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QUAILS. Ex 16:13; Num 11:31. After much criticism of this translation, the verdict of etymology, zoology, history, and of most of the important ancient versions, is strongly in favor of the above rendering. At the season when the Israelites gathered them, quails still migrate from Africa northward in immense numbers. Such facts as that 160,000 were taken in one season on the small island of Capri, near Naples, and 100,000 in a single day near Nettuno, attest their present abundance on the coasts of the Mediterranean, and travellers tell us that they still cross Arabia in clouds.

All the conditions of the above passage in Numbers are met by the habits of these birds. Following up the Red Sea, they would naturally cross the narrow gulfs which enclose the Sinaitic

Quail. (Coturnix vulgaris.)

peninsula, and, being weak of wing and according to their custom flying before the wind and at night, they would come "from the sea" exhausted, and be easily taken by hand, as they are still often caught under similar circumstances. In their flight quails skim along the ground, which seems to be the meaning of the expression, "two cubits hugh." Prudently making provision for the future, the Israelites would spread out their flesh to dry, as Herodotus tells us the Egyptians were accustomed to do. It is believed that the "homers" in Num 11:32 does not denote the measure of that name, but rather "a heap," which is sometimes the meaning of the Hebrew word. It is evident that in the feeding of the multitudes of Israel for more than a month with these birds there was a miraculous employment of the provisions of Nature.

The quail (Coturnix vulgaris) abounds through almost the entire Old World. It resembles the bird called by the same name in New England (Ortyx Virginianna), but its note is like peek-whit-whit rapidly repeated.

QUARANTA'NA, a mountain about 7 miles north-west of Jericho, which tradition points out as the scene of the temptation of Christ. It rises abruptly from the plain to the height of 1200 to 1500 feet, resembling a perpendicular wall of rock. Upon its sides are numerous grottos and caverns, where hermits once dwelt in numbers, and which were also the retreat of robbers. On the top of the mountain are ruins of a chapel. The mountain is not named in the Bible.

QUARRIES, THE. The Hebrew word thus translated in Judg 3:19, Acts 11:26 is elsewhere rendered by "graven" or "carved image."

QUAR'TUS (forth). a Christian who lived at Corinth and sent, through Paul, his salutations to the Christians in Rome. Rom 16:23.

QUATER'NION. When Peter is said to have been delivered to four quaternions of soldiers, and to have passed through a first and second watch, Acts 12:4, 1 Kgs 16:10. it is to be understood that he was guarded by four men at a time - viz., two in the prison with him, and two before the doors - and that they were relieved every three hours, or at each successive


Bound between two Soldiers. (From an old Roman Drawing.)

watch of the night, by four others, making in all sixteen men.

QUEEN is the rendering of three different Hebrew words, of which the first is applied to a queen-regnant- as, for instance, the queen of Sheba, 1 Kgs 10:1, and Athaliah, who usurped the throne of Judah, 2 Kgs 11; the second to a queen-consort - that is, to the wives of first rank in the royal harem, as distinguished from the concubines, Esth 1:9; Zech 7:1; Song 6:8; and the third to a queen-mother - as, for instance, Bathsheba, 1 Kgs 2:19; Maachah, 1 Kgs 15:13; 2 Chr 15:16; Jezebel. 2 Kgs 10:13. It was a natural result of the practice of polygamy that the queen-consort never attained that dignity which in our times such a position confers, while the queen-mother came to occupy one of the most dignified and powerful positions in the state. The following is a list of queen-mothers through the successive reigns of the monarchs of the kingdom of Judah:

Kings. Queen-mothers.
Solomon Bathsheba
Rehoboam Naamah
Abijah/Asa Maachah or Michaiah.
Jehoshaphat Azubah.
Jehoram Not mentioned.
Ahaziah Athaliah.
Joash Zibiah.
Amaziah Jehoaddan.
Uzziah Jecoliah.
Jotham Jerusha.
Ahaz Not mentioned.
Hezekiah Abi or Abijah.
Manasseh Hephzibah.
Amon Meshullemeth.
Josiah Jedidah.
Jehoahaz Harautal.
Jehoiakim Zebudah.
Jehoiachin Nehushta.
Zedeklah Hamutal.

QUEEN OF HEAVEN, the title of the goddess of the Moon among the Assyrians, from whom her worship spread into Asia Minor. To the Shemites she was generally known under the names of Astarte, Ashtaroth, etc. Cakes having the image of the moon stamped on them are supposed to have been presented in sacrifice as a part of her worship. Jer 7:18; Jer 44:17-19, Jer 44:25.

QUICK'SANDS are referred to in Acts 27:17, and were known as Greater Syrtis and the Lesser Syrtis, two sandy gulfs on the northern coast of Africa. The Greater Syrtis was near Cyrene, and is the "quicksands" probably intended in the narrative of Paul's voyage.

QUIRIN'IUS. See Cyrenius.

QUIT is used in 1 Sam 4:9 and 1 Cor 16:13 in the sense of "acquit."

QUIVER, the box or case for arrows. Gen 27:3. The word is often used figuratively. Isa 49:2; Lam 3:13. In Jer 5:16 the slaughter and desolation which should be brought upon

Egyptian Quivers with Bows.

the Israelites by the invasion of the Chaldaeans is expressed by the calling their quivers "an open sepulchre," or their arrows certain death. See Armor.

QUOTA'TIONS from the O.T. in the N.T. are very numerous, but vary both with respect to the method of quoting and with respect to the application of the words quoted. The Greek translation, the Septuagint, is generally used, 719 and how widely diffused and how closely followed this version was among the Jews of the time of our Lord may be seen from the circumstances that, in cases in which no fault of meaning is involved, even its incorrectnesses are retained in the quotations such as Matt 15:9; Luke 4:18; Acts 13:41; Deut 15:7-10; Rom 15:10, etc.; in Heb 1:6 is found a quotation from Deut 32:43 which is an interpolation of the Septuagint. In cases, however, in which the errors of the version involve a discrepancy of meaning, the N.T. writers invariably correct the Septuagint by the Hebrew, such as Matt 21:5; 1 Cor 3:19, etc. Often the quotations are directly from the Hebrew without any reference to the Septuagint, such as Matt 4:15-16; John 19:37; 1 Cor 15:54. In Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27; Rom 12:19, the Septuagint and the Hebrew are combined. Besides these direct quotations, the books of the N.T. are crowded with allusions to and suggestions from the O.T., both conscious, with appropriate adjustment, and unconscious. To this difference in the method of quoting corresponds a different method of application. When the N.T. writer ascribes something prophetical or typical to the passage quoted, he generally introduces it with the word " fulfil," such as Matt 2:15, 1 Sam 30:18, Heb 12:23, etc., and the application is authoritative. But in other cases the application may be considered optional, referring to the generally prophetical and typical character of the O.T. in its relation to the N.T., and a natural result of the force with which the O.T. book had impressed the minds of the N.T. writers.

The precise relation of the N.T. quotations to the Hebrew Scriptures and to the (Greek Septuagint is not yet sufficiently cleared up, but has been much investigated of late. Mr. D. C. Turpie, in his book, The Old Testament in the New (Lond., 1868), establishes the following result:

Passages in which the Septuagint version is correctly accepted 53

Passages in which the Septuagint version is correctly altered 10

Passages in which the Septuagint version is incorrectly accepted 37

Passages in which the Septuagint version is incorrectly altered 76

Passages in which the Hebrew, the Septuagint, and the New Testament all differ 99

Many of the differences are, however, exceedingly minute, and "correct" and "incorrect" merely mean accurate agreement or disagreement with the original Hebrew. Prof. Bohl of Vienna, in his books Forschungen nach einer Volksbibel zur Zeit Jesu (Wien, 1873) and Die Alttestamentliche Zitate im N.T. (Wien, 1878), maintains that the N.T. writers quoted directly and correctly from a current Aramaic version, which has indeed perished, but which was in Christ's day read and memorized by all classes among the Jews as the people's Bible. Hence the N.T. quotations are incorrect in the same way and to the same degree as are the quotations from the present A. V.

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