saul.

First and Second Books of, are called also the First and Second Books of Kings. They bear Samuel's name, perhaps because he wrote the history of his own times as given in the First Book, and therefore the entire work went under his name. But it is more probable that the name was in consequence of Samuel being the hero of the first part of the history, and that the author belonged to a later period. The Hebrew is singularly clear and pure from Aramaisms.

The two books are thus analyzed in Lange's Commentary: 1st part: Samuel's life and work as judge and prophet. 1 Sam. 1:1-7. 2d part: Saul, chs. 8-31:(1) Founding of kingdom, his appointment, chs. 8-15; (2) His fall. Chs. 16-31. 3d part: David. 2 Samuel: 1st part: David king over Judah only, 2 Sam. 1-5:5. 2d part: David king over all Israel. Chs. 5:6-24.

These books formed only one in the Hebrew canon. They are the antecedents to the books of the Kings, but are not from the same hand. "In Kings are many express references to the Law; in Samuel, none. In Kings the Exile is often alluded to; it is not so in Samuel. The plans of the two works vary. Samuel has more of a biographical cast; Kings more the character of annals."

SANBAL'LAT (a hero?), a native of Horonaim, in Moab, who sadly impeded the efforts of the Jews to rebuild the walls of the city by inciting a movement on the part of the Arabians and others who comprised the "army of Samaria," which apparently Sanballat commanded. Neh 4:2. After Nehemiah's departure he insinuated himself sufficiently with the high priest to be able to marry his daughter to the high priest's grandson. But Nehemiah, returning, promptly deposed the latter. Neh 13:28. We have no further biblical information about him.

SANCTIFY is to prepare or set apart persons or things to a holy use. Ex 13:2. The term "sanctification," when applied to men, denotes the effect of God's Spirit upon the soul. It comprehends all the graces of knowledge, faith, love, repentance, humility, etc., and the exercise of them toward God and man. 2 Thess 2:13; 1 Pet 1:2. It is a process by which the soul is cleansed from the pollution and delivered from the power of sin, and at the same time endued with those spiritual graces above named, without which there could be no taste or fitness for the joys or employments of the heavenly world. Heb 12:14. Sanctification is the fruit of union to Christ by faith, and it is in the knowledge and belief of the truth as it is in Jesus that the soul becomes the subject of the sanctifying influences of the Spirit. John 17:17. From this inward sanctification proceeds every good word and work. Tit 2:11-14. When Christ speaks of sanctifying himself, John 17:19, it is in allusion to the law which required the sacrifice to be set apart to a holy use. He separates or dedicates himself as a sacrifice to God for them.

SANCTUARY, a holy or sanctified place. Ps 20:2. By this name that part of the temple of Jerusalem was called which was the most secret and most retired, in which was the ark of the covenant, and where none but the high priest might enter, and he only once a year, on the day of solemn expiation. Lev 4:6. It is also applied to the furniture of this holy place. Num 10:21, the apartment 765 where the golden candlestick, table of shew-bread, altar of incense, etc., stood, 2 Chr 26:18, and to the whole tabernacle or temple. Josh 24:26; 2 Chr 20:8. It is called the "sanctuary of strength," because it was a strong place and easily fortified, and it belonged to God, the Strength of Israel, Dan 11:31; "a worldly sanctuary," as it was of a carnal and earthly typical nature. Heb 9:1. It is also applied to any place appointed for the public worship of God, Ps 73:17; to heaven, where God and his holy angels and saints for ever dwell, Ps 102:19; and, in allusion to the Jewish sanctuary, whose brazen altar protected petty criminals, a place of refuge and shelter is called a "sanctuary," Isa 8:14; Eze 11:16. The land of Israel was called God's sanctuary. Ex 15:17; comp. Ps 78:54; Ps 114:2.

SAND (from a root meaning to whirl). The wastes of Palestine consist mainly of parched soil and gravel. Sand occurs only along the shores of the seas and rivers. It is found in some parts of the desert of Sinai, and abundantly in Egypt. On the west especially the Nile valley is ever menaced by "the sands of the African desert - sands and sand-drifts which in purity, in brightness, in firmness, in destructiveness, are the snows and glaciers of the south." - Stanley. The pyramids and most of the ancient remains of Egypt stand upon the edge of the whirling sand-wastes, and therefore are liable to be covered up, as indeed many have been. Here all stirring of the surface is quickly and utterly obliterated. Ex 2:12. God has placed the sand for a bound of the sea by a perpetual decree. Jer 5:22.

Sand is also figuratively used to denote an innumerable multitude or great abundance. Gen 32:12; Gen 41:49, and also that which is heavy. Job 6:3; Prov 27:3. Issachar was to "suck of the abundance of the seas and of treasures hid in the sand." Deut 33:19. Some authorities find here an allusion to the great value of the sand of the river Belus, near Acre, for the manufacture of glass. But in this sand the mollusk (Murex trunculus) used for the purple dye is abundant, and vast quantities of crushed shells attest the ancient productiveness of this industry at Acre. Lieut. Conder understands these to be the "treasures hid in the sand," and claims this to be the interpretation of the Jewish rabbis.

SAN'DALS. Mark 6:9. See Clothes.

SAN'HEDRIN, incorrectly but commonly SAN'HEDRIM. The word is a Hebrew transliteration from the Greek word synedrion, which means "council." The Sanhedrin was the highest council of the Jews. When it was founded is uncertain. The Jews trace back to the time of Moses, and see its beginning in the elders. Others see the germ in the tribunal established by Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 19:8-11. But much more likely the Sanhedrin dates from the extinction of the Great Synagogue, and therefore is after the Captivity and Return; some put it down so low as b.c. 107. We must distinguish between two kinds of Sanhedrin - the provincial, which was composed of twenty-three members in every town of 120, and of three where there was a smaller, population, and the Great Sanhedrin, which numbered seventy-one and was governed by a nasi, or president, and two vice-presidents; besides, there were secretaries and other officers. It met in a room adjoining the temple, and the seats were arranged in the form of a semicircle. After the destruction of Jerusalem it removed to Tabneh, and finally to Tiberias, where it became extinct, a.d. 425. It had greatly changed its character before it ended. It appears, from the statements in the Talmud, that Herod put all the Great Sanhedrin to death except one. But, although this be false, the complexion of the body was altered for the worse. Indeed, some say that the Sanhedrin really did not exist in Christ's day, but the council which arrogated to itself this name was "an arbitrary, incompetent, and special gathering." But in its glory it was the supreme privy council of the Jews - not only their court of final appeal and last resort, but also an executive and legislative assembly, shaping the general polity of the nation. Its power in matters civil and religious was practically unlimited. It decided all cases brought upon appeal from the lower courts; it had authority over kings and high priests; in it was vested the trial of heresy, idolatry, false prophets; and it alone had power to pronounce the sentence of death. When the Jews came under the Roman government 766 the range of its jurisdiction was decreased. The death power, according to Talmudic tradition, was taken from it three years before the death of Christ. Owing to its altered character, it declined in influence until its extinction was no loss. The Sanhedrin consisted of the three classes, the priests, the elders, and the scribes. The confirmation and execution of a capital sentence rested with the Roman procurator. The Gospels truthfully, therefore, relate that, while Christ was condemned by the Sanhedrin for blasphemy, he was accused by the Jews of treason, and thus brought under Roman judgment. Cf. Matt 26:65-66; John 19:12; also John 18:31; "It is not lawful for us to put any man to death." The stoning of Stephen, Acts 7:57-59, was either tumultuous or else, if ordered by the Sanhedrin, illegal, as Josephus (Ant. XX. 9'1) expressly declares was the execution of James, "the Lord's brother," a.d. 62, during the absence of Albinus, the Roman procurator. See Council.

SANSAN'NAH (palm-branch), a place in the Negeb, or "south country," Josh 15:31; also called "Hazar-susah" or "Susim," "horse-court" - that is, "depot of horses." Josh 19:5; comp. 1 Chr 4:31. Wilton locates it in the modern Wady es Suny; Conder, at biet Susin, 15 miles west of Jerusalem, but this seems too far north.

SAPH (tall), a Philistine giant, 2 Sam 21:18; called Sippai in 1 Chr 20:4.

SAPH'IR (fair), a town addressed by the prophet Micah. Mic 1:11. According to Eusebius and Jerome, it was in the mountain-district between Eleutheropolis and Ascalon. The Pal. Memoirs suggest es Suafic, some mud villages 5 miles south-east of Eadud (Ashdod), as its possible site, but say a site in the hills would suit better, though in other respects it agrees with the statements of Eusebius and Jerome.

SAPPHI'RA (beautiful), the wife of Ananias, and partner in his guilt and punishment. Acts 5:1-11.

SAP'PHIRE. This was one of the precious stones of the high priest's breastplate, and of the foundations of the Apocalyptic city, Ex 28:18; Rev 21:19, and is often mentioned in the O.T. It was certainly of a blue color. Ex 24:10; Eze 1:26; Dan 10:1. But it is generally agreed that the ordinary sapphire of the ancients was our lapis-lazuli, an opaque mineral of a dark azure hue.

Some scholars still hold that the Bible references require a transparent, hard, and valuable gem like the true sapphire. This stone is next to the diamond in lustre, beauty, and hardness. It differs only in color from the Oriental ruby, varying from the deepest to the lightest blue, and even to pure white. See Stones, Precious.

SA'RA, same as Sarah. Heb 11:11; 1 Pet 3:6.

SA'RAH (princess).

  1. The half sister and wife of Abraham, called "Sarai" down to Gen 17:15, when God changed her name from "my princess," as for Abraham, to "princess," for all the race. In addition to the notice of her in the article Abraham, it may be proper to say that she as well as Abraham was the subject of special promises. Gen 17:16. Her conduct in Egypt, Gen 12:15, and toward Hagar, Gen 16:6; Lev 21:10, and also when Isaac was promised. Gen 18:15, evinced great weakness, but her exemplary faith is commended by the apostles. Heb 11:11; 1 Pet 3:6. She lived to one hundred and twenty-seven years of age, or upward of thirty-six years after the birth of Isaac, and was buried in a field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought for the purpose.

  2. A woman mentioned in Num 26:46. See Serah.

SA'RAI (my princess), the original name of Abraham's wife, Sarah, which see. Gen 11:29.

SA'RAPH (burning), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:22.

SAR'DINE, Rev 4:3, or SAR'DIUS, Ex 28:17, a gem of a blood-red or flesh color, susceptible of a high polish, and also called "sard" or "carnelian." Its former name it obtains from Sardis, in Asia Minor, where it was first found. This stone has long been a favorite for the engraver's art. "On this stone all the finest works of the most celebrated artists are to be found; and this not without good cause, such is its toughness, facility of working, beauty of color, and the high polish of which it is susceptible, and which Pliny states that it retains longer than any other gem." - King: Antique Gems.

SAR'DIS, a city in Asia Minor, and the capital of Lydia. Sardis was situated 767 at the foot of Mount Tmolus, about 50 miles north-east of Smyrna and 30 miles south-east of Thyatira. It was on the river Pactolus, celebrated for its "golden sands," and some 2 miles from the river Hermes. The site was one of great beauty.

History. - Sardis had great celebrity as the residence of the famous Croesus, whose name is the synonym for riches. When Cyrus conquered him, b.c. 548, he is said to have taken treasure of the value of $600,000,000. The Persians kept a garrison in the citadel. Alexander gained possession of the city after the battle of Granieus, and garrisoned it. Antiochus the Great sacked the city, b.c. 214; afterward it was subject to the kings of Pergamos. An earthquake destroyed it in the reign of Tiberius, a.d. 17, but it was rebuilt, the emperor remitting the tribute for five years and granting the money to assist in reconstructing the city. The prosperity of Sardis arose from its convenience as a commercial mart and prosperous manufactures. The art of dyeing wool was discovered there. Sardis was the seat of one of the seven churches of Asia, and the Christians seem to have been so corrupted by the prevailing worldliness that they received a severe rebuke. Rev 3:1-5.

Present Condition. - The ruins of Sardis are now called Sert-Kalessi. Among the remains are two massive columns over 6 feet in diameter, standing upright, and supposed to have belonged to the massive temple of Cybele; the senate-house, called the house of Croesus, having one hall 156 feet long by 43 broad, with walls 10 feet thick. A Roman sarcophagus has lately been discovered, a famous tomb of Alyattes - one of the wonders of the world - a gigantic mound, several tumuli, and Roman walls in ruins. The place was also famed in classic story for the "golden sands" of Pactolus. The site is now very unhealthy, and few, if any, people inhabit it.

SAR'DITES, the descendants of Sered, son of Zebulun. Num 26:26.

SAR'DIUS. Ex 28:17. See Sardine.

SAR'DONYX, only mentioned in Rev 21:20. Like the sardine, this stone is a variety of chalcedony. The sardonyx combines the qualities of the sard and onyx, whence its name. In this gem as used, a white opaque layer rests upon a transparent red stratum, as King states, or the reverse, according to Pliny. The sard and sardonyx are found in Judaea.

SAUEP'TA (smelting-house), the Zarephath of the O.T., a Phoenician town on the Mediterranean Sea between Tyre and Sidon. Luke 4:26. It is now called Sarafend, south of Sidon.

SAR'GON (in Assyrian Sarrukin, "established is the king"), the successor of Shalmaneser and father of Sennicherib, king of Assyria by usurpation, b.c. 722-705. Of his existence nothing was known for many centuries save the single fact, incidentally stated by Isaiah as the mere date of one of his prophecies, that Tartan took Ashdod by command of Sargon. Isa 20:1. The name was a stumbling-block. But Isaiah was correct, and to-day the buried ruins of the Khorsabad palace attest the accuracy of the prophet. From excavations made at the latter place, we are able to form a chronology, defective, however, of sixteen of the seventeen years of his reign. These ruins prove him, says Prof. Schrader, the distinguished Assyriologist, who is the authority for these statements, "to have made a quite unmistakable progress in originality and fineness of design, in neatness of execution and variety of pattern." The colored enamelling of bricks was carried to a finish unattained in later Assyrian history. The reign was an almost unbroken series of military triumphs; all the nations round felt the power of his arm. His annals describe his expeditions against Babylon and Susiana on the south; Media on the east: Armenia and Cappadocia on the north; Syria, Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt on the west and south-west. He had, indeed, very able generals, of whom Tartan was the chief; but this fact does not detract from his personal glory.

The expedition against Philistia in which the city of Ashdod was taken, as Isaiah mentions, Isa 20:1, took place in b.c. 711. But this was not the first time Sargon was near Judah, for in b.c. 720 he conducted an expedition against Egypt, and in the year before he took Samaria, carrying away part of the inhabitants. 2 Kgs 17:6; 2 Kgs 18:9-11. "The king of Assyria" referred to is not 768 Shalmaneser, but Sargon, who claims it, and the indefiniteness about 2 Kgs 18:10; - "they took it" - agrees with the inscriptions, and shows that during the siege Sargon became king. The inscriptions show further that Judah was already a vassal of Sargon at the time of the siege of Ashdod. For the interesting account of this event given by the conqueror himself see Smith (George), Assyrian Discoveries, pp. 289-292. The next year after this important capture Sargon turned his arms against Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon, and reduced him to vassalage. In b.c. 707 he completed the building of the palace of Khorsabad, which was near Nineveh, and in this magnificent building, in b.c. 705, he was murdered.

SA'RID (a survivor), a landmark in the boundary of Zebulun. Josh 19:10, Jud 4:12. The Syriac version reads "Asdod," and the Septuagint reads "Seddouk." Conder suggests that Sarid may be identical with Tell Shadud, on the north side of the plain of Esdraelon, south-west of Nazareth.

SA'RON. Acts 9:35. See Sharon.

SARSE'CHIM, the chief of the eunuchs in Nebuchadnezzar's army at the taking of Jerusalem. Jer 39:3.

SA'RUCH. Luke 3:35. See Serug.

SA'TAN (adversary), the adversary of God and man, the foe to goodness, and the author of evil. The references in Scripture to Satan, but not commonly by this name, are numerous. The proper name appears five times in the O.T. - 1 Chr 21:1; Job 1:6, Joel 1:12; Ruth 2:1; Zech 3:1; in the N.T. twenty-five times; the word "devil" occurs twenty-five times; "the prince of this world," three times; "the wicked one," six times; "the tempter," twice. In one remarkable verse several epithets are combined - the old serpent, the devil, and Satan, who deceiveth the whole world. Rev 12:9. The most striking mention of Satan is in Job, where he appears among "the sons of God." This is in itself sufficient to prove the subordination of the powers of evil unto God and the permissive nature of sin, and Satan has no authority to vex save as God grants it. The existence of Satan is a perpetual menace to godliness, but by resisting him we put him to flight and deepen our moral nature.

SA'TYR, a fabled creature of Greek mythology, compounded of a man and a goat, and supposed to be the deity of forests and rural places. Isa 13:21; Isa 34:14. The expression "satyrs shall dance there," etc., denotes that the place shall become as a rude, wild, uncultivated waste. It is possible that after the desolation of Babylon some species of ape or baboon may have been found in that region, and may be meant by this word.

SAUL (desired).

  1. A king of Edom. Gen 36:37-38; called Shaul in 1 Chr 1:48-49.

  2. The first king of Israel, the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin. His personal appearance was so remarkably fine and noble as to be particularly mentioned by the sacred historian. His search for his father's asses was the occasion of his visit to Samuel, whom he consulted as a "seer," on the advice of his servant. Samuel, having been divinely admonished of the approach of Saul and instructed what to do, invited him to his house and treated him with marked distinction. The next day Samuel made known to him privately that he was to have the rule over Israel, and while they were in the way he took a vial of oil, and, pouring it on his head, anointed him for the regal office. To convince Saul that this thing was of the Lord, Samuel predicted three signs, the last Saul's power to "prophesy," which would be fulfilled on his home-journey. The events happened as Samuel had foretold and Saul prophesied. By prophecy we are to here understand excited proclaiming or singing, and not a foretelling of the future. 1 Sam 9; 1 Sam 10:1-16. At this point we are obliged to depart from the order in First Samuel. The brutal insult of Nahash was avenged by Israel under the leadership of Saul, who from his home at Gibeah, whither he had gone after his secret anointing, sends an urgent order upon every man in the nation to follow him. Some 330,000 assembled under his leadership, and a great victory was gained. 1 Sam 11. Thus the Lord prepared the way for Saul's acceptance by the people as their king. 1 Sam 10:17-25. At first, Saul lived unpretendingly, almost as a private citizen - indeed, his sway seems to have been limited. But after a little while (comp. 1 Sam 10:26-27, 1 Sam 13:2) he lived in more regal fashion. It is


impossible to say how old he was at this time, but perhaps about forty years. He was emphatically a military king, and so successful was he that the borders of Israel must have been considerably enlarged and the fear of Israel very widespread. His reign opened favorably. But he soon proved he was no ideal prince. So impatient was he that he could not wait at Gilgal for Samuel to come, as he had appointed, and so he offered sacrifice; for doing which he was reproved by the old prophet, 1 Sam 13:14, yet the divine favor was not withdrawn. Very strange, if not the result of madness, was his insisting that Jonathan should die, though the army interfered in time. The declaration of Samuel that the Lord would not establish his house preyed upon his mind, and he was a changed man from this time forth. He treated God's command carelessly, 1 Sam 15, and was again severely rebuked by Samuel; nor did he show any real repentance. He looked upon his attendants with suspicion. He played the coward before the Philistines. Music relieved him, but his malady was no ordinary lunacy. His treatment of David, his first love for him, his failure to remember him, the return of his affection, and then the complete turn against him, indicated the state of his mind. He pursued David, though twice he was momentarily softened by David's words and deeds. 1 Sam 24:16; 1 Sam 26:21. We can understand how jealousy, nourished, became madness at last. Then, too, we see the hand of God. Saul breaks down completely. On the eve of a battle, which his unsettled mind forebodes will be decisive, he seeks a witch, and of her demands an interview with Samuel. The woman performs her incantations, but, to her horror, she herself sees an apparition and hears the voice of the dead. Samuel charged Saul with his disobedience to the divine command in the matter of Amalek, assured him that all his efforts to obtain aid elsewhere were vain if God had become his enemy, and admonished him that defeat and ruin were at hand, and that he and his sons should the next day be inhabitants of the world of spirits. 1 Sam 28.

The last flicker of the old fire of courage sufficed to enable Saul to man himself for the conflict, notwithstanding this crushing intelligence. He gave the Philistines battle, but was routed with dreadful slaughter. Among the killed were Saul's three sons. Saul, finding himself wounded and likely to fall into the hands of the enemy, threw himself upon the point of his own sword. When the Philistines found the body of Saul they severed the head from it and fastened the body on the city wail, from which it was afterward taken in the night by some of his friends from a distance, and carried to Jabesh-gilead and buried. 1 Sam 31.


SAVIOUR. Luke 2:11. See Christ.

SAW. This tool, among the Hebrews, probably resembled that so often depicted upon the Egyptian monuments. It was only single-handled; the teeth ran in the opposite direction to ours, therefore the workman pushed the saw from him, as is the custom now in the East. Besides a saw for wood, Isa 10:15, there is mention of a kind for stone. 1 Kgs 7:9. Saws were used likewise as instruments of torture. 2 Sam 12:31; cf. 1 Chr 20:3; Heb 11:37. Tradition asserts that in this manner the prophet Isaiah was killed, and history recounts instances of this use of the saw among the Egyptians, Persians, and Romans.

SCAPEGOAT. Lev 16:20. See Goat.

SCAR'LET. Gen 38:28. See Colors.

SCEP'TRE, a wooden staff or wand, 5 or 6 feet long, usually overlaid with gold or decorated with golden rings, with an ornamented point. It was borne in the hands of kings and others in authority as a token of power. Gen 49:10; Num 24:17. When the sceptre was held out to be touched by an individual approaching the throne, it was a sign of the royal acceptance and favor.

There is no biblical instance of a "sceptre being actually handled by a Jewish king. The term is used metaphorically. The use of a staff as a symbol of authority was not confined to kings; it might be used by any leader." - Smith.

SCE'VA (fitted), an Ephesian Jewish priest whose seven sons practised exorcism. Acts 19:14.

SCHISM means a rupture or separation, 1 Cor 12:25, but it is supposed to 770 denote in this passage any such alienation of feeling among Christians as violates the spiritual union which ought to exist among them, though there be no doctrinal error or separate communions.

SCHOOL, Acts 19:9. SCHOL'AR, 1 Chr 25:8, SCHOOL'MASTER. Gal 3:24. Schools existed among the Jews from a very early period. They were established under the supervision of the prophets to train young men to become expounders of the Law, and so fit them for the priestly and prophetical offices. 1 Sam 19:18-24; 2 Kgs 2:3, 2 Kgs 2:5, 2 Kgs 2:7, 2 Kgs 2:12, 2 Kgs 2:15. The children were taught to read by their parents and in common schools, and in higher seminaries were instructed by doctors in the Law and traditions. The system of education in religious matters was quite advanced and very popular. It was settled just at what age a child should begin, how many scholars a teacher should have, and by whom he should be paid. See Education.

The schoolmaster, in Paul's use of the term, was a person to whom was committed the care of children, to lead them, to observe them, and to instruct them in their first rudiments. Thus the office nearly answered to that of a governor or tutor. Gal 4:2-3, who constantly attends his pupil, teaches him, and forms his manners. It is said. Gal 3:24-25, "The law was our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ." It pointed out Christ in the Scriptures, especially in the figures and the prophecies of the O.T.; but, since we are supposed to be advanced to superior learning, and are committed to the tuition of the faith which we have embraced, we have no longer need of a schoolmaster, as such is of no further use to young persons when advanced to years of maturity.

SCHOOLS OF THE PROPH'ETS. 1 Sam 10:5. See Prophets.

SCOR'PION, a venomous creature allied to the spider, but resembling the lobster so much that the latter is called the sea-scorpion by the Arabs. Its shape and general appearance are seen in the cut. Its usual length is 1 or 2 inches, but in tropical climates it is sometimes found 6 or 8 inches in length, and its sting is attended with excruciating pain, Rev 9:3-6, terminating often in violent convulsions and death. The malignity of the venom is according to the size and complexion of the different species.

Scorpions are found in all warm climates, and are abundant in Palestine, where eight species are known, and are especially common about Mount Sinai. Deut 8:15. They remain dormant during the cold season, but through the rest of the year swarm under stones and in all the crannies and crevices of walls and houses. Their food consists of beetles, locusts, and other insects. The sting is a curved claw at the end of the tail, and


this latter the animal, in running, carries over its back in a threatening attitude. Luke 11:12 seems to mean merely the bestowal of a dangerous and unwelcome gift rather than a good one, and may refer to the Greek proverb: "A scorpion instead of a perch."

An instrument resembling a whip, but so formed with knots or small stones as that each blow should inflict a sharp stinging pain, is perhaps alluded to in 1 Kgs 12:11. See Scourge.

"Maaleh-akrabbim," Josh 15:3; Jud 1:36, is literally "the ascent of scorpions," and derives its name from the multitude of scorpions which infest it.

SCOURGE. After the Babylonish Captivity the scourge was formed of three lashes or thongs made of leather or small cords, thirteen strokes of which were equal to thirty-nine lashes, and not more than forty could be given under the Law. Deut 25:1-3; 2 Cor 11:24. The sufferer was tied by his arms to a low pillar, his back laid bare and his body bent forward, and the blows so applied. Sometimes sharp iron points or sharp 771 cornered pieces of metal were fastened to the end of the thongs, to render the suffering still more extreme. It is debated whether the whip was used before the

Flagellum or Scourge.

Captivity. Certainly the rod was, as is the case to-day in the East. The punishment was inflicted in the synagogue. Matt 10:17; Acts 23:34; Acts 5:40. The Romans used to beat with rods and whips; the number of blows was unlimited. But so degrading was this punishment in its nature and effects that no citizen of the Roman empire could be subjected to it. Acts 22:25-26. Many were known to die under the cruel infliction. Sometimes it took place on the way to execution, and sometimes it was itself the only punishment. The punishment with rods or twigs seems to have been a separate infliction. 2 Cor 11:25.

In our Lord's scourging, Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1, we see a literal fulfilment of Isaiah's prophecy. Isa 53:5.


SCRIBE. There are two Hebrew words which mean "a writer," but one is usually translated in the A.V. by Officer, which see. The other is correctly rendered "scribe." The art of writing may well, among the Hebrews, have been in early times a rare accomplishment, and therefore a class of men would arise who earned their living by carrying on correspondence or conducting accounts. But the first one of the class mentioned in the Bible is Sheva, the scribe of David, 2 Sam 20:25, and that it was an honorable post is proven by the mention of him by name. The duty of the king's scribe was to record the edicts, and on one occasion at least to act as a kind of treasurer. 2 Kgs 12:10. Scribes also officiated in the army. Jer 52:25. It is, however, the N.T. usage which is most familiar to us. Scribes and Pharisees are inseparably linked. But these "scribes" are wholly different. They were the copyists of the Law, and because such a minute acquaintance with it as their business implied led them to become authorities upon the details of Mosaism, it came to pass that they were popularly regarded as the teachers of the Law. This class of men originated, it would seem, during the Exile. Ezra was their leader and pattern. Ezr 7:6. They were held in great respect, but in many cases they were unworthy of it. As the distance from the close of the canon increased, these privileged and learned expounders of the Law took greater liberties with the text and made it void through their traditions. Mark 7:13. But the position some of the class occupied as members of the Sanhedrin, Matt 26:3, the associates of the priests in the most important matters. Matt 21:15, their numbers, and the popular awe of them, increase our estimate of the courage evinced by Jesus in attacking them, as he did repeatedly and in the most unmeasured terms. Matt 23:1-33. They were his determined and wily foes. Luke 5:30; Song 6:7; Num 10:25. That there were exceptions is manifest, for Jesus speaks of scribes being sent of God, Matt 23:34, and one of his parables relates to a scribe "instructed unto the kingdom of heaven." Matt 13:52. The scribes formed a regularly organized college, into which members were admitted by special examination. The scribes and lawyers were one class. See Lawyers.


A Jewish Scribe.

SCRIP, in 1 Sam 17:40, means a shepherd's bag. In the N.T. "scrip" means a wallet suspended from the shoulder for carrying food. Matt 10:10; Luke 10:4.

SCRIP'TURE. See Bible.

SCUR'VY. Lev 21:20 and Lev 22:22. The disease known by this name, in modern times, is usually caused by long confinement in cold and damp climates, without fresh provisions. In the progress of it, the skin becomes dry and scaly and livid spots appear. Probably this appearance of the skin is all that is denoted by the word "scurvy" in the passages cited.

SCYTH'IAN, a name used indefinitely by ancient writers, sometimes to denote all the nomadic tribes that roamed over the countries north of the Black and Caspian Seas, and sometimes for a particular people remarkable for their rude and barbarous condition. Col 3:11.

SCYTHOP'OLIS (city, of the Seythians), a city in Palestine, and identical with ancient Beth-shean. It is noticed by this name in the Apocryphal book of Judith. See Beth-shean.

SEA. The Hebrew word yam, or "sea," is used in Scripture: (1) for the "gathering of waters," or the ocean, Gen 1:2, 1 Kgs 16:10; Deut 30:13; (2) as referring to the Mediterranean Sea, under the title of the "hinder," the "western," the "utmost," sea, or the "sea of the Philistines," the "great sea," or simply " the sea," Deut 11:24; Deut 34:2; Joel 2:20; Ex 23:31; Num 34:6-7; Josh 15:47; Gen 49:13; Ps 80:11; Ps 107:23; 1 Kgs 4:20; (3) as referring to the Red Sea, Ex 15:4; (4) as referring to inland lakes, like the Salt, or Dead, Sea; (5) to any great collection of waters, as the Nile or the Euphrates in time of a flood or high water. Isa 19:5; Am 8:8, A.V. "flood;" Nah 3:8; Eze 32:2; Jer 51:36.

SEA OF CHIN'NERETH. Num 34:11. See Galilee. Sea of.

SEA OF JA'ZER. Jer 48:32. See Jazer.

SEA OF TIBE'RIAS. John 21:1. See Galilee, Sea of.

SEA, THE DEAD. See Salt Sea.


SEA, THE MOLTEN, or BRA'ZEN, the name of the large copper or bronze laver made by Solomon for the temple, and which stood upon twelve metal oxen in the southeast corner of the court of the priests. It is described in 1 Kgs 7:23-26. It was 74 feet high, 15 feet in diameter, and 45 feet in circumference, and contained 16,000 gallons (2 Chr 4:5 says 773 SEA .

24,000). The Gibeonites, it is said, were at first employed to bring the water requisite to fill it, but at a later day it was supplied by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem. Solomon made it of the copper captured from Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer, king of Zobah. 1 Chr 18:8. Ahaz took down the sea from off the brazen oxen and put it upon a pavement of stones. 2 Kgs 16:17. The Assyrians broke it in pieces. 2 Kgs 25:13. See Layer.

SEA, THE RED. See Red Sea.

SEA, THE SALT. Gen 14:3. See Salt Sea.

SEAL. 1 Kgs 21:8. This was usually employed to authenticate public or private papers. Jer 32:10. If a door or box was to be sealed, it was first fastened with some ligament, upon which clay or wax was spread and then impressed with a seal or signet. Frequently a ring with some inscription on it was used as a seal, by the delivery or transfer of which the highest offices of the kingdom were bestowed. Gen 41:42; Esth 3:10. In sealing the sepulchre. Matt 27:66, it is probable that the fastening of the stone which secured the entrance was covered with clay or wax, and so impressed with a public or private seal that any violation of it could be discovered at once. See Rings, Letters.

Phoenician Seal.

Modern travellers describe the seal used in the East, at the present day, as made of cornelian, or agate, with the name or title of the writer, or some verse of the Koran or other motto, engraved upon it. 2 Tim 2:19. It is fastened into a ring and worn on the hand. Song 8:6. When used it is either applied to the wax, or is covered with some substance which, being stamped on the paper, leaves the desired impression.

The word "seal" is used figuratively in the Bible to denote an act or token or process of confirmation. Rom 4:11; Eph 4:30.

SEA'SONS. In Palestine the year is very nearly divided by the equinoxes into two seasons - the dry and the rainy. In the promise made to Noah, Gen 8:22, this division seems to be indicated, and the two portions of the year are designated as "seed-time and harvest," "cold and heat," "summer and winter."

More particularly, grain-harvest continues from the middle of April until near the middle of June. During this period the sky is clear, the air warm, and even hot in the valleys and on the coast, very much like the beginning of summer with us. As it proceeds the heat in the plains is great. For the next two months the heat increases, and the nights are so warm that the people sleep in the open air upon the roofs of their houses. The Arabs call this the vernal summer.

The season of fruits lasts from about the middle of August to the middle of November. The intensity of the heat is greater by day, but toward the end of summer the nights begin to be cool.

During these three periods, up to the beginning or middle of September, there are no showers, rain being as scarce in summer as snow, 1 Sam 12:17. Hence the proverb, Prov 26:1. From the end of April until September a cloud rarely is to be seen upon the face of the heavens. During all this time the earth is moistened by the dew, which is, therefore, a frequent emblem of divine grace and goodness. Sometimes a cloud appears in the morning, but it disappears with the dew as soon as the sun exerts its power. Hos 6:4. The dry grass of the fields sometimes takes fire and produces desolating conflagration, and the parched earth is cleft and broken into chasms. This is more particularly the case when the east wind blows, Gen 41:6; Hos 13:15. Between the middle of September and the middle of October there are two or three days of rain, which suffices to refresh all nature, so that the whole land is clad in verdure.

This prepares the earth for seed-time, which continues from early in October until early in December, immediately following the former or "early rain." which is so needful for the sower. In the early part of this period it is still quite hot, so that all journeys are made by night, as the temperature is then agreeable and the sky is clear. As the year advances, however, there are alternations of heat and cold, as with us in autumn. The weather becomes unsettled, 774 and there are fogs and clouds even when there is no rain. In the mountains snow sometimes falls toward the middle of December. The streams are still small, and many of their channels altogether dry. In the latter part of November the trees lose their foliage, and fires are made toward the last days of seed-time.

Winter strictly includes the period from the middle of December till the middle of February. Snow occasionally falls on the highlands, but seldom remains more than a few hours, except upon the mountains. Ps 147:16-17. Ice is rare, and vegetable life is seldom injured by frost and does not require protection. During the winter months the roads are very bad. Matt 24:20. The greatest cold lasts about forty days, from the 12th of December to the 20th of January. The north wind is now exceedingly penetrating. Gen 31:40. Yet in the level country, when the sun shines, it is quite warm. Josephus says that in his day it was as warm in winter at Caesarea, on the coast, as at other places in summer. In this season hail- and thunderstorms are common; the brooks rise, and all the streams fill their channels. Toward the end of January the fields become green, and there is every appearance of approaching spring. In the early part of February the trees are in leaf, and before the middle of the month some fruit trees are in blossom - first the almond, then the apricot, peach, and plum. Other trees blossom in March.

From February until April it is still cold, but less so, and the spring may be said to have arrived. The heats of noon are greater and greater, especially in the flat country. The rains continue, but in smaller and smaller quantities. Thunder and hail are more frequent. Toward the close of this period the rains cease, and the last falls in the early part of April, and is called the "latter rain," which seems to give strength to the filling grain. The crops of grain are as much advanced in February as with us in May and June. The wheat and barley have at this time nearly attained their height. The grain has fully ripened in the southern part of Palestine by the middle of April, and in the northern and mountainous parts three weeks later; but sometimes, when the sowing has been in January, the grain does not come to maturity before July or August.

Upon the sixteenth day after the first new moon in April, there was a solemn presentation made to the Lord of the first sheaf of ripe barley. The grain, however, as we may readily suppose, was mature sometimes earlier and sometimes later. It was common to reckon four months from seed-time to harvest. The cutting and securing the grain was carried on for about seven weeks - that is, from the Passover until Pentecost, which last is therefore called the "feast of weeks." This was a season of very great enjoyment and festivity when the harvest had been plentiful. The reapers - that is to say, the children, slaves, and other domestics - indulged in mirth and joined in songs suitable to the occasion, and in congratulations to the master of the harvest. Ps 126:6; Isa 9:3. The grain was then gathered and bound into sheaves, as with us. See Hail, Rain. Palestine.

SEAT, MO'SES', Matt 23:2, is a figurative expression, denoting the assumption of the same authority or office as belonged to Moses.

SEATS. Matt 21:12. The nations of the East seat themselves upon the mats or carpets with which their floors are covered. In the houses of the rich there are spread pillows or cushions stuffed with cotton, or, in some cases, a broad but very low sofa or divan with arms, stuffed cushions, and costly ornaments. Upon these divans, as well as upon the floor or ground, they sit, with the legs bent under and crossed, in a half-kneeling posture.

The ancient Hebrews used the posture which has just been described. After the Captivity, however, the rich and noble adopted the Persian method of lying down at table upon couches. Am 6:4, which was likewise practised by the Greeks and Romans. In the passage of Amos it is said of the luxurious sinners who lived nearly eight hundred years before Christ, they "lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches." These "beds of ivory" were probably divans, such as those above mentioned, but richly decorated with ivory. They used at table very low and broad divans, and the guests stretched themselves at full length. Each 775 divan held three persons. The back was supported by a cushion, and the face so turned toward the table that the head was hold up with the left hand upon another cushion. The right hand was thus free to reach the food. The second person lay with the back part of his head toward the breast of the former, and the third, in like manner, with the back part of his head toward the second. Thus they lay, so to speak, in the bosoms of their neighbors. Luke 16:23; John 13:23. This was the ordinary posture at meals, and the feet of the guests were distant from the table. Hence we can readily form an idea of the scene described in Luke 7:38.

In the eating-room there were commonly three such divans; the middle place of the middle divan was accounted most honorable. This was the seat which the Pharisees so much affected at feasts. 1 Sam 9:22; Matt 23:6; Luke 14:8-9. At the present day the corner of the bed-divan is the seat of dignity, and so it was in ancient times among the Hebrews. Am 3:12. This manner of reclining at meals - at least, in Persia - was imitated by the women. Esth 7:8. It is uncertain whether Hebrew women ate in the same apartment with the men. See Eat, Eating.

SE'BA (man ?), a wealthy and commercial region of Ethiopia, Ps 72:10; Isa 43:3; Isa 45:14; Eze 23:42. Seba appears to have corresponded to the northern portion of Abyssinia. Josephus placed the original Seba at Meroe, but the name seems, in later times, to have included a region of considerable importance on the south-western coast of the Red Sea. Its inhabitants are mentioned with Sheba, Ps 72:10, the trading-people of the other side of the sea. The inhabitants of both Sheba and Seba were called Sabreans by Greek and Latin writers, but the Hebrew words are distinct. Meroe lay between the river Astaboras, the northern tributary of the Nile, and the Astapus or "Blue River." The capital city was about 90 miles south of the junction of the Astaboras and the Nile. Extensive ruins 20 miles northeast of Shendy, in Nubia, near the Nile, may indicate the site. See Sabaeus.

SE'BAT, or SHE'BAT. Zech 1:7. See Month.

SEC'ACAH (enclosure), one of the six cities in the wilderness of Judah, on the western side of the Dead Sea. Josh 15:61. Conder suggests its identity with the ruin Sikkeh, east of Bethany.

SE'CHU (the hill or eminence), a place apparently on the route between Gibeah and Ramah - that is, between the residence of Saul and that of Samuel - noted for the "great well" or cistern. 1 Sam 19:22. Swartz speaks of a large pit at Bir Neballa, near neby Samwil, which may mark the place, but Conder proposes to locate its site at Suweikeh, immediately south of Beeroth.

SECT. The word appears eight times in the A.V. It has a twofold meaning - either a "chosen set of doctrines or mode of life. Acts 24:14; 2 Pet 2:1; or else a party adhering to the doctrine." - Smith. But it does not necessarily imply any error of doctrine or practice. It is always in the singular, and always as a translation of the Greek term "heresy," which signifies, primarily, "choice," then "party," "sect," and is used of the religious parties among the Jews, Acts 5:17; Lev 15:5; Acts 26:5; of the Christians in general, who were for a long time called by the Jews, in contempt, "the sect of the Nazarenes," Acts 24:5; of parties within the Christian Church, 1 Cor 11:19; of heresies proper, or errors - that is, wilful perversions of Christian truth. 2 Pet 2:1; Gal 5:20.

It is easy to see how Christianity was originally considered as a new sect of Judaism; hence, Tertullus, accusing Paul before Felix, says that he was chief of the seditious sect of the Nazarenes, Acts 24:5, and the Jews of Rome said to the apostle, when he arrived in that city, that, as to "this sect," it was everywhere spoken against. Acts 28:22. The word "heresy," in Acts 24:14, is the same in the original with the word "sect" in Acts 24:5; so that the apostle replies directly to the argument of Tertullus, and admits that, "after the manner of a sect, producing division and schism, as my persecutors say, so worship I the God of my fathers." In countries having an established Church or a State religion, the word "sect" is applied to those communities or bodies of Christians who separate themselves from the Establishment. In the United States the word cannot of course be used in this 776 sense with any propriety, there being no national Church. Each separate communion enjoys its own rights and privileges as fully as any other, and, while there are no sects, properly speaking. there are a great number of denominations, as Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist, Methodist, etc.. etc.

SECUN'DUS (second, or fortunate), a Christian of Thessalonica. Acts 20:4.

SEDI'TIONS, Gal 5:20, should be "divisions."

SEED, MIN'GLED. Lev 19:19. Travellers tell us that women are employed in Aleppo and elsewhere in cleansing the mingled seed from all admixture, to prepare it for sowing.

SEED-TIME. Gen 8:22. See Seasons.

SEER. 1 Sam 9:9. See Prophets.

SEETHE, to boil. Ex 16:23.

SE'GUB (elevated).

  1. The youngest son of Hiel, who built Jericho. 1 Kgs 16:34.

  2. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:21-22.

SE'IR(hairy),a Horite chief who gave his name, probably, to the mountainous region wherein he lived. Gen 36:20.

SE'IR (hairy), the name of a region and of a place.

  1. The land or mount of Seir was a mountain-district extending from the Dead Sea to the eastern arm of the Red Sea. It was bounded on the east by the Arabian desert, and on the west by the deep valley of the Arabah. The mountains are of sandstone and granite, the principal peak being Mount Hor, which is 4800 feet high. This district was anciently inhabited by the Horites. Gen 14:6; Deut 2:12. Afterward, Seir was the possession of Esau and his posterity. Gen 32:3; Gen 33:14, Jer 33:16; Gen 36:8-9; Deut 2:4, Num 2:22; 2 Chr 20:10. Hence, Seir sometimes means Edom. The Israelites, when refused permission to go to Moab through Edom, marched round the mountain, down the Arabah, between the limestone cliffs of the Tih on the west and the granite range of Mount Seir on the east, until they could turn to the left and march north toward Moab.

  2. Mount Seir, a place noted as one of the landmarks in the boundary of Judah. Josh 15:10. It was between Kirjathjearim and Beth-shemesh. and may be the high ridge between the Wady Aly and the Wady Ghurab. In the pass leading to Beit Ainun, near Tekua, is the modern village of Sair among the hills which may be its site, but Conder suggests Bath es Saghar as the Seir of 2 Chr 20:23.

SE'IRATH (she-goat), the place of refuge whither Ehud fled after his murder of Eglon. Jud 3:26-27. Perhaps it may be found in Mount Ephraim, a continuation of the rugged bushy hills which stretched to Judah's northern boundary.

SE'LA, and SE'LAH (rock), a celebrated city of Edom, the Greek name being "Petra," or "rock." It was so called from its remarkable situation, "the rock," for which the Hebrew word is "Sela," and the Greek is "Petra." Sela was situated about halfway between the southern end of the Dead Sea and the northern end of the Gulf of Akabah. The city lay in a deep cleft of the range of Mount Seir, near the foot of Mount Hor, and in its situation and in its history was one of the most remarkable cities of antiquity.

History. - Sela is only twice mentioned in the O.T. Amaziah captured it, and called it Joktheel -that is, "subdued of God." 2 Kgs 14:7. It was afterward a possession of Moab, and was then exhorted to send a tribute of sheep to Zion. Isa 16:1. In some other passages the word "rock" is supposed to refer to Sela, as in Jud 1:36; 2 Chr 25:11-12; Isa 42:11; Ob 3; but some of these seem to be indefinite, and cannot be referred to the city with any certainty. Sela is not mentioned in the N.T., but has a relation to a N.T. character, for the first wife of Herod Antipas, whom he divorced to take Herodias, Luke 3:19, was the daughter of Aretas, king of Petra, and this wickedness of Herod led to war.

Aretas was the general name of the sovereigns of Arabia Petraea, a kingdom which gradually included the territory belonging to the ancient Edomites, who were driven out by the Nabatheans, an Arabian tribe descended from Nebajoth, the eldest son of Ishmael. Gen 25:13; Isa 60:7. In b.c. 301, Antigonus, one of Alexander's successors, sent two expeditions against them, but with slight success. Petra became an important trade centre. It is mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, Josephus, Eusebius, and Jerome. It became an ecclesiastical see, and its


[image , -42, 276, 444, 19684]

The Rock-Temples at Sela(Petra). (After a Photograph.) 778 bishops are mentioned as late as a.d. 536. Afterward, Petra entirely disappeared from history, and remained unknown for thirteen hundred years. Since 1807 it has been visited and described by many travellers, of whom the most noted were Seetzen (1807), Burckhardt (1812), Irby and Mangles (1818). The reports of these early travellers seem almost as unreal as an Arabian tale, but later researches have shown that Petra was really one of the most wonderful cities of the earth. Robinson, Porter, Baedeker, and Stanley describe it fully.

Present Appearance. - Petra is approached from the east through a remarkable and famous defile, the Sik, or "cleft," between rocks of red sandstone rising perpendicularly to the height of 100, 200, or 300 feet. This gorge is about a mile and a half in length. It is a dry torrent-bed, and is known among the Arabs as Wady Mousa, from the tradition of the Koran that this cleft was made by the rod of Moses when he brought the stream through into the valley beyond. The road through this cleft was once regularly paved like the Appian Way, and the pavement still remains in some places. The cliffs are of sandstone, and the rocks show beautifully-variegated colors of crimson, indigo, yellow, purple, etc. At the end of the defile, and fronting it, is a temple excavated from the rock. This is the so-called Khaznet Fir'aun, or "Treasury of Pharaoh." The façade is 85 feet in height; the sculpturing is in excellent preservation; five out of six columns are standing. The portal leads into a spacious chamber 12 yards square and 25 feet high. About 200 yards farther are the ruins of the magnificent amphitheatre, the chief boast of Petra. It is hewn entirely from the rock, and is 39 yards in diameter; thirty-three tiers of seats rise one above another, and the whole would probably accommodate from three thousand to four thousand spectators. Among the other principal objects of interest are the Kasr Fir'aun, or "Pharaoh's palace," the triumphal arch, several temples, and numerous tombs, some of very elaborate workmanship. The whole valley of Petra is about three-quarters of a mile long and from 250 to 500 yards wide. The situation of this city in the midst of the desert greatly enhances the impression made by the ruins. The complete destruction and desolation of the place fulfils the prophecy of Jeremiah. Jer 49:16-17.

SE'LAH. Hab 3:3, Gal 1:9, 2 Kgs 11:13. This is a musical term, and occurs seventy-one times in thirty-nine Psalms, also in Hab 3:3, Gal 1:9, 2 Kgs 11:13 - in all, therefore, seventy-four times in the Bible. The most probable definition of it is that it "directs the falling-in of the sound of the priests' trumpets into the Levites' psalm-singing and playing on stringed instruments. It occurs, therefore, where very warm emotions have been expressed." "Higgaion," joined with "Selah," Ps 9:16, some render "a louder strain," others, "piano." We know nothing definite about it. See Marginal Reading.

SE'LA-HAMMAHLE'KOTH (rock of divisions), a natural stronghold in the wilderness Maon, south-east of Hebron, and where David made a remarkable escape from Saul. 1 Sam 23:28. It has been identified with a place in the present Wady Malaky, east of Maon.

SE'LED (exultation), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:30.

SELEU'CIA, the seaport of Antioch, and the place at which Paul and Barnabas embarked on their first missionary journey. It was on the Mediterranean, about 5 miles north of the river Orontes and 16 miles west of Antioch. Seleucia lay on the slope of Mount Coryphaeus, and was founded by Seleucus Nicator, died b.c. 280. To distinguish it from other cities named from the same founder, it was sometimes called "Seleucia ad Mare," or "Seleucia by the sea," and, from Mount Pierus, it was called "Seleucia Pieria." The city appears to have been a very beautiful one under the rule of the Seleucidae. The harbor was excellent, enclosing a basin of 47 acres. The masonry is yet in good preservation, although the port is choked with sand and mud. There is still a gateway at the south-eastern corner of the city, through which Paul and Barnabas probably passed. The Arabs called it Selukiyeh, and the city is now in a desolate condition, only a small village existing near its site, and called El-Kaluni.

SELEU'CUS, the name of five kings called the Seleucidae. Seleucus Philopator was the fourth, and is mentioned 779 in the Apocrypha, 1 Mace. 7:1; 2 Mace. 3:3, and elsewhere. He was the son of Antiochus the Great, whom he succeeded, b.c. 187. His policy toward the Jews was conciliatory. In 2 Mace. 3 there is an interesting account of the attempt he made to plunder the temple and how signally he failed. Heliodorus, who was the agent in this business, poisoned him, b.c. 175. He was succeeded by Antiochus Epiphanes. Daniel describes him, Dan 11:20, as "a raiser of taxes," because he had to resort to extraordinary measures to raise the requisite revenues.

SEM, Greek form for "Shem," used in Luke 3:36.

SEMACHI'AH (Jehovah sustains him), a grandson of Obed-edom, and a Levite porter. 1 Chr 26:7.

SEM'EI (renowned), one mentioned in our Lord's genealogy. Luke 3:26.

SENA'AH (thorny), a place (named with the article) whose inhabitants returned from captivity with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:35; Neh 7:38; Heb 3:3. Eusebius and Jerome mention Magdal Senaah, 7 miles north of Jericho, but it cannot be certainly identified with this Senaah.

SEN'ATE. The word denotes the "elders of Israel," one of three classes composing the Sanhedrin; the other two were the priests and the scribes. Acts 5:21.

SE'NEH (bush, or thorn-rock), the name of one of the sharp rocks by which Jonathan sought the Philistines. 1 Sam 14:4. In the Wady Suweinit, a deep valley south of Michmash, about 6 1/2 miles north of Jerusalem, are two remarkable hills, one on each side of the valley, which are supposed to be Bozez and Seneh.

SE'NIR (coat-of-mail, or cataract), a name for Mount Hermon. 1 Chr 5:23; Eze 27:5. See Hermon.

SENNACH'ERIB (Heb. Sanherib, Sin, the moon, sent many brothers - i.e., he was not his father's eldest son) was king of Assyria when Hezekiah reigned in Judah. He was the son and successor of Sargon. Judah had paid tribute to Assyria, but under Hezekiah it revolted, and so revenge was determined upon; accordingly Sennacherib appears in the Bible as the invader of Palestine on two occasions. The first time he was pacified by a tribute. 2 Kgs 18:14. But, Hezekiah having the second time revolted, he sent an embassy with a few troops to the capital and demanded submission. He also sent an insulting letter to Hezekiah, who went up to the house of the Lord and prayed for deliverance. His prayer was answered, for the Assyrian army besieging Libnah was smitten with a plague so severe

Seunacherib on his Throne. (From monuments at Kouyunjik.)

that it is stated 185,000 died in one night. The effect of this catastrophe was that the siege was raised and Sennacherib retreated to Nineveh. 2 Kgs 19:35. Many years - perhaps twenty - after this he was worshipping in the house of his god Nisroch when Adrammelech and Sharezer, his sons, smote him with the sword. 2 Kgs 19:37. He was succeeded by Esar-haddon.

Sennacherib's reign lasted twenty-two 780 years, b.c. 705-682. It was brilliant. He crushed the revolt of Babylon, attacked Sidon, made many cities tribute, and, as Sargon had done, laid a heavy hand upon the neighboring nations. He made Nineveh his capital and adorned it with many splendid buildings. His palaces were large and beautiful. His monuments exist in unexpected places. Thus, at the mouth of the Nahr el-Kalb, near Beyrout, and close by an inscription of Rameses the Great of Egypt, is the record of his arrival.

SENU'AH (bristling), properly, "Hasenuah," with the definite article, a Benjamite. 1 Chr 9:7; Neh 11:9.

SEO'RIM (barley), the head of the fourth priestly course. 1 Chr 24:8.

SE'PHAR, a boundary of the Joktanites. Gen 10:30. It was probably in South-eastern Arabia, near the shore of the Indian Ocean, where is an ancient seaport-town called Zafar.

SEPH'ARAD (separation), a place from whence captive Jews would return to the cities of the South. It is named only in Ob 20. Some identify the place with Sardis in Lydia; others with Zarephath; while modern Jews regard it as Spain, and others identify it with Sipphara. See Sepharvaim.

SEPHARVA'IM (the two Sipparas, one being on each side of the river), a place in Assyria from whence colonists came into Israel or Samaria. 2 Kgs 17:24; 2 Kgs 18:34; 2 Kgs 19:13; Isa 36:19; Ps 37:13. Rawlinson and others have proposed to identify it with Sippara, a town on the Euphrates, between Hit and Babylon. It was built on both sides of the Euphrates, or of the canal, and the one was called Sipar-sa-Samas - i.e., "consecrated to Samas, the sun-god ;" the other was called Sipar-sa-Anunit, "consecrated to the goddess Anunit." On the monuments it is called "Sippara of the Sun." It had a library, probably similar to that found at Nineveh, which has been deciphered by George Smith and others. The modern town Mosaib now stands near its site.

SE'PHARVITES, the inhabitants of Sepharvaim. 2 Kgs 17:31.

SEP'TUAGINT, the Greek version of the O.T. See Bible.

SEP'ULCHRE. See Burial.

SE'RAH (princess), a daughter of Asher. Gen 46:17; 1 Chr 7:30; called Sarah in Num 26:46.

SERAI'AH (warrior of Jehovah).

  1. David's scribe, 2 Sam 8:17; called Sheva in 2 Sam 20:25, Shisha in 1 Kgs 4:3, and Shavsha in 1 Chr 18:16.

  2. The high priest in the reign of Zedekiah, taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar and killed at Riblah. 2 Kgs 25:18-21; 1 Chr 6:14; Jer 52:24-27.

  3. A Netophathite who submitted to Gedaliah. 2 Kgs 25:23; Jer 40:8.

  4. A Judite. 1 Chr 4:13-14.

  5. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:35.

  6. A priest who came back with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:2; Neh 10:2; Neh 12:1, Josh 12:12; called Azariah in Neh 7:7.

  7. One of the ancestors of Ezra, Ezr 7:1; Neh 11:11; called Azariah in 1 Chr 9:11.

  8. An officer whom Jehoiakim commanded to take Baruch and Jeremiah. Jer 36:26.

  9. The brother of Baruch, who was a member of the court and held, during the journey of Zerubbabel to Babylon, the position of leader of the caravan, for so the words "quiet prince" should read, Jer 51:59, Josh 15:61.

SER'APHIM (princess), the name given by Isaiah to the spirits waiting on the Lord, and which are apparently the most exalted of the angelic host, Isa 6:2, 1 Chr 24:6.

SE'RED (fear), one of Zebulun's sons. Gen 46:14; Num 26:26.

SER'GEANTS. Acts 16:35, Acts 7:38. This was a class of public officers under the Roman government. They were appointed to carry the fasces, or bundle of rods, before the supreme magistrates, and to inflict the punishment of scourging and beheading upon criminals.

SER'GIUS PAU'LUS, the proconsul or deputy governor of Cyprus at the time of Paul and Barnabas' visit. He showed his intelligence and candor by sending for the apostles and accepting the overthrow of Elymas, the sorcerer, as demonstration of the overthrow of the creed Elymas represented. He embraced the gospel. Acts 13:7, Jud 4:12. Some think the apostle Paul took this name instead of Saul, in compliment to his distinguished convert: which is improbable. It is a proof of Luke's minute accuracy that he calls Sergius Paulus a proconsul because the island had been governed by a propraetor during the reign of Augustus, but in the reign of Claudius, 781 the time of the visit, as is proved by coins, it was under proconsular government.

SER'PENT. In its ordinary scriptural use, this word does not denote any definite species, but snakes as a class, or some one or more kinds made definite by the context. The serpent is a creature distinguished for its subtility, Gen 3:1, and wisdom in avoiding danger. Matt 10:16, as well as for the instinctive dread which it inspires in man and most animals. About one-sixth of all the species known are venomous.

The devil is called "the serpent" and "the old serpent," Rev 12:9, 2 Kgs 22:14, 2 Sam 20:15, probably in allusion to his subtility and malice, and also to the fact that in tempting our first parents to disobey God he employed a serpent or assumed the form of one. 2 Cor 11:3.

The serpent is used by the sacred writers as an emblem of wickedness. Matt 23:33, cruelty, Ps 58:4; Prov 23:32; Eccl 10:11, and treachery. Gen 49:17. There is allusion to the art of taming and charming these reptiles in Ps 58:5; Eccl 10:11; Jer 8:17; Jas 3:7. Eating dust is ascribed to it, Gen 3:14; Isa 65:25; Mic 7:17, because it is swallowed by the serpent with its food, or the expression is figurative for its life in the dust. There is no reason to suppose that this creature was able to go otherwise than on its belly before the fall, but subsequent to that event its normal mode of progression was constituted a mark of condemnation. The worship of these reptiles is very common in India and other parts of the Old World, and probably originated, in part at least, from fear of the more venomous and powerful kinds. "It was probably from a tradition of the instrumentality of the serpent in the fall of man that it was used throughout the East as an emblem of the spirit of disobedience and of the evil spirit. The doctrine of Zoroaster - that the evil one, in the guise of a serpent, first taught men to sin - is a plain tradition of the history of the fall.

"To this we may add that on the monuments of Egypt there not unfrequently occurs the figure of a man in regal costume (probably an incarnate deity) piercing with a spear the head of a large serpent - remarkably suggestive of a tradition of the prophecy that 'the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head.'" - Tristrim. The sacred symbol of the globe and serpent is found on almost all the monuments of Egypt, See Adder, Asp, Cockatrice, Viper.

SERPENT, BRAZEN. Num 21:9. As a punishment for the murmuring of the Israelites, God sent into the midst of the camp a venomous serpent, called "fiery," probably, from the burning which followed its deadly bite. There are many species of such dangerous serpents still found in the wilderness of Sinai, the various kinds of which, or perhaps some particular species, may here be intended. The destruction of life was fearful, and the people entreated Moses to intercede for their deliverance. To test the sincerity of their penitence, Moses was commanded to make a serpent of brass resembling the serpents which were among them, and put it upon a pole, that it might be seen from all parts of the camp, and then whoever was bitten should be healed by simply looking at the brazen figure; and it was accordingly done, and all the promised effects followed. This passage of history is alluded to by our Saviour as an illustration of the work he came to do. John 3:14-15.

SERPENT, FIERY FLY'ING. Isa 14:29; Ex 30:6. This creature has no connection with the preceding. The phrase may be a figurative expression for the swiftly-darting sand-serpents of Eastern deserts, or a mere poetic expression, like the entirely fabulous dragon or winged serpent of modern literature.

SE'RUG (branch), one of the post-diluvian patriarchs, in the line of Shem, Gen 11:20, Heb 12:23; 1 Chr 1:26; called Saruch in Luke 3:35.

SER'VANT. Phile 16. The word so rendered is generally to be interpreted "bondman" or "slave." But there were also servants in our sense of the term: thus, Joshua was servant to Moses, Elisha to Elijah, and Elisha himself had a servant, Gehazi. There are other instances. See Slave.

SER'VITOR, a servant. 2 Kgs 4:43.

SETH (compensation), son of Adam and Eve, was born when Adam was one hundred and thirty years old, and lived nine hundred and twelve years. Gen 5:3 782 Tradition ascribes to Seth the invention of letters.

SE'THUR (hidden), the spy from Asher. Num 13:13.

SEVEN. Gen 2:2. As from the beginning this was the number of days in the week, so it has ever in Scripture a sort of emphasis attached to it, and is very often and generally used as a round number, or, as some would say, a perfect number. Clean beasts were taken into the ark by sevens. Gen 7:2. The years of plenty and famine in Egypt were marked by sevens. Gen 41:2-3. With the Jews not only was there a seventh-day Sabbath, but every seventh year was a Sabbath, and every seven times seventh year was a jubilee. Their great feasts of unleavened bread and of tabernacles were observed for seven days. The number of animals in many of their sacrifices was limited to seven. The golden candlestick had seven branches. Seven priests with seven trumpets went around the walls of Jericho seven days, and seven times on the seventh day. In the Apocalypse we find seven churches addressed, seven candlesticks, seven spirits, seven stars, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven thunders, seven vials, seven plagues, and seven angels to pour them out.

"Seven" is often put for any round or whole number; just as we use "ten" or "a dozen;" so in 1 Sam 2:5; Job 5:19; Prov 26:16, Gal 4:25; Isa 4:1; Jer 15:9; Matt 12:45. "In like manner "seven times," or "seven-fold," means "often," "abundantly," "completely." Gen 4:15, Jud 6:24; Lev 26:24; Ps 12:6; Ps 79:12; Matt 18:21. And seventy times seven is still a higher superlative. Matt 18:21-22.

SHAALAB'BIN (city of jackals), a town of Dan. Josh 19:42; also called Shaalbim. Jud 1:35; 1 Kgs 4:9. Now the present village Selbit, near Aijalon, south-east of Lydda.

SHAAL'BIM. See above.

SHAALBONITE, THE. 2 Sam 23:32; 1 Chr 11:33. Eliahba, one of David's thirty-seven heroes, is so called. It is not known where Shaalbon was.

SHA'APH (division).

    1. Two names in the genealogy of Judah. 1 Chr 2:47, 1 Chr 2:49.

SHAARA'IM (two gates).

  1. A city in the plain of Judah; called also Sharaim. 1 Sam 17:52; Josh 15:36. Probably identical with the ruin Saireh, west of Beit Atab.

  2. A town in Simeon. 1 Chr 4:31. In the list of Joshua it appears as Sharuhen and Shilem, which see.

SHAASH'GAZ (beauty's lustre ?), the eunuch in the second house of the harem of Xerxes. Esth 2:14.

SHABBETH'AI (sabbath-born), a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the Law and in dealing with the illegal marriages. Ezr 10:15; Neh 8:7; Num 11:16.

SHACH'IA (Jehovah protects), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:10.

SHAD'DAI (the mighty), the name for God in common use, along with "El," before Jehovah was revealed. It is translated "the Almighty."

SHAD'OW. The word is used in Col 2:17; Heb 8:5; Dan 10:1 to express the relation between Judaism and Christianity. The rites of the old religion prefigured the realities of the new.

SHA'DRACH (royal ?). Dan 1:7. See Abednego.

SHA'GE (erring), the father of one of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:34.

SHAHARA'IM (the two dawns), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:8.

SHAHAZ'IMAH (heights), a town in Issachar. Josh 19:22. Perhaps Tell esh Kusim, in the Jordan valley.

SHA'LEM. (peaceful). Gen 33:18. If this term indicates a place, it may be identified with the present village of Salim, 3 miles east of Shechem. Some would render it, however, "in peace," and would read the verse, "Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem."

SHA'LIM, THE LAND OF, which means "the land of foxes" or "jackals" through which Saul passed. 1 Sam 9:4. It may have been eastward from Shalisha.

SHAL'ISHA, LAND OF (triangular), a district near Mount Ephraim. 1 Sam 9:4. In it, perhaps, the city of Baal-shalisha was situated. 2 Kgs 4:42. Eusebius and Jerome place it about 15 Roman miles north of Lydda. Perhaps near Thilth. See Baal-shalisha.

SHAL'LECHETH (a casting down), the name of a gate of the temple. 1 Chr 26:16. Literally, it means the "gate of projection" - that is, from which were thrown out the sweepings, ashes, and offal of the temple. The 783 causeway was made by Solomon from his own palace by way of the Tyropoeon valley to the western wall of the temple; to this causeway the gate led, Grove would identify it with the gate Sinsleh, at the western wall of the Haram enclosure, 600 feet above the south-western corner.

SHAL'LUM (retribution).

  1. The murderer of Zachariah, king of Israel. He usurped the crown, but was slain by Menahem at the end of the first month of his reign, b.c. 771. 2 Kgs 15:10-15.

  2. The husband of the prophetess Huldah in the reign of Josiah. 2 Kgs 22:14; 2 Chr 34:22.

  3. A man of Judah. 1 Chr 2:40-41.

  4. The fourth son of Josiah, king of Judah, and king three months, 1 Chr 3:15; Jer 22:11; called Jehoahaz in 2 Kgs 23:31-34; 2 Chr 36:1-4.

  5. A man of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:25.

  6. A high priest. 1 Chr 6:12-13; Ezr 7:2.

  7. A son of Naphtali. 1 Chr 7:13. See Shillem.

  8. The chief of a family of porters. 1 Chr 9:17. His descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45.

  9. One of the porters. 1 Chr 9:19, 1 Chr 9:31.

  10. A chief Ephraimite. 2 Chr 28:12.

  11. A Levite porter who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:24.

  12. A similar offender. Ezr 10:42.

  13. One who helped to build the wall. Neh 3:12.

  14. The uncle of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer 32:7.

  15. A temple-doorkeeper. Jer 35:4.

SHAL'LUN (retribution), one who helped in repairing Jerusalem's walls. Neh 3:15.

SHAL'MAI (my thanks). Some of the Nethinims were his children, and returned. Ezr 2:46; Neh 7:48.

SHAL'MAN, the name of an Assyrian king before Pul. Hos 10:14. The ordinary opinion, that it is a contraction for "Shalmaneser," seems to be incorrect.

SHALMANE'SER (Salman is gracious), a king of Assyria whose reign lasted from b.c. 727-722, coming between those of Tiglath-pileser and Sargon. He comes into biblical notice as the invader of Israel. The king, Hoshea, had revolted, but he conquered and exacted a tribute. 2 Kgs 17:3. He then returned home, but, as Hoshea revolted a second time and allied himself with So, king of Egypt, Shalmaneser returned, ravaged Samaria, besieged Hoshea in his capital, and after three years the city fell. But during this time a rebellion headed by Sargon had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. It is not stated in 2 Kgs 17:6 that Shalmaneser took Samaria, but that the king of Assyria did. See Sargon.

SHA'MA (obedient), a warrior of David's. 1 Chr 11:44.

SHAMARI'AH (whom Jehovah keeps), a son of Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:19.

SHAM'BLES, a meat-market. 1 Cor 10:25.

SHA'MED (a destroyer), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:12.

SHAME FACEDNESS, a misprint or corruption in 1 Tim 2:9 for "shamefastness," in the sense of being fast or established in modesty and devotion.

SHAMMER (a keeper).

  1. A Levite. 1 Chr 6:46.

  2. A chief of Asber, 1 Chr 7:34; called also Shomer in 1 Chr 7:32.

SHAM'GAR (cup-bearer ?), a judge of Israel of whom it is related that he slew six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad and delivered Israel. Jud 3:31.

SHAM'HUTH (desolation), one of David's captains. 1 Chr 27:8.

SHA'MIR (a thorn), a Levite. 1 Chr 24:24.

SHA'MIR (a sharp point), a name for two places.

  1. A city in the mountains of Judah. Josh 15:48. It is probably the ruins of Somerah, west of Debir.

  2. The place in Mount Ephraim where Tola lived. Jud 10:1-2. Swartz places it at Sanur, on a hill 6 miles north of Samaria; but Van de Velde at Sammer, 10 miles south-south-east of Nablus.

SHAM'MA (desolation), an Asherite chief. 1 Chr 7:37.

SHAM'MAH (desolation).

  1. A duke of Edom. Gen 36:13, 2 Sam 21:17; 1 Chr 1:37.

  2. The third son of Jesse, 1 Sam 16:9; 1 Sam 17:13; called also Shimeah and Shimina.

  3. One of the three greatest of David's mighty men. 2 Sam 23:11, 2 Sam 23:33.

  4. One of David's mighties, 2 Sam 23:25;


called also Shammoth the Harorite in 1 Chr 11:27, and Shamhuth the Izrahite in 1 Chr 27:8.

SHAM'MAI (desolated).

1, 2, 3. Three descendants of Judah. 1 Chr 2:28, 1 Chr 2:32, 1 Chr 2:44-45; 1 Chr 4:17.

SHAM'MOTH. 1 Chr 11:27. See Shammah, 4.


  1. The spy from Reuben. Num 13:4.

  2. One of David's sons, born in Jerusalem, 2 Sam 5:14; 1 Chr 14:4; called Shimea in 1 Chr 3:5.

  3. A Levite. Neh 11:17.

  4. A priest in the days of Jehoiakim. Neh 12:18.

SHAMSHERA'I (heroic), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:26.

SHA'PHAM (bald), a Gadite. 1 Chr 5:12.

SHA'PHAN (coney), the scribe or secretary to King Josiah. 2 Kgs 22:3-14; 2 Chr 34:8-20, etc.

SHA'PHAT (judge).

  1. The spy from Simeon. Num 13:5.

  2. The father of Elisha. 1 Kgs 19:16, 1 Kgs 19:19; 2 Kgs 3:11; 2 Kgs 6:31.

  3. One of the royal line of Judah. 1 Chr 3:22.

  4. One of the Gadite chiefs. 1 Chr 5:12.

  5. One of David's chief herdsmen. 1 Chr 27:29.

SHA'PHER (brightness), a station of the Israelites at a mountain in the Arabian desert. Num 33:23. Rowlands would identify it with Jebel Araif, a rocky promontory on the western shore of the Elanitic Gulf; but others propose Jebel esh-Shureif, a hill 70 miles northwest of Elath.

SHAR'AI (Jehovah. frees him), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:40.

SHAR'AIM (two gates). Josh 15:36. See Shaaraim.

SHA'RAR (cord), the father of one of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:33; called Sacar in 1 Chr 11:35.

SHARE'ZER (prince of fire), the son of Sennacherib, who joined his brother Adrammelech in murdering their father. 2 Kgs 19:37; Isa 37:38.

SHAR'ON (the plain), a level tract along the Mediterranean, between Caesarea and Joppa; called also Saron. Acts 9:35. It is 25 or 30 miles in length, and from 8 to 15 miles in width.

Scripture History. - Sharon is first noticed in the Bible as Lasharon, the Hebrew article being taken as part of the word. Josh 12:18. It was renowned for its fertility. The flocks of David fed there, and Isaiah praised its excellency and uses it both in promise and in threatening. 1 Chr 27:29; Isa 35:2; Isa 65:10; Ex 33:9. The Rose of Sharon is celebrated in Solomon's Song 2:1.

Present Condition. - The luxuriance and fertility of the plain of Sharon are noted to this day, although the frequent raids of the Bedouin make its cultivation difficult. The plain has on the north a range of inland cliffs. A portion of the plain is composed of marl and alluvial soil, another portion of red sandstone and shelly breccias of blown sand in large patches. The hills are of softest chalk, gently sloping, partly covered by woods of oak, the trees standing at intervals like a park, the ground being sandy in some places and of a loam or limestone character in others.

Sharon is mentioned in connection with Gilead in Bashan in 1 Chr 5:16. Stanley, noting the difficulty of supposing that the pasture-lands of Gad could have been so far from the home of the tribe east of the Jordan as Sharon would have been, thinks that "Sharon" - which has in the Hebrew exactly the same meaning as Mishor - may signify the Mishor, or "upland downs," of Gilead and Bashan.

SHAR'ONITE, THE. Shitrai is so called. 1 Chr 27:29.

SHARU'HEN (pleasant dwelling), a city in Simeon. Josh 19:6. It was in the "south country," and may have been identical with the large ruin esh-Sheriah, north-west of Beer-sheba.

SHASH'AI (whitish, or noble), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:40.

SHA'SHAK (eagerness), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:14, 1 Chr 8:25.

SHA'UL (desired).

  1. A son of Simeon by a Canaanitish woman. Gen 46:10; Ex 6:15; Num 26:13; 1 Chr 4:24.

  2. An Edomite king, 1 Chr 1:48-49; in A. V. of Gen 36:37 he is called Saul.

  3. A Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr 6:24.

SHA'ULITES, descendants of Shaul. 1. Num 26:13.

SHA'VEH (a plain), a valley on the north of Jerusalem; known also as 785 the "King's Dale." Gen 14:17; 2 Sam 18:18. See King's Dale.

SHA'VEH-KIRIATHA'IM (plain of Kirjathain), a plain or valley near the city Kirjathaim, in Moab. Gen 14:5. Afterward it belonged to Reuben. Num 32:37; Josh 13:19. Eusebius says it was well known in his day as a village 10 miles west of Medeba.

SHAV'SHA (warrior of Jehovah), the scribe or secretary to David, 1 Chr 18:16; called also Seraiah and Shisha.

SHE'AL (asking), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:29.

SHEAL'TIEL (I have asked him of God), the father of Zerubbabel. Ezr 3:2, 1 Kgs 15:8; Song of Solomon 5:2; Neh 12:1; Hag 1:1, Jud 4:12, 2 Kgs 22:14; Gen 2:2, 1 Chr 2:23.

SHEARI'AH (whom Jehovah estimates), a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:38; 1 Chr 9:44.

SHEARING-HOUSE, a spot between Jezreel and Samaria where Jehu slew forty-two of the royal family of Judah. 2 Kgs 10:12, 2 Kgs 10:14. According to Eusebius, it is in the plain of Jezreel, 15 Roman miles from Legio (Lejun), and Conder suggests Akadah as the site, on the western side of the great plain.

SHE'AR-JA'SHUB (a remnant returns). the symbolical name Isaiah gave his son. Isa 7:3.

SHE'BA (an oath).

  1. The son of Bichri, a Benjamite who revolted from David, was pursued by Joab and beheaded in the fortress of Abel-beth-maachah. 2 Sam 20:1-22.

  2. A Gadite chief. 1 Chr 5:13.

SHE'BA (man ?).

  1. One of Ham's descendants. Gen 10:7; 1 Chr 1:9.

  2. One of Shem's descendants. Gen 10:28; 1 Chr 1:22.

  3. One of Abraham's descendants by Keturah. Gen 25:3; 1 Chr 1:32.

These were all founders of tribes.

SHE'BA (seven, or an oath), a name for a region in Arabia and a town in Palestine.

  1. A wealthy region in Arabia bordering on the Red Sea. It included the most fertile districts of that country. The queen of Sheba visited Solomon, coming "to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bear spices, and very much gold, and precious stones." 1 Kgs 10:1-13; 2 Chr 9:1-12. Many ancient writers noted the abundance of spices in the Yemen, or Sabaean country. Herodotus says that the whole tract exhaled an odor of marvellous sweetness, and Diodorus relates that the perfume extended far out to sea; while Strabo asserts that the enormous profits of the spice trade made the Sabaeans one of the wealthiest nations on the face of the earth. They used gold and silver most lavishly in their furniture, their utensils, and even on the doors and roofs of their houses. Precious stones also abounded there. Its chief cities were Seba (Sana) and Sephar (Zafar).

  2. A town in Simeon, mentioned between Beer-sheba and Moladah. Josh 19:2. Shema is named next to Moladah in Josh 15:26, and is probably identical with this Sheba. Two miles east of Beer-sheba, on the road to Moladah, is a mound called el-Seba, which may mark the site of ancient Sheba. It has a well separate from those at Beer-sheba.

SHE'BAH (seven, or an oath), a well dug by Isaac's servants, and from which Beer-sheba was named. Gen 26:33. See Beer-sheba.

SHE'BAM (coolness), one of the towns east of the Jordan desired by Reuben and Gad. Num 32:3. See Shibmah and Sibmah.

SHEBANI'AH (whom Jehovah has made grow up).

  1. A priest who blew a trumpet at the bringing up of the ark. 1 Chr 15:24.

  2. A Levite who sang and sealed the covenant. Neh 9:5; Jud 10:10.

  3. A priest who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:4; Neh 12:14.

  4. A Levite who did the same. Neh 10:12.

SHEB'ARIM (ruins), a place near Ai to which the Israelites were pursued. Josh 7:5. The term may mean "precipices," or possibly "fissures," but the location is unknown.

SHE'BER (breaking), a son of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:48.

SHEB'NA (youth).

  1. The "treasurer," or prefect of the palace of Hezekiah, Isa 22:15-25, a man of great pride, but whose ignominious fall is prophesied by the prophet.

  2. The scribe or secretary of Hezekiah; a different person from the preceding, though with the same name. Isa 36:3; 2 Kgs 18:18 2 Kgs 18:37; 2 Kgs 19:2. He was one of the ambassadors sent to Rabshakeh.

SHEB'UEL (captive of God). 1. A 786 descendant of Moses, 1 Chr 23:16; 1 Chr 26:24; also called Shubael in 1 Chr 24:20.

  1. One of the Levite singers, 1 Chr 25:4; called Shubael in 1 Chr 25:20.

SHECANI'AH (familiar with Jehovah).

  1. One of the priests chosen by lot during David's reign. 1 Chr 24:11.

  2. A Levite in the reign of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 31:15.

SHECHANI'AH (familiar with Jehovah).

  1. A descendant of the regal line. 1 Chr 3:21-22.

    1. The fathers of persons with Ezra. Ezr 8:3, 1 Chr 6:5.
  2. One who headed the party against foreign marriages. Ezr 10:2.

  3. The father of Shemaiah, a gatekeeper. Neh 3:29.

  4. The father-in-law of Tobiah the Ammonite. Neh 6:18.

  5. Head of some with Zerubbabel. Neh 12:3.

SHE'CHEM (the shoulder-blade).

  1. The ravisher of Dinah, slain by Simeon and Levi. Gen 33:19; Gen 34.

  2. A man of Manasseh. Num 26:31; Josh 17:2.

  3. Another descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr 7:19.

SHE'CHEH (shoulder), a town in the valley between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim; called also Sichem, Sychem, and Sychar; in later times it was known as Neapolis, and now its Arabic name is Nablus. It was 34 miles north of Jerusalem, about 7 miles south-east of Samaria, and its site is unrivalled for beauty in Palestine. Two mountains parallel to each other, Ebal and Gerizim, almost meeting at their bases and only a mile and a half apart at their summits, enclose a beautiful little valley extending east and west, not more than a hundred yards wide at the narrowest part, and widening out in both directions. At the narrowest part of the vale is the town of Nablus, clinging to the slope of Gerizim, the "mountain of blessing." It is at an altitude of 1950 feet above the sea.

Scripture History. - The city is mentioned forty-eight times in the Bible. Its history begins four thousand years ago, when Jerusalem had no existence, extends through Scripture from Abraham to Christ, and continues to the present day. When Abraham came from Chaldaea to the land which God should give him, he halted at the "place of Sichem." Gen 12:6. When Jacob came from Mesopotamia, Shechem was a Hivite city, and Jacob bought from Hamor the parcel of the field which he afterward gave to his son Joseph. Gen 33:18-19; Gen 43:22; Josh 24:32; John 4:5. Shechem was captured and the male inhabitants murdered by Simeon and Levi. Gen 34; Gen 49:5-7. Abraham worshipped under the oak which was by Shechem, and there Jacob buried the images brought by his family from Padan-aram; and Joseph came from Hebron to Shechem and Dothan, seeking his brethren, and there also Joseph was buried. Gen 27:12-28; Josh 24:32. A solemn dedicatory service of the whole nation took place near Shechem. Deut 11:29-30. Abimelech caused the Shechemites to revolt from the Hebrews and to elect him as king, but after a reign of three years he was expelled, and in revenge destroyed the city and sowed the ground with salt. Judg 9. It was rebuilt, and Rehoboam went there to be crowned; but, in consequence of the revolt, he fled. The city was fortified by Jeroboam, who made it the first seat of the northern kingdom. 1 Kgs 12:1-19, 1 Kgs 12:25; 2 Chr 10. Men of Shechem were slain by Ishmael. Jer 41:3, 1 Chr 6:5. After the Captivity, Shechem became the centre of Samaritan worship. See Samaria.

N.T. references to this city are few. Jesus visited the region, preached to a woman at Jacob's well, and many from Sychar believed on him. John 4:5, John 4:39-42. Whether Sychar occupied precisely the same site as ancient Shechem has been a question in dispute among scholars. Stephen refers to the sepulchres of the patriarchs at Sychem. Acts 7:16. During the Christian period Neapolis became the seat of a bishop. Justin Martyr was born there. The Crusaders took it after the conquest of Jerusalem; Baldwin II. held a great diet there, a.d. 1120.

Present Appearance. - Modern travellers bear uniform testimony to the beauty of the scenery of Nablus. Dr. Robinson calls it "a scene of luxuriant and almost unparalleled verdure." Dean Stanley, says it is "the most beautiful - perhaps the only very beautiful - spot in Central Palestine," and Tristram says the landscape is "the richest in Palestine." It


Shechem (Nabulus) Mount Gerazim on the left. Mount Ebal on the right. 788 is abundantly supplied with water; vegetation is luxuriant; there are olive trees and orange groves and palm trees.

The streets of the town are cleaner, and its houses as a rule better, than those of Jerusalem, being high, built of stone, and crowned with domes. The side streets are often like low cellars, quite dark, vaulted, and narrow, and so low that the passengers can scarcely stand upright, except in the centre of them. The town is a considerable centre of trade and manufactures. Cotton became the staple of the place a few years ago, and a cotton-mill was erected. There is also a trade in wool, and there are a score of manufactories of soap, which is made from olive oil. The bazaar exhibits a great variety of wares.

The inhabitants are chiefly Mussulmans. Tristram estimated the population at 9000, of whom about 650 were Christians, 200 Samaritans, and a few Jews. There is a Protestant school, supported by the English Church Missionary Society. Baedeker estimates the population at 13,000, including 140 Samaritans, a few Jews, 600 Christians of the Greek Orthodox Church, and a few Latins and Protestants. The people still preserve their ancient reputation as restless, turbulent, and quarrelsome.

Among the principal attractions of the town is the great mosque Jami el-Kebir, originally a church of the Crusaders, dedicated to St. John, and completed a.d. 1167. There are two other mosques which were originally churches of the Crusaders. In the south-western part of the town is the Samaritan synagogue (Keniset es-Samireh), a small, plain whitewashed room, the pavement of which is covered with matting and must not be trodden on with shoes. The Samaritans still retain their hereditary form of worship, and possess the famous Samaritan Codex of the Pentateuch, which is guarded with great care. Sometimes a copy is shown instead of the original, which they derive from a grandson of Aaron. See Samaria.

The well which Jacob dug, and upon which our Lord rested and talked with a woman of Samaria, is near Nablus. See Jacob's Well.

A little distance north of Jacob's well is the reputed site of Joseph's tomb, Josh 24:32, which has been preserved from molestation from age to age by the common reverence in which the patriarch is held by Jew, Samaritan, Christian, and Muslim alike. The building shown is comparatively modern, being a common Muslim tomb in a square enclosure. It was recently restored by Mr. Rogers, an English consul at Damascus, in 1868. The Muslims claim that Joseph's body is in the cave of Machpelah, at Hebron, having been carried thither from Shechem.

The granite shafts belonging possibly to the Samaritan temple on Gerizim are to be found amidst the ruins of a Roman villa in the plain, and again in another site of same date at a little distance.

At the foot of the northern slope of Gerizim is a cemetery. The place is called El Amud("the column"), and the Rev. George Williams has with much probability identified it with "the pillar that was in Sheehem," where Abimelech was made king, Jud 9:6, and with the oak of Moreh, near which Abraham built his first altar to the Lord after entering the Promised Land, and where Joshua set up a great stone. Josh 24:26.

SHE'CHEMITES, the family of Shechem. Num 26:31. SHECHI'NAH (resting-place). This familiar word is found in the Targums and in Christian writings, although not in the Bible, but the fact it presents often is, for the shechinah was enveloped in the pillar of cloud and of fire, and was "the glory" which covered the tabernacle and filled Solomon's temple. In the N.T. there is reference to this "glory of the Lord" in Luke 2:9; Rom 9:4; John 1:14, etc.

SHED'EUR (dartinq of fire), the father of the prince of Reuben at the time of the Exodus. Num 1:5; Num 2:10; Num 7:30, Num 7:35; Neh 10:18.

SHEEP, SHEPHERD, SHEEP-MASTER, SHEEP-COTE, SHEEP'FOLD. The sheep is mentioned about five hundred times in the Bible, and seems likely to have been the first animal domesticated by man. Gen 4:4, The sheep anciently kept by the Israelites were probably of the broad-tailed variety, in which the tail is a mass of delicate fat sometimes weighing 14 pounds, or even more. Ex 29:22; Lev 3:9, Rev 1:11.

Sheep often constituted the chief wealth 789 of a man in patriarchal times; and hence, with the Jews, the care of sheep was among the earliest and most respectable employments, Gen 4:2; Ex 3:1; Job 42:12; 1 Sam 16:11, though it was odious to the Egyptians. The office of chief shepherd, Heb 13:20; 1 Pet 5:4, is often mentioned by heathen writers. It was an office of great trust and responsibility, as well as of distinguished honor. 2 Kgs 3:4. Chardin saw a clan of Turcoman shepherds whose flocks consisted of 400,000 beasts of carriage, such as camels, horses, oxen, cows, and asses, and 3,000,000 of sheep and goats. Dr. Shaw confirms his statement.

Eastern Sheepfold.

The shepherd or "sheep-master" was constantly with his flocks by night and by day, to number, gather, feed, conduct, and guard them, Gen 31:39; Luke 2:8, and was often attended with a despised dog. Job 30:1. His care of the sheep was constant and tender, and his control over them very great. Isa 40:11; John 10:1-16. Rev. John Hartley, a missionary in Greece, tells us that he was once passing by a flock of sheep, and, having heard it said they would obey the shepherd's voice, he asked him to call one of his sheep, which instantly left its pasturage and approached the hand of the shepherd with a prompt obedience which he never saw in any other animal. It is also universally true in that country that a stranger they will not follow. They flee from him, for they know not the voice of a stranger.

It is said that the shepherds of Judaea gave each lamb a distinct name, and that they instantly obeyed the voice of the shepherd, coming and going daily at his call. An ancient Jewish writer, born and educated in Egypt, states that the sheep, in the season of shearing, would run to the shepherd at his call, and, stooping a little, put themselves into his hands to be shorn and stand quietly until he had done.

The docility, timidity, and liability to wander (all which are among the characteristics of this animal) are often figuratively employed by the sacred writers, as 2 Chr 18:16; Ps 119:176; Isa 11:6; Isa 53:6-7; Mic 5:8; Matt 9:36.

In the O.T. the word "shepherd" is used figuratively for Jehovah, Ps 80:1; Jer 31:10; and for kings, Eze 34:10; but in the N.T. it denotes Christ, John 10:11, etc.; Heb 13:20:1 Pet 5:4, and also those teachers who presided in the synagogues. This use of the word gave rise to the application of the word "shepherd" or "pastor," in modern times, to ministers of the gospel, and those under their spiritual care are called the "fold" or "flock."

It was the business of the shepherd to count the sheep daily, perhaps oftener, and he was accountable for any that were missing. Gen 31:38-39; Ex 22:12-13; Lev 27:32; Jer 33:13. See Rod.

Sometimes a lamb was taken into the tent and brought up like a dog. 2 Sam 12:3. It is common in Armenia to see shepherds carrying in their bosoms the lambs of the flock they are tending. They are too feeble to roam with their dams, and nothing evinces more tenderness and care than gently leading such as are with young, or such as have young lambs to which they give suck. Isa 40:11. Two of our American missionaries tell us that while travelling in Armenia they passed several shepherds, probably from the neighboring villages, carrying in their bosoms the lambs of the flocks they tended. The same scene had already frequently interested them by presenting the source of the beautiful imagery of the prophet. It is exhibited only at one season of the year, when lambs are frequently brought forth during the day at a distance from the fold. The newcomers, being too weak to follow the flock in its rovings after grass, are carried in the bosom of the shepherd, and not unfrequently they so multiply as to fill his arms before night. They are then taken to the fold, and guarded there ; until sufficiently strong to ramble with 790 their dams. One of these enclosures presents an amusing scene when the sheep return anxiously bleating in the evening from their day's pasture, and scores of hungry young ones are conducted by shepherds' boys each to its own mother.

The time of shearing was a season of great festivity. 1 Sam 25:7-8, 1 Sam 25:11; 2 Sam 13:23. The flock was collected in an uncovered enclosure called a "sheep fold" or "sheepcote." Num 32:16; 2 Sam 7:8; Jer 23:3; Zeph 2:6; John 10:16. Here their legs were tied together, and the "shearing-bouse," 2 Kgs 10:12, 2 Kgs 10:14, literally means the "tie-house." They were never housed at any season of the year.

A watch-house was often erected in the vicinity of the flocks, from which the approach of danger could be easily descried. This is called the "tower of the flock." Mic 4:8. The wool of the sheep was probably made into cloth, Lev 13:47; Deut 22:11, by women. Prov 31:13. It formed part of the tribute paid by the Moabites to Israel, 2 Kgs 3:4, and was a common article of merchandise. Eze 27:18. Ewes' milk was an important part of daily food. Deut 32:14; 1 Cor 9:7. The flesh of sheep and lambs was eaten. 1 Sam 25:18; 1 Kgs 1:19; 1 Kgs 4:23; Ps 44:11. If Josh 6:4 is correctly rendered, as probably it is not, rams' horns were made into trumpets. Sheep-skins were used as a covering for the tabernacle, Ex 25:5, and the poor clothed themselves in them. Heb 11:37.

The sheep was especially the animal of sacrifice, and there were few offerings required in which the lamb or the ram was not admissible. As an animal symbolical of innocence and purity, the sheep was well fitted for this use. With reference to his sacrificial mission, as well as to his meekness, patience, and submission, Christ is often called "the Lamb," "the Lamb of God," "the Lamb slain." John 1:29, Eze 23:36; Rev 13:8; Rev 22:1, Acts 22:3.

SHEEP-GATE, an ancient gate of Jerusalem. Neh 3:1, Jud 1:32; Neh 12:39. Barclay concludes that it must have been near the temple, and between the tower of Meah and the Prison-gate. Compare Acts 3:32 with Acts 12:39; A.V. "prison-gate." Tradition identifies the Sheep-gate with Saint Stephen's gate, which leads to Gethsemane and Mount Olivet. Grove would place it near the Bab el-Kattanin.

SHEEP-MARKET. John 5:2. "Market" is an interpolation by the translators; it should probably read "gate."

SHEETS, Jud 14:12, should be "shirts," either the thin garment worn next to the body or the loose night-wrapper.

SHEHARI'AH (Jehovah seeks him), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:26.

SHEK'EL means "weight," then a particular weight of uncoined gold or silver, to the value of 20 gers. Ex 30:13. See Money.

SHE'LAH (petition), the third son of Judah. Gen 38:5, Rev 1:11, 2 Kgs 22:14, Acts 11:26; Gen 46:12; Num 26:20; 1 Chr 2:3; 1 Chr 4:21.

SHE'LAH (sprout). 1 Chr 1:18, 1 Chr 1:24. See Salah.

SHE'LANITES, the descendants of Shelah. Num 26:20.

SHELEMI'AH (whom Jehovah repays).

  1. 1 Chr 26:14. See Meshel-emiah.

2., 3. Two persons who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:39, 1 Chr 4:41.

  1. Father of Hananiah. Neh 3:30.

  2. A priest appointed by Nehemiah a treasurer. Josh 13:13.

  3. Ancestors of one in time of Jehoiakin. Jer 36:14.

  4. Father of one of Jeremiah's accusers to Zedekiah, Job 37:3; Isa 38:1; perhaps identical with him mentioned in Jer 36:26.

  5. Father of the captain of a ward who arrested Jeremiah. Ps 37:13.

SHE'LEPH (drawn out), the second in order of the sons of Joktan. Gen 10:26; 1 Chr 1:20.

SHE'LESH (tried), an Asherite chieftain. 1 Chr 7:35.

SHEL'OMI (pacific), the father of the prince of Asher in time of Moses, Num 34:27.

SHEL'OMITH (pacific).

  1. The Danite mother by an Egyptian of a stoned blasphemer. Lev 24:11.

  2. A daughter of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 3:19.

  3. A Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 23:9.

  4. A Kohathite Levite, 1 Chr 23:18; called Shelomoth in 1 Chr 24:22.

  5. One who had charge of the dedicated things in David's reign. 1 Chr 26:25-26.

  1. A son of Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:20.

  2. One whose sons returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:10.

SHEL'OMOTH. 1 Chr 24:22. See Shelomith, 4.

SHELU'MIEL (friend of God), the prince of Simeon in the wilderness. Num 1:6; Num 2:12; Acts 7:36, John 7:41; Isa 10:19.

SHEM(name), the eldest son of Noah, preserved with his wife in the ark. His conduct toward his father on one occasion is recited to his praise. Gen 9:20-27. The Jews are his descendants, and, besides, there are the Aramaeans, Persians, Assyrians, and Arabians. The languages spoken by the descendants of Shem (the Hebrew, Chaldee, Assyrian, and Arabic) are called Shemitic languages.

SHE'MA (rumor).

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:43-44.

  2. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:8.

  3. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:13.

  4. One who stood by Ezra during the reading of the Law. Neh 8:4.

SHE'MA (rumor), a place in Judah, Josh 15:26; Josh 19:2, and the same as Sheba, No. 2.

SHEMA'AH (rumor), a Benjamite whose sons joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:3.

SHEMAI'AH (Jehovah hears).

  1. A prophet in the time of Rehoboam, and a chronicler of his reign. 1 Kgs 12:22; 2 Chr 11:2; 2 Chr 12:5, 2 Chr 12:15.

  2. A descendant of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 3:22.

  3. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:37.

  4. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:4.

5., 6., 7., 8., 9., 10., 11. Levites. 1 Chr 9:14; cf. Neh 11:15; 1 Chr 9:16; 1 Chr 15:8, 1 Chr 15:11; 1 Chr 24:6; 2 Chr 17:8; 2 Chr 29:14; 2 Chr 31:15; 2 Chr 35:9.

  1. The eldest son of Obed-edom. 1 Chr 26:4, 1 Chr 26:6-7.

  2. A messenger of Ezra's. Ezr 8:13, Ex 17:16.

    1. A priest and another who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:21, 1 Chr 24:31.
  3. A traitor. Neh 6:10.

  4. A priest who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:8; Gen 12:6, Prov 12:18, John 12:35.

  5. One of the princes of Judah. Neh 12:34.

  6. One of the choir at the dedication of the wall. Neh 12:36.

  7. A priest. Neh 12:42.

  8. The father of a prophet in the time of Jeremiah. Jer 26:20.

  9. A false prophet of Jeremiah's time. Jer 29:24, Jer 29:31-32.

  10. The father of a prince in Jehoiakin's reign. Jer 36:20.

SHEMARI'AH (whom Jehovah keeps).

  1. One of David's soldiers at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:5.

2, 3. Two who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:32, 1 Chr 4:41.

SHEM'EBER (lofty flight), one of the allies who were attacked by Chedorlaonier. Gen 14:2.

SHE'MER (lees of wine), the owner of the hill which King Omri bought and covered with the city of Samaria, giving it its former owner's name. 1 Kgs 16:24.

SHEMI'DA, SHEMI'DAH (fame of wisdom), a man of Manasseh. Num 26:32; Josh 17:2; 1 Chr 7:19.

SHEMI'DAITES, the descendants of the above. Num 26:32.

SHEMI'INITH (the eighth) a musical term which appears in 1 Chr 15:21, and in the titles to Ps 6 and Ps 12. Its meaning is uncertain, but probably it refers to the time of the piece, rather than any instrument.

SHEMIR'AMOTH (name most high).

  1. A musical Levite in David's day. 1 Chr 15:18, 1 Chr 15:20; 1 Chr 16:5.

  2. A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:8.


SHEMU'EL (heard of God).

  1. The representative of Simeon in the division of the land. Num 34:20.

  2. Samuel the prophet. 1 Chr 6:33.

  3. A chieftain of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:2.

SHEN (the tooth). Samuel erected the stone Ebenezer between Mizpah and Shen. 1 Sam 7:12. It was probably so named from a tooth-shaped rock.

SHENA'ZAR (fiery tooth), descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:18.

SHE'NIR, a name given to Mount Hermon by the Sidonians. Deut 3:9; Song 4:8. See Hermon.

SHE'PHAM (bear-region), a landmark on the eastern boundary of the Promised Land, between Hazar-enan and Riblah. Num 34:10-11.

SHEPHATHI'AH (Jehovah judges). a Benjamite. 1 Chr 9:8.

SHEPHATl'AH (Jehovah judges).

  1. The fifth son of David. 2 Sam 3:4; 1 Chr 3:3.

  2. A Benjamite warrior with David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:5.

  3. The chief of the Simeonites in David's time. 1 Chr 27:16.

  4. A son of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 21:2.

5., 6. Two persons whose posterity returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:4, Ezr 2:57; Neh 7:9, Ps 57:59.

  1. One of the posterity of Judah. Neh 11:4.

  2. One who desired Jeremiah's execution. Jer 38:1-4.

SHEP'HERD (pastor). John 10:11. See Sheep.

SHEPHERD. Ps 23:1. See Sheep.

SHE'PHI (a naked hill) a descendant of Seir, 1 Chr 1:40; called Shepho in Gen 36:23.

SHE'PHO (smoothness). See above.

SHEPHU'PHAN (serpent), a grandson of Benjamin, 1 Chr 8:5; called Shuphara in Num 26:39, Shuppim in 1 Chr 7:12, 1 Chr 7:15, and Muppim in Gen 46:21.

SHE'RAH (blood-kindred), daughter of Ephraim. 1 Chr 7:24.

SHEREBI'AH (heat of Jehovah), one of the chief Levitical friends and helpers of Ezra, and one who sealed the covenant. Ezr 8:18, Jud 6:24; Neh 8:7; Jud 9:4; Eze 10:12.

SHE'RESH (root), a descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr 7:16.

SHERE'ZER (Asur protect the king!), a man mentioned in Zech 7:2.

SHER'IFFS, mentioned in Dan 3:2 as among the Babylonish dignitaries, were probably officers like the mufti, or the "head-doctors of the Law in the Turkish empire."

SHE'SHACH, a symbolical name for Babylon, Jer 25:26; Jer 51:41, from its goddess Shach reduplicated, as Misael is called Meshach.

SHE'SHAI (whitish), one of the three sons of Anak. Num 13:22; Josh 15:14; Judg 1:10.

SHE'SHAN (lily), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:31, 1 Chr 2:34-35.

SHESHBAZ'ZAR (fire-worshipper), the Persian name borne by Zerubbabel at the Persian court. Ezr 1:8, Rev 1:11; Neh 5:14. Heb 5:16.

SHETH (tumult).

  1. The patriarch. 1 Chr 1:1.

  2. In Num 24:17 not a proper name; read: "children of tumult," not "children of Sheth." Jer 48:45.

SHE'THAR (a star), one of the Persian princes. Esth 1:14.

SHE'THAR-BOZ'NAI (star of splendor), a Persian officer in Syria. Ezr 5:3, 1 Chr 24:6; 1 Kgs 6:6, Lev 6:13.

SHE'VA (Jehovah contends). The name is corrupted from Seraiah.

  1. The son of Caleb ben-Hezron. 1 Chr 2:49.

  2. The scribe of David. 2 Sam 20:25.

SHEW'-BREAD was unleavened bread prepared anew every Sabbath, and presented hot on the golden table set in the sanctuary, in twelve loaves of a square or oblong shape, according to the number of the tribes of Israel. Ex 25:30. Salt and frankincense were put on each row. The loaves were placed either in two piles or in two rows, with six loaves in each, and it was called "shewbread," or "bread of the face," or the "bread of setting before," because it stood continually before the Lord; later "bread of ordering." 1 Chr 9:32; marg.; Neh 10:33.

Table of Shew-bread.

The incense having been burnt, the old loaves were removed every Sabbath, Lev 24:8. and, as a general rule, were to be eaten by the priests alone, and by them only in the court of the sanctuary. 1 Sam 21:1-6; Matt 12:3, etc.

SHIB'BOLETH (an ear of corn, or a stream, a flood). Jud 12:6. In the course of a war between the Ephraimites and the Gileadites, the former were routed and fled toward the Jordan. The Gileadites had taken care to post a party at the fords, and when an Ephraimite 793 who had escaped came to the river-side and desired to pass over, they asked him if he were not an Ephraimite. If he said, "No," they bade him pronounce "Shibboleth," and if he pronounced it "sibboleth," according to the dialect of the Ephraimites, they killed him. Thus fell 42,000 Ephraimites in a single day. Comp. Matt 26:73. Milton says, with reference to that event,

"Without reprieve, adjudged to death, For want of well pronouncing shibboleth."

The word is now used for a test or the watchword of a party.

SHIB'MAH (fragrance), a town in Reuben, east of the Jordan. Num 32:38. See Sibmah.

SHI'CRON (drunkenness), a landmark of Judah between Ekron and Jabneel. Josh 15:11.

SHIELD. Jud 5:8. See Armor.

SHIGGA'ION. Ps 7, title. It probably means a dithyrambic ode, erratio - i. e., wild and mournful.

SHIGI'ONOTH, the plural of Shiggaion. Hab 3:1.

SHI'HON (destruction), a place in Issachar. Josh 19:19. Eusebius calls it a village near Mount Tabor, probably Shain, 3 miles north-west of Tabor.

SHI'HOR. 1 Chr 13:5. See Nile.

SHI'HOR-LIB'NATH (black-white), a landmark of Asher. Josh 19:26. The term is usually supposed to refer to a river which formed the extreme point of the frontier toward the south, and must have included Dor. Probably the Zerka, or "Blue River," which runs into the Mediterranean south of Dor; but Conder suggests its identity with Wady Shagkur.

SHIL'HI (armed), the grandfather of Jehoshaphat. 1 Kgs 22:42; 2 Chr 20:31.

SHIL'HIM (armed men), a town in Judah. Josh 15:32. Wilton proposes to locate it at the ruin es-Saram, and Conder has conjectured that it might be at Shelkhah.

SHIL'LEM (requital), a son of Naphtali, and ancestor of the Shillemites. Gen 46:24:Num 26:49.

SHIL'LEMITES. See above.

SHILO'AH (sending forth), the quietly-flowing stream Siloam. Isa 8:6. See Siloam.

SHI'LOH. The word "Shiloh," as used in Gen 49:10, has given rise to much discussion. Many of the best scholars consider it as referring to the town. But it is better to adopt the traditional view, and interpret "Shiloh" of the Messiah. The word in this connection, according to the majority, means, "He whose right it is." Others translate "Peace." Cf. Isa 9:6. Still others, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah till He comes to whom it belongs."

SHI'LOH (place of rest), a city north of Bethel, south of Lebonah, on the east of the road from Bethel to Shechem. Jud 21:19. It is now called Seilun, and is 17 miles north of Jerusalem and very nearly midway between Bethel and Shechem, being about 9 or 10 miles from each.

Scripture History. - Joshua selected Shiloh as the site of the tabernacle, and there made the allotments of the Promised Land. Josh 18:1, Josh 18:8-10. During the period of the Judges, for three hundred years, the tabernacle remained here, and in its honor a festival was annually celebrated, on which occasion the daughters of Shiloh danced, and thus gave an opportunity for the Benjamites to carry off two hundred of them as wives. Jud 21:19-23. Shiloh was the residence of Eli and of Samuel, 1 Sam 3-4, and thither tidings were brought to the old man of the capture of the ark by the Philistines. The ark was never brought back to Shiloh, and the tabernacle was removed to Nob and thence to Jerusalem. 2 Chr 1:3-4. The prophet Ahijah lived there. 1 Kgs 14:1-17. Shiloh seems to have been desolate in Jeremiah's day. Jer 7:12, 2 Kgs 22:14; Gen 26:6, Num 26:9. In the time of Jerome the place was a ruin. In the Middle Ages it was erroneously supposed to have lain near Neby Samwil.

Present Appearance. - It has been identified without doubt with Seilun, a ruined village on a low hill, showing traces of ancient building-material and early foundations. The most interesting feature is a sort of level open court, 412 feet long and 77 feet wide, partly hewn out of the rock, "which might have been the actual spot where the ark rested, for its custodians would naturally select a place sheltered from the bleak winds that prevail in these highlands." (See Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 364.) In a little valley about half a mile from the ruins are


Seilun (ancient Shiloh).

the spring and well of Shiloh, and this must have been the spot where the "daughters of Shiloh" were seized. In the neighborhood of this spring are many rock-hewn tombs, in which, according to Jewish tradition, were laid the bodies of Eli and his sons. From its central, and at the same time secluded, position, Shiloh was well adapted to be the resting-place of the ark and the principal sanctuary of the Jewish nation.

SHILO'NI, the descendant of Shelah. Neh 11:5.

SHI'LONITE, the resident of Shiloh; so Ahijah is called. 1 Kgs 11:29.

SHI'LONITES, THE, members of the house of Shelah. 1 Chr 9:5.

SHIL'SHAH (triad - i.e., the third son), an Asherite chief. 1 Chr 7:37.

SHIM'EA, SHIM'EAH(the hearing - i.e., answering- prayer).

  1. Brother of David, 2 Sam 21:21 called Shammah and Shimma.

  2. A son of David by Bathsheba. 1 Chr 3:5; called Shammua and Shammuah.

  3. A Merarite Levite. 1 Chr 6:30.

  4. A Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 6:39.

  5. A Beniamite. 1 Chr 8:32.

    SHIM'EAM (the hearing- i.e., answering - prayer), 1 Chr 9:38; same as 4, above.

SHIM'EATH (the hearing), an Ammonitess, the mother of Jozachar or Zabab, one of the murderers of King Joash. 2 Kgs 12:21; 2 Chr 24:26.

SHIM'EATHITES, a family of scribes. 1 Chr 2:55.

SHIM'EI (renowned).

  1. A son of Gershon, the son of Levi. Num 3:18; 1 Chr 6:17, 1 Chr 6:29; 1 Chr 23:7, 1 Chr 23:9-10; Zech 12:13; called Shimi in Ex 6:17.

  2. The Benjamite of the house of Saul, living at Bahurim, who cursed David when the latter was fleeing from Absalom. 2 Sam 16:5-13. David forbade any violence at the time. On his victorious return Shimei sought the forgiveness of David, who not only spared his life then, but covenanted with him never


to put him to death. 2 Sam 19:23. On his death-bed, however, he charged Solomon to remember Shimei as a guilty man. Solomon accordingly forbade him to leave Jerusalem on pain of death. This prohibition he violated by going to Gath in search of two fugitive servants, and suffered the threatened penalty. 1 Kgs 2:46.

  1. One of David's mighty men who opposed Adonijah. 1 Kgs 1:8.

  2. The Benjamitish provision-officer of Solomon. 1 Kgs 4:18.

  3. The brother of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 3:19.

  4. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:26-27.

  5. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:4.

  6. A Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 6:42.

  7. Head of the tenth musical course. 1 Chr 25:17.

  8. The overseer of David's vineyards. 1 Chr 27:27.

  9. A Levite who assisted in Hezekiah's purification of the temple. 2 Chr 29:14.

  10. A Levite in Hezekiah's time who had charge of the temple-treasure. 2 Chr 31:12-13.

  11. A Levite who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:23.

14., 15. Two persons who put away their foreign wives. Ezr 10:33, Acts 7:38.

  1. One of the ancestors of Mordecai. Esth 2:5.

SHIM'EON (a hearing), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:31.

SHIM'HI (renowned), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:21.

SHI'MI. Ex 6:17. See Shimei, 1.

SHIM'ITES, the descendants of Shimei, 1. Num 3:21.

SHIM'MA (the hearing), David's third brother. 1 Chr 2:13.

SHI'MON (desert), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:20.

SHIM'RATH (watch), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:21.

SHIM'RI (watchful).

  1. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:37.

  2. Father of one of David's guard. 1 Chr 11:45.

  3. A Levite in Hezekiah's reign. 2 Chr 29:13.

SHIM'RITH (watchful), a Moabitess, mother of Jehozabad, one of the murderers of King Joash, 2 Chr 24:26; called Shomer in 2 Kgs 12:21.

SHIM'ROM, mistaken spelling for SHIM'RON (watch), the fourth son of Issachar. Gen 46:13; Num 26:24; 1 Chr 7:1.

SHIM'RON (watch-post), an ancient city of Canaan, over which Jabin was king. Josh 11:1; 1 Kgs 19:15. The Shimron-meron of Josh 12:20 is probably the same with Shimron. It may be identified with the village es-Semiriyeh, about 5 miles from Acre, on the road to Tyre, where a solemn conference took place, a.d. 1277. The Pal. Memoirs suggest Semuieh???, a small village with three springs, at the edge of the Plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.

SHIM'RONITES, the descendants of Shimron. Num 26:24.

SHIM'RON-ME'RON. Josh 12:20. See Shimron.

SHIM'SHAI (sunny), the scribe or secretary of Rehum the chancellor. He joined in opposing the rebuilding of the temple under Zerubbabel. Ezr 4:8-9, 2 Sam 21:17, Heb 12:23.

SHINA'B (cooling), the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, when Chedorlaomer invaded the land. Gen 14:2.

SHI'NAR, THE LAND OF (casting out? country of two rivers?), the region where the people, after the Flood, made bricks and used slime (bitumen) for mortar. Gen 11:2-3. "Shinar" was probably the Hebrew name for the plain of Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates and the Tigris. It would seem originally to have denoted the northern part of Babylonia, as "Chaldaea" denoted the southern part; but subsequently, like "Chaldaea," it was sometimes used for the whole. Gen 10:10; Isa 11:11; Dan 1:2; Zech 5:11. In Josh 7:21 it is rendered "Babylonish." Among its cities were Babel (Babylon), Erech or Orech (Orchoi), Calneh or Calno (probably Niffer), and Arrad.

SHIP. Dean Howson says that more about the ancients' merchant-ships is to be learned from Luke than from all the writers in classic literature. Some of these ships were very large, and probably the majority carried from 500 to 1000 tons. They were steered by two large paddles at the sides. Acts 27:40, carried usually but one mast with a huge sail, but were also propelled by oars, hence required rowers, were ornamented 796 by images in the bow and stern and figures painted on the side of the bow, which made "the sign" - e.g., Castor and Pollux. Acts 28:11. They were furnished with under-girders, which passed round the frame at right angles to its length and "frapped" it when the planks were in danger of starting, anchors like ours, except that they had no flukes, sounding-lines; "could sail within seven points of the wind; seem to have had some mode of keeping the log; and it has been supposed that with a fair breeze they could make seven knots an hour." - Ayre. Nor need they hug the shore. The Hebrews were not sailors. We have no information in regard to the ships of their nautical neighbors. The reference to rudder-bands, Acts 27:40, is thus explained: the rudder-paddles already mentioned "were lashed up lest they should interfere with the ground-tackle. When they wished to steer again and the anchor-ropes were cut, they unfastened the lashings or bands of the paddles." Ancient ships were properly galleys.

SHI'PHI (abudant), the father of the prince of Simeon in Hezekiah's time. 1 Chr 4:37.

SHIPH'MITE. Probably Zabdi, 1 Chr 27:27, was a native of Shepham, which see.

SHIPH'RAH (beauty), one of the chief midwives among the Hebrews in Egypt. Ex 1:15.

SHIPH'TAN (judicial), the father of the prince of Ephraim. Num 34:24.

SHI'SHA (Jehovah, contends), father of the scribes of Solomon. 1 Kgs 4:3; same with Seraiah.

SHI'SHAK, the head of the twenty-second dynasty, Sheshonk I., who received the fugitive Jeroboam, 1 Kgs 11:40, and in the fifth year of Rehoboam, b.c. 969, invaded Judaea and spoiled the temple. 1 Kgs 14:25-26; 2 Chr 12:2-9. At Karnak, on the Nile, there is an inscription which records this expedition. The king presents, among his other captives, one with an unmistakable Hebrew physiognomy. The accompanying inscription, "lndaha-malek," has been interpreted "Kingdom of Judah." If this is correct, then Rehoboam is probably meant.

Other inscriptions give a particular list of the "fenced cities" mentioned in

Head of Shishak. (From temple at Karnak.)

2 Chron 12:4 as having been taken in this expedition.

SHIT'RAI (scribe), one of David's chief herdmen. 1 Chr 27:29.

SHIT'TAH TREE. Isa 41:19. See Shittim-wood.

SHIT'TIM (acacias), the last encampment of the Israelites before entering Canaan; the scene of the sin with the Midianites, and of its terrible punishment, Num 25; Num 31:1-12; the completion of the Law and the farewell of Moses; the sending forth of the spies to Jericho; and the final preparation before crossing the Jordan. Josh 2.

Physical Features. - Shittim - also called Abel-shittim, or "the meadow of acacias," from the number of acacia trees in it - was the green, fertile, well-watered plain stretching from the foot of the mountains of Moab to the Jordan. Tristram describes it as "by far the largest and richest oasis in the whole Ghor." Many acacia (shittim) trees still grow there. The plain now bears the name of Ghor es-Seisaban. At the north is Tell Nimrin (Beth-nimrah). South of this are Tell Kefrain (Abel-shittim and Abila of Josephus), Tell er-Rama (Bethharam), and Suceimeh, which Dr. Merrill and others would identify with Bethjeshimoth. See Abel-shittim.

SHITTIM, THE VALLEY OF, referred to in Joel 3:18, may denote the same valley mentioned above, 797 indicating that the blessing should spread even beyond the borders of Judah. Some, however, suppose that the reference is to a valley in which acacias grew, on the west side of the Jordan, and nearer Jerusalem.

SHIT'TIM-WOOD (from the shittah tree, Isa 41:19) was much used in constructing and furnishing the tabernacle. Ex 25:15-16. The only timber tree of any size now found in the Arabian desert is the seyal (Acacia seyal). The large specimens of this have been mostly destroyed for charcoal and other uses, but the writer saw a seyal in Wady Feiran 3 feet through, and Tristram speaks of trees of this kind on the west of the Dead Sea which would make planks "4 feet in diameter." There can be little doubt that this acacia was once abundant in the Sinai region and is the shittim of Scripture.

Shittim-wood (Acacia).

The seyal is a very thorny tree, somewhat resembling our apple tree when seen from a distance, but with decompound leaves, small leaflets, and little yellow balls of fibrous bloom, followed by locust-like pods. Its wood is close-grained, hard, brownish-hued, and well adapted for cabinet-work. From cuts or cracks in the trunk and limbs of this and one or two other acacias gum-arabio exudes, and is collected. The burning bush, Ex 3:2, on philological grounds, is believed to be a similar but smaller tree, the sunt (Acacia Nilotien), found occasionally in this region. Several localities mentioned in the Bible were named from the shittim.

SHI'ZA (loving), the father of a Reubenite captain. 1 Chr 11:42.

SHO'A (opulent). Eze 23:23. Whether this is the name of a place, as Palmer suggests, or merely a title, is uncertain. Ewald renders it "crying;" Keil renders it "noble;" and the former takes it to be the name of some Chaldaean tribe.

SHO'BAB (apostate).

  1. A child of Bathsheba by David. 2 Sam 5:14; 1 Chr 3:5; 1 Chr 14:4.

  2. A son of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:18.

SHO'BACH (pouring). 1. The general of Hadarezer, king of the Syrians of Zoba. David defeated and slew him. 2 Sam 10:15-18. In 1 Chr 19:16, 1 Chr 19:18 he is called Shophach.

SHO'BAI (taking captive), one whose children returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45.

SHO'BAL (flowing).

  1. The second son of Seir the Horite, and a sheik of the Horites. Gen 36:20; 1 Chr 1:38.

  2. The son of Caleb, son of Hur. 1 Chr 2:50, 1 Chr 2:52.

  3. In 1 Chr 4:1-2 he is identical probably with 2.

SHO'BEK (forsaking), one who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:24.

SHO'BI (taking captive), a chief Ammonite who provisioned David during Absalom's rebellion. 2 Sam 17:27.

SHO'CHO, 2 Chr 28:18, SHO'CHOH, 1 Sam 17:1, and SHO'CO, 2 Chr 11:7. See Socoh.

SHOES. See Clothes.

SHOE-LATCH'ET. Mark 1:8. See Clothes.

SHO'HAM (onyx), a Merarite Levite. 1 Chr 24:27.


SHO'MER (a keeper).

  1. A man of Asher, 1 Chr 7:32; called Shamer in 1 Chr 7:34.

  2. The father of Jehozabad, who killed Joash, 2 Kgs 12:21; called Shimrith in 2 Chr 24:26.

SHO'PHACH (pouring). 1 Chr 19:16, 1 Chr 19:18. See Shobach.

SHO'PHAN. Num 32:35. The word should probably be written in connection with the preceding Hebrew word, "Atroth Shophan" - that is, "Ataroth of the burrow" - to distinguish it from the Ataroth in Num 32:34. See Atroth.

SHOSHAN'NIM (lily), Ps 45; Ps 69, title, HOSHAN'NIM - E'DUTH (lily, a testimony), Ps 80, title, probably signifies the melody to which the Psalm was sung. Some have regarded it as the title of a bridal-song, while others think it means a musical instrument.

SHOUL'DER. Gen 49:15. To bare the shoulder is significant of servitude, and to withdraw it denotes rebellion. Neh 9:29. To bear upon the shoulder is to sustain. Isa 9:6; Lev 22:22.

SHO'VEL. See Fan, Winnow.

SHRINE. See Diana.

SHROUD, in Eze 31:3, means "cover," "shelter."

SHU'A (riches), father-in-law of Judah. Gen 38:2, Jud 4:12; 1 Chr 2:3.

SHU'AH (a pit).

  1. A son of Abraham by Keturah. Gen 25:2; 1 Chr 1:32. Bildad is called the Shuhite. Job 2:11.

  2. A name in 1 Chr 4:11.

SHU'AL (a fox), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:36.

SHU'AL (fox, or jackal), THE LAND OF, a district toward which one of the three devastating bands of Philistines went from Michmash. 1 Sam 13:17. It was probably not far from Bethel. It is not mentioned elsewhere, but there is a wild region east of Taiyibeh containing a ravine named that of "hyaenas," and it may be identical with the land of Shalim. 1 Sam 9:4.

SHU'BAEL (captive of God).

  1. In 1 Chr 24:20. See Shebuel, 1.

  2. In 1 Chr 26:20. See Shebuel, 2.

SHU'HAM (perhaps pit-digger), a son of Dan, Num 26:42; called Hushim in Gen 46:23.

SHU'HAMITES, the descendants of the above.

SHU'HITE. See Shuam, 1.

SHU'LAMITE, the woman from Shulem; probably Shunem, and hence Abishag the Shunammite. Song 6:13.

SHU'MATHITES, the inhabitants of an unlocated village Shumah. 1 Chr 2:53.

SHU'NAMMITE. See Shulamite.

SHU'NEM (two resting-places), a city in the territory of Issachar. Josh 19:18. The Philistines encamped there before the great battle of Gilboa. 1 Sam 28:4. David's wife, Abishag, was of Shunem, 1 Kgs 1:3, and it was the residence of the Shunammite woman who entertained Elisha. 2 Kgs 4:8. It answers to the modern Sulem, on the southwestern slope of Little Hermon, about 53 miles north of Jerusalem, 8 Roman miles from Tabor, and 3 1/2 miles north of Jezreel. The village is encircled by enclosed gardens and luxuriant fields of grain. Porter noticed children playing bareheaded in the grain-fields under the burning sun, thus illustrating how the Shunammite's child may have played in the prophet Elisha's day. The villagers are rude and hostile. The place is in full view of the sacred sites on Mount Carmel; it has a spring, from which, doubtless, the Philistine army was supplied with water.

SHU'NI (quiet), a son of Gad. Gen 46:16; Num 26:15.

SHU'NITES, the descendants of the above.

SHU'PHAM, SHUP'PIM (serpents).

  1. A Benjamite. Num 26:39; 1 Chr 7:12.

  2. A Levite porter. 1 Chr 26:16.

SHU'PHAMITES, descendants of Shupham.

SHUR (fort), a place in the wilderness, on the south-west of Palestine, including the whole district between the north-eastern frontier of Egypt and the land of Canaan. The wilderness is also spoken of as the "wilderness of Etham." Num 33:8. We first read of Shur in the account of Hagar's flight, and this region later became the dwelling-place of the wild Ishmaelites. Gen 16:7; Gen 25:18. Abraham dwelt between Kadesh and Shur. Gen 20:1. It was over against Egypt. 1 Sam 15:7; 1 Sam 27:8. 799 Some would identify it with Ayun Musa, 7 or 8 miles from Suez; but Trumbull supposes it to mean "a wall of Egypt," from the Great to the Red Sea. See Etham.

SHU'SHAN (a lily), a celebrated city, known to the Greeks as "Susa," in the province of Elam, a part of ancient Susiana.

History. - "Shushan the palace," as it is named in the prophecy of Daniel and by Nehemiah, is mentioned over twenty times in the Bible, nineteen of the references being in the book of Esther. In Dan 8:2 it is placed in the province of Elam. Elam is mentioned as a son of Shem, and then in connection with Chedorlaomer's invasion of Canaan and in the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel. The province was probably independent of Babylon, and perhaps superior to it, but in later times came under the power of Persia. Gen 10:22; Eze 14:1; Isa 21:2; Jer 49:34; Eze 32:24. See Elam. The city of Susa was a place of great antiquity. Its name appears in the Assyrian inscriptions of Assur-bani-pal, the Sardanapalus of the Greeks, b.c. 650, who took it, and the record gives a ground-plan of the city. From the tablets, as deciphered by George Smith, we take the following: "I overwhelmed Elam through its extent. . . . Their bodies like bows and arrows filled the vicinity of Shushan. . . . Shushan, his royal city, I captured." Susa was possessed by the Babylonians after the division of the Assyrian empire by Cyaxares and Nabopolassar. In Belshazzar's last year Daniel was at Shushan in the palace when he saw the vision. Dan 8:2. By the conquest of Babylon the Persians under Cyrus came into possession of Susa, and Darius Hystaspes and the Achaemenian princes made it the capital city. He founded the grand palace described in Esth 1:4, 1 Chr 24:6. It was cooler than Babylon, and having excellent water, Susa was a suitable metropolis of the Persian empire. The kings made it their residence the chief part of the year, leaving it only during the summer for Ecbatana, among the mountains. After the battle of Arbela, Alexander the Great found in the city, treasures worth over twelve millions sterling, and all the regalia of the great king. His preference for Babylon caused Susa to decline, and it was not again made the capital city. It was conquered by Antigonus, b.c. 315, who obtained treasures worth about three millions and a half sterling. It was again attacked by Molo, b.c. 221, who took the town, but did not capture the citadel. In the conquest of Persia by the Mohammedans, in a.d. 640, Susa was captured, fell into decay, and its site was for a long period unknown. The region was famed for its fertility, and the Kerkhah water was so excellent that it was carried about with the great king on his journeys. For an illustration of a palace see Assyria, p. 80.

Present Appearance. - The site of Shushan has been identified with the modern Shush or Sus, between the river Choaspes (Kherkhah) and the Ulai (Eulaeus). These are really two branches of the same river, which divides about 20 miles above Susa. Hence, Daniel might be standing on the "banks of the Ulai" and also "between Ulai." Dan 8:2, Ex 17:16. The site is nearly due east of Babylon and north of the Persian Gulf. The ruins cover an area some 3 miles in circumference, being 6000 feet long from east to west and 4500 feet wide from north to south. There are four distinct and spacious platforms or mounds; the western one, of earth, gravel, and sun-dried bricks, is smallest, but loftiest, being 119 feet above the river, with steep sides, having a round space at the top, and is supposed to have been the site of the citadel of Susa. South-east of this is a great platform of 60 acres, the eastern face of it being 3000 feet long. A third platform, north of the other two, is a square of 1000 feet each way. These three mounds together form a space pointing almost due north, 4500 feet long by 3000 feet wide. Remains have been found belonging to the great palace built by Darius, the father of Xerxes, as appears from inscriptions on the pedestals, written in three languages. The central hall was 343 feet long and 244 feet wide, and this was probably used for the great state ceremonies. The bases of four of the immense columns and the position of all the seventy-two pillars of the original palace have been discovered. It was in the great palace and the surrounding buildings that the principal scenes of the book of Esther took place. The "King's Gate." where 800 Mordecai sat, Esth 2:21, was probably a hall 100 feet square, supported by pillars in the centre, standing 150 feet from the northern portico. Between these two was probably the inner court, where Esther appeared before the king. The royal house and the house of the women were behind the great hall, toward the south, or between the great hall and the citadel, communicating with it by a bridge over the ravine. The "court of the garden of the king's palace" was in front of the eastern or western porch, and in it Ahasuerus made a feast "unto all the people seven days, , . . where were white, green, and blue hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble." Esth 1:5-6. The feast was evidently out of doors, in tents put up in one of the palace courts. The effect of such a group of buildings, including a stately central palace standing high above the plain upon an elevated plateau interspersed with trees and shrubs, must have been very magnificent. The tracing out of these ruins in detail has furnished the most interesting corroboration of the Scripture history. On the low ground near the river is a building believed by the natives to be the tomb of Daniel.

SHU'SHAN-E'DUTH, Ps 80, title, the same with Shoshannim. See Shoshannim.

SHU'THALHITES, the descendants of Shuthelah. Num 26:35.

SHU'THELAH (noise of breaking), a son of Ephraim. Num 26:35-36; 1 Chr 7:20-21.

SHUT'TLE, a well-known instrument used by weavers for throwing the thread of the woof across the warp. Job 7:6. As it moves with great swiftness from one side to the other, so as scarcely to be seen in its passage, it is used figuratively to denote the rapid flight of time.

SI'A, SI'AHA (congregation), the ancestor of some who returned. Ezr 2:44; Neh 7:47.

SIB'BECAI, SIB'BECHAI (thicket of Jehovah), one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam 21:18; 1 Chr 11:29; 1 Chr 20:4; 1 Chr 27:11; called Mebunnai in 2 Sam 23:27.

SIB'BOLETH. See Shibboleth.

SIB'MAH (coolness, or fragrance), a city east of the Jordan, built or fortified by the Reubenites; called also Shebam and Shibmah. Josh 13:19; Num 32:3, Acts 7:38. It is not noticed again until the prophet's lament over Moab. Isa 16:8-9; Jer 48:32. At that time it was a Moabite town noted for its grapes. Jerome says it was 500 paces from Heshbon. A trace of the name is found in the ruins es-Sameh, 4 miles east of Heshbon.

SIB'RAIM (twofold hope), a landmark in the northern boundary of Palestine between Damascus and Hamath. Eze 47:16.

SI'CHEM. Gen 12:6. See Shechem.

SICK'LE. Deut 16:9. We have preserved in Egyptian monuments the form of the ancient sickle, which bore a very close resemblance to our implement. The scythe was unknown in Bible times.

SID'DIM, THE VALE OF. The name is variously interpreted. Furst and Stanley render it "the valley of the open" or "well-cultivated fields;" Gesenius and Kalisch, as "a valley filled with rocks and pits" or a "plain cut up by stony channels;" Conder renders it "the valley of cliffs;" others as "the valley of gypsum." The place is mentioned in Scripture only in connection with the battle between Chedorlaomer and the five confederated kings of Sodom and the adjacent cities. The vale is said to have been full of slime-pits. Gen 14:3-10. The "slime" means bitumen, which abounds in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea, and especially at the southern extremity. The site of the vale of Siddim is connected with that of the destroyed cities of the plain. The theory has long prevailed that these cities were at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea, and were submerged in it. In that event the southern part of the Dead Sea, below the Lisan Peninsula, is taken as their site, and this would correspond with the vale of Siddim; and thus it is indicated upon many maps. Many scholars, however, are now of the opinion that the cities were not at the south end of the sea, but probably at the north end, and hence that the vale of Siddim must be found in that region also. The sea is not of recent origin, as the theory of the submergence of those 801 cities would indicate, but the lake is only the remains of a larger and more ancient sea. Dr. Merrill, who favors the northern sites for the lost cities, describes a series of singular pits extending across the Shittim plain, which local tradition declares are very old and were used for military purposes. For a more full treatment of these disputed sites see Sodom, Salt Sea, and Zoar.

SI'DON. Gen 10:15, Acts 1:19. See Zinon.

SIDO'NIANS, inhabitants of Sidon.

SIEGE. Deut 20:19. See War.

SIEVE. Isa 30:28. The bolter, or sieve, which is so necessary an article in our day in the preparation of meal for bread, etc., was in ancient times made of rushes and papyrus. Ancient writers say that only the Gauls had sieves of horsehair. What was left in the bolter was put into the mill a second time. Sieves of various degrees of fineness were no doubt used, for the same authors tell us of four different qualities of meal.

SIGI'OIVOTH. See Shigionoth.

SIG'NET. Gen 38:10. See Seal.

SIGNS, John 4:48, and WON'DERS (as they are usually connected), sometimes denote those proofs or demonstrations of power and authority which were furnished by miracles and by other tokens of the divine presence, as in Acts 2:22, and at other times those unusual appearances which betoken the approach of a great event, as in Luke 21:11, Gal 4:25.

SI'HON (sweeping away), a king of the Amorites who lost his dominions in consequence of his refusal to permit the Hebrews to pass through them on their way from Egypt to Canaan. Sihon himself was slain in battle, his army was routed, Heshbon, his capital, was taken, and his country distributed between Reuben and Gad." Num 21:21-30; Deut 1:4; Deut 2:24-32; Josh 13:15-29.

SI'HOR. Isa 23:3; Jer 2:18. See Nile.

SI'HOR-LIB'NAH, the name of two separate valleys, according to the Septuagint, Josh 19:26, now called Shughur and el-Belat, which run into each other. See Shihor-libnath.

SI'LAS, Acts 15:40. contracted from SILVA'NUS (woody), 2 Cor 1:19, is called one of the chief of the brethren. Acts 15:22, and a faithful brother. 1 Pet 5:12. He is supposed to have been a native of Antioch, and a member of the Christian church there. Acts 15:37-41. He was the associate of Paul in several of his missionary tours, and his fellow-prisoner at Philippi. Acts 15:40; Acts 16:25, Acts 16:29; Acts 17:4, John 17:10, Lev 17:15. He is called a prophet, Acts 15:32, but what was the precise nature of this office in the days of the apostles is not clear.

SILK. The only undoubted reference to silk occurs in Rev 18:12. It is a question whether the Hebrews knew anything about it, although there are two passages in which a word so translated is employed. Prov 31:22; Eze 16:10, 2 Kgs 11:13. The "silk" of the A.V. is rather byssus, or fine linen. But in N.T. times silk was common.

SIL'LA (a twig), a place near which King Joash was slain. 2 Kgs 12:20. It was evidently in the valley below Millo.

SILO'AH, THE POOL OF, properly "the pool of Shelach" - that is, "the dart." Neh 3:15. See Siloam.

SILO'AM, or SHILO'AH (sent), the name of a pool and of a tower.

  1. A pool near Jerusalem, referred to as "the waters of Shiloah that go softly," and as "the pool of Siloah by the king's garden." Isa 8:6; Neh 3:15. It is also called "the pool." John 9:7-11. These texts give us no clue to the location of the pool. Josephus mentions it as a fountain and says it was at the mouth of the Tyropoeon valley, and there is no doubt as to its identity with a pool now existing at the mouth of this valley, about 450 yards south of the Haram wall and 60 yards west of the southern point of Ophel at Jerusalem. There are really two pools, of which the smaller may be properly the pool of Siloain. It is 52 feet long, 18 feet wide, and 19 feet deep. A flight of steps leads to the bottom, and the pool has yet a good supply of water, generally somewhat salt to the taste, perhaps from the soil through which it percolates, and it is, moreover, polluted by the washerwomen and tanners by whom it is constantly used. The pool is partly hewn out of the rock, partly built with masonry, and columns extend along the side walls from top to bottom. The water is supplied from the Fountain of the Virgin, with which the pool is connected by a zigzag tunnel, cut in the solid rock,

1708 feet long. Robinson, Barclay, and Warren crawled through this passage, which is 16 feet high at the entrance, and only 16 inches at its narrowest part. In this tunnel a remarkable inscription was discovered in 1880. It is Hebrew, and narrates the completion of the tunnel. The inscription is reputed to belong to the age of Hezekiah or possibly of Solomon. See p. 2. The

Pool of Siloam.

Arabs call it Bicket el-Hamra, or the "red pond." Warren supposes this to have been the pool dug by King Hezekiah. the "king's pool" of Nehemiah and the Siloam of Josephus. It was to the pool of Siloam that a Levite was sent with a golden pitcher on "the last day, that great clay of the feast" of tabernacles. To this Jesus alluded when, standing in the temple, he cried, "If any man thirst let him come unto me and drink." John 7:37-39. To this pool the blind man was sent to wash, and returned seeing. John 9:7-11. Its waters now refresh the gardens below, making them the greenest spots about Jerusalem, and abounding in olives, figs, and pomegranates.

  1. The tower of Siloam, which killed eighteen men in its fall. Luke 13:4. There is nothing in the text to determine the spot where the tower stood. The name is preserved in a wretched little village among the tombs on the east side of the Kedron, and now called Kefr Silwan. The village is at the foot of the third height of Olivet, near the spot where Solomon built the temples to Chemosh, Ashtoreth, and Milcolm, known as "the Mount of Corruption."

SILVA'NUS (woody). See Silas.

SIL'VER, a well-known precious metal. The Tarshish whence it was obtained was probably in Spain, as silver is still brought from the same region which furnished it in the days of Solomon, 1 Kgs 10:22, as well as from many countries then unknown. That the value of this metal was recognized very early in human history is evident, Gen 13:2; Isa 44:2; Job 28:1. The reason probably is that, like gold, it is often found in a state of purity in the earth, and therefore easily discovered. It was used in the construction of the tabernacle, Ex 26:19, Jud 1:32, for the furniture of the temple, 1 Chr 28:14-17, and also for musical instruments, Num 10:2, and for adorning idols. Isa 40:19. And that it was abundant in that day appears from 1 Kgs 10:27.

Silver constituted the chief medium of trade, though it was not coined, but used by weight, Gen 23:10, and the Hebrew word for this metal denoted money in general, as does the French word argent. The "pieces of silver" (thirty of which were given as the price if innocent blood. Matt 26:15; 1 Sam 27:3) were probably shekels of silver, worth fifty cents each. The "silverling," Isa 7:23, is supposed to have been of like value.

In Mal 3:2-3 there is manifest reference to the "cupellation" of silver by means of lead, the process of purification employed before the discovery of quicksilver.

"'A very beautiful phenomenon, known as the fulguration of the metal, attends the removal of the last portions of lead from the silver. During the earlier stages of the process the film of oxide of lead, which is constantly forming over the melted mass, is renewed as rapidly as it is removed: but when the lead has all been oxidized, the film of litharge upon the silver becomes thinner and thinner as it flows off". It then exhibits a succession of the beautiful iridescent tints of Newton's rings; and at length


[image -463, 31, 283, 460, 19710]

  1. Pool of Siloam. 2 Plan of the tunnel, leading from the Virgin's Fount, or Well, to the Pool of Siloam. 3. Facsimile of the ancient Inscription found (1881) in the tunnel, about 15 feet from the Pool of Siloam.

805 the film of oxide suddenly disappears, and reveals the brilliant surface of the metallic silver beneath.' - Miller's Chemistry. The brilliant tints of the film of oxide in its later stages, and the sudden flashing forth of the metal in its full pure glory, form a striking illustration of the offering of righteousness which the refining and purifying influence of the Christian faith produces." - Prof. Deane.

SIL'VERLING. Isa 7:23. See Silver.

SIM'EON (a hearing).

  1. Son of Jacob and Leah. Gen 29:33. According to the prediction of Jacob, Gen 49:5-7, and as a punishment for his offence in the matter of the Shechemites, Gen 34 (see Dinah), his posterity dwindled, comp. Num 1:22-23; Gen 26:14, and their inheritance was only a dismembered portion of the territory of Judah. Josh 19:1.

  2. A man of singular piety residing at Jerusalem. Luke 2:25. He had been favored with a divine intimation that he should live to see the incarnate Redeemer, the Lord's Christ, and, being led by the Spirit into the temple at the particular time when the infant Jesus was brought thither by his parents, according to the requirement of the Law, Ex 13:12; Ex 22:29 he took him up in his arms and uttered the most devout thanksgivings to God, accompanied with a remarkable prediction respecting the various effects of his advent.

  3. A man of this name was among the prophets and teachers of the Christian church at Antioch. Acts 13:1. Some have supposed (though without warrant) that he is the same with Simon the Cyrenian. Matt 27:32.

  4. "Simeon" is a Hebrew name, and in Acts 15:14 is the same with "Simon."

  5. A name in our Lord's genealogy. Luke 3:30.

SIM'EON, THE TERRITORY OF, the south-western portion of the Promised Land. The district assigned to Simeon lay within the inheritance of Judah, and included eighteen cities in the South of Palestine around the well of Beer-sheba. Josh 19:1-9; 1 Chr 4:28-33. On its entrance to the Promised Land, Simeon was the smallest of all the tribes, having at that time only 22,200 able-bodied men. Num 26:14. At a later date some of the towns within its territory were possessed by Judah, as Hormah and Beer-sheba, while Ziklag became a Philistine, and then a Judaean, town. 1 Sam 27:6; 1 Sam 30:30; 1 Kgs 19:3. After the division of the kingdom the territory of this tribe appears to have been subject to many changes, as the population was partly in fellowship with the northern kingdom, though it seems to have shared in the reformation under Asa and Josiah. 2 Chr 15:9; 2 Chr 34:6.

SIM'EONITES, the members of the tribe of Simeon. Num 25:14; Gen 26:14. No eminent person is recorded as of this tribe save Judith, a heroine of a story in the Apocrypha, although there is a Jewish tradition that it furnished schoolmasters to the other tribes.

SI'MON (a hearing), contracted from SIM'EON, a native of Samaria, and a famous sorcerer, who professed to be a convert to the Christian faith, and was baptized as such by Philip, but was severely rebuked by Peter as a hypocrite because, under the influence of mercenary motives, he desired apostolic gifts. Acts 8:9. Hence the buying and selling of ecclesiastical rights, benefits, or privileges is called simony - a high offence against the purity and integrity of the Christian faith, and one of which the seller and buyer are equally guilty.

  1. Simon Peter. Matt 4:18. See Peter.

  2. Simon the Canaanite, Matt 10:4, or Simon Zelotes (or the zealous), one of the twelve apostles; was one of the party called Zealots, hence his name. The epithet "Canaanite" is properly "Kananite," the Chaldee for "zeal," and has no reference to locality.

  3. The brother of our Lord, Matt 13:55; Mark 6:3; not to be confounded with the preceding, nor with Symeon, who succeeded James as bishop of the church in Jerusalem.

  4. A Pharisee. Luke 7:36.

  5. A leper. Matt 26:6.

  6. The father of Judas Iscariot. John 6:71.

  7. The man of Cyrene who was compelled to bear our Saviour's cross when the latter was no longer able. Matt 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26; John 19:17.

  8. The tanner at Joppa with whom Peter lodged. Acts 9:43.

SIM'RI (watchful), a Merarite Levite in the time of David. 1 Chr 26:10.


SIN, Gen 4:7, is the transgression of the law of God. 1 John 3:4. All unrighteousness is sin. 1 John 5:17. The word is sometimes used for a sin offering, as in Hos 4:8;Rom 8:3; 2 Cor 5:21. In the text first cited reference is had to the eating, either from greediness or in violation of the Law, of that which was brought as a sin offering.

The Bible traces the introduction of sin to the fall of our first parents. There is none sinless. But sins differ in enormity. John distinguishes the "sin not unto death" and "the sin unto death." 1 John 5:16. The verse teaches that a man can drive out God's Spirit from his heart and cut himself off from all intercession. There is also an "unpardonable" sin. Matt 12:31-32. This is the result of absolute resistance to the operation and influence of the Holy Spirit upon the heart; it is final impenitence, excluding the possibility of conversion, and hence of forgiveness.

SIN (mire), a city of Northern Egypt, known to the Greeks as Pelusium. It was "the strength," or stronghold, "of Egypt." Eze 30:15-16. The city was situated upon the most easterly mouth of the Nile, only a few miles from the sea. A Sallier papyrus records a great battle at Sin between Barneses and the Sheta, and the reputed wonderful deliverance of Sethos from Sennacherib - when mice gnawed the Assyrian bowstrings and shields by night, rendering the arms of the Assyrians useless - took place near this town. Herodotus reports a statue of Sethos with a mouse in his hands standing in Vulcan's temple, probably in commemoration of this deliverance by mice. Ezekiel's prophecy, "Sin shall have great pain," was fulfilled by the great cruelty inflicted upon the Egyptians by Cambyses, who conquered them near this city. The site of Sin, or Pelusium, may be marked by some mounds at el-Farma, though some suppose it is at Aboo Kheeyar, west of the old Pelusiac branch of the Nile.

SIN, WILDERNESS OF, a region between Elim and Rephidim. Ex 16:1; Ex 17:1; Num 33:11-12. Here the Israelites were first fed with manna and quails. The wilderness extends 25 miles along the east shore of the Red Sea, from Wady Taiyibeh to Wady Feiran; it is now called the plain of el-Markha. It is barren, but has a little vegetation, and when the rainfall was larger and the drainage from the mountain descended more gradually, instead of sweeping everything before it as now, it may have afforded fair pasturage. Travellers report seeing numerous quails upon this plain in modern times.

SI'NA, the Greek form of "Sinai." Acts 7:30, Acts 7:38.

SI'NAI (burning bush?), a name of a peninsula and of a mountain, or group of mountains.

  1. The peninsula of Sinai is a triangular region lying between the two arms of the Red Sea. On the west it extends along the Gulf of Suez for about 190 miles, and on the east along the Gulf of Akabah about 130 miles, while the base of the triangle, on a line from Suez to the north end of Akabah, is 150 miles long. It includes an area of about 11,500 square miles, or a little less than that of Massachusetts and Connecticut.

Physical Features. - This district consists largely of sterile ranges of mountains, furrowed by wadies, or valleys with watercourses, which are scantily filled only after a rain. Projecting into it wedgewise from the north is the desert of Tih, or "wilderness of wandering," of limestone formation. South of the hills of the Tih plateau is a broad belt of sandstone, extending nearly from Suez to Akabah. South of this is a great cluster of granite mountains, in such a rugged, tumbled chaos as scarcely to admit of classification, the highest peaks reaching to an elevation of between 8000 and 9000 feet. Between the mountains are deeply-cut valleys, through which a large company might march into the very heart of the mountain-region. The mountain-ranges extend down the east side of Suez and down the west side of Akabah, the two ranges meeting in an angle at the southern portion of the peninsula, where the mountains are the most precipitous and elevated, and where they often assume fantastic shapes and take on gorgeous colors. This huge range is composed of gneiss and granite, or, more exactly, of colorless quartz, felspar, green hornblende, and black slate, with


Sinai and the plain of Er Rahah. (After photograph of Ordnance Survey) 808 considerable outcropping of limestone. It is rich in mineral wealth of iron, copper, and turquoise, so that the Egyptians called it the "land of copper." Mines were once extensively worked in this region by the ancient Egyptians and others, but they have been long neglected. The most important were probably the mines of Maghara, situated on the slope of a precipitous mountain, about 145 feet from the bottom of the valley. The opening is broad but low, and the shaft penetrates the rock to a considerable depth, numerous pillars having been left to support the roof. From these a turquoise of a beautiful green color was taken, and copper was found together with a species of malachite. The miners were condemned criminals and prisoners of war. See a striking account of this mining in Ebers' Uarda.

History. - This region was known and settled nearly as early as Egypt itself. The first Pharaoh, having conquered the mountain-tribes, claimed to have discovered the mines. The region was dependent on the Pharaohs until the time of the Hyksos kings; after their expulsion the region was again subdued by Egypt, but possesses its chief interest from the journey of the Israelites, who wandered in it for forty years previous to their entrance into Canaan. Christianity was planted here very early, perhaps by Paul; the peninsula was annexed to the Roman empire, a.d. 105. In the fourth century it was peopled by anchorites and various brotherhoods of hermits and monks, their principal settlement being on Mount Serbal and in the Wady Feiran. They suffered terrible massacres from the Saracens, a.d. 373 to a.d. 411. In the reign of Justinian a church of the Virgin was founded on Mount Sinai. Later, the Mohammedans overran the peninsula, and its lonely valleys have been, and are still, traversed by hosts of Mecca pilgrims.

Numerous inscriptions have been found in several of the valleys of the peninsula, but chiefly in the Wady Mukatteb, or the "written" valley. Ebers counted more than a hundred inscriptions, chiefly in groups, occurring quite frequently in a few hours' travel. Most of them are on the western side of the valleys. They were once regarded as very mysterious, some supposing them to have been made by the Israelites. The inscriptions are mostly in the Nabataean character, but some are in Greek, and a few in Coptic and Arabic. They are roughly engraved on the rock, which was seldom smoothed for the purpose, and the little figures are often extremely rude and inartistic. They represent armed men, travellers and warriors, camels, horses with and without riders, goats, stars, crosses, and ships; a priest with raised arms and an equestrian performer are also among the figures worthy of notice. They are now believed to be not older than the second century before Christ, while some are not older than the fourth century of the Christian era.

Among the highest summits in the peninsula are Jebel (the Arabic word for "mount") Serbal, 6734 feet; Jebel Musa, 7363 feet; Jebel Umm Shomer, 8449 feet; Jebel Katharina, 8536 feet; Jebel Zebir, 8551 feet.

  1. "Sinai "is also used to designate the range of mountains from which the Israelites received the Law. The attempt to decide which of the numerous peaks in this extended range is the true Mount of the Law has been a source of protracted and animated discussion. In determining its identity with any existing peak several conditions must be met: (1) The mountain must have before it an open space within sight of the summit, Ex 19:11; Ex 20:18, large enough to contain at least two millions of people; (2) It must rise sharply from the plain, since the people "came near and stood under the mountain," Deut 4:11; it "might be touched," Heb 12:18; and Moses was commanded to "set bounds . . . round about," Ex 19:12; (3) As the Israelites remained in the neighborhood for a year, they must have found a sufficient supply of water and pasturage.

At least five mountains have been at different times identified with the Mount of the Law, but two of these, Jebel el-Ejmeh and Jebel Umm Alawi, do not at all fulfil the conditions, and must be set aside. Josephus says that Mount Sinai was the highest of the district, and this led to its identification with Jebel Katharina (8536 feet high), and its twin peak Jebel Zebir (8551 feet). But the mountains 809 surrounding these summits so hem them in that they are not visible from any place in the neighborhood where a large number of people could be assembled. The question was thus narrowed down to Jebel Serbal, Jebel Musa, and Ras Sufsafeh.

Jebel Serbal is described by Wilson (Bible Educator, iv. p. 186) as "perhaps the most striking mountain in the peninsula. It rises abruptly to a height of more than 4000 feet above the valley at its base [6734 feet above the sea-level], and its summit, a sharp ridge about 3

Outline Map of Mount Sinai (After the Ordinance Survey.)

miles in length, is broken into a series of peaks, varying little in altitude, but rivalling each other in the beauty and grandeur of their outline." There are "some ten or twelve peaks, which vary so little in altitude that when seen from lower ground or from a distance the eye fails to distinguish the highest." Evidently the true Sinai is not to be sought in such a confusion. Nor is there any place in the neighborhood for the encampment of a large host. Holland (Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 410) describes the valleys at its base as "a wilderness of boulders and torrent-beds," and the space between the valleys as "a chaos of rugged mountains." The members of the Ordnance Survey 810 unanimously reached the conclusion that the real Sinai was to be found in Jebel Musa, including its peak Ras Sufsafeh, which is situated a little north-west of the centre of the Sinaitic group, and some 20 miles east by south of Jebel Serbal.

"Jebel Musa" is the general name applied to a mountain-mass, 2 miles long and 1 mile broad, which extends north-east and south-west. At its southern extremity is a peak 7363 feet in height, to which the name of "Jebel Musa" ("Mount of Moses") has been for ages applied. This is the traditional mount of legislation.

Ras Sufsafeh, which was formerly thought to be a separate mountain, is now known to be only a northern peak of this mass of Jebel Musa. This northern peak, 6937 feet in height, is now regarded as the place of the actual giving of the Law. To avoid confusion arising from this double use of the name "Jebel Musa," Wilson suggests "Musa-Sufsafeh" for the whole mountain, thus limiting the name of "Jebel Musa" to the southern peak. Many writers - Ritter, the great German geographer, among them - supposed that this southern peak was the scene of the giving of the Law, and that there was to the south of it a plain of great extent; but Dean Stanley describes the valley as "rough, uneven, and narrow," and the surveyors found no plain which would accommodate the hosts of Israel.

At the northern end of the mountain, however, all the conditions are met in the peak of Ras Sufsafeh.

This whole block is isolated from the surrounding mountains by deep valleys, so that boundaries might have been set completely around it. Ex 19:12, Heb 12:23. To the north of Ras Sufsafeh, and extending to its very base is the plain of Er Rahah, 2 miles long and half a mile wide, embracing 400 acres of available standing-ground, directly in front of the mountain. The plain, with its branches, contains 4,293,000 square yards, in full view of the mount, affording more than sufficient standing-ground for the two millions of the Israelites. Here they might stand "at the nether part of the mount," Ex 19:17, which rises so abruptly from the plain as to answer the description of "the mount that might be touched." Heb 12:18. This fulfils all the conditions of the Scripture narrative; and the conclusion is that this stately, awful-looking, isolated mass Ras Sufsafeh is the very mountain where "the Lord came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mount," Ex 19:20, and where "God spake all these words" of the ten commandments. Ex 20:1-17. The southern summit (Jebel Musa) is completely hidden from the plain, and Palmer suggests that it may have been to this secluded spot Moses went when the Lord called him up to the top of the mount. Ex 19:20. There, too, perhaps, he was "with the Lord forty days and forty nights." Ex 34:28. Near the base of Ras Sufsafeh is the Harun, or "hill of the golden calf." On the eastern declivity is the convent of St. Katharine, founded by the emperor Justinian in a.d. 527, where Tischendorf discovered the famous Codex Sinaiticus, one of the oldest and best manuscripts of the N.T. in existence. Four running streams are found in the vicinity, and there is no other spot in the whole peninsula which is nearly as well supplied with water as the neighborhood of Jebel Musa. Besides, there is no other district in the peninsula which affords such excellent pasturage as the neighborhood of Jebel Musa. We add the testimony of modern travellers. Dr. Robinson, on his visit in 1838, first ascended Ras Sufsafeh, and pointed it out as the true locality of legislation. In his account he says (Biblical Res. I. 107): "The extreme difficulty, and even danger, of the ascent was well rewarded by the prospect that now opened before us. The whole plain Er Rahah lay spread beneath our feet, with the adjacent wadys and mountains; while Wady esh-Sheikh on the right, and the recess on the left, both connected with and opening broadly from Er Rahah, presented an area which serves nearly to double that of the plain. Our conviction was strengthened that here, or on some of the adjacent cliffs, was the spot where the Lord 'descended in fire' and proclaimed the Law. Here lay the plain where the whole congregation might be assembled; here was the mount that could be approached and touched, if not forbidden; and here the mountain-brow where alone the lightnings and the thick 811 cloud would be visible, and the thunders and the voice of the trump be heard when the Lord 'came down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai.' We gave ourselves up to the impressions of the awful scene, and read, with a feeling that will never be forgotten, the sublime account of the transaction, and the commandments there promulgated, in the original words as recorded by the great Hebrew legislator. Ex 19:9-25; Ex 20:1-21." Dr. Schaff, who visited Mount Sinai in 1877, gives the following description (Through Bible Lands, p. 177): "Then we climb with difficulty, and some danger, over granite blocks to the giddy height of Ras Sufsafeh. Here, on a projecting rock, we rest an hour, looking down on the vast plain of Er Rahah and the adjoining wadys of esh Sheikh and Lejah, and looking beyond to the amphitheatre of mountains which wall them in and meditating over the past, which here assumes the character of a present overpowering reality, we are lost in amazement at the panorama of terrible sublimity of nature, and the immeasurable significance of that historic event which is felt to this day all over the world as far as the ten commandments are known and read. It is difficult to imagine a more solemn and impressive sight. We then descend a steep ravine (imagining that we follow the track of Moses, Ex 32:17, Acts 1:19), over confused heaps of rocks, to the valley Er Rahah, and return to our camp near the convent. It was the most fatiguing, as well as the most interesting, day's work of mountain-climbing I can remember. I fully satisfied my mind that Ras Sufsafeh is the platform from which the Law was proclaimed. Here all the conditions required by the Scripture narrative are combined. Moses may have received the Law on the higher Jebel Musa, but it must have been proclaimed to the people from Ras Sufsafeh, which can be seen from every part of the plain below. For Er Rahah is a smooth and gigantic camping-ground, protected by surrounding mountains, and contains, as has been ascertained by actual measurement, two millions of square yards; so that the whole people of Israel could find ample room and plainly see and hear the man of God on the rocky pulpit above. Dean Stanley relates that 'from the highest point of Ras Sufsafeh to its lower peak, a distance of about 60 feet, the page of a book, distinctly but not loudly read, was perfectly audible, and every remark of the various groups of travellers rose clearly to those immediately above them.' Descending from that mount through a ravine between two peaks, Moses and Joshua might have first heard the shouts of the people before they saw them dancing round the golden calf. Ex 32:17, Acts 1:19. In one word, there is the most complete adaptation of this locality to all the circumstances of the Sinaitic legislation as described by Moses. Tradition is for Jebel Musa, the Bible for Ras Sufsafeh. But, after all, they form but one mountain (as do the five peaks of Serbal), and tradition in this case is at least very near the truth."

SINCERITY stands opposed to dissimulation or hypocrisy, and implies the entire correspondence of the heart with the expressions of the lips. 2 Cor 1:12. The original word refers to the bright and penetrating light of the sun, and denotes such things as, on being examined by the brightest light, are found pure and unadulterated.

SI'NIM. This geographical term occurs only once in the Bible, in Isa 49:12. The country meant is generally considered to be China, though some would leave it an open question.

SIN'ITE, a tribe descended from Canaan. Gen 10:17; 1 Chr 1:15.

SIN-MONEY, money sent by persons at a distance, with which to buy the required offerings, 2 Kgs 12:16; and, as there was usually some surplus, it was the perquisite of the priest, and was called "sin-money," or "sin-offering money." Num 18:9.

SIN-OF'FERINGS. Num 18:9. See Offering.

SI'ON (lofty), the name of two mountains in Palestine.

  1. One of the various names of Mount Hermon. Deut 4:48: See Hermon.

  2. The Greek form of the Hebrew name "Zion." Matt 21:5; John 12:15. See Zion.

SIPH'MOTH (fruitful places), a place in the South of Judah frequented by David when an outlaw. 1 Sam 30:28.

SIP'PAI (threshold?), a Philistine giant, 1 Chr 20:4; called also Saph.


SI'RAH, THE WELL OF (retreat), the place from which Abner was recalled by Joab, who put him to death at Hebron. 2 Sam 8:26. It is now called 'Ain Sarah, a spring about 1 mile from Hebron, and a little to one side of the main road.

SIR'ION (breastplate ?), a Zidonian name of Mount Hermon. Deut 3:9,Ps 29:6. Perhaps this name was applied to a part of Hermon only.

SISAM'AI (distinguished ?), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:40.

SIS'ERA (battle-array).

  1. The general of Jabin's army. Judg 4:2. See Barak, Deborah, Jael.

  2. The ancestor of some who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:53; Neh 7:55.

SIS'TER'S SON. In Col 4:10 the term should be "cousin." In biblical usage, this word is not limited to our sense, but, like "mother," "father," "son," "daughter," has a far wider application. Thus, in 2 Sam 13:2, it means a step- or half-sister, in Matt 13:56 a cousin, and in Rom 16:1 merely a fellow-believer.

SIT'NAH (strife), the name of the second of two wells dug by Isaac in the valley of Gerar, and for which the herdmen disputed. Gen 26:21. It is between Rehoboth and Beer-sheba, in a small valley called Shutnet er-Raheibeh, names in which are doubtless preserved both the Sitnah and Rehoboth of the Scripture.

SI'VAN. Esth 8:9. See Month.

SKINS. Heb 11:37. See Clothing.

SLAVE, SLAVERY. Slavery is contrary to the constitution and destination of man and to the spirit of the Bible, which begins and ends with freedom, and represents man as made in the image of God, and places him, as lord, at the head of the whole creation. God gave Adam an equal and only partner in Eve. Slavery, like polygamy and war, was the consequence of sin, and spread with sin among all ancient nations. The Bible tolerates, regulates, moderates, and restrains this abnormal institution, but provides also for its ultimate extinction. "The manner in which Christ and the apostles dealt with an institution so universally prevalent in its worst forms, and so intimately interwoven with the whole public and private life in the Roman empire, is a strong proof of their divine wisdom. Christianity accomplished what no other religion has even attempted before or since. Without interfering with slavery as a political and economical question, without encouraging any revolution or agitation, without denouncing the character or denying the rights of the slave-holder or creating discontent among the slaves, without disturbing the peace of a single family, without any appeal to the passions and prejudices of men on the evils and abuses of slavery, without requiring, or even suggesting, immediate emancipation, in one word, without changing the outward and legal relation between the two parties, but solemnly enforcing the rights and duties arising from it to both, - Christ and the apostles, nevertheless, from within, by purely spiritual and peaceful means, by teaching the common origin and common redemption, the true dignity, equality, and destiny of men, by inculcating the principles of universal justice and love, and by raising the most degraded and unfortunate classes of society to virtue and purity, and to spiritual freedom in Christ, produced a radical moral reformation of the system, and prepared the only effectual way for its gradual, legitimate, and harmless extinction." - Schaff: Slavery and the Bible (1861).

A. Hebrew Slavery. - There were only two conditions known among the Jews - independence and servitude. Whenever a man was too poor or otherwise unable to be independent, he became a slave. Slaves, among the Hebrews, were of two general classes: 1. Hebrews; 2. Non-Hebrews.

  1. Hebrews. - There were three ways whereby liberty could be taken from a Hebrew: (1) Poverty. He might sell himself in default of payment of debt. Lev 25:39. (2) Theft, when he could not pay the amount required. Ex 22:1, Num 1:3. According to Josephus, he could only be sold to a Hebrew. (3) Parents could sell their daughters as maid-servants, but they were ultimately to be their masters' concubines. Ex 21:7. There were three ways by which the servitude might end:(1) When the debt or other obligation was met: (2) When the year of Jubilee had come. Lev 25:40; (3) At the conclusion of six years of service. Ex 21:2; Deut 15:12, Indeed, no servitude

could last longer than six years. In case, however, the slave did not wish to go at the expiration of the time, either because he loved his master or his wife - presumably a foreigner - and children, who must be left behind, as they were the master's property, the master announced this fact to the judges, and then bored his ear through with an awl. Ex 21:6; Deut 15:17. That this was done speaks volumes for the mildness of Hebrew slavery. Indeed, the Law made the condition of a slave very tolerable. The owner was expressly forbidden to "rule over him with rigor." Lev 25:43. Nor was he suffered to go away empty, but must be furnished liberally out of the flock, out of the floor, and out of the wine-press. Deut 15:14. A slave might even marry a daughter of his master. 1 Chr 2:35. In the ease of a female Hebrew slave, there was not the release at the end of six years; but if marriage with the owner or his son did not take place, she was not to be sold to a foreigner, but "he shall cause her to be redeemed" - i.e., he should return her to her father or find her another Hebrew master, or else free her absolutely. Ex 21:7-11. When Hebrews became the slaves of non-Hebrews, they might be redeemed or redeem themselves, or else go free at the year of jubilee. Jewish Hebrew slavery terminated at the Captivity.

  1. Non-Hebrews. - These constituted the majority of the slaves among the Hebrews. They were mostly captives made in war from the neighboring tribes, but besides were purchased of dealers. Lev 25:45, foreigners reduced to this condition, or else the children of such slaves. Gen 14:14; Eccl 2:7. This sort of slavery survived the Captivity, but was opposed by the Pharisees. Thirty shekels seems to have been the average price of a slave. Ex 21:32. The slaves' lot was comparatively happy. Their persons were protected against violence; for if they lost an eye or a tooth from rough handling, they got their liberty. Ex 21:26-27. To kill one was murder. Lev 24:17, Josh 11:22. They had full religious privileges, since they were circumcised. Gen 17:12.

Slavery at best is bondage, and hence we find the service of these slaves was menial. They ploughed the fields, did the housework, ground the corn, took off and put on their master's sanda1s, washed his feet, and performed all the services expected of those in their condition. But slaves, by their industry and ability, could raise themselves to positions of trust, becoming stewards, as was Eliezer, Gen 15:2, or independent freemen, as was Ziba. 2 Sam 9:2, 2 Sam 9:10.

B. Roman Slavery. - The Gospel of Jesus Christ, declaring freedom from the slavery of sin, was preached unto them who were literally bound. The early Christian Church was largely composed of slaves, and around them were thrown none of the protections which rendered a Hebrew slave so safe. On the contrary, the Roman master regarded his slaves as his absolute property. He might treat them kindly - and doubtless many did - but no law compelled him to do so. The Roman proverb, "So many slaves, so many foes," tells a pitiful story of wrong. This was the sort of slavery mentioned incidentally in the N.T. It is remarkable that nothing is said about its abolishment. On the contrary, the slaves were enjoined to be obedient to their masters, and to prove their Christian character by their patience under suffering.

The Bible has furnished the defenders of slavery with proof-texts, but yet the study of the Bible has led to the abolishment of the system. The Mosaic legislation on the subject induced such mildness that the very idea could not be tolerated, and so, in Christ's day, Hebrew slavery of both kinds was utterly extirpated. The N.T. directions had a similar result. A Christian could not hold souls in bondage for whom the blood of Christ was shed. And so slavery ended in the empire among Christians. Today it is acknowledged throughout Christendom as a crime; while Mohammedanism holds fast to slavery and polygamy - the two twin-sisters of barbarism. The liberty in Christ Jesus extends to the body as well as to the soul. The gospel, in emancipating from the bondage of sin, breaks the backbone of every other kind of bondage, and substitutes for it the service of God, which is perfect freedom.

SLIME. Gen 11:3. See Pitch.

SLING. See Arms.

SMYR'NA (myrrh), a city of Asia Minor named in Scripture as containing 814 one of the seven churches of Asia. Rev 1:11; Rev 2:8-11.

Situation. - Smyrna is on the AEgean Sea, at the bottom of the Hermaean Gulf, the entrance to which is opposite the island of Mitylene. The modern town is situated 2 1/2 miles from the ancient one of the same name, partly upon the slopes of Mount Pagus, and partly on the low ground at its foot. The city was about 40 miles north of Ephesus.

History. - Some piratical Greeks built a fortification on Mount Pagus about b.c. 1500; Theseus built a city and called it Smyrna, after his wife, b.c. 1312. It was on the border-line between Ionia and AEolia, and was possessed by both parties alternately in the times of the Trojan war. The king of Sardis destroyed it, B.c. 628; Alexander the Great built a new city, b.c. 320. From this time Smyrna became an important commercial place. It was subject to the Romans and was famous for its beauty, Antigonus calling it "the beautiful." Christianity was early planted there, and the church is commended in the Revelation of John. Polycarp, a pupil of St. John, suffered martyrdom at Smyrna, a.d. 1o5, in extreme old age, perhaps illustrating the prophecy, "Behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." Rev 2:10. His grave, with a plain monument, is shown on a hill. The city sent a bishop to the Council of Nice, a.d. 325; it was captured by the Turks, a.d. 1313, and is still in their possession. It has several times suffered from fires and earthquakes.

Present Condition. - The modern city of Smyrna has a population of about 180,000 to 190,000, of which not a fourth are Turks. There are many Europeans, and several Greek, Roman Catholic, and Protestant churches are sustained. Prof. A.H. Sayce, of Oxford, England, speaks of the new quay of the city, in 1880, as a busy centre of trade, and when its cafes are lighted up at night the traveller may imagine himself in fairy-land. "The enchantment is rudely dispelled if we turn down one of the narrow alleys which lead into the back streets of the town. Dark, dirty, and noisome, full of uptorn stones and deep holes into which the unwary passenger may fall at any moment, they produce an impression of cheerless insecurity. And the impression is not diminished by the sight of the few wayfarers that timidly and hurriedly pick their way through them. Each man is armed to the teeth, and seldom walks through the streets at night except in company with two or three friends. In fact, Smyrna, with all its trade, its wealth, and its prosperity, is an eminently unsafe place. Police, in the true sense of the word, there are none, and the number of desperadoes that crowd to it from all parts of the Levant makes midnight wanderings extremely dangerous. During the day it is possible to pass from the quay to the principal street, which runs parallel with it, through a number of passages and arcades. The gates of these, however, are closed at nightfall, and the courts and houses within them made secure from the intruder. Even during the day, except on the quay, walking in Smyrna is not an agreeable pastime. The streets are so wretchedly paved - or, rather, unpaved - that it is as fatiguing to walk through them as over a bed of granite boulders. . . . The shops of Smyrna, however, are good and numerous: and if we wander on to the bazaar in the Turkish quarter, we may purchase in abundance Turkey carpets and Persian rugs at higher prices than we should have to give for them at home, or antiquities of all kinds, especially coins, which are mostly local forgeries."

Concerning the people Prof. Sayce adds: "Creeds and nationalities of all kinds jostle one against the other at every turn. There is the stately Turk, in baggy trousers, scarlet waistband, and blue jacket, his head covered with a fez, or, if he claim descent from the prophet, with a green turban; the consular kavass, strutting along in the proud consciousness of self-importance, his yataghan clashing behind him; the Egyptian, in a long gown of colored silk; the Arab, in cotton robe and white head-dress; the Armenian, with keen eye and dark visage:or the multitudinous swarm of Europeans, of every country and race, among whom the Greek naturally predominates. Presently there is a pressure of the crowd toward one side of the road as a long


train of camels, tied to one another by a rope and led by a donkey, comes solemnly along, their heads bent stupidly down and their backs laden with the wares of the East."

Ruins of the City. - A graphic description of the interesting ancient ruins of Smyrna is given by Prof. Sayce in The New York Independent, 1880, which we condense:

"At the foot of Mount Pagus are the remains of the seats of the Greek theatre, though their place has been taken by Jewish graves, and the marble blocks which once clothed them have been converted into Jewish tombstones. The whole side of the hill, in fact, has become a vast Jewish cemetery. The ancient temple of Zeus and a ruined watchtower are also found on the side of the hill, and extensive fortifications crown the top of Pagus. Court after court of ruined masonry, crumbling towers, and broken walls are seen along the ridge. Here we come across a huge vaulted chamber of Roman brickwork, there solid walls of Macedonian construction, there again the irregular building of the Middle Ages. In one spot is a ruined mosque, once a Christian temple, in which, according to the legend. Polycarp preached. Below flows the thin and narrow stream of the Meles, spanned by two aqueducts, one of Pioman, the other of Turkish, workmanship.

"Perhaps even more famous among guides and tourists than the fortifications with which the mount is crowned are the beds of oyster-shells which are passed on the way back into the town. Speculations have been various about them, but a morning's examination was sufficient to reveal their origin. Plentifully mixed with the shells I found fragments of Macedonian and Roman pottery and the bones of animals. These beds, therefore, are the kitchen-middens, or refuse-heaps, belonging to the houses of wealthy Greeks and Romans which once occupied the slope of the hill. The oyster-shells are the remains of banquets enjoyed, it may be, two thousand years ago."

Such is Smyrna, the home of that little band of Christians to whom the writer of the Apocalypse promises a crown of life in spite of tribulation and poverty. The city was not more than four hundred years old when St. John the Divine saw his vision in Patmos. It had been built by Lysimachus, the general of Alexander the Great, of whom the Macedonian wall on Mount Pagus is a lasting memorial. Of the other structures which adorned the Greek city - the temples of Cybele and Nemesis, the townhall, the public library and public hospital, the Homerium, or monument of Homer - not a vestige remains.

As already noted, the city was once destroyed and rebuilt. The more ancient ruined town is thus described:

"There was an older city than the Smyrna of the Apocalypse. It was the quick eye of Alexander the Great that chose the present site. For four hundred years previously no Smyrna had existed. The ancient city had been destroyed by the Lydians, and its inhabitants scattered through the villages of the plain. That ancient city stood on the steep hill which forms part of the range of Sipylus and rises above Burnabat on the northern side of the bay. It was discovered by the French explorer Texier, who imagined he had found in it the relics of the half-fabulous Tantalus. Here he uncovered some remarkable tombs, built of Cyclopean masonry and hidden under vast cairns of unshaped stones. The largest of these, erected on one of the points of the hill, he surnnmed the Tomb of Tantalus. It is built of large stones, beautifully cut and fitted together without cement, in the shape of an arched corridor, the arch being formed by the gradual overlapping of the successive layers of stones. Still higher, through the prickly shrubs and dry grass, is the ancient Acropolis, surrounded by a wall of Cyclopean workmanship, and entered by a gateway whose lintel and posts are single blocks of stone. Below, on the western side, are the foundations of a temple, probably that of the great Asiatic goddess Cybele. From time to time new tombs are found on this steep and rocky site. Sometimes they are cut in the rock, like rectangular couches; sometimes they consist of terra-cotta sarcophagi, into which the bodies of the dead have been made exactly to fit. Some tombs of the latter kind were discovered lately, and in them several archaic ornaments of gold which take us back to an early period in the history of Greek art. ... It was this primeval 817 city which was besieged in vain by Gyges, the founder of the last Lydian dynasty, the Gog of the O.T., and its origin was traced back to the Amazons - the mythical companions of the Asiatic goddess. I believe that the legends of the Amazons in Asia Minor mark the presence of Hittite conquest and culture and the worship of the Assyrian goddess of love and war which the Hittites brought with them from their capital, Carchemish. If so, we may see in Old Smyrna an ancient Hittite outpost, or, at all events, a city which owed its origin to the civilization carried, in a remote epoch, by Hittite chieftains from the banks of the Euphrates to the far West."

SNAIL. The word thus rendered in Lev 11:30 may denote some species of


lizard - perhaps the sand-lizard, which is found in the desert of Sinai and in many parts of Palestine. These creatures are eaten by the Arabs, but are esteemed unclean by the Jews.

In Ps 58:8 the common snail or the slug is doubtless meant. The former is eaten by the Jews, as by most Orientals. These creatures, of many species, exceedingly abound in Bible lands. Snails seem to waste themselves by covering their path with a thick shining slime. Though they secrete themselves in crevices of the rocks, yet during the long, dry summer multitudes of them perish from the heat, being utterly shrivelled and wasted away in their shells. The melting away spoken of in Psalms is doubtless to be taken in one or the other of these senses.

SNOW, vapor congealed in the air, and often falling in large, broad flakes resembling wool. 2 Sam 23:20; Ps 147:16. The allusions to snow in the sacred writings, especially to its whiteness, are frequent. Ex 4:6; Num 12:10; 2 Kgs 5:27; Ps 51:7; Isa 1:18. The comparison in Prov 25:13 has reference to the use of snow brought from the mountains to cool the drink of the reapers in the heat of harvest, as we use ice. Snow water is softer and more detergent than common water; hence the allusion in Job 9:30. Snow is found on Mount Lebanon, and it lies in the ravines of Hermon and other peaks throughout the year. Robinson states, "Snow often falls in Jerusalem in January and February to the depth of a foot or more, but does not usually lie long."- Bib. Res. I. 429.

SNUFF-DISHES, SNUFFERS. Ex 25:38; Ex 37:23. See Candlestick.

SO, the king of Egypt, mentioned once in the Bible, 2 Kgs 17:4; probably identical with Sevechus, the second king of the twenty-fifth dynasty. He reigned ten or twelve years. Hosea made an alliance with him after Israel had become the vassal of Assyria. The discovery of this led to the imprisonment of Hosea and the captivity of the ten tribes.

SOAP. Jer 2:22; Mal 3:2. Several kinds of shrubby alkaline plants, one of which is figured, grow very abundantly in the vicinity of the Dead

Salsola Kali.

and Mediterranean Seas. The Arabs dry and burn these, and obtain a large proportion of potash from their ashes. 818 With this, from oil and other fatty substances, a soft soap has been made by the Jews from very early times. They used it not only for washing their persons and their clothes, but in smelting metals as a flux, or substance which cleansed them and made them flow more readily. In Isa 1:25 the reading should be, instead of "purely," "as with alkali." Making hard soap from olive oil is the only important manufacturing business of modern Jerusalem. There is considerable exportation from Palestine of the alkali mentioned above. See Nitre

SO'CHO, and SO'CHOH (branches). 1 Chr 4:18; 1 Kgs 4:10. See Socoh.

SO'COH (branches), a name of two towns in Judah.

  1. A city in the plains of Judah. Josh 15:35. It is also called Shoco, 2 Chr 11:7, Shoeho, 2 Chr 28:18, and Shochoh. 1 Sam 17:1. At this place Goliath was slain and the Philistines were defeated. The town was included in one of Solomon's commissariat districts; was fortified by Rehoboam; was seized by the Philistines in the time of Ahaz; and in the time of Eusebius and Jerome was called Soechoth, and lay between 8 and 9 Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Jerusalem. It is identified with the ruins esh-Shuweikeh and the Wady Sumt, or "valley of Elah," about 3 1/2 miles south-west of Jerusalem.

  2. A town in the mountains of Judah. Josh 15:48. It has been identified with esh-Shuweikeh, about a mile to the north of Jattir and 10 miles south-west of Hebron, in the Wady el-Khalil.

SOD, SOD'DEN, the preterite and past participle of "seethe." Gen 25:29; Ex 12:9.

SO'DI (a confidant), the father of the spy from Zebulun. Num 13:10.

SOD'OM (burning?), the principal city in a group of cities in the vale of Siddim, which were destroyed on account of the great wickedness of their inhabitants. Gen 10:19; Gen 13:3, Gen 13:10-13; Gen 19:1-29. Sodom is first mentioned in describing the Canaanitish border; it was afterward chosen by Lot as his home, the country around it being fertile, well watered everywhere, "even as the garden of the Lord." It was plundered by Chedorlaomer and his allies, but the captives and booty were recovered by Abraham. The history of its great wickedness and its terrible punishment is given in Gen 18:16-33; Gen 19:1-29. Sodom is often held up as a warning to sinners to escape the terrible vengeance of God. Deut 29:23; Isa 1:9-10. Lev 3:9; Isa 13:19; Jer 23:14; Jeremiah 49:18; Eze 16:49-50; Am 4:11; Zeph 2:9; Matt 10:15; Matt 11:23-24; 2 Pet 2:6-8; Rev 11:8.

Situation. - The overthrow of the cities of the plain, including Sodom, was so complete that their sites have never been certainly determined. It was formerly a common opinion that the Dead Sea covered the place occupied by these cities, and early travellers fancied that they could discern broken columns and other relics of the doomed cities in the waters of the lake. The southern part of the Dead Sea, below the "tongue," or Lisan Peninsula, is very shallow, having an average depth of not more than 13 feet, and here some would place the sites of the lost cities. There is no scriptural evidence, however, that the cities were submerged, but the whole drift of the history, as well as the geological character of the region, is directly opposed to such a theory. There are only two possible localities for these cities - the lower end of the lake, or the upper end of the same. Tradition, from the time of Josephus and Jerome, has pointed to the southern site. This view has been further urged from the name Jebel Usdum, the latter word having a supposed resemblance to Sodom, and Usdum being at the south end of the lake. Some also have believed that it was favored by the fact that pillars of salt, detached from the great salt cliffs at the southern end, have borne the name of "Lot's Wife." A stronger argument in favor of the southern site is drawn from the fact that Abraham, standing near Hebron, beheld the smoke of the country. Gen 19:27-28. Another argument is found in the numerous "slime-pits," or wells of bitumen or asphaltum, found in great masses on the southern shore. Gen 14:10. This view has been advocated by Robinson, Woolcott, and Lynch, and favored by Porter. Baedeker, Schaff, and others. The arguments in favor of the northern site 819 are: that Lot chose the "plain of Jordan," which must have been at the north end of the Dead Sea. Gen 13:11-12. This plain of Jordan would be visible to Abraham and Lot standing at Bethel, while they would not be able to see the south end of the lake from that point. It is also argued that the hill near Hebron from whence Abraham beheld the burning cities, being about midway between the north end and the south end of the lake, would enable him to see the smoke arising from the northern end quite as clearly as from the southern end of the sea. It is also claimed that the northern site better suits the details in the account of the attack of Chedorlaomer. Dr. Merrill further asserts that there are numerous slime-pits in the vale of Shittim at the northern end of the lake, and that there are several sites upon the plain which might harmonize with those of the lost cities. Tristram proposed a site for Zoar at the northern end of the sea but this has not been satisfactorily established. The argument against the northern site, based on the fact that pillars of salt have been found at the south end named "Lot's Wife," is of little value, since these pillars are constantly changing by the action of the weather, and to suppose that a pillar of salt of the size of a person would stand for four thousand years is simply absurd. The northern site has been strongly advocated by , Grove, Tristram, Thomson, and others, but the question is one which is undecided, since able scholars strongly advocate each of the locations. See Salt Sea and Gomorrah.

SOD'OMA. Rom 9:29. The Greek name for Sodom, which see.

SOD'OMITES. The word has no reference to Sodom, but is the biblical term for those who practise sodomy - a sin to which the inhabitants of that city were addicted. Gen 19:5.

SOL'DIERS. See Armies.

SOL'OMON (peaceful), from b.c. 1021-981 king of Israel, was the son and successor of David. Soon after the birth of Solomon, the prophet Nathan was sent by divine authority to give him the name of "Jedidiah," signifying "beloved of the Lord.";

Toward the close of David's life a conspiracy was detected to place Adonijah on the throne. To settle the government in the order of the divine appointment, David caused Solomon to be invested with the robes of royalty and resigned to him voluntarily the sceptre of government, giving him a solemn charge respecting the administration of it.

The early part of his reign was exceedingly prosperous, and was marked by several public acts which displayed his wisdom and piety. 1 Kgs 2:19, 1 Kgs 2:27, 1 Kgs 2:31; 1 Kgs 3:1, 1 Kgs 3:9, 1 Kgs 3:16-28. His court was distinguished for its magnificence, his dominions and revenue were vast, his personal character exalted, his wisdom proverbial, and his capital and palace renowned for wealth and splendor. 1 Kgs 4 and 1 Kgs 10. During his reign, for the only time in Jewish history, there was a flourishing commerce. The great event of his reign was the erection of the temple in Jerusalem (hence called Solomon's temple), begun in his fourth and finished in his eleventh year, which was designed by David, his father. 1 Chr 22:1-11. The plan and materials of the house and the furniture, as well as of the royal palace, are minutely described, 1 Kgs 6-7 (see Temple), as are also the services at the dedication of it. 1 Kgs 8. After this, Solomon received a renewed assurance of the divine favor and of a gracious answer to his prayers and supplications, and at the same time one of the most fearful denunciations of wrath in case he should forsake God's law. 1 Kgs 9:1-10.

In the latter part of Solomon's reign he was led by his numerous foreign wives and concubines into the practice of idolatry and other abominable sins, which drew upon him and the country heavy judgments. 1 Kgs 11. From the height of wisdom he sunk to the depth of folly. We are told that the Arabs call the southern side of the Mount of Olives the "Mount of Solomon," because his idolatrous altars were built here. It is called the "Mount of Corruption," 2 Kgs 23:13, from the same cause. He reigned forty years, and was succeeded by his son Rehoboam. 1 Kgs 11:42-43.

"Solomon," wrote his biographer, "spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five." 1 Kgs 4:32. Thus he was a voluminous author and handled many topics. His repentance after his long course of folly is thought to be expressed in Ecclesiastes 820 , which teaches the sad but wholesome lesson of the vanity of all things and the paramount importance of "fearing God and keeping his commandments."

The life of Solomon is very simply and truthfully told in the Bible. No excuse is made for him, no sin is glossed over. This is in itself a strong proof of the genuineness of the record, and a great contrast to the legends in which he is a hero of unparalleled splendor, to whom all power upon earth is committed. His life, so brilliant in its promise, so prosperous in its course, so disastrous in its close, albeit his sins were forgiven, is not alone in history. Two characters are recalled - Seneca, the tutor of Nero, who combined great wisdom with low avarice, and Lord Bacon, "the wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind." These instances show us that there may well be great elevation of sentiment with great laxity of life; that the pearls of wisdom can be cast before the swine of selfishness and folly. There is, however, this difference - that Solomon was endowed with divine wisdom, and that his folly belongs to the later period of his life and cannot impair the authority of the inspired writings of his youth and manhood.

SOLOMON'S POOLS. The three pools of Solomon are in a narrow valley south-west of Bethlehem, on the road to Hebron, and still supply Jerusalem with water through an aqueduct. See Eccl 2:6. They are partly hewn in the rock and partly built with masonry, are all lined with cement, and are formed on successive levels, one slightly above the other, with conduits leading from the upper to the lower, and with flights of steps from the bottom to the top of each pool. The waters, gathered from the surrounding country into a large fountain or reservoir near the upper pool, are from thence conducted by an underground passage into the pools. The main supply of the water, however, comes from the spring, or fountain. The upper pool is 380 feet long. 236 feet broad at the east and 229 feet at the west end, is 25 feet deep, and 160 feet above the middle pool. This middle pool is 423 feet long, 250 feet broad at the east and 160 feet at the west end, is 39 feet deep, and 248 feet above the 818 lower pool. The lower pool is 582 feet long, 207 feet broad at the east and 148 feet at the west end, and is 50 feet deep. Dr. Thomson says, "When full of water, it would float the largest man-of-war that ever ploughed the ocean." These pools were built to supply Jerusalem with water.

SOLOMON'S PORCH, a cloister or colonnade on the east side of the temple and of the court of the Gentiles. John 10:23:Acts 3:11; Am 5:12. The ceiling, finished with cedar, was 40 feet above the floor and supported by a double row of white marble Corinthian columns. See Jerusalem and Temple.


SOLOMON'S SER'VANTS. Their descendants are mentioned in Ezr 2:55, Ps 57:58; Neh 7:57, Neh 7:60. These "servants" were probably his slaves, but they had been converted, and their connection, although enforced, with the construction of the temple and the other splendid structures of Solomon, gave their children a certain standing.

SON. The Hebrews used all terms of relationship in a much looser way than we do. "'Son' implies almost any kind of descent or succession. ' on of a year' - i.e., a year old; 'son of a bow' - i.e., an arrow." "Son," when it expresses human connection, is used for grandson - e.g.. Gen 29:2 - and for remoter descendants - e.g. Matt 22:42.

SONG OF SOLOMON. The book is entitled the "Song of Songs" - i.e., the most beautiful of songs - also, after the Latin, the "Canticles." It has always formed part of the canon, and has been held in the highest esteem. The Rabbins have a saying: "Proverbs are the outer court of Solomon's temple; Ecclesiastes, the holy place; Canticles, the holy of holies." There are many theories in regard to its authorship, its object, and its proper character. There are three principal interpretations, and each appears under different forms.

  1. The Literal. - It was written by Solomon on the occasion of his marriage either with the daughter of Pharaoh or with a beautiful shepherd maiden. Its dialogues and monologues introduce these characters:a lover, Shelomoh (Solomon); a bride, the Shulamite (perhaps Abishag, the Shulamite);

Solomon's Pools (After a Photograph.) 822 and a chorus of virgins, daughters of Jerusalem.

  1. The Typical. - It was written to set forth the Hebrew ideal of pure conjugal love, and throughout expresses typically the love of Christ for his Church. This interpretation commends itself by the fact that the O.T. frequently represents the union of Jehovah to his people as a marriage relation, and by the further fact that St. Paul speaks of husband and wife as reflecting the sacred union of Christ and his Church, which is his Bride. Eph 5:33.

  2. The Allegorical. - It is in no sense historical. The persons and objects described are mere figures or names for spiritual persons and objects, which latter are alone contemplated by the inspired writer. The Song is thus a description of the love of Jehovah for Israel, or of Christ for his Church. This is the view advocated by Jewish and by the majority of orthodox Christian commentators. Thus interpreted, the book has held its place in the heart of Christendom.

The general use of the Canticles has been prevented by their supposed indelicacies, but these can easily be explained and removed by a fuller understanding of Oriental customs and by a more correct translation. Our present Version needlessly increases their number, while prudery and custom find them where they are not. A revised translation and a healthier mind would entirely banish them. For instance, in Song 5:14 the reference is to the clothed, and not to the naked, body; for the "sapphires" are a figure of the dress of sapphire blue, or of the girdle of such gems which bound it, and in Am 5:15 the mention of legs is harmless. Dr. Kitto aptly reminds us that Oriental women keep their faces covered, but are "perfectly indifferent" to a display of their bosoms. Hence, as those parts habitually uncovered with us are free subjects of description, it is no shame for them to dwell upon the beauty of that part habitually uncovered with them.

SON OF GOD. Dan 3:25. This is one of the titles of our divine Redeemer, and is applied to none else except in a connection which shows the sense. It is applied to angels, Job 38:7, and to Adam, Luke 3:38, as created immediately by God's hand, and to believers, Rom 8:14-15; 2 Cor 6:18, as adopted into God's spiritual family; but when applied to Christ, it is in a peculiar and exalted sense which cannot be mistaken. It signifies his divine nature, as the term "Son of man" signifies his human nature. He is the Son of God, the eternal, the only begotten Son. Comp. John 1:18; John 5:19-26; John 9:35-38; Matt 11:27; Matt 16:16; Josh 21:37, and many passages in the Epistles. While he directs us to address God as "our Father," he himself never addresses him thus, but always as my Father," or "Father" simply, because of his peculiar intimacy with God, far above the level of human children of God, who are made such only by regeneration and adoption.

SON OF MAN. Matt 8:20. This title is given to our Saviour eighty times in the N.T. It is also applied to him by Daniel. Dan 7:13. The Jews perfectly understood it to denote the Messiah. It sets forth his peculiar and intimate relation to mankind in his incarnate state, as the phrase "Son of God" denotes his peculiar relation to the divine Being.

The phrase "the Son of man," however, does not express simply the humiliation and condescension of Christ, who became bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh, but also his exaltation above the ordinary level of humanity. He calls himself, not a son of man (among other children of men), but the Son of man (above all others) - the ideal, the universal, the perfect Man. So, on the other hand, he calls himself not a, but the, Son of God - the only-begotten and eternal Son of the Father. Compare such passages as John 1:51; Joel 3:13; John 6:53; Matt 9:6; Neh 12:8; Matt 18:11; Mark 2:10, Acts 20:28.

The term son of man is applied to Ezekiel and Daniel, meaning merely "man," as it does in Num 23:19; Job 25:6:Ps 8:4, etc.

SONS OF GOD. Thus the angels are called in Job 1:6; Ruth 2:1; Job 38:7. But in the verse Gen 6:2 this designation is not allowable. The best interpretation is that it refers to the race of Seth, who intermarried with the race of Cain, the daughters of men accursed.

SOOTH'SAYER was one who pretended to foretell future events. Dan 2:27. The original word comes from the 823 verb to "divide," because the soothsayer dissected the entrails of animals for the purpose of telling from their appearance what would come to pass. The Philistines appear to have been notorious for their practice of this magic imposition. Isa 2:6. This was a common mode of divining among the Romans.

SOP. John 13:26. Our ordinary table-utensils were unknown among the Hebrews. Hence, in eating broth or milk, it was either taken with the hollow of the hand or the bread was dipped into it. This is at present the usage in all the Oriental countries - even at the table of the Persian king. Thus the reapers of Boaz dipped their "morsel in the vinegar," Ruth 2:14, and thus our Saviour "dipped the sop," or morsel, and gave it to the traitor Judas.

SOP'ATER (father saved), a Beranin who was Paul's companion. Acts 20:4.

SOPH'ERETH (scribe), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:55; Neh 7:57.

SOR'CERY, one of the arts of the magicians, Ex 7:11 - hence called "sorcerers" - by the use of which they pretended to predict future events, cure diseases, work miracles, etc. Acts 8:9; Josh 13:6. The practice of sorcery, or any confidence in it, is threatened with the severest judgments. Mal 3:5; Rev 21:8; Rev 22:15.

'SO'REK, VALLEY OF (a choice vine), the home of Delilah, whom Samson loved. Jud 16:4. Conder identifies it with the present Wady Surar, which has a broad flat valley, in the neighborhood of Beth-shemesh and Zorah. On the northern side of this valley is a ruin called Surik. Perhaps it was along this same valley that the lowing kine drew the ark. See Beth-shemesh.

SOSIP'ATER (preservation of a father), a native of Berasa, and a kinsman of Paul. Rom 16:21.

SOS'THENES (safe in strength), a ruler of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth. He was seized and beaten in that city by a party of Greeks, who were thus excited to acts of violence by what they thought the unjustifiable and malicious persecution of Paul. Acts 18:17. It is thought that he afterward became a convert to the Christian faith. 1 Cor 1:1-2.

SO'TAI (a deviator), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:55; Neh 7:57.

SOUL. Gen 2:7. The Scriptures evidently distinguish between the soul and the spirit. 1 Thess 5:23; Heb 4:12. The word which we call "soul" is used to denote mere animal life - the seat of sensations, appetites, and passions. Gen 1:20. Here the word translated "life" is the same with that which is elsewhere translated "soul." Hence it may be inferred that, as we have our bodies and animal life in common with brutes, it must be the spirit which was created in the likeness or image of God, and which raises man above the brutes that perish and makes him a rational and accountable being. Very often, however, the word "soul" is used in a wider sense, and designates the whole immaterial or spiritual nature of man; as when we say that man consists of body and soul.

The immortality of the soul is a fundamental doctrine of Christianity, which brought life and immortality to light; so what the ancients hoped or guessed we know. Even among the Jews the truth was only partially revealed. Much more is said about the grave than of the life beyond, and the prevailing tone, in view of death, is one of great sadness. In Christ, however, we are made alive, and can never die. To the Christian, death is robbed of its sting; it is converted into a friend who ushers the soul into the company of the blessed.

It is the immortal soul which is the subject of future reward or punishment.

SOUTH RA'MOTH, a place to which David and his outlaws resorted. 1 Sam 30:27. It bordered on the desert south of Judah.

SOW, SOWER. Matt 13:3. See Agriculture, Season.

SPAIN, a well-known country of Europe, though the name anciently included the whole peninsula now occupied by Spain and Portugal. The Hebrews, in the time of Solomon, were acquainted with the position and wealth of Spain. Paul desired to preach the gospel there. Rom 15:24-28. Whether he ever visited Spain is a question in dispute among scholars. Those who hold that Paul was twice imprisoned at Rome think that he visited Spain between his first and 824 second imprisonments. Christianity was introduced into that country at a very early period, as Irenjeus and Tertullian testify. See Tarshish.

SPAN. Isa 40:12. See Measures.

SPAR'ROW. The original word might properly have been always translated, as it is generally, "bird " or "fowl." It denotes, indefinitely, some of the sparrow-like (passerine) species, which in multitudes inhabit the Holy Land. In the East such little birds have

Tree-Sparrow. (After Wood)

always been sold at the merest trifle for food. Matt 10:29. The blue thrush of Palestine is peculiarly a solitary species, and in all its habits exactly meets the description of Ps 102:7. Birds of the sparrow kind often build their nests in the mosques and public buildings of the East. The writer, during service in the English church at Nazareth, observed a house-sparrow enter through a broken pane of glass and fly to its nest, high overhead, illustrating Ps 84:3.

SPEAR. 1 Sam 13:22. See Arms.

SPEAR'MEN. The word so translated in Acts 23:23 is of rare occurrence and of doubtful meaning, but it most probably refers to light-armed troops.

SPECK'LED BIRD. Jer 12:9. See Hyaena.

SPI'CERY, SPICES. The former word occurs in Gen 37:25, and should be the rendering instead of "spices" in Gen 43:11. It is believed to denote gum-tragacanth, the product of several species of Astragalus, shrubby and exceedingly thorny plants very abundant in Palestine. This gum had medicinal value.

The term "spices," the translation of two other words, as used by the sacred writers, is much more comprehensive than the modern use of it. With them it includes not only fragrant gums, as myrrh, and also roots and barks, as cassia, cinnamon, cane, etc., but the odors of flowers and various perfumes. Song 4:14. Spices were imported into Judaea chiefly from Southern Arabia. Sweet spices, Mark 16:1, are merely aromatic substances used in embalming. The word "spices" fully expressed the meaning of the original word, without the adjective.

SPI'DER, a well-known little creature of very singular structure and habits. The thinness and frailty of its web are made emblematic of a false hope and of the schemes of wicked men. Job 8:14; Isa 59:5.

Another word thus rendered in Prov 30:28 has been thought by some of the best authorities to refer to the gecko, a kind of lizard which is able to run on perpendicular walls, or even on an inverted surface. See Ferret. But so skilfully does the spider use her feet in making her web and climbing upon it and upon walls that they may well be termed hands, and thus our present translation is rendered very plausible. The spider's spinning-organs serve as both 825 hands and eyes. Spiders are abundant in Palestine, as elsewhere in the world.

SPIKE'NARD, an aromatic plant from which was made the costly ointment poured on Jesus' head and feet. Song 1:12; Song 4:13-14; Mark 14:3; John 12:3. There is little question that the spikenard was the dried stem of an herb of the valerian family (Nardostachys jatamansi), which grows exclusively in India and was once very precious. If the penny (denarius) was

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi).

equal to "fifteen cents, the pound with which Mary anointed our Saviour was valued at a sum equal to forty-five dollars. This ointment was evidently enclosed, like other unguents or perfumes, in a slender-necked and closely-sealed flask or bottle of alabaster. It is not agreed whether breaking this box was merely opening the seal or was the fracture of the frail neck, but probably it was the latter.

SPIN, SPIN'NING. The nations of antiquity placed great stress upon this womanly occupation - indeed, it was a necessary duty, since the preparation of the materials, no less than the making of the dress itself, fell upon the women. In the Bible there are only two direct notices of the art, Ex 35:25-26; Prov 31:19; but, since it is spoken of as a matter of course, we infer the custom was universal. Distaff-spinning was the mode, as is now the case in the East, wheel-spinning being apparently unknown. The Hebrew women spun wool and flax from the distaff and twisted the thread by means of the spindle, and made up camel and goat-hair into sackcloth for mourning, girdles, and tent-covers. The women also made rope and cord. The men did not engage in such work. See Distaff.

SPIR'IT. Both in Greek and Hebrew the word for this implies a "blowing" or "breathing;" its primary sense is "wind." In 2 Thess 2:8 it is used for breath, in Eccl 8:8 for the vital principle; while in other places it denotes the soul. Angels, both good and bad, souls without bodies, are thus designated. Matt 14:26; Luke 24:39. Metaphorically, the tendency or inclination is similarly called; hence we have a spirit of grace and of supplication, Zech 12:10, a spirit of infirmity. Luke 13:11, etc.

The Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third Person of the Holy Trinity, of one essence or nature with the Father and the Son, yet distinct from them. He is the Author of regeneration and sanctification. He applies the work of redemption to us, and makes us partakers of all the benefits of Christ, of his righteousness, life, and death. He is our Advocate, who pleads our cause, who strengthens and comforts us and prepares us for glory in heaven. Matt 1:18, Ruth 4:20; Matt 28:19; John 1:33; Mark 14:26; John 16:7-8; John 20:22; Acts 2:4; Rom 5:5; 2 Cor 13:14; 1 Thess 4:8. Our English Version uses, in most passages, the term Holy Ghost; in four passages, Holy Spirit, which is better.

SPIRITUAL BODY. Paul so calls the resurrection body, 1 Cor 15:44, which will be divested of all sensual and animal appetites, and be perfectly fitted for pure spiritual exercises and enjoyments, in perfect unison with the redeemed and completely sanctified soul.

SPOIL. Ex 3:22. The original word in this passage means "to recover property taken away by violence." 1 Sam 30:22.

SPONGE, a submarine substance, composed of fibres interwoven in a surprising manner, and surrounded by thin membranes, which arrange themselves in a cellular form. Matt 27:48. It absorbs 826 a great quantity of fluid, and parts with it upon a strong pressure. Drink could be easily conveyed in this form where cups could not be used. This substance is inhabited by animals, like the coral, who use the openings of the sponge to suck in and throw out water.

SPOUSE. See Marriage.

SPRINKLING, BLOOD OF. Heb 12:24. The Jewish high priest, on the great day of atonement, carried blood into the inner sanctuary and sprinkled it upon the mercy-seat. It was by this sprinkling of blood that an "atonement" was made "for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel." Lev 16:16. The blood of sprinkling was typical of the atoning blood of Christ. When this has been applied to the soul of the believer, he may approach the presence of a holy God in the name of the great Advocate and Redeemer, confident of a gracious reception. The blood of Abel, alluded to in the above passage from Hebrews, called only for vengeance, Gen 4:10-11, but the blood of Christ speaks of pardon, peace, and eternal life.

STA'CHYS (an ear of corn), a Roman Christian friend of Paul's. Rom 16:9.

STAC'TE (a drop), prescribed in Ex 30:34 as one of the ingredients of the sacred incense. Stacte was either myrrh flowing spontaneously from the balsamodendron, or it was a gum from the storax tree (Styrax officinale). This latter is a large shrub which grows abundantly on the lower hills of Galilee and on Tabor and Carmel. Its oval, dark-green leaves are white beneath, and in March its twigs are profusely hung with sweet-scented, snow white flowers, which resemble the flowers of the orange in color, size, and perfume, making it a shrub of rare beauty. The styrax of modern commerce has an entirely different origin. See Myrrh.

STAR OF THE WISE MEN. Matt 2:1-21. There are two theories in regard to this episode in our Lord's infancy.

The first theory is that the star which the wise men saw was a miraculous star beyond astronomical calculation, probably a meteor, and, having attracted their attention in their native country, it actually served as their guide to Palestine and "stood over where the young child was." Matt 2:9. This theory is in entire keeping with a literal meaning of the text, and is the one certain to occur to the ordinary reader. Nor need there be any objection on the score of improbability. Our Lord's birth was a most stupendous event. In honor of it the angelic host openly revealed themselves, and many circumstances remarkably conspired to render it possible. That the heavens should be laid under contribution and one of the heavenly bodies be the appointed, the silent leader of the magi, whose coming prophesied the in-gathering of the learning and the treasure of the Gentiles, was in itself a probable event. The earth felt the tread of his blessed feet; why should not the sky lend one of its jewels to light the path of his seekers?

The second theory asserts that the "star" of the wise men was a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, in the sign of Pisces, with the later addition of Mars and probably an extraordinary star of uncommon brilliancy. Jewish astrologers ascribed to this conjunction a special signification, and connected it with the birth of Moses and with the coming of the Messiah. This theory rests upon astronomical proof, and was the suggestion of Kepler (1571-1630), the eminent and devout astronomer, who on Oct. 10. 1604, observed a star of uncommon brilliancy enter the conjunction of Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars. This excited his interest, as it seemed to give an explanation of the star of the wise men. By careful calculation, he discovered that a similar conjunction had taken place three times, b.c. 7 or 6. This puts the first appearance of the star one or two years before the birth of Christ, and allows time for the journey of the magi from the far East. Kepler's calculation has been verified by modern astronomers - Schubert at Petersburg, Ideler and Encke at Berlin, and Pritchard at Greenwich - and is pronounced to be "as certain as any celestial phenomenon of ancient date." This is a remarkable verification of Scripture from an unexpected quarter. "The star of astrology has become a torch of chronology," as Ideler says. The magi, with their astrological ideas and widespread Messianic expectations, 827 must have been attracted by such a constellation in the highest degree. Divine Providence usually acts through natural agencies and adapts revelation to the capacity, and even the weakness, of men. But if we take this theory, it is necessary to give the description of Matthew a liberal construction, remembering that the Bible, in alluding to astronomical phenomena, uses popular, not scientific, language, derived from their appearance to our eye, as we all now speak of the rising and setting sun, moon, and stars.

STARS. Under the name of stars the Hebrews comprehended constellations, planets, and heavenly bodies - indeed, all luminaries except the sun and moon. The Psalmist, to exalt the power and omniscience of God, Ps 147:4, describes him taking a review of the stars as a king takes a survey of his army and knows the name of every one of his soldiers. To express a very extraordinary increase and multiplication, the sacred writers use the similitude of the stars of heaven or of the sands of the sea. Gen 15:5; Gen 22:17; Gen 26:4; Ex 32:13, etc.

No part of the visible creation exhibits the glory of the Creator more illustriously than do the starry heavens. Ps 19:1. When we seriously contemplate the moon and stars, the work of the fingers of God, we cannot but be astonished that he should condescend to pay any attention to man. Ps 8:3. The celebrated philosopher Kant declared: "Two things fill my mind with evergrowing reverence and awe - the starry heavens above me, and the moral law within me."

Stars are sometimes symbolically put for rulers and princes, Dan 8:10; sometimes, also, for pastors and ministers. Rev 1:16, Ruth 4:20. The angels, too, appear to be intended by the term, Job 38:7, and sometimes it points prophetically to the Lord of angels. Num 24:17.

Jesus Christ is called the "Morning Star," Rev 22:16, as he introduced the light of the gospel day and made a fuller manifestation of the truths of God than the prophets, whose predictions are now accomplished.

STA'TER. This coin, mentioned in the margin of Matt 17:27, in the text vaguely spoken of as "a piece of money," was in value equal to four drachmas or a shekel.

STEEL. Ps 18:34. This word occurs four times in our English Bible, and should in every instance be rendered "copper." It is not certain that the ancient Hebrews were acquainted with steel, though it seems to have been known to the Egyptians.

Iron from the north. Jer 15:12, may denote a superior kind of the metal, or that which had been unusually hardened.

STEPH'ANAS (crown) was one of the earliest converts to Christianity in Corinth, 1 Cor 16:15, and received baptism at the hands of Paul. 1 Cor 1:16.

STE'PHEN (crown), usually known as the first martyr, was one of the seven men of honest report who were elected, at the suggestion of the twelve apostles, to relieve them of a particular class of their labors. Acts 6:5. He was a forerunner of the apostle Paul. He is described as a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost. Acts 6:8, 1 Kgs 16:10. He argued for the new faith with convincing power. It was to stop lips so eloquent that he was arrested and placed before the "council," the Sanhedrin. But as he realized his position the prospect of testifying in that assemblage of the chief of his people to the love and work of Jesus so wrought upon him that his spirit rose within him, and his face had such beauty and purity, such thoughtfulness and manliness, that he awed his judges, for on him, their victim, they beheld the angel-face. His defence was a calm historical proof of the two points: 1. God had not limited his favor to the Holy Land or to the temple; 2. The Jews had always opposed to this free spirit of their God a narrow, bigoted spirit. How long he would have spoken none can say, but the manner in which these quiet and truthful words were received caused him to break off" abruptly into fierce invective and reproach; but so direct was its appeal to the consciences of the populace that they were excited to madness, Acts 7:54, and fell upon Stephen like wild beasts, shouting and stopping their ears; and after they had forced him beyond the walls of the city, they stoned him to death, Saul being present and conspicuous in this tumultuous transaction. The 828 last breath of the martyr was spent, like that of his divine Master, in prayer for the forgiveness of his murderers. It is worthy of remark that this prayer of Stephen is directed to the Lord Jesus, or rather it seems to be a continuation of the prayer respecting himself which was addressed immediately to Christ, as the word "God" in v. 59 of our translation is an interpolation.

The date of Stephen's martyrdom was about a.d. 37. His blood was the seed of the Church, and was soon followed by the conversion of his bitterest persecutor.

STEWARD, the chief overseer of the household, as Eliezer, Gen 15:2, and Chusa. Luke 8:3. Ministers, 1 Cor 4:1-2; Tit 1:7, and Christians generally, 1 Pet 4:10, are by a natural metaphor called stewards.

STOCKS, the name of a machine or instrument by which the feet of prisoners are secured. Job 13:27; Ex 33:11. It is said that the jailer at Philippi, to whose custody Paul and Silas were: committed with a strict charge to keep them safely, not only put them in an inner prison or dungeon, but made their feet fast in the stocks. Acts 16:24.

The upper half being removed, each leg is placed, just above the ankle, in the groove of the lower half, and then the upper part is so fastened down as to confine them inextricably.

Ancient Stocks.

The "stocks" used on Paul and Silas could be turned into an instrument of torture by widely separating the legs. The "stocks" used on Jeremiah, Jer 20:2, were, properly speaking, the pillory, because the neck and arms as well as the legs were confined, and so the body was bent.

STO'ICS were a sect of heathen philosophers, much like the Pharisees, who took their rise from one Zeno, a Cyprian of Citium, the name coming from the stoa, or porch, in which he taught, in the third century b.c. While in some respects there is a similarity between their opinions and those of Christians, there is yet the broad difference that Stoic morality was based on pride; Christian, on humility. They generally taught that it is wisdom alone that renders men happy, that the ills of life are but fancied evils, and that a wise man ought not to be moved with either joy or grief; and in their practice they affected much patience, austerity, and insensibility. The Stoics were known for many ages, especially at Athens. where some of them encountered Paul. Acts 17:18. The most distinguished members of the school were Epictetus, who died about a.b. 115, and the emperor Marcus Aurelius, a.d. 121-180.

Of all the ancient sects, the Stoics were most strict in their regard to moral virtue. They believed in the unity of the divine Being, the creation of the world by the Logos or Word, and a superintending providence administered in conformity with the will and purpose of God.

STONE. Gen 35:14. Houses of stone were common among the Hebrews, as they are now in Palestine. The more elegant structures were built of hewn and squared stones. Amos says to the luxurious Israelites, "Ye have built houses of hewn stone, but ye shall not dwell in them." Am 5:11. When Solomon was about to raise the temple, he "commanded, and they brought great stones, costly stones, and hewed stones, to lay the foundation of the house." 1 Kgs 5:17.

Stones were often used as we use knives, Ex 4:25; Josh 5:2, and we are told that stone knives were used by the Egyptians in preparing dead bodies for the process of embalming. The disciples of Christ are called stones, or lively (living) stones, 1 Pet 2:5, in allusion to their connection with Christ, upon whom they are built up compactly together, as upon the one only foundation which God has laid, the living Stone, 1 Pet 2:4, or the Source of life.

A "heart of stone" is a figurative expression, importing great hardness and impenitency. A stone is sometimes put 829 for an idol. Hab 2:19, Heaps of stones were raised to mark some signal providence of God in the way of either deliverance or punishment. Josh 4:4-7. The weights of the Hebrews were also called stones.

STONE, WHITE, is supposed by many to be an allusion to the practice of some ancient nations of passing judgment on an accused person. Rev 2:17. Those in favor of acquitting him cast a white ball into an urn, and those who adjudged him guilty cast in a black ball; and if the number of the former exceeded that of the latter, the prisoner was discharged. Others think reference is made to the white stones which were given to conquerors in the Olympian games with their names written upon them, and the value of the prize they won. So the new name mentioned in Isa 62:2 may denote the adoption of the individual into the family of God, by which he is admitted to privileges and blessings known only to him who possesses them. Archbishop Trench brings out what is probably the best interpretation. He repudiates the idea that this symbol was borrowed from heathen antiquity, and maintains it was a diamond, the Urim and Thummim.

STONES, PRE'CIOUS. About twenty different names of such stones are found in the Bible. In many instances it is at present impossible to determine precisely what gem was intended by these names. This whole subject is one of great difficulty, for the mineralogy of ancient times was very vague and imperfect. The same word was often used for different gems or substances possessing some common property. Thus, "adamant" ("unconquerable") might mean steel, quartz, corundum, or any other very hard substance; "crystal" (kerach) meant either ice or transparent quartz. The same ancient names were applied differently by different authorities, and even by the same writer. Even where a word has passed unchanged in form from Hebrew through Greek or Latin into modern use, it cannot be certainly concluded that the present application is the early one.

The stones of the high priest's breastplate were engraved with the names of the tribes, Ex 28:21, but it is certain that at that time the art of cutting the harder gems was unknown. According to Professor Maskelyne, a recognized authority, we must for this reason exclude from the breastplate the diamond, sapphire, emerald, and topaz. In place of these there may be substituted, respectively, rock-crystal (or chalcedony), lapis-lazuli, garnet, and chrysolite. The ruby and chrysoberyl would be too hard to claim a place in this list. Few diamonds were ever known of the size of these stones, which Josephus tells us were large, and which probably reached at least an inch square. If the diamond is mentioned in the Bible, it is probably only in the N.T. See Jasper.

The sacred ornament of the high priest was probably broken up early in our era, but the gems which composed it are doubtless somewhere in existence in the Turkish empire or in Persia. It is not probable that all of these large engraved precious stones will always remain in obscurity. "What a source of rejoicing, both to archaeologists and, above all, to the religious world, will be the identification of even one of these venerable relics! - a contingency by no means to be pronounced chimerical in an age which has witnessed the resuscitation of Sennacherib's own cup, signet, and queen's portrait." (See C. W. King's Precious Stones and Metals; art. "Urim and Thummim.")

In the very earliest times men set a high value on some of these minerals. Gen 2:12; 1 Chr 29:2. The Tyrians traded in precious stones, which they obtained from India, Arabia, and Syria. Eze 27:16, Josh 11:22.

Figuratively, the various gems are used in the Bible to emphasize such ideas as value, beauty, and durability, in Song 5:14; Isa 54:11-12; Lam 4:7; Rev 21:18-20; and passages already mentioned.

STON'ING was the most general punishment inflicted on notorious criminals, and is usually meant where no other description of capital punishment is expressly mentioned, as in Lev 20:10. Idolaters, blasphemers, Sabbath-breakers, incestuous persons, and stubborn or rebellious children were liable to it. The culprit was led out of the city and, as some have supposed, was bound. The witnesses against him were required to commence the work of death, and 830 probably they divested themselves of clothing that it might be done more effectually. Acts 7:58. At the murder of Stephen they committed the custody of their clothes to Saul, who was not improbably, from his talents and ardor, a ringleader of the mob and one of the most violent of the persecutors, and the multitude followed the example of the leaders until the victim was beaten to death. The Rabbinical writers say that the first stone was cast by one of the witnesses on the chest of the convict; and if this failed to cause death, the bystanders proceeded to complete the sentence.

Some think that the frequent taking up of stones by the Jews to throw at our Saviour, and the stoning of Stephen, Acts 7:59, and of Paul, Acts 14:19, were vestiges of a punishment called the "rebels" beating," inflicted by the mob, with fists, staves, or stones, on the excitement of the moment.

STORK (the pious), a bird of passage, much like the crane, but larger. It feeds on insects, snails, frogs, and

The Stork. (Ciconia Alba. After Tristram.)

offal, and was reckoned among unclean birds. The common stork (Ciconia alba) stands nearly 4 feet high, and is white except the extremities of the wings, which are black. Its long legs enable it to seek its food in the water as well as on the land, and its bill is so formed as to retain its slippery prey. In Palestine it builds its nest on trees, Ps 104:17, or on lofty ruins, but in Europe it everywhere appropriates chimney-tops and the eaves of houses.

In Hebrew as in Latin the stork is "the pious bird," and its English name comes, indirectly at least, from the Greek storye, which signifies "natural affection." Unquestionably, these birds exhibit unusual tenderness toward their 831 young and their mates, but the ancient opinion that the offspring recognize their parents all through life and carefully tend them in age, it is a pity to say, is probably apocryphal.

Storks are singularly regular in their migrations to and from Africa. They pass over Syria in vast flocks, which sail high in the heaven, and as their legions wheel in the sky and even dim the sunlight the most stupid mind is awakened to admiration. Jer 8:7.

"In various parts of Holland the nest of the stork, built on the chimney-top, remains undisturbed for many succeeding years, and the owners return with unerring sagacity to the well-known spot. The joy which they manifest on again taking possession of their deserted dwelling, and the attachment which they testify toward their benevolent hosts, are familiar in the mouths of every one. "In all the countries where the stork breeds it is protected: boxes are provided on the tops of the houses, and he considers himself a fortunate man whose roof the stork selects. There is a well authenticated account of the devotion of a stork, which at the burning of the town of Delft, after repeated and unsuccessful attempts to carry off her young, chose rather to remain and perish with them than leave them to their fate. Well might the Romans call it pia aris!

"The beauty and power of the stork's wings are seized on as an illustration by Zechariah: 'The wind was in their wings, for they had wings like the wings of a stork.' Zech 5:9. The black pinions of the stork, suddenly expanded from their white body, have a striking effect, having a spread of nearly 7 feet, and the bird on the wing, showing its long bright-red bill and steering itself by its long red legs, stretched out far behind its tail, is a noble sight. The stork has no organs of voice, and the only sound it emits is caused by the sharp and rapid snapping of its bill, like the rattle of castanets." - Tristram.

This bird seems to be fond of the society of man, is often seen stalking in the crowded street, and is superstitiously protected in the East. Its marked preference for Muslims over Christians is, however, not due to special attachment to the faith of Islam, as the Turks boast, but to the greater amount of offal to be found about Mohammedan dwellings, and, what is more creditable, to the kinder treatment the bird receives at their hands.

The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is abundant about the waters of Palestine. It builds its nest in trees, is somewhat smaller and darker- colored than the white species, and is unlike it in shunning the society of man. See Peacock.

STRAIN AT, misprint for "strain out." Matt 23:21.

STRANG'ER. Gen 15:13. This word has a variety of significations in the sacred writings, as -

  1. One who is in a foreign land, at a distance from the place of his nativity. Gen 23:4.

  2. One who is not a Jew. Ex 20:10; Isa 14:1.

  3. One not of Aaron's familv. Num 3:10; Num 16:40.

  4. One that is not of the royal stock and family. Matt 17:25-26.

  5. Unknown, disregarded. Ps 69:8. But usually the "strangers" were like our "naturalized citizens" - persons from foreign parts who come to reside permanently among us, and who are in all respects one with us. This element was very numerous in Israel, owing to the presence of the "mixed multitude" during the Exodus, and also because so many Canaanites continued to reside in the land. Among both these classes there would be proselytes. and with them marriage was permitted. This is the Rabbinic opinion. Captives were accounted strangers. Jewish law held them, equally with the Jews, under control. They amassed property, and were able to share in the worship provided they were circumcised. By this act they became one with the chosen people, and all offices were open to them save the kingship. Deut 17:15. It is doubtful whether they could be landowners, although they might hold mortgages. Neh 9:2; Gen 13:3 prove that after the Captivity the Jews were more exclusive. Our Lord, by his parable of the (Good Samaritan, rebukes this narrow spirit.

In the N.T. "proselyte" takes the place of the O.T. term "stranger." The strangers were generally foreigners, occasionally in its more technical sense, as opposed to a citizen.

STRAW. Gen 24:25. The straw 832 wanted by the Jews for bricks, Ex 5:7-18, was to lay them on when fresh moulded. For want of it their mould fell in pieces. and their work was vain.

STREET. Gen 19:2. The streets of Oriental cities are usually narrow. Mats are sometimes spread across from roof to roof to shade the streets from the sun. Some streets were named as in modern times, Ezr 10:9; Acts 9:11, but it is supposed that in other passages, 2 Chr 32:6; Neh 8:1, Num 1:3, Ex 17:16, the word translated "streets" means squares or open places around the gates. "Each street and bazaar in a modern town is locked up at night, and hence a person cannot pass without being observed by the watchman. The same custom appears to have prevailed in ancient times." Song 3:3. To make "streets" was to secure commercial accommodations. 1 Kgs 20:34.

SU'AH (sweepings), an Asherite chieftain. 1 Chr 7:36.

SUB'URBS. Lev 25:34. See City.

SUC'COTH (booths), a name for two places.

  1. The place to which Jacob journeyed after leaving Esau, and where he built him a house and made booths for his cattle. Gen 33:17. It was given to the tribe of Gad. Josh 13:27. From this fact it would appear to be on the east side of the Jordan. Gideon severely punished the people of the place for not aiding him against the Midianites. Jud 8:5-8, Jud 8:14-16. At this town were the brass-foundries for casting the metal-work for the temple. 1 Kgs 7:46; 2 Chr 4:17. In the valley of the Jordan, about a mile from the river, and 10 miles south of Beisan, is a ruin called Sakut, which is identified by Robinson and others as Succoth. But the position of this place is on the wrong side of the Jordan for Succoth. The Talmud calls Succoth, Tarala, and Dr. Merrill discovered a site on the east side of the Jordan, called Tell Darala, which is 1 mile north of the Jabbok. This may be the ancient Succoth. The principal mound is thickly covered with broken pottery.

  2. The first camping-place of the Israelites in the desert. Ex 12:37; Josh 13:20; Num 33:5-6. It was a day's journey from Rameses, and must have been 12 or 15 miles east of that place. Some would identify it with Birket Timseh, or "Lake of crocodiles," a few miles north of the northern end of the Red Sea.

SUC'COTH-BE'NOTH (tents of daughters), an idol-divinity of the Babylonians for which the transplanted Babylonians built a temple upon their arrival in Samaria; but nothing more is known about it. 2 Kgs 17:30.

SU'CHATHITES, a family of scribes at Jabez. 1 Chr 2:55.

SUK'KIIMS, the name of a portion of the allies of Shishak, king of Egypt, in the invasion of Judaea. 2 Chr 12:3. They are supposed to have been a tribe of Ethiopians from the shores of the Red Sea.

SUM'MER. See Seasons.

SUM'MER-HOUSE. See Dwellings.

SUN. The Hebrews, according to the latest researches, gave the sun a name whose root means "to run," because it was, as they regarded it, the greatest heavenly wanderer. The Psalmist compares him to a bridegroom coming out of his chamber as a strong man to run a race. Ps 19:5.

The worship of this luminary was one of the earliest forms of idolatry, and existed in all the nations around Palestine; it is therefore mentioned in all parts of the O.T. Manasseh introduced it in its purest form - as it existed among the Assyrians - into Judah. 2 Kgs 21:3, 2 Kgs 21:5. He and his successor, Anion, dedicated horses and chariots to the sun. and burned incense to it on the housetops. 2 Kgs 23:5, 2 Kgs 23:11. The worship the Israelites met with in Egypt at On, the Baal and Moloch worship in Palestine, were all derived from the sun-worship.

SUN'DAY is of heathen origin (like our designations of the other days of the week), and means "the day of the sun," or "sacred to the god of the sun." It does not occur in the Bible, but is now in common use for the first day of the week, which has taken the place of the Jewish Sabbath, and should properly be called the Lord's Day, Rev 1:10, as the day of the resurrection of Christ. See Lord's Day and Sabbath.

SUPERSCRIP'TION. Mark 15:26. See Cross.

SUPERSTITIOUS. Acts 17:22. This term in the original signifies nothing offensive, but simply that the Athenians were remarkably religious in their 833 polytheistic way. They had more gods, more temples, more festivals - in short, more religious observances - than the apostle had seen elsewhere, and he was about to tell them what he thought were errors in these services.

SUP'PER. Luke 14:16. See Eating.

SURE'TY. In Heb 7:22, Jesus is called the "Surety of a better testament" (covenant), because his divine character, position, and dignity give to 'the new covenant of grace' its value. We are sure it will be carried out.

The danger of becoming surety for others is strongly represented. Prov 6:1; Prov 11:15; Prov 17:18; Prov 20:16; Eze 22:26. The striking or joining of hands was a token of suretyship. Job 17:3.

SUSA, a name for Shushan which see. Esth 2:3; Eze 9:11, Jud 9:18.

SUSAN'NA (lily), one of the women who ministered to Jesus. Luke 8:3.

SU'SI (horseman), the father of the spy from Manasseh. Num 13:11.

SWAL'LOW. In Ps 84:3 there is reference to this bird's habit of making its nest in all buildings to which it can gain access. Swallows still rear their young about the mosques which occupy the site of Solomon's temple, and circle above these

The Swift.

hallowed places as of old. In Palestine and other Eastern countries they are so rarely disturbed that they often build within reach of the hand. The incessant and rapid flight of this bird explains Prov 26:2.

In Jer 8:7 and Isa 38:14 another word is found, which seems to refer to the swift, a bird of the swallow family and a regular migrant, which in Palestine the

The Purple Gallinule.

swallow is not. Its harsh and constant cry is specially appropriate to the second passage. Several species of swifts and swallows inhabit the Holy Land and breed in the cliffs or about buildings.

SWAN. This bird is mentioned only in Lev 11:18; Deut 14:16, and there as unclean. The swan is very rare in the Levant, while there seems to be no reason why it should not be eaten. It is possible that the sacred ibis, once abundant in Egypt may be meant, or the purple gallinule. Either of these birds might naturally be forbidden as food, from its unclean diet, and the former, also, as connected with idolatry.

SWEAR Ps 15:4. See Oath.

SWEAR'ING, VOICE OF. Lev 5:1. The import of this expression in the Hebrew is "hear the voice of adjuration, execration, oath, or curse" - i.e., hear this voice when one is adjured or put upon his oath as a witness in court. The precept relates to the case of one who is summoned to give evidence before the civil magistrate. Judges among the Jews had power to adjure not only the 834 witnesses, but the persons suspected, as appears from the high priest's adjuring our 'Saviour, who thereupon answered, though he had before been silent. Matt 26:63. If a person "heard the voice of swearing " - i.e., if he were adjured by an oath of the Lord to testify what he knew in relation to any matter of fact in question, and yet, through fear or favor, refused to give evidence or gave it but in part - he was to "bear his iniquity." It seems to be implied that such a one should be considered in the sight of God as guilty of the transgression which he has thus endeavored to conceal.

SWINE, Deut 14:8, or HOG, was unclean by the ritual law, and an object of utter abhorrence to the Jews. Hence the employment of the prodigal son implies the most contemptible degradation. Luke 15:15. Eating the flesh of swine is mentioned among the sinful practices of the Jews. Isa 65:4; Isa 66:17. The filthy habits of this animal illustrate one feature in the character of sinners. 2 Pet 2:22.

The herd of swine miraculously destroyed, Matt 8:32, perhaps belonged to Jews, and, if so, were of course kept in violation of their own law. Lev 11:7.

To cast "pearls before swine," Matt 7:6, is not more vain and wasteful than to offer the words of truth and wisdom to those who are known to despise them, and who would only return the offer with insult and abuse.

As the Moslems hold the hog in fully as great abhorrence as do the Jews, it is very rarely that this animal is seen in Palestine or Mohammedan countries.

SWORD. See Arms.

SYCAMINE, the familiar black mulberry (Morus nigra), which is still called in Greece sycamenea. Luke 17:6. Both the black and white species are now largely cultivated in Syria to feed silkworms. The mulberry belongs to the same natural order of plants with the sycamore and the fig. See Mulberry.

SYCAMORE (Greek, fig-mulberry). This tree (Ficus sycomorus) is now rarely seen in Palestine except along the coast, though it is abundant in Egypt. It belongs to the genus of the common fig, which it closely resembles in fruit, while its aromatic leaf is shaped like that of the mulberry. From these two resemblances comes its name. The sycamore is a large and noble tree, affording a dense shade, while the branches are remarkably spreading and are easily reached. This was the reason why Zacchaeus climbed it in order to get a glimpse of Jesus as he passed. Luke 19:4. It was once exceedingly abundant in the valley of the Jordan, 1 Kgs 10:27; 2 Chr 1:15; 2 Chr 9:27, but all are now gone save a few aged survivors near Jericho.

Its fruit grows singly or in clusters on small sprigs, which grow directly from the branches and trunks, independently of the leaves. Sycamore fruit resembles in shape and peculiar method of flowering that of the Fig, which see. It


is, however, smaller, but sweetish and edible, especially if cut or nipped a few days before it is quite ripe, that the acrid properties may be discharged. In Am 7:14 we should read, in this sense, "cutter" (instead of "gatherer") "of sycamore fruit." As the sycamore bears continuously for more than half the year, it is in this respect a valuable tree. The wood, though porous, is exceedingly durable, being the material of the Egyptian 835 mummy-cases, which are three thousand or more years old. It seems to have been valued on this account or for its fruit by David. 1 Chr 27:28. There is allusion to its peculiar sensitiveness to frost in Ps 78:47.

In our own country the plane tree, button-ball, or cotton-wood is often called sycamore; while in England, and more rarely here, a species of maple (acer pseudoplatanus), used as a shade-tree, bears this name. These trees have no relationship to the true sycamore, and should be otherwise designated.

SY'CHAR (drunken?). John 4:5. It is generally supposed that Sychar is a name of Shechem, perhaps given to it in derision. This was Robinson's view, and he seems to have followed a monkish tradition of the Middle Ages. The objection to identifying Sychar with Shechem is that Jacob's well, at the entrance into the valley, is a mile and a half from Shechem, and the woman, if belonging to Shechem. would not go so far for water when plenty was nearer at hand. Hence. Thomson, Canon Williams, Conder, Baedeker, and others identify Sychar with the little village of Askar, on the eastern slope of Ebal, about a mile and a half from Shechem, and to the north-east of Jacob's well. The village is merely a modern one built of mud, but there are remains of ancient tombs near the road beneath it.

SY'CHEM, a Greek form for Shechem. Acts 7:16.

SYE'NE (opening, or key), the frontier-city of Egypt, on the south, and bordering on Ethiopia. Eze 29:10; Ex 30:6, margin. It was situated on the Nile, below the First Cataract, and is represented now by the Arabic village of Assouan, or Aswan, a little north of the ancient site. The well-known rock called syenite is quarried here, and hence its name. It was a chief city of the Shepherd-kings. The expression ( in the margin), "from Migdol to Syene"- that is, from the fortress near Pelusium, at the mouth of the Nile, to Syene, on the borders of Ethiopia - was used to describe the whole land of Egypt.

SYL'VANUS. See Silas.

SYN'AGOGUE (an assemblage). There is no conclusive evidence that stated meetings of the people for social religious services, or meetings for receiving public instruction, were known among the Jews before the Captivity. After that event such meetings became common, and were called synagogues. They were probably held at first in private houses or in the open air. After a time buildings were erected expressly for their use, and these were also called "synagogues," signifying properly the collection of worshippers, but figuratively the place of meeting. Tradition says there were no less than four hundred and eighty of these buildings in the city of Jerusalem before it was subdued by the Romans. Probably this is an exaggeration. To build a synagogue was considered a deed of piety and public usefulness. Luke 7:5. They might be built in any place where there were worshippers enough to associate for the purpose. Ruins of ancient synagogues are found at Tell Hum, Meiron, Safed, Arbela, and Kefr-Bereim. There was some resemblance between the construction of these synagogues and that of the temple. The centre building. which was called the temple, was furnished with an ark or chest containing the copy of the Law which was read. A low desk or pulpit was erected about the middle of the synagogue. Some of the seats were higher than others, and were assigned to the elders. They were called chief or uppermost seats. Matt 23:6. The officers of each synagogue were:

  1. The archisynagogus, "the chief ruler of the synagogue." Mark 5:35; Acts 18:8.

  2. The council, composed of aged and influential men, presided over by the chief ruler, Mark 6:22; Acts 13:15, who had authority to scourge and to excommunicate. Matt 10:17; John 16:2.

  3. "The minister." Luke 4:20, who got the building ready for service and taught the school connected with the synagogue.

  4. At least two alms-collectors, and at least three distributers.

  5. One who was not a permanent officer, but who offered prayer and read the Scriptures as the "delegate of the congregation." Some erroneously connect this office with that of "the angel of the congregation." Rev 1:20.

  6. Three of the council, the "delegate," the three deacons for alms, the interpreter, who read the Hebrew and translated it into the vernacular, the theological schoolmaster and his interpreter;


these constituted the so-called "men of leisure," permanently on duty, who constituted a congregation (ten being the minimum number), "so that there might be no delay in beginning the service at the proper hour, and that no single worshipper might go away disappointed."

The service of the synagogue was as follows: The people being seated, the minister, or angel of the synagogue, ascended the pulpit and offered up the public prayers, the people rising from their seats and standing in a posture of deep devotion. Matt 6:5; Mark 11:25; Luke 18:11, 2 Kgs 11:13. The prayers were nineteen in number, and were closed by reading Deut 6:4-9; Deut 11:13-21; Num 15:37-41. The next thing was the repetition of their phylacteries, after which came the reading of the Law and the Prophets. The former was divided into fifty-four sections, with which were united corresponding portions from the prophets, see Acts 13:15, Gen 1:27; Acts 15:21, and these were read through once in the course of the year. After the return from the Captivity an interpreter was employed in reading the Law and the Prophets, Neh 8:2-8, who interpreted them into the Syro-Chaldaic dialect, which was then spoken by the people. The last part of the service was the expounding of the Scriptures and preaching from them to the people. This was done either by one of the officers or by some distinguished person who happened to be present. This happened with our

Synagogue at Meiron. (After Photograph of Palestine Fund.)

Saviour, Luke 4:17-20, and there are several other instances recorded of himself and his disciples teaching in the synagogues. Matt 13:54; Mark 6:2; John 18:20; Acts 13:5, 2 Sam 20:15, Jer 48:44; Eze 14:1; Acts 17:2-4, John 17:10, Acts 17:17; Deut 18:4, Josh 18:26; Josh 19:8. The whole service concluded with a short prayer or benediction. The days of public worship were the second, fifth, and seventh; the hours, the third, sixth, and ninth.

SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT, the name given to the council of one hundred and twenty men who, according to Rabbinic tradition, under the presidency of Ezra, formed the Hebrew canon and established the synagogue-worship. They had successors in eminent scribes. The tradition, however, is questioned, and doubtless is not entirely correct. Still, it is probable there was such a body as the predecessor of the Sanhedrin.

SYN'TYCHE (event), a female member of the church at Philippi who is exhorted by Paul to be reconciled with Euodia (incorrectly "Euodias"). Those who maintain there was an order of deaconesses in the apostolic Church consider 837 that these women were members of it, and consequently their difference was censurable. Phil 4:2.

SYR'ACUSE, a noted city in the eastern part of Sicily at which Paul spent three days while on his voyage to Rome. Acts 28:12. It is well situated for commerce, having the best harbor in Sicily. The city was colonized by the Corinthians, b.c. 758, and in the third century before Christ its walls, according to one authority, were 22 miles in circumference. It was taken by the Romans, b.c. 212, after a long struggle. Archimedes, who had greatly aided in the defence by his mechanical genius, was killed in the general slaughter. In Paul's time it was a convenient place for the Alexandrian corn-ships to stop at, for the harbor was good and the water from the fountain Arethusa excellent. The modern town is situated upon the islet Ortygia, but the principal ancient ruins are upon the main island. The present town has little commerce and enterprise. It bears the Italian name Siracusa.

SYR'IA, the Greek name for the country known to the Hebrews as "Aram." It may signify "the region of Tyre." This country included, in a stricter sense, only the highlands of Libanus and Anti-Libanus, but in a more extended sense it reached to the Taurus Mountains on the north and across the Euphrates, eastward to the Tigris and the great desert, and westward to Phoenicia and the Mediterranean Sea. It was about 370 miles long and 150 miles wide, and may be called a continuation of Palestine on the north. In its most extended sense it consisted of Syria of Damascus, Syria of Zobah, and Syria of the Two Rivers, which was nearly the same as Mesopotamia. For this latter district see Mesopotamia.

Physical Features. - Syria proper is naturally divided into three or four separate sections: (1) North of the Orontes. The principal feature of this region is Mount Amanus (Musa Dagh), between 5000 and 6000 feet high. East of Mount Amanus is a hilly tract, drained by the streams which fall into the Lake of Antioch. Beyond this lies the dry upland tract extending to the Euphrates. (2) The Orontes valley extends from Antioch to Eleutherus. Through this district, and almost parallel to the coast, runs a mountain- range which is steep toward the Orontes, but descends into low, irregular hills on the west. East of the fertile valley is another range of mountains of less elevation. (3) The valley of the Leontes (Litany), which flows between the two great mountain ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. See Lebanon. The valley between the mountains is called "Coele-Syria," or "hollow Syria." Among the rivers of Syria, besides the Orontes and the Leontes, are the Barada, known as the Abana of Scripture, and the Awaj, or Pharpar. The chief mountains of Syria are: Great Hermon, 9:583 feet high, in the Anti-Libanus or eastern range; Jebel Makhual, near Beirut and Tripoli, 10,016 feet high; and Dakr-el-Kodib, lO,052feet high, in the Lebanon, or western range. Mons Carius of the ancients is on the coast, and Amanus (Musa Dagh) borders on the Taurus range. Of the mountains on the east of Jordan to the south, the largest number are volcanic until the table-lands of the Hauran are reached. See Moab. On the climate of Syria consult the article Palestine.

Among the principal cities may be noticed Damascus, Antioch, Hamath, Gebal, Berytus or Beirut, Tadmor or Palmyra, Heliopolis or Baalbec, Aleppo, Emesah, and Zedad. Baalbec is one of the most wonderful ruins in Syria; Damascus is its oldest and largest city; Beirut is a flourishing seaport-town, which is a progressive and energetic modern city and the seat of an American Protestant college.

History. - Syria was first settled by the Hittites and other Hamitic races. Later, a Shemitic element entered it from the south-east, under leaders such as Abraham and Chedorlaomer. In early times the country was divided among many petty kings, as those at Damascus, Rehob, Zobah, and Geshur. 1 Kgs 10:29; 2 Kgs 7:6. Joshua subdued the country in the region of Hermon and Lebanon. Josh 11:2-18. David conquered the Syrians of Damascus and reduc