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N.

NA'AM (pleasantness), a son of Caleb. 1 Chr 4:15.

NA'AMAH (pleasing).

  1. Daughter of Tubal-cain and Zillah, Gen 4:22, and one of the few women mentioned by name before the Flood.

  2. An Ammonitess, the mother of Rehoboam, and one of Solomon's wives. 1 Kgs 14:21.

NA'AMAH (pleasing), a city in the plain of Judah, Josh 15:41, which Conder locates at Na'aneh, 5 miles southeast of el-Mughar (Makkedah).

NA'AMAN (pleasantness).

  1. A distinguished Syrian general, but a leper. 2 Kgs 5. Hearing, through a captive Jewish girl who waited on his wife, of the fame of the prophet Elisha, he set out on a journey to Israel with letters of recommendation from his sovereign to the king of Israel. When the king of Israel read the letter he was filled with apprehension, fearing, probably, lest the king of Syria intended to find a pretext for a quarrel in his inability to cure the leprosy of his general. In this predicament, Elisha, on receiving the news of Naaman's arrival, despatched word to the king to give up his fears and to send the distinguished stranger to him. Naaman went, and received from Elisha's messenger the prescription to bathe seven times in the Jordan. The leper at first disdained the remedy. It was too simple, and attributed to the Jordan a virtue which he knew Abana and Pharpar, rivers of his own land, did not possess. His retinue wisely advised him not to spurn the remedy on account of its simplicity. Following their counsel. he washed himself seven times in the Jordan, and his "flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child." Out of gratitude Naaman offered the prophet a present, but failed to induce him to take it. Subsequently, Gehazi, by uttering a falsehood, secured it, but in turn received Naaman's leprosy. As a result of the bodily cure, Naaman's mind became convinced that the God of Israel was alone worthy of worship and service. He took home with him "two mules' burden of earth," probably in order to make an altar, Ex 20:24, with the promise never to offer sacrifice to other than the God of Israel, and he begged the prophet to absolve him for continuing, out of allegiance to his sovereign, as his companion to go into the temple of Rimmon and bow before the false god. In this Naaman implies that his heart would refuse the worship of the idol which his outward act seemed to indicate. Elisha's parting words to him were, "Go in peace." Our Lord referred to Naaman's cure in his sermon to the Nazarenes. Luke 4:27. The memory of Naaman is perpetuated in a leper-hospital which occupies the traditional site of his house in Damascus, on the banks of the Abana. "I have often visited it" (says Dr. Porter, The Giant Cities of Bashan, p. 366), "and when looking on its miserable inmates, all disfigured and mutilated by their loathsome disease, I could not wonder that the heart of the little Jewish captive was moved by her master's suffering."

  2. A Benjamite. Gen 46:21.

NA'AMATHITE, the designation of Zophar, one of Job's friends. Job 2:11.

NA'AMITES, the descendants of Naaman, grandson of Benjamin. Num 26:40; 1 Chr 8:4.

NA'ARAH (girl), one of the wives of Ashur. 1 Chr 4:6.

NA'ARAI. (God reveals), one of David's warriors, 1 Chr 11:37; also called Paarai. 2 Sam 23:35.

NA'ARAN (juvenile), a town in Ephraim. 1 Chr 7:28. See Naarath.

NA'ARATH (girl, handmaid), a town of Ephraim, Josh 16:7; probably in the Jordan valley, above Jericho. Eusebius speaks of it as Oorath, a village 5 miles from Jericho, and Josephus mentions that Herod drew off part of the waters from the village of Neara to water the palm trees he had planted. Conder, therefore, suggests that the site of Naarath is to be found in el 'Aujeh, near Jericho, where are a ruin and remains of an ancient aqueduct.

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NAASH'ON. Ex. 6:23. See Nahshon.

NAAS'SON, the Greek form of Nahshon; used Matt 1:4; Luke 3:32. See Nahshon.

NA'BAL (fool), a very wealthy citizen of Maon, whose property, consisting of 3000 sheep and l000 goats, was in Carmel. 1 Sam 25:2-3. When he was shearing his sheep, David sent ten of his young men to ask him in the most courteous manner for supplies; but Nabal, who was proverbially churlish, refused, in the most offensive terms, to grant his request. David immediately ordered 400 of his men to arm themselves, and set out with the resolution to destroy Nabal and his property. Abigail, the discreet and beautiful wife of this son of Belial, admonished of their purpose, promptly made up a sumptuous present, and set forth to meet David and to appease him with the gifts. Her mission was entirely successful. On returning to her home she found her husband at a feast and drunk, and waited till the following morning to apprise him of what had occurred. Nabal had no sooner received her statement than he was seized with a severe illness, which proved fatal at the end of ten days, and was regarded by David as the immediate judgment of God upon his sins. 1 Sam 25:39. Nabal is the type of a selfish, cruel, and churlish property-holder.

NA'BOTH (fruits), an Israelite of the town of Jezreel who owned a vineyard adjoining the palace of King Ahab. 1 Kgs 21:1. Anxious to secure this particular spot that he might use it for a garden, the king proposed to buy it or give him some other property of equal value; but Naboth declined, to the great disappointment of the wicked monarch. In this difficulty Jezebel devised a base plan to secure the coveted possession. At a large feast Naboth was accused by two sons of Belial of blasphemy and disloyalty, and was forthwith stoned to death. The murder was avenged by the doom immediately passed upon Ahab and Jezebel, the royal murderers. 1 Kgs 21:19.

NA'CHON, the threshing-floor by which Uzzah died, 2 Sam 6:6; called Perez-uzzah and Chidon in 1 Chr 13:9, 1 Chr 13:11. It was between Kirjath-jearim and Jerusalem.

NA'DAB (liberal).

  1. Son of Aaron. For offering strange fire to the Lord, he and his brother Abihu were devoured with fire from God. Lev 10:1-3.

  2. Son and successor of Jeroboam. His wicked reign of two years was brought to an end at Gibbethon by the successful conspiracy of Baasha. 1 Kgs 15:25-28.

  3. Son of Shammai. 1 Chr 2:28.

  4. Son of Gibeon, and uncle of Saul. 1 Chr 8:30.

NAG'GE (shining), an ancestor of our Lord. Luke 3:25.

NA'HALAL, NAHAL'LAL, and NA'HALOL (pasture), a town in Zebulun belonging to the Levites. Josh 19:15; Josh 21:35; Jud 1:30; one Hebrew manuscript in Josh 21:35 reads Mahalal. It has been identified with Malul and 'Ain Mahil, 4 miles northeast of Nazareth.

NAHAXIEL (valley of God), a station of the Israelites, Num 21:19, between Mattanah and Bamoth, and probably in a valley of one of the chief northern tributaries of the Arnon.

NA'HALOL. Jud 1:30. See Nahalal.

NA'HAM (consolation), brother of Hodiah. 1 Chr 4:19.

NAHAM'ANI (compassionate), one who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon. Neh 7:7.

NAHAR'AI, or NA'HARI (snorer), Joab's armor-bearer. 1 Chr 11:39; 2 Sam 23:37.

NA'HASH (serpent).

  1. An Ammonite king. He offered to Jabesh-gilead a treaty on condition that the citizens should submit to the loss of their right eyes. This cruel stipulation aroused the indignation of Saul, who went to the assistance of the city and defeated its enemies. At a subsequent period he was on friendly relations with David. 2 Sam 10:2.

  2. Mentioned 2 Sam 17:25 as father of Abigail. Some identify him with Jesse, and others with Nahash, king of the Ammonites.

NA'HATH (rest).

  1. Grandson of Esau, and duke in Edom. Gen 36:13.

  2. A Levite. 1 Chr 6:26.

  3. A Levite in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 31:13.

NAH'BI (hidden), one of the twelve spies. Num 13:14.

NA'HOR (snorting). Gen 11:23, or

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NA'CHOR, Josh 24:2.

  1. The name of Abraham's grandfather. Gen 11:23.

  2. One of Abraham's brothers, Gen 11:26, who married Milcah, the daughter of Haran. Gen 11:29. He lived at Haran, which is thence called "the city of Nahor." Gen 24:10.

NAH'SHON (enchanter), a leader of the children of Judah in the wilderness. Ex 6:23; Num 2:3; Num 10:14. His name occurs in the genealogy of our Lord, Matt 1:4; Luke 3:32, in the Greek form, Naasson.

NA'HUM (consolation), one of the twelve minor prophets, of whose private life we know only what is contained in Nah 1:1, where he is called an Elkoshite. Some refer this name to a place in Galilee, others to a village on the Tigris. The intimate acquaintance the book shows with Assyrian affairs makes it probable that Nahum lived an exile in Assyria, and perhaps at the village on the Tigris.

Nahum prophesied before the destruction of Nineveh, which he predicts, and probably in the reign of Hezekiah.

Prophecy of. It is a poem of great sublimity, and admirable for the elegance of its imagery. In Nahum 1 the prophet depicts the majesty and supremacy of God, who will surely visit wickedness with retribution, but at the same time is good to such as trust in him. Nahum 1:7. Nahum 2-3 describe with much beauty and poetic force the siege and destruction of Nineveh as a punishment for her wickedness, Nahum 3:19. The battle, the confusion of the chariots in the streets, the opening of the gates, the destruction of the palace, the flight and captivity of the citizens, and the subsequent desolation of the magnificent city, are brought before us as in a vivid panoramic vision.

NAIL. 1. of the finger - The direction, Deut 21:12, in regard to the treatment of the captive woman's nails is translated in the text of the A.V. "pare her nails;" in the margin, "suffer to grow." The text is probably correct, as the general intention of the treatment was to make her lay aside all belonging to her condition as an alien.

  1. Of a tent or house. - Two Hebrew words are thus translated: (1.) The tent-peg or pin, likewise a stake. Isa 22:25; 2 Chr 33:20; Ex 27:19. That which fastened the cloth in the loom was called a pin. Jud 16:14. The word, metaphorically, is that which gives support or keeps together - e.g., the prince. Zech 10:4. (2.) A nail of iron, 1 Chr 22:3, or of gold. 2 Chr 3:9.

NA'IN (beauty), a town in Galilee where Christ raised the widow's dead son to life. Luke 7:11. It is now called Nein, and is on the north-western edge of Little Hermon, 6 miles south-east of Nazareth, and 25 miles south-west of Tell Hum (Capernaum?). Jesus must have met the funeral procession on the steep downward slope, down which a road now leads toward the ancient sepulchral caves on the west side of the village. The ruins indicate that Nain was a considerable town, once protected by walls and gates. It is now a miserable Mohammedan hamlet of about twenty mud and stone houses. It is in full view of Mount Tabor, and often used by travellers as a stopping-place for luncheon.

NA'IOTH (habitations), a place near Ramah where Samuel dwelt. 1 Sam 19:18-23; 1 Sam 20:1. Some interpret the word to mean a school of prophets over which Samuel presided.

NA'KED. The word in the A.V. is used absolutely, as in the case of Adam and Eve, Gen 2:25; comparatively, to indicate that the usual outer garments were missing, 1 Sam 19:24; John 21:7, the loin-cloth and the shirt being kept on; and figuratively, to describe spiritual destitution. Rev 3:17.

NAME. Gen 2:19. A name is a word by which a thing, or more especially a person, is made known. The names of places and of persons in the Bible have for the most part, if not all of them, a special significance. As now, so then, children received their names either directly at birth (as Benjamin, Gen 35:18) or later, as at circumcision, Luke 1:59, and at the selection of the mother (as Joseph, Gen 30:24, and Samuel, 1 Sam 1:20), or that of the father (Gershom, Ex 2:22). The names were given in allusion to some circumstance at the birth (Benoni, Gen 35:18; Pharez, Gen 38:29), or to some event prior to it (Samuel, 1 Sam 1:20), or to some condition or appearance of the body (Esau, Gen 25:25), or to some hope (Joseph, Gen 30:24), etc.

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Naln, Little Hermon on the right 597 The same is true for localities. Bethel, Peniel, Gen 32:30, Mahanaim, Gen 32:2, etc., recalled historical events.

The names of persons were not infrequently changed - Benoni to Benjamin, Gen 35:18, Abram to Abraham, Gen 17:5, Jacob to Israel, Gen 32:28, Solomon to Jedidiah. 2 Sam 12:25, etc. The name is also sometimes emphasized as the true indication of character or of the person's circumstances. Abigail thus emphasizes her husband's name, Nabal ("fool"), 1 Sam 25:25; Esau, Jacob's ("supplanter"), Gen 27:36; Naomi, her own ("my delight"). Ruth 1:20.

There are some words which appear more frequently in compounds of proper names than others, and to which we will refer in passing. Beer means "well" (Beersheba, "well of the oath," Gen 21:31); Beth means "house" (Bethlehem, "house of bread"); En means "fountain" (En-gedi, "fountain of the kid"); El means "God" (Samuel, "asked of God," 1 Sam 1:20; Elisha, "God is salvation"). On the other hand, Bath means "daughter" (Bathsheba), while Ben and Bar mean "son" (Benjamin, Barjonas).

The Name of God was held in a peculiar reverence. To such an extent of superstition is this carried that the modern Jews never pronounce the word "Jehovah," it being considered too sacred. In reading the O.T. they substitute "Adonai" for it. They misunderstand the passage in Lev 24:16, which forbids the cursing use of "Jehovah," as forbidding the mere naming. An abuse of the name of God is expressly forbidden in the Decalogue. Ex 20:7; Lev 18:21. In the N.T. miracles are performed in the name of Jesus, Acts 3:6; 1 John 4:10, and they who are baptized are baptized in the name of the Trinity. Matt 28:19.

The two special terms used for God by the Hebrews were "Elohim" and "Jehovah" (or "Javeh"). The first contains an allusion to majesty and power; the second refers to God's absolute existence, his eternity and unchangeableness, and means "I am." Ex 3:14. God had not been known by this name to Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob. Ex 6:3.

The many names used of our Lord are all highly significant. Emmanuel ("God with us") points to his incarnation; Jesus ("Saviour") to his mission of salvation; Christ ("Anointed") to his appointment as the promised Messiah; Son of Man to his humility; Son of God to his divine origin and character. Amongst the many other names and titles of Christ are Shiloh. Gen 49:10, the Wonderful, etc., Isa 9:6, Prophet, High Priest, King, the Word, John 1:1, etc.

NAO'MI (my delight), the wife of Elimelech, and the mother-in-law of Ruth, who moved with their two sons from Judaea to Moab in the time of a famine. Ruth 1:2. Elimelech died, and also his two sons, each leaving a widow; Naomi, thus bereaved, started back to her native country. Orphah remained behind, but Ruth accompanied her. Once back in Bethlehem, she wished to be known by the name Mara ("bitterness"). She thenceforth acted the part of a faithful mother to Ruth. Naomi is one of the most pathetic characters in all history, and engages our admiration by her calm and unselfish conduct in the hour of affliction.

NA'PHISH (recreation), a son of Ishmael. Gen 25:15; 1 Chr 1:31.

NAPH'TALI (my wrestling), Gen 30:8, or NEPH'THALIM, Matt 4:15, a son of Jacob by Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid.

Tribe of. At Mount Sinai the tribe numbered 53,400 fighting-men. Num 1:43; on the entrance into Canaan, 45,400. Num 26:50. Jacob, from his death-bed, represented Naphtali as a "hind let loose; he giveth goodly words." Gen 49:21. Barak, Jud 4:10, was the chief hero which the tribe produced. At the division of the kingdom Naphtali became a part of the northern monarchy. Later, its territory was overrun and its people taken captive by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria. 2 Kgs 15:29. Isaiah prophesied of the Messianic light to break over her, 2 Kgs 9:1-2, which was fulfilled. Matt 4:15-16.

NAPH'TALI (my wrestling), the territory given to the tribe descended from the fifth son of Jacob. Gen 30:8; Gen 35:25; Ex 1:4; 1 Chr 2:2. On leaving Egypt the tribe numbered 53,400 fighting-men. Num 1:42-43; on reaching the plains of Moab it had decreased to 45,400. Num 26:48-50. Jacob blessed 598 this tribe and compared it to a hind or gazelle. Gen 49:21. Moses describes its territory. Deut 33:23. The land of Naphtali was the most northerly of the portion allotted to Israel, and its boundaries are found in Josh 19:32-39; The territory reached to the Leontes, and east to the Jordan, the waters of Merom, and the Sea of Galilee, by which it was separated from Manasseh east of the Jordan. It afforded a great variety of soil and climate. Josephus describes the fertility and productiveness of this region along the Jordan and Sea of Galilee in glowing language. The table-lands west of the Jordan valley were 2000 feet above the sea, and in the mountains of Naphtali were found ridges and peaks, not barren and bleak, but covered with oak, terebinth, aromatic shrubs, and flowers of variegated hues. It still teems with animal life, beasts and birds being abundant. See Palestine.

History. - Stanley says Naphtali was one of the four northern tribes which kept aloof from the great historical movements of Israel. It gained renown in the war against Jabin and Sisera, Judg 4, Judg 6, but later the people appear to have become allied with their Gentile neighbors, and some of their cities were transferred to Hiram of Tyre. 1 Kgs 9:11-13. Their land lay in the track of the invaders from the north, and their cities were captured, as Ijon, Abel, Kadesh, and Hazor. 1 Kgs 15:20; 2 Chr 16:4. Tiglath-pileser, b.c. 720, overran Northern Palestine, and Naphtali was the first territory depopulated and its people carried into captivity. It was afterward repeopled by a mixed population. Within its territory Jesus taught and wrought many miracles, though the land is alluded to by its ancient title only once in the N.T., where it occurs as Nephthalim. Matt 4:15. See also Capernaum, Galilee, and Tiberias.

NAPH'TUHIM, an Egyptian tribe descended from Mizraim. Gen 10:13.

NAP'KIN is used in the A.V. in a wider sense than at present - as a little cloth, which is the literal meaning of the word. Luke 19:20.

NARCIS'SUS (daffodil), a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends greeting. Rom 16:11. He is otherwise unknown. The name was a common one.

NA'THAN (given).

  1. A distinguished prophet of Judaea, who lived in the reigns of David and Solomon and enjoyed a large share of their confidence. 2 Sam 7:2. To him David first intimated his design to build the temple, and he was divinely instructed to inform the king that this honor was not for him, but for his posterity. Nathan was also charged with the divine message to David upon the occasion of his sin against Uriah, which he conveyed under the significant allegory of the rich man and the ewe-lamb. Nathan was one of David's biographers. 1 Chr 29:29, and also Solomon's. 2 Chr 9:29.

  2. One of the sons of David by Bathsheba. 1 Chr 3:5.

  3. Father of one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:36.

  4. One of the chief men who returned to Jerusalem with Ezra. Ezr 8:16.

  5. A descendant of Caleb. 1 Chr 2:36.

NATHAN'AEL (gift of God), a native of Cana of Galilee, John 21:2, and an Israelite without guile, as stated by our Lord. John 1:47. He was conducted by Philip (immediately after his call) into the presence of Christ. He went an incredulous Hebrew, with the words on his lips, "Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Jesus, however, at once convinces him that he is the Messiah by the exhibition of his omniscience, declaring that he had seen Nathanael under the fig tree before ever Philip had called him. Nathanael confesses him to be the Son of God and the King of Israel.

The name Nathanael occurs only in John. For this reason, combined with the fact that John never mentions the name of Bartholomew, it is generally supposed that the two are identical.

NA'THAN-ME'LECH, an officer in Jerusalem. 2 Kgs 23:11.

NAUGHT'Y,NAUGHT'INESS, originally "nothing, nothingness, " mean, in the A. V., "wicked, wickedness." Prov 6:12.

NA'UM, an ancestor of our Lord. Luke 3:25.

NAVES, the centres of wheels, from which the spokes radiate. 1 Kgs 7:33.

NAZ'ARENE'. Matt 2:23. This term is used of Jesus in this passage as a fulfilment of prophecy. It is also used of him (though translated "of Nazareth") 599 by Bartimeus, Mark 10:47, in the inscription on the cross, John 19:19, by Peter, Acts 2:22, by Paul, Acts 26:9, by our Lord himself. Acts 22:8, etc. The followers of Christ are also denominated "Nazarenes," Acts 24:5, by enemies.

The expression has been derived from the Hebrew word Netzar, translated "Branch." Isa 11:1. It has also been taken in a general sense to refer to the humiliation of our Lord, Nazareth being at this time under a stigma. John 1:46. In this case no specific prophecy can be found answering literally to the description, but many in a general way which refer to the humiliation of the Messiah.

NAZ'ARETH (separated.?), a city of Galilee, famous as the home of Jesus during his childhood and youth until he began his public ministry. It was about 14 miles from the Sea of Galilee, 6 miles west of Tabor, and 66 miles north of Jerusalem in a straight line. On the north side of the plain of Esdraelon is a crescent-shaped valley about a mile long and averaging a quarter of a mile wide, but swelling out into a broader basin, completely shut in by a wall of gently rounded hills, some fifteen in number, and from 400 to 500 feet in height. Within this basin, and on the lower slope of these hills, is Nazareth. Although the village itself was shut in by these hills, the view from the summit behind the town is quite extensive, taking in Hermon, Carmel, Gilead, Tabor, Gilboa, and the plain of Esdraelon. It is one of the most beautiful views in the Holy Land.

History. - Nazareth is not mentioned in the O.T. nor by any classical author, nor by any writer before the time of Christ. It was for some unknown reason held in disrepute among the Jews of Judaea. John 1:46. It was situated in a mountain, Luke 4:29, within the province of Galilee, Mark 1:9, and near Cana, as John 2:1-2, Rev 1:11 seems to imply. There was a precipice near the town, down which the people proposed to cast Jesus. Luke 4:29. It is mentioned twenty-nine times in the N.T. At Nazareth the angel appeared to Mary; the home of Joseph, Luke 1:26; Luke 2:39, and to that place Joseph and Mary returned after their flight into Egypt. Matt 2:23. The hills and places about the town possess a deep and hallowed interest to the Christian as the home of Jesus during his childhood and youth, until he entered upon his ministry, and had preached in the synagogue, and was rejected by his own townspeople. Even after Capernaum became "his own city" he was known as "Jesus of Nazareth," Matt 13:54-58; Mark 6:1-6; Acts 2:22; Deut 3:6; 1 John 4:10; Zech 6:14, and his disciples were called "Nazarenes." In the days of Constantine, Nazareth was peopled by Samaritan Jews, but in the sixth century Christian pilgrimages began to be made to the town. In 1109, Tancred held Galilee, and Nazareth became the seat of a Christian bishopric. In 1160 a council was held at Nazareth which made Alexander III. pope of Rome. During the Middle Ages Christian pilgrims frequently visited Nazareth. When the Turks conquered Palestine, in 1517, the Christians were driven from the town. In 1620 the Franciscan monks gained a foothold there, and began to rebuild the village. At the battle of Mount Tabor, in 1799, Napoleon with his army encamped near Nazareth.

The town is now called En-Nasireh, or Nasrah, and has from 5000 to 6000 population, though the Turkish officials estimate it at 10,000. There are about 2000 Mohammedans, 2500 Greeks, 800 Latins, and 100 Protestants. The inhabitants pursue farming, gardening, and various handicrafts, and the village is quite a centre of trade for the adjoining districts. The houses are well built. There are a large Latin church and monastery, a synagogue, a Greek church, a fine Protestant church under the care of the English Church Missionary Society, a Protestant hospital, and a large female orphanage (completed 1874). The Synagogue is claimed by tradition to be the one in which Christ taught, but cannot be traced to a date earlier than a.d. 570. Near the Greek church of the Annunciation is a spring called "Mary's Well," to which the women resort every evening with their water-jars for their daily supply, and to which Mary with her holy Child may have gone. The women of Nazareth, like those of Bethlehem, are distinguished for beauty above their sisters in the East. The brow of the hill over which the enraged Nazarenes threatened to cast Jesus is probably near the Maronite church, though tradition places

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Nazareth (After Photographs.) 601 it at the "Mount of Precipitation," 2 or 3 miles south of the town.

NAZ'ARITES. Num 6:2, etc. The term is derived from a Hebrew word signifying "to separate." A Nazarite, under the ancient law, was one, either male or female, engaged by a peculiar vow. It required total abstinence from wine and all intoxicating liquors and the fruit of the vine, that the hair should be allowed to grow without being shorn, and that all contamination with dead bodies should be avoided. The Nazarite was not even to approach the corpse of father or mother. Num 6:7, and if by accident this should occur, he was required to shave his head, make offerings, and renew the vow. When the time of Nazariteship had expired, the person brought an offering to the temple; the priest then cut off his hair and burnt it; after which the Nazarite was free from his vow and might again drink wine. The term of the vow is left indefinite. "The days of the vow" is the expression in Num 6. We know, however, that there were perpetual Nazarites. Samson belonged to this class. It is also probable that Samuel and John the Baptist were perpetual Nazarites. Hannah promised the Lord that no razor should touch the head of her child if the Lord would give her one, 1 Sam 1:11, and the angel predicted to Zacharias that John would abstain entirely from wine and strong drink. Luke 1:15.

It has sometimes been asserted, on the basis of his having his head shorn at Cenchrsea, that Paul was a Nazarite. Acts 18:18. This is nothing more than a conjecture.

The exact significance of this vow is difficult to ascertain. The most plausible and satisfactory explanation is that it indicates an entire consecration of the body to the Lord, and is in the spirit of St. Paul's exhortation to present the body a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable, unto God. Rom 12:6. It is expressly said that during the days of his separation the Nazarite "is holy unto the Lord." Num 6:8. The significance of the different exercises is as follows: The touch of the dead was considered defiling at all times, and the indulgence in strong drink and wine was expressly forbidden to the officiating priests. The meaning of the long hair, it has been suggested, is this: Long hair is a sign of effeminacy and weakness in a man. 1 Cor 11:14. In letting his hair grow the Nazarite manifested his entire subjection to God and his relinquishment of all trust in human strength.

NE'AH (shaking), a town on the east side of Zebulun. Josh 19:13. Porter suggests 'Ain, about 3 miles north-west of Nazareth, as its site.

NEAP'OLIS (new city), a place in Northern Greece where Paul first landed in Europe, and where he probably landed on his second visit. Acts 16:11; 20:1, and whence he embarked on his last journey to Jerusalem. Acts 20:6. It was on a rocky eminence, the most conspicuous object being a temple of Diana, which crowned the top of the hill. The great Roman road Via Egnatia, from Macedonia to Thrace, passed through Neapolis, which was 8 or 10 miles from Philippi. It is now a Turko-Grecian town of 5000 or 6000 population, and called Kavalla; it has numerous ruins. Another site has been proposed (Eski) for Neapolis, but the arguments for it are unsatisfactory. The Roman name of Shechem was also Neapolis, but it is not so named in Scripture.

NEARI'AH (servant of Jehovah).

  1. One of the six sons of Shemaiah. 1 Chr 3:22.

  2. A leader in the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:42.

NEB'AI (fruitful), one of those who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. Neh 10:19.

NEBA'IOTH, Isa 60:7, or NEBA'JOTH (heights). Gen 25:13, the first-born, 1 Chr 1:29, son of Ishmael, whose descendants are supposed to have settled in Arabia, and to have been the Nabatheans of Greek and Roman history. They were a pastoral people, Isa 60:7. whence the beautiful figure of the prophet above cited respecting the gathering of the Gentile nations to the sceptre of the Messiah. Petra was their chief city.

NEBAL'LAT (hidden folly), a town peopled by the Benjamites. Neh 11:34. The Pal. Memoirs locate it at Beit Nebdla, a village on the plain, about 4 miles north-east of Ludd, where are ruins of cisterns and large cut stones.

NE'BAT (aspect), the father of King Jeroboam. 1 Kgs 11:26; 1 Kgs 12:2. etc.

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NE'BO (proclaimer), one of the Assyrian deities, who is represented, with

Nebo. (From a Statue in the British Museum.)

Bel, as being unable to resist the destruction to which Cyrus subjected their idols. Isa 46:1. This god was called "he who possesses intelligence," and statues of him are still preserved. One is in the British Museum which was erected by the Assyrian monarch Pul. The word "Nebo" occurs in the compounds Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar, etc., which points to the esteem in which the god was held. Nebo was regarded as the protector against misfortune.

NE'BO (prophet), a mountain of Moab "over against Jericho," from which Moses beheld the land of Canaan. Deut 32:49. "And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, . . . and the Lord showed him all the land of Gilead unto Dan." Deut 34:1. Nebo was a mountain in the range of mountains called Abarim. Eusebius says it was shown in his day on the other side of Jordan, six miles to the west of Heshbon. If then definitely known, its location was afterward lost. Of the peaks in the Abarim range which have been suggested as Nebo are - Jebel Atturus, but this is not "over against Jericho," and is too far south: Jehel Jilad, 15 miles farther north than Jericho, and therefore not answering to the scriptural narrative.

The explorations of De Sauley, Due de Luynes, Tristram, Warren, Paine, and Merrill have led to the conclusion that Nebo was at the northern end of the Abarim range of mountains, i.e. Jebel Nebo. This mountain was 5 or 6 miles south-west of Heshbon, is about 2700 feet high, and commands a fine view of the country. Paine appears to apply Jebel Nebo to the eastern portion of the northern group of peaks, and Jebel Singbak to the western portion; Dr. Merrill claims that the Arabs use Jebel Nebo, Jebel Musa, and Jebel Singbak indiscriminately for this group. While the discussions respecting Pisgah have been sharp, the majority of explorers and scholars agree in identifying Nebo with the northern end of the Abarim range, Jebel Nebo. See Pisgah.

NE'BO, a city east of the Jordan; rebuilt by the Gadites, Num 32:3, Acts 7:38; Num 33:47; captured by the Moabites. Isa 15:2; Jer 48:1, Josh 11:22. It was 8 miles south of Heshbon; perhaps el Hbais. 2. A town in Benjamin, Neh 7:33; possibly Nubu, 7 miles north-west of Hebron.

NEBUCHADNEZ'ZAR (may Nebo protect the crown!). or, more correctly, NEBUCHADREZ'ZAR, the son and successor of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Babylonish monarchy, was the most illustrious of these kings, and one of the greatest rulers of history. 2 Kgs 24:1; Dan 1-4. We know most of him through the book of Daniel; but we read of him also in

Cameo of Nebuchadnezzar.

Berosus and upon numerous monuments. In the Berlin Museum there is a black 603 cameo with his head upon it, cut by his order, with the inscription, "In honor of Merodach, his lord, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in his life-time had this made." From these various sources the following details have been derived. Nebuchadnezzar was entrusted by his father with the important task of repelling Pharaoh-necho, and succeeded in defeating him at Carchemish, on the Euphrates (b.c. 605), Jer 46:2, and brought under subjection all the territory Necho had occupied, including Syria and Palestine, overrunning these countries, taking Jerusalem, and carrying off a portion of the inhabitants as prisoners, including Daniel and his companions. Dan 1:1-4. Having learned that his father had died, Nebuchadnezzar hastened back to Babylon and planted himself firmly on the throne, giving to his generals instructions to bring the Jewish, Phoenician, Syrian, and Egyptian captives to Babylon. Thus the remark, "In his days Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years," 2 Kgs 24:1, is easily explained. The title is given by anticipation, and the "three years" are to be reckoned from 605 to 603 inclusive. The rebellion of Jehoiakim, entered upon, probably, because Nebuchadnezzar was carrying on wars in other parts of Asia, took place b.c. 602, and was punished by the irruption of Chaldaeans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, incited, perhaps, by Nebuchadnezzar, who, as soon as possible, sent his troops against Jerusalem, and had him taken prisoner, but ultimately released him. See Jehoiakim. 2 Kgs 24:2. After his death his son Jehoiachin reigned, and against him Nebuchadnezzar, for the third time, invaded Palestine and besieged Jerusalem. Jehoiachin and his family and household voluntarily submitted themselves, the city was taken. and all the treasures of the house of the Lord and of the palace, and all the principal inhabitants of the city, were carried to Babylon. 2 Kgs 24:12-16. Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin, whose name was changed to Zedekiah, was put upon the throne, but after a reign of nearly ten years he rebelled, and was punished by Nebuchadnezzar, who went up against Jerusalem and reduced the city to the horrors of famine before taking it. Zedekiah's two sons were killed before his eyes and then his eyes put out, and he, as a captive, was carried to Babylon. b.c. 588. 2 Kgs 25:7. On Nebuchadnezzar's order, Jeremiah was kindly treated. Jer 39:11-14.

The scenes related in the first four chapters of Daniel occurred during Nebuchadnezzar's reign. See Daniel. Two incidents there recorded have received remarkable confirmation from recently-deciphered inscriptions, which are quoted by Dr. Buddensieg in his pamphlet Die Assyrischen Ausgrabungen und das Alte Testament, 1880 ("The Assyrian Excavations and the Old Testament"), pp. 64, 65. The words, "The king spake and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of my kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?" Dan 4:30, are proved to be characteristic by those on an inscription: "I say it, I have built the great house which is the centre of Babylon for the seat of my rule in Babylon." Of the king's madness there is of course no direct mention. But

Inscribed Brick of Nebuchadnezzar.

there is an inscription which is read by Sir H. Rawlinson in a manner which finds its readiest explanation in the fact stated in Dan 4:33: "For four 604 years the residence of my kingdom did not delight my heart; in no one of my possessions did I erect any important building by my might. I did not put up buildings in Babylon for myself and for the honor of my name. In the worship of Merodach, my god, I did not sing his praise, nor did I provide his altar with sacrifices, nor clean the canals."

Nebuchadnezzar was a mighty monarch, and is denominated "king of kings" by Daniel, Dan 2:37, and ruler of a "kingdom with power and strength and glory." He gave much attention to the architectural adornment of Babylon, and amongst other great structures built the hanging-gardens, on a large and artificial mound, terraced up to look like a hill. This great work, called by the ancients one of the Seven Wonders of the world, was executed in order to please his wife, whose maiden home had been in a hilly country. Secular history also tells us of vast projects of irrigation and a canal system which he carried out. An idea of the extent of this monarch's building enterprises may be drawn from the fact that nine-tenths of the bricks found amongst the ruins of the ancient capital are inscribed with his name.

Nebuchadnezzar was a cruel despot and the perfect type of an Oriental autocrat, as is proven by the murder of the two boys in the presence of their father, Zedekiah, the resolution to punish a failure to discover his dream, Dan 2, with the death of the astrologers, etc., and the requisition of worship for the golden image on the plain of Dura. He is said to have worshipped the "King of heaven," Dan 4:37, but it may be questioned whether he did not conceive of the Jehovah of the Hebrews to be only one of many gods. He died about b.c. 561. after a reign of 44 years.

NEBUCHADREZ'ZAR, Jer 21:2, 1 Kgs 15:7, and elsewhere in Jeremiah. Eze 26:7, the more correct transliteration of the name Nebuchadnezzar, which see.

NEBUSHAS'BAN (Nebo saves me), the chief of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 39:13.

NEBUZAR-A'DAN (Nebo sends posterity), captain of the body-guard of Nebuchadnezzar. 2 Kgs 25:8. He conducted the siege of Jerusalem to a successful issue, the particulars of which are given in 2 Kgs 25:8-21. He treated Jeremiah with generous consideration, as Nebuchadnezzar commanded. Jer 39:11; Jer 40:1. His speech to Jeremiah is preserved in Jer 40:2, sqq. When Nebuchadnezzar, five years later, besieged Tyre, Nebuzar-adan came again to Jerusalem, and carried off seven hundred and forty-five Jews more into captivity. Jer 32:30.

NE'CHO, a king of Egypt, son of Psammetichus, founder of the twenty sixth dynasty, a.d. 612-596. He greatly enlarged Egyptian trade. For peaceful and warlike operations he had ships built after the pattern of the Syrian triremes. He endeavored to unite the Red and Mediterranean Seas. Herodotus states (II. & 158) that 120,000 Egyptians lost their lives in making the excavation. But he discontinued his project in consequence of an oracle which warned him "that he was laboring for the barbarians," as the Egyptians called all such as spoke a language different from their own. It was after this that he built the ships mentioned above. He sent out a fleet manned by Phoenicians, which circumnavigated Africa in three years. He also directed military operations against enfeebled Assyria, but was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar at Carchemish, on the Euphrates, b.c. 605. History relates no further wars of Necho's. He is brought before us in the sacred narrative first in this expedition against Assyria. 2 Chr 35:20. King Josiah marched against him, and closed with him in battle in spite of the message he sent that he was under a divine commission in making war. The battle occurred at Megiddo, and Josiah was killed by an arrow. On his return Necho deposed the son of Josiah, Jehoahaz, whom the people had proclaimed king, and put on the throne Eliakim, whose name he changed to Jehoiakim. 2 Chr 36:4.

NECROMANCER. Deut 18:11. See Divination.

NEDABI'AH (whom Jehovah impelled), a descendant of David. 1 Chr 9:18.

NEG'INAH (a stringed instrument), used in Ps. 61, title; the singular of "Neginoth."

NEG'INOTH, a word occurring in the titles of Ps. 4, 6, 54, 65, 67, 76, 605 and in the margin of Hab 3:19. It seems to be a general designation for musical instruments, and is translated "stringed instruments" in Hab 3:19. It thus includes the harp, sackbut, etc.

NEHEL'AMITE, an appellative of Shemaiah, Jer 29:24, 1 Chr 24:31, Jud 1:32, and translated in the margin "dreamer." As no town of Nehelam is known, it is possible the appellation is meant as a play on the "dreamers" whom Jeremiah denounces.

NEHEMI'AH (whom Jehovah consoles).

  1. Son of Hachaliah, the distinguished and pious restorer and governor of Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile. The forlorn condition of the remnant of returned Hebrews in Jerusalem awakened his deepest sympathy and enkindled his patriotism, Neh 1:4. The condition of his feelings soon became known to King Artaxerxes, at whose court he held the high position of cup-bearer. Ruth 2:1. At his eager request, Neh 2:5, the king granted Nehemiah permission to return to the land of his fathers, Num 2:7, and gave him letters of safe escort to the governors beyond the Euphrates, and orders for timber on the keeper of the royal forest.

At Jerusalem desolation and ruin met him on every hand, but he makes the proposition and oversees the execution of restoring the city. Num 2:18. The people co-operate heartily with their enthusiastic leader in the reconstruction of the walls and gates, but the work is not completed without insidious and determined opposition. Sanballat was at the head of it. These enemies endeavored to overthrow Nehemiah by false charges of intended rebellion against the Persian supremacy, Neh 6:7-19, and to intimidate him, but all in vain.

The work of reconstruction accomplished, he re-established the religious customs of his fathers by bringing the Law into new esteem, Isa 8:3, and the reinstitution of the Sabbath, offerings, etc., Ezr 10:29, sqq. He also made special legislation for the government of the city.

Nehemiah administered the government of Jerusalem twelve years, Neh 5:14, and at the end of this period returned to Persia, where he remained for some time. Neh 13:6. During his absence most flagrant abuses crept in, which on his return he made it his first business to correct, especially the violation of the Sabbath and heathen marriages, Neh 13. By these means he restored his people, in some degree, to their former happy condition, and probably remained in power till his death, which it is supposed took place in Jerusalem. Few men in any age of the world have combined in themselves a more rigid adherence to duty, a sterner opposition to wrong, private or public, a more unswerving faith in God, or a purer patriotism, than Nehemiah.

Book of, is the sixteenth in the order of the books of the O.T. It may be regarded as a continuation of or supplement to the book of Ezra, which immediately precedes it. It is concerned with Nehemiah's great work of rebuilding Jerusalem and the reclamation of the customs and laws of Moses, which had fallen into desuetude. It gives the whole history of this movement in the circumstances which led to it, the elements of opposition which threatened to defeat it, and the complete success which crowned it. Incidentally we are admitted to a glance at the then condition, moral and political, of the Jews, at the growing bitterness between them and the Samaritans, and at some scenes in Assyrian life. The account of the walls and gates in Neh 3 is among the most valuable documents for the settlement of the topography of ancient Jerusalem. The registers and lists of names are also of value. Nehemiah is the author of the first seven chapters, and part of the twelfth and thirteenth. The change from the use of the first person to that of the third in the remaining chapters, and the fact that some names in the lists were not extant till after Nehemiah's death, point to some other hand as their author.

  1. One who returned in the first expedition from Babylon under Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:2; Neh 7:7.

  2. The son of Azbuk, who helped to repair the gates of Jerusalem. Neh 3:16.

NE'HILOTH, a word found at the beginning of the fifth Psalm. Its signification, "perforated," points to wind instruments, such as the flute. The title of the fifth Psalm may be thus translated: "A Psalm of David, addressed to the master of music, presiding over the flutes."

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NE'HUM (comfort), one who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 7:7; he is called Rehum in Ezr 2:2.

NEHUSH'TA (brass), mother of Jehoiachin. 2 Kgs 24:8.

NEHUSH'TAN (brazen thing), a name given by Hezekiah, king of Judah, 2 Kgs 18:4 to the brazen serpent that Moses had set up in the wilderness, Num 21:8, and which had been preserved by the Israelites to that time. Hezekiah caused it to be burned, because the people had come to regard it as an idol, "burning incense to it," and in derision gave it the name of "Nehushtan."

NE'IEL (treasured of God), a place which formed one of the landmarks of the boundary of Asher and Zebulun. Josh 19:27. It occurs between Jiphthah-el and Cabul. Neiel may possibly be represented by Mi'ar, a village conspicuously placed on a lofty mountain-brow just halfway between the two. Conder suggests Y'anin, 16 miles east of Caesarea, as the site of Neiel.

NEIGH'BOR. Luke 10:29. The Pharisees restricted the meaning of the word "neighbor" to those of their own nation or to their friends. But our Saviour informed them that all men were their neighbors, and illustrated the proposition in the parable of the Good Samaritan who helped the wounded Jew in spite of the bitter feeling existing between the Samaritans and the Jews.

NE'KEB (cavern), one of the towns on the boundary of Naphtali. Josh 19:33. It lay between Adami and Jabneel. The Palestine Fund "Memoirs" identify it with the ruin, Seiyadeh, 4 miles southwest of Tiberias.

NEKO'DA (distinguished), one whose descendants returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:48. They were not able to prove their Hebrew extraction. Ezr 2:59-60.

NEMU'EL (day of God).

  1. A Reubenite. Num 26:9.

  2. A son of Simeon. Num 26:12; 1 Chr 4:24; he is also called Jemuel in Gen 46:10 and Ex 6:15.

NEMU'ELITES, descendants of Nemuel, the son of Simeon. Num 26:12.

NE'PHEG (sprout).

  1. A brother of Korah. Ex 6:21.

  2. A son of David, born at Jerusalem. 2 Sam 5:15; 1 Chr 3:7; 1 Chr 14:6.

NEPH'EW, in the A.V., should always be understood "grandchild" or "descendant" generally, as was the old English usage. Job 18:19; Isa 14:22.

NE'PHISH, incorrect form of Naphish. 1 Chr 1:31; 1 Chr 5:19.

NEPHISH'ESIM, a corruption of Nephusim, which see. Neh 7:62.

NEPH'TALI, NEPH'THALIM, forms of "Naphtali." Matt 4:13, 2 Sam 20:15; Rev 7:6.

NEPH'TOAH (opening), THE WATER OF. The spring or source of the water of Nephtoah, was one of the landmarks between Judah and Benjamin. Josh 15:9; Josh 18:15. It has been located north-west of Jerusalem and identified with Ain Lifta, a spring situated a little distance above the village of the same name. But Conder makes it identical with Ain 'Atan, south-west of Bethlehem, and from whence an old aqueduct once led to the temple, and now at intervals supplies the Haram area at Jerusalem through Pilate's aqueduct.

NEPHU'SIM, NEPHISH'ESIM (expansions), some who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon. Ezr 2:50; Neh 7:52.

NER (light, lamp), father of Kish, and grandfather of Saul. 1 Chr 8:33. He is named, 1 Chr 9:36, as brother of Kish. This Kish was an uncle of the other. 1 Chr 9:39.

NE'REUS, a Christian at Rome. Rom 16:15.

NER'GAL (great hero), a deity of the Assyrians, and corresponding to Mars. 2 Kgs 17:30. Monuments have been found with his name and titles. (See cut p. 612.)

NER'GAL-SHARE'ZER (fire prince), the name of two Babylonian noblemen, Jer 39:3, 2 Kgs 11:13, who accompanied Nebuchadnezzar in his expedition against Zedekiah. One of these individuals is entitled Rab-mag. This designation probably means "chief of the magicians." He is generally identified with Neriglissar of profane history, who married Nebuchadnezzar's daughter, and ascended the throne two years after that monarch's death. A palace built by him has been discovered among the ruins of Babylon, and his name found on bricks.

NE'RI (lamp of Jehovah), one of the ancestors of our Lord. Luke 3:27.

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NERI'AH (lamp of Jehovah), the father of Baruch. Jer 32:12, etc.

NET. See Fish, Fishing.

NETHAN'EEL (given of God).

  1. A captain in the tribe of Issachar in the wilderness. Num 1:8; Neh 2:5; Isa 7:18; Josh 10:15.

  2. Fourth son of Jesse. 1 Chr 2:14.

  3. A priest in David's time. 1 Chr 15:24.

  4. A Levite. 1 Chr 24:6.

  5. A son of Obed-edom. 1 Chr 26:4.

  6. A prince in the reign of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:7.

  7. A Levite in the time of Josiah. 2 Chr 35:9.

  8. One of those who married strange wives in the time of Ezra. Ezr 10:22.

  9. A priest in the days of Joiakim. Neh 12:21.

  10. One who played on musical instruments at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 12:36.

NETHANI'AH (given of Jehovah).

  1. The son of Elishama, and of royal blood. 2 Kgs 25:23, 2 Kgs 25:25; Jer 40:8; Jer 41:9.

  2. A son of Asaph. 1 Chr 25:2, 1 Chr 25:12.

  3. A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:8.

  4. The father of Jehudi. Jer 36:14.

NETH'INIM. Ezr 2:43, Ps 57:58. The word signifies "given" or "dedicated persons." This class are mentioned prominently in Ezra and Nehemiah as returning from the Captivity and constituting an official order. "They are mentioned in association with the Levites and priests, as well as with the porters and singers. 1 Chr 9:2; Ezr 7:24. They had been appointed for the first time by David, as far as we know, to do service for the Levites. Ezr 8:20. Some were therefore associated with the temple-service and dwelt at Jerusalem. Neh 11:21. As in the case of the priests and Levites, "no toll, tribute, or custom" was exacted from them, Ezr 7:24. The service they performed was, no doubt, of a menial sort; still, their names were all carefully preserved. Ezr 8:20.

It has been thought by many that the Gibeonites, Josh 9:27, who were made to do menial service for the congregation, and also the fifty captive Midianites, Num 31:47, who were portioned off to the Levites, occupied a similar position to the Nethinim. The name, however, is of a later date.

NETO'PHAH (dropping), a town, apparently in Judah, the name of which occurs only in the catalogue of those who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity. Ezr 2:22; Neh 7:26; ??1 Esd. 5:18??. Netophah was really an old place. Two of David's guard, 1 Chr 27:13, 1 Chr 27:15, were Netophathites. The "villages of the Netophathites" were the residence of the Levites. 1 Chr 9:16. Levites who inhabited these villages were singers. Neh 12:28. From Neh 7:26, the town seems to have been in the neighborhood of, or closely connected with, Bethlehem. Van de Velde suggests Antubeh, 2 miles north-east of Bethlehem, as the site of Netophah, The Palestine Memoirs note ruins north-east of Bethlehem that were called Metoba or Usum Toba, probably the same as Antubeh of Van de Velde, and Conder identifies them as ancient Netophah.

NETOPH'ATHITE, an inhabitant of Netophah. 2 Sam 23:28; 2 Kgs 25:23.

NET'TLES, well-known wild plants, the leaves of which are armed with stings connected with a small bag of poison; and when the leaves are pressed by the hand, the stings penetrate the flesh and produce a swelling with a sharp, burning pain. Those who grope among the ruins of Palestine are often made to know that these weeds still abound there. The presence of nettles betokens a waste and neglected soil; hence the figure in Isa 34:13; Hos 9:6. The word rendered "nettles" in Job 30:7; Prov 24:31; Zeph 2:9 is supposed to refer to a different species of nettles, or to some shrub of similar properties, else it could not afford shelter. Tristram believes this plant to have been the formidable prickly acanthus.

NEW MOON. 1 Sam 20:5. See Moon, Feasts, Month.

NEW TES'TAMENT. See Bible.

NEW YEAR. See Trumpets, Feast of.

NEZI'AH (famous), one whose children were Nethinim and returned from the Captivity to Jerusalem. Ezr 2:54 ;Neh 7:56.

NE'ZIB (statue), a city of Judah, Josh 15:43 in the lowland, one of 608 the same group "with Keilah and Mareshah. Eusebius and Jerome place it on the road between Eleutheropolis and Hebron, 7 or 9 miles from the former, and there it still stands under the almost identical name of Beit Nusib, a small hamlet. The ruins are of considerable extent, consisting of massive foundations, broken columns, large building-stones, and a grand tower 60 feet square.

NIB'HAZ(barker), an idol-god of the Avites. 2 Kgs 17:31. The name being derived from a word meaning "to bark," it is supposed that the god was represented by the figure of a dog. It would therefore be allied to Anubis of the Egyptians. A large figure of a dog was found on the road from Beirout to Tripolis.

NIB'SHAN (light, soft soil), one of the six cities in the "Midbar," or wilderness of Judah. Josh 15:62. It was apparently near En-gedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Its site is unknown.

NICA'NOR (conqueror), one of the first seven deacons appointed by the early Church. Acts 6:5.

NICODE'MUS (victor of the people), a ruler of the Jews, and a distinguished member of the sect of the Pharisees, whose conversation with the Messiah, as recorded in John 3, reveals one of the grand doctrines of the Christian system - viz., regeneration by the Spirit of God. On this occasion he betrayed himself as a timid disciple, or as one just seeking after the truth, for he came to Christ under the cover of darkness. Later he defends Christ against the bitter injustice of the Pharisees, John 7:50, and finally he appears as a professed follower, helping in the sepulture of the crucified Lord. John 19:89.

NICOLA'ITANS, an ancient sect whose deeds are expressly and strongly reprobated. Rev 2:6, 2 Sam 20:15. Some have supposed that they were the followers of Nicolas, Acts 6:5, one of the first deacons of the church, whom they regard as having degenerated from the true faith. For this view there is no authority. Others regard the term "Nicolaitans" as a symbolical expression. Since "Nicolas" means "victor of the people," and "Balaam" "devourer of the people," the two. in symbolical unity, signify religious seducers of the people. It is more probable that the Nicolaitans were identical with those who held the doctrine of Balaam, mentioned in Rev 2:14. Cf. 2 Pet 2:15. So, likely, the Nicolaitans associated fornication and the eating of things sacrificed to idols with an outward profession of Christianity.

NICOLAS (victor of the people), one of the deacons of the church at Jerusalem in the days of the apostles. Acts 6:5. He was a native of Antioch, converted to Judaism, and thence to Christianity.

NICOP'OLIS (city of victory), the city where Paul determined to winter. Tit 3:12. There has been some uncertainty in respect to the city intended, as there were four of this name in Asia, five in Europe, and one in Africa. It must have been one of three cities: (1) Nicopolis in Thrace; (2) in Cilicia; or (8) in Epirus. The subscription to the Epistle to Titus calls it "Nicopolis of Macedonia" - i.e., Thrace. This subscription, however, is no part of the inspired text, and there is little doubt that the view of Jerome is correct, which identifies the Pauline Nicopolis with the noted city of that name in Epirus. It was built by Augustus Caesar to commemorate his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Aetium, b.c. 31. Its modern name is Paleoprevesa, or "old Prevesa." The place has extensive ruins of temples, theatres, aqueducts, and a small building in the form of a pagan temple, which tradition says was used by Paul as a house of prayer. Some suppose that Paul was arrested here, and taken to Rome for his final trial.

NI'GER (black), a surname of Simeon. Acts 13:1.

NIGHT, one division of the twenty four hours composing a day. It includes the period of darkness, Gen 1:5, and was divided from the day by "lights in the firmament." Gen 1:14. Figuratively, it has been taken to designate death, John 9:4, and sin, 1 Thess 5:5. In the beautiful passage, "There shall be no night there," Rev 21:25; Rev 22:5, the meaning is that heaven is a place where no sorrow or sin or death finds entrance.

NIGHT-HAWK, a species of bird unclean by the Levitical law, Lev 11:16, but not the bird known to us by this 609 name. The translators supposed that the common night-jar (Caprimulgus) was the bird alluded to by the Hebrew tachmas, but probably the screech-owl (Strix flammea), which lodges in the large buildings or ruins of Egypt and Syria, and sometimes even in the dwelling-houses, is intended. See Owl.

The Night-jar (Caprimulgus).

NILE (blue, dark), the great river of Egypt and of Africa, and probably the second longest river in the world, its entire length being estimated at 4000 miles. The word "Nile" does not occur in Scripture, but the river is frequently referred to as Sihor or Shihor, which means "black" or "turbid" stream. Josh 13:3; Isa 23:3; Jer 2:18; 1 Chr 13:5. It is also designated simply "the river," Gen 41:1; Ex 1:22; Num 2:3, 1 Chr 6:5, and the "flood of Egypt." Am 8:8; Neh 9:5. In the plural form this word year, rendered "river," frequently refers to the branches and canals of the Nile. This famous river is connected with the earliest history of the Egyptian and the Israelitish nations. Ex 2:3; Ex 7:20-21; Num 11:5; Ps 105:29; Jer 46:7-8; Zech 14:17-18. The Nile is not named in the N.T.

Physical Features. - The discovery of the true source of the Nile, and the reason for its annual overflow, are two scientific problems which have been discussed for upward of 2000 years. The course of the stream is now known for about 3300 miles, and with two interruptions - the cataract of Syene (Assouan) and the Upper Cataract - it is claimed by Baedeker's Handbook on Lower Egypt to be navigable throughout nearly the whole of that distance. But as there are many other cataracts, this statement cannot be correct. The principal stream is now known to be the White Nile, while the Blue or Black Nile is of greater importance in contributing to the annual inundation of the lower river. The two streams unite at the town of Khartoom, the capital of Nubia, and from this point to the mouths of the stream at Damietta and Rosetta, upward of 1800 miles, it falls 1240 feet, and attains its greatest width a little below Khartoom and a little above Cairo, at each of which places it is about 1100 yards wide. The source of the White Nile is doubtless Lake Victoria Nyanza, the largest part of which lies south of the equator, and from 3000 to 4000 feet above the level of the sea. The White Nile is so named from the color of the clay with which its waters are stained. The Blue Nile resembles a mountain-torrent, being liable to rise suddenly with the Abyssinian rains and 610 sweep away whatever it encounters in its rapidly-descending course. The source of the Blue Nile is high up in the Abyssinian mountains, from 6000 to 10,000 feet above the sea-level, and in springs which are regarded with superstitious veneration by the neighboring people. The river causes what would be otherwise a barren valley to be one of the most fertile regions in the world. Hence, Herodotus justly calls Egypt "an acquired country and the gift of the Nile." The waters of the Nile now empty into the sea through two streams, known as the Damietta and the Rosetta mouths; ancient writers, however, mention at least seven branches or mouths through which the Nile found its way to the sea. There is the strongest proof that the Nile has filled up the sea for many miles to the north, and that its ancient mouths were several miles farther south. It has been ascertained that within the last half century the mouth of the Nile has advanced northward 4 miles, and the maps of Ptolemy, of the second and third centuries of the Christian era, show that the mouth was then about 40 miles farther south than at present. Hence, at this rate of deposit, the sea-coast, in the earlier history of ancient Egypt, must have been nearly as far south as its ancient capital, Memphis. As rain seldom falls in Egypt proper, the fertility of "the country is entirely dependent upon the annual rise of the Nile. This usually begins in June and continues until near the end of September, the river remaining stationary for two or more weeks, and then attaining its highest level in October, when it begins to subside. "The height of the inundation most favorable for agriculture at the present day has been ascertained by long observation to be 23 cubits 2 inches - i.e., about 41 feet 2 inches, the cubit being 21 inches - while in the time of Herodotus 16 cubits sufficed; and the god of the Nile in the Vatican is therefore represented as surrounded by sixteen children. A single cubit more is apt to cause terrible devastation in the Delta, and elsewhere cover the fields destined for the autumn crop, while a deficiency of 2 cubits causes drought and famine in Upper Egypt," (See Baedeker's Lower Egypt.)

The successive years of famine in the days of Joseph were doubtless due to a deficient overflow of the Nile for those years. Formerly this annual inundation turned Egypt into a vast lake, but in later times the water has been distributed by a great network of canals, from which the huge basins of cultivated land into which the canals divide the country, are supplied with water of the depth required to leave a deposit of mud to fertilize the land. The native uses his feet to regulate the flow of water into each of the squares or basins of land, and by a dexterous movement of his toes forms or removes a tiny embankment, as may be required to admit the proper flow of water. Another common mode is to use

The Shadoof.

the "shadoof," a bucket attached to a long pole hung on a pivot, balanced by a stone or a lump of clay at one end, and having the bucket on the other end. To this day the Nile is lined for hundreds of miles with these shadoofs, worked by men, women, and children, who lift the water out of the river to irrigate their 611 fields. Both these methods are believed to be very ancient, and may be alluded to by Moses in contrasting the fountains and rainfalls in Palestine with the absence of this supply in Egypt: "For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot as a garden of herbs." Deut 11:10-11. A number of festivals were celebrated in connection with the annual rise of the Nile, which appear from the monuments to have been common as early as the fourteenth

The Nilometer.

century b.c. The height of the Nile was measured by the Nilometer, a square well having in its centre an octagonal column, on which were inscribed the ancient Arabic measures and Cufic inscriptions. This was erected in a.d. 716, and was used to determine the height of the overflow, upon which was based the rate of taxation. The government, however, cheated the poor people by false statements of the overflow, indicated by this measurement.

The ancient Egyptians worshipped the river Nile as a god. Two of the ten plagues sent upon Pharaoh and Egypt before the departure of the Israelites were turning the water of the Nile into blood and bringing forth frogs from the river. Ex 7:15-25; Ex 8:3-7. The papyrus reeds - whence paper is designated - the flags, the lotus, and the various colored flowers formerly beautifying the banks of the river have nearly all disappeared, thus fulfilling prophecy. Isa 19:6-7. This river, so intimately associated with the early history of the human race, is a favorite resort for tourists, who can go in steamers as far as the First Cataract, near Assouan (Syene), where were the great quarries which supplied stone for ancient Egyptian monuments, and from Phiae up to Aboo-Simbel and the Second Cataract. The Nile voyage, broken by donkey rides and visits to the pyramids, tombs, and ruins of temples and palaces of the Pharaohs, is one of the greatest enjoyments and best recreations of body and mind.

NIM'RAH (limpid, pure), a city of Gad east of the Jordan; noticed only in Num 32:3, and probably identical with Beth-nimrah. Num 32:36. Its site may be on the hill of Nimrin, about 3 miles east of the Jordan and 10 miles north of the Dead Sea, where are some ruins.

NIM'RIM (limpid, pure). The word "Nimrim," plural of "Nimrah," is probably from the obsolete root, ??noemar??, "to be limpid or pure." "The waters of Nimrim " was a stream or brook in the territory of Moab, referred to by Isaiah and Jeremiah. Isa 15:6; Jer 48:34; comp. Num 32:3, Eze 23:36. There are copious springs near Nimrah, and Porter, Conder, and Baedeker would locate the waters of Nimrim in its vicinity. Dr. Merrill regards it as the largest stream east of the Jordan and south of the Zerka, Wady N'mirah, at the southeast corner of the Dead Sea, has been claimed as the "waters of Nimrim," but the stream is small and the name has a different signification. Perhaps the "brook of the willows," Isa 15:7, may be in that region.

NIM'ROD (firm, strong), the son of Cush and grandson of Ham. Gen 10:8. He is described as having been a "mighty hunter before the Lord," and was thus pre-eminent in the chase, a pursuit practised very early in the history of the race. He, however, was also a great conqueror, "a mighty one in the earth," and founded the classical and most ancient kingdom of Babylon, 612 and built the city of that name and others. Gen 10:10.

The territory and kingdom of Babylon was long known, after the name of its first hero, as the land of Nimrod Mic 6:6.

NIM'SHI (drawn out, saved), the father of Jehu, the king. 1 Kgs 19:16; 2 Kgs 9:2, 2 Kgs 9:14; 2 Chr 22:7.

NIN'EVEH (perhaps dwelling of Nin), the capital and greatest city of Assyria.

Situation. - The city was founded by Asshur, Gen 10:11, and was situated on the eastern bank of the river Tigris, opposite the modern town of Mosul. It was about 250 miles in a direct line north of the rival city of Babylon, and not far from 550 miles north-west of the Persian Gulf.

Extent. - Assyrian scholars are not agreed in respect to the size of this ancient city. Some, as Layard, regard it as covering a large parallelogram, whose sides were each from 18 to 20 miles long, and the ends 12 to 14 miles wide. This view would include the ruins now known as Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Keremles. Diodorus Siculus makes the circumference of the city 55 miles, including pastures and pleasure-grounds. See article Assyria, p. 82. This view of the great extent of the city is, on the other hand, sharply disputed by Rawlinson, who thinks it highly improbable that this ancient city should have had an area about ten times that of London. He would reject it on two grounds, the one historical and the other topographical. He maintains that the ruins of Khorsabad, Keremles, Nimrud, and Kouyunjik bear on their bricks distinct local titles, and that these titles are found attaching to distant cities in the historical inscriptions. According to his view, Nimrud would be identified with Calah, and Khorsabad with Dur-sargina, or "the city of Sargon." He further claims that Assyrian writers do not consider these places to be parts of Nineveh, but distinct and separate cities; that Calah was for a long time the capital, while Nineveh was a provincial town; that Dur-sargina was built by Sargon - not at Nineveh, but near Nineveh; and that Scripture similarly distinguishes Calah as a place separate from Nineveh, and so far from it that there was room for a great city between them. See Gen 10:12. He also suggests that a smaller city in extent would answer the requirements of the description in the book of Jonah, which makes it a city of "three days' journey." Jon 3:3. He would limit its extent, therefore, to the ruins immediately opposite Mosul, including two principal mounds, known as Nebi-Yunus and Kouyunjik. The latter mound, which lies about half a mile north-west of the former, is the larger of the two. In shape it is an irregular oval, the sides, sloping at a steep angle, furrowed with numerous ravines, worn out by the rains of thirty centuries. The greatest height of the mound is about 95 feet, and it is estimated to cover an area of 100 acres. The other mound, Nebi-Yunus, is triangular in shape, loftier in height, with more precipitous sides than the other mound, and covers an area of about 40 acres. The reputed tomb of Jonah is on the western side of the mound, while the eastern portion forms a burial-ground for Mohammedans.

Nergal's Emblem, the Man-Lion.

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From Fairbairn.

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History. - As already stated, Nineveh was founded by Asshur, or, as the marginal reading of Gen 10:11 states, Nimrod. When Nineveh became the capital of Assyria is not definitely known, but it is generally believed it was during the reign of Sennacherib. The prophecies of the books of Jonah and Nahum are chiefly directed against this city. The latter prophet indicates the mode of its capture. Nah 1:8; Am 2:6, Deut 2:8; Nah 3:18. Nineveh was the capital of Assyria during the height of the grandeur of that empire, and in the time of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Assurbanipal. It was besieged for two years by the combined forces of the Medes and Babylonians, was captured, and finally destroyed b.c. 606.

Ruins. -According to George Smith, Nineveh is now represented by the mounds of Kouyunjik or Telarmush, Nebi-Yunus, and some surrounding remains. The circuit of the walls, including these ruins, measures about 8 miles. The palace-mounds are on the side next to the river Tigris. Excavations have been made by M. Botta, Layard, Hormuzd Rassam, Loftus, and George Smith. They have brought to light, among others, the following noted buildings: (1) Three ruined temples, built and restored by many kings in different ages; (2) the palace of Shalmaneser, as improved by subsequent rulers; (3) a palace of another ruler, restored by Sennacherib and Esarhaddon: (4) a palace of Tiglath-pileser II.; (5) a temple of Nebo:(6j the south-west palace of Sennacherib; (7) the north-west palace of the same ruler; (8) the city walls built by the latter king and restored by Assurbanipal. For further accounts see Assyria and George Smith's Assyrian Discoveries (N.Y., 1875).

NIN'EVITES, the inhabitants of Nineveh. Luke 11:30.

NI'SAN. Neh 2:1. See Month.

NIS'ROCH (great eagle?), an Assyrian deity in whose temple at Nineveh Sennacherib was murdered by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer. 2 Kgs 19:37; Isa 37:38. The etymology of the name, even the Shemitic origin of the word, is doubtful, and nothing definite is known of this deity. Some suppose him to be represented in the Assyrian tablets by a human form with the wings and head of an eagle. Others suggest that the word refers to Noah's dove, which had been made an object of worship.

Nisroch. (After Layard.)

NI'TRE, an earthy alkaline salt, resembling and used like soap, which, separating from the bottom of the lake Natron, in Egypt, and rising to the top, is condensed by the heat of the sun into a dry and hard substance similar to the Smyrna soap, and is the soda of common earth. It is found in many other parts of the East. Vinegar has no effect upon common nitre, and of course this could not be meant by the wise man, who in Prov 25:20 says, "As he that taketh away a garment in cold weather, and as vinegar upon nitre, so is he that singeth songs to a heavy heart." Now, as vinegar has no effect upon nitre, but upon natron or soda its action is very obvious, it seems the English translation should have been "natron." In Jer 2:22 the same word again is improperly used: "For though thou wash thee with nitre, and take thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me, saith the Lord God." The alkaline earth natron is obviously designed in this passage. It is found as an impure carbonate of soda on the surface of the earth in Egypt and Syria, and is also native in some parts of Africa in hard strata or masses, and is called trona being used for the same purposes as the barilla of commerce.

NO. See No-amon.

NOADI'AH (whom Jehovah meets).

  1. A Levite. Ezr 8:33.

  2. A prophetess upon whom Nehemiah invoked the vengeance of God for her

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attempt to hinder him in his work of reconstruction. Neh 6:14.

NO'AH (rest), an eminent patriarch, and the ninth in descent from Adam. Gen 6:8. He is described as a "just and perfect" man who "walked with God," Gen 6:9, as a "preacher of righteousness," 2 Pet 2:5, and has a place in the catalogues of those who were eminent for their faith. Heb 11:7. Noah is the second father of the human race, all the families of the earth being in a direct line of descent from him.

The life of this patriarch was cast in times of such unusual violence and wickedness that the Almighty determined to destroy the agents in order thereby to purify the world. Gen 6:13. This he accomplished by visiting the earth with a deluge, which submerged in its waters all the human family, Gen 9:11, except eight persons. God revealed his design to Noah a full century before its execution, and commanded him to construct an ark. See Ark. This preacher of righteousness during this period warned his contemporaries and exhorted them to repent. At the end of this time Noah went into the ark with his wife and his three sons and their wives. By commandment of God he also took with him of the clean and unclean animals of the earth. These alone were saved. All the rest in "whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land died." The waters prevailed upon the earth one hundred and fifty days, Gen 7:24, at the end of which time a wind from God dried them up, and the ark rested upon the " mountains " of Ararat. See Ararat.

The first thing Noah did upon leaving the ark was to offer up on an altar which he built a sacrifice that proved to be well-pleasing to God. Gen 8:20. He thereupon received the promise that no more should such a widespread destruction of the human race occur, and as a pledge of this covenant God appointed the rainbow. Its appearance was thereafter to remind men of the divine promise. Two commandments were also given to Noah. The one referred to the meat of strangled animals or animals dying a natural death: this he was forbidden to eat. The other referred to murder, which was to be punished by the death of the murderer. Gen 9:1-7.

The last incident narrated of this eminent man betrays his weakness. He had planted a vineyard, and, drinking to excess, he on one occasion exposed his shame. Ham, seeing his father's nakedness, informed his brothers, who, however, with becoming modesty, refused to look upon their father in this condition. On arousing from his debauch the father uttered a curse upon the head of Canaan, Ham's son, and uttered a special blessing upon Japheth. Gen 9:20-27. Noah was 950 years old at the time of his death. Our Lord illustrates the suddenness of his second coming and the wickedness of the world by the circumstances prior to the Flood. Matt 24:32, Acts 7:38.

NO'AH (motion), one of the five daughters of Zelophehad. Num 26:33; Deut 27:1; Isa 36:11; Josh 17:3.

NO-A'MON (place of Amon ?), a populous and celebrated city of Egypt, and the capital of Upper Egypt, named after the god Amon, and called by the Greeks Diospolis, or "city of Zeus," but better known by the name of "Thebes." It was situated on both sides of the Nile, from 400 to 500 miles from its mouth. The only mention of the city in the Bible occurs in the prophecies. It is called No, Eze 30:14-16; Jer 46:25, and, margin, No-amon, rendered "populous No." Nah 3:8.

The Nile valley at Thebes, resembles a vast amphitheatre, enclosed by the grand forms of the Arabian and Libyan mountains, the river running through nearly the centre of this space. The area surrounded by these mountain bulwarks is filled with ruins - avenues of sphinxes and statues, miles in length, at the end of which were massive columnal structures, the entrances to immense temples and palaces, and colossal images of the ancient Pharaohs, relics of regal magnificence so extensive and stupendous that the beholder might well imagine all the grandest ruins of the Old World had been brought together on this Theban plain. The extent of the city has been variously given by historians. According to Strabo, it covered an area 5 miles in length and 3 miles in breadth, and Diodorus makes its circuit about the same. Wilkinson also infers from its ruins that its length must have 616 been about 5 1/4 miles and its breadth 3 miles. Others suppose that the ancient city of Thebes, or No-amon, included the three sites of Luxor, Karnak, and Thebes, and that in the days of its glory, from b.c. 1600 to b.c. 800, it stretched

Colossi: the Vocal Memnon of Thebes.

about 33 miles on both banks of the Nile. Certainly the ruins testify to a city of great splendor, whose buildings, palaces, and monuments were among the most imposing in the world. The temples, tombs, and palaces have been described under the article Egypt. The two colossi, or immense statues, before the destroyed temple of Amenophis III., are still standing, partially buried in the sand and considerably mutilated. They are, however, yet some 60 feet high, and one of them is the "vocal Memnon," so celebrated for the musical sound which it is reputed to have given forth, when touched by the morning beams of the rising sun, as a greeting of Amenophis to his mother, Aurora. One of the obelisks of Luxor, or Thebes, was transported to France in the reign of Louis Philippe, and now stands in the Place de la Concorde in Paris. The grandeur of Thebes during the period when it was the capital of Upper Egypt was well known to Homer, who speaks of its hundred gates and twenty thousand war-chariots, and Diodorus was informed that Sesostris took the field with 600,000 infantry, 24,000 horsemen, and 27,000 chariots. Thebes was captured and sacked by Sargon, probably in the reign of Hezekiah, Nah 3:8, 1 Kgs 16:10; was twice destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and by Assurbanipal, as predicted by Jeremiah, Jer 46:25-26; and was again burned by the Persian Cambyses, b.c. 525, and finally destroyed by Ptolemy X. Lathurus, b.c. 81.

NOB (height), a city of the priests in Benjamin, near Jerusalem. 1 Sam 22:19; Isa 10:32; Neh 11:31-32. In the time of Saul the tabernacle and the ark were probably at this place. 1 Sam 21:1, 1 Sam 21:4. The city was destroyed by Saul. 1 Sam 22:9-19. Van de Velde proposed to identify Nob with el-Inawiyeh, 1 1/2 miles northeast of Jerusalem, on the road to Anathoth, and this view is favored by Tristram, Baedeker, and Grove; but Jerusalem cannot be seen from that point, which is against this identification. Porter suggests a site about half a mile south of Tuleil el-Ful (Gibeah), where are ruins of cisterns, a tower, and large hewn stones - a site which commands a distant view of Zion. Conder, however, considers Nob and the Mizpeh of Jud 20:1; Josh 18:26; 1 Sam 7:15 as the same place, locating both at Nebi Samwil, about 4 miles from Jerusalem, where he finds traces of a court of the tabernacle. The site of Nob may be there, but that there should be any trace of the ancient tabernacle is exceedingly improbable. Moreover, Wilson questions the proposed identification of Conder, and would place its site on the hill Scopus; while another writer suggests that Nob is Almon under another name, and proposes to place it 1 mile north-east of Anathoth.

NO'BAH (barking), the conqueror of the city of Kenath. Num 32:42.

NO'BAH (barking), a, name of Kenath and the villages dependent on it, given by Nobah when he conquered the place. Num 32:42; Jud 8:11. It would appear to have retained the name for 200 years. It was about 48 miles east of the Sea of Galilee. See Kenath.

NO'BLEMAN, perhaps an officer in the court of Herod. He came to Christ to entreat him to heal his child, who was at the point of death. John 4:46-54. He believed Christ's words. 617 "Thy son liveth," and on returning home found his child restored.

NOD (flight), the region eastward of Eden, to which Cain fled from the presence of Jehovah. Gen 4:14, Ex 17:16. The Chaldee interpreters apply the term to Cain, and not to a land: "He dwelt a fugitive in the land."

NO'DAB (nobility), an Arab tribe against which the trans-Jordanic tribes waged war. 1 Chr 6:19. The other names associated with Nodab - Hagar Jetur, and Nephish - were sons of Ishmael, 1 Chr 1:31, which seems to point to Nodab's descent from Ishmael also.

NO'E, the same as Noah. Matt 24:37, etc.

NO'GAH (brightness), a son of David, born at Jerusalem. 1 Chr 3:7; 1 Chr 14:6.

NO'HAH (rest), the fourth son of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:2.

NOI'SOME (Old French noiser,"to hurt") is used in the A.V. in the sense of "baneful." Ps 91:3; Eze 14:21.

NON (fish). 1 Chr 7:27. See Nun.

NOPH, a city of Egypt. Isa 19:13; Jer 2:16; Eze 30:13, Eze 30:16; Hos 9:6. See Memphis.

NO'PHAH (blast), a town of Moab. Num 21:30. Ewald locates Nobah near Heshbon, and identifies it with Nophah. Canon Cook suggests that Nophah may be identical with Arneibah miles southeast of Medeba.

NOSE-JEWELS, mentioned in Isa 3:21, consisted of a ring of gold

Nose-Jewels worn in the East.

or other metal upon which jewels were strung. The nose-rings now worn by the lower classes in Egypt are from 1 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter, and are passed through the right nostril.

NOVICE. 1 Tim 3:6. The word in the Greek means "newly planted." Paul counsels that such persons should not be raised to the position of overseers or pastors, urging that they were liable to become proud and commit faults. There were necessarily many novices in the early church organizations.

NUM'BER. The following numbers were understood by the Hebrews to have a symbolical or representative significance:

  1. Three was deemed to have a peculiar mystic meaning. It is the number of the Deity (the Trinity), of the thrice repeated "Holy," Isa 6:3; of the threefold priestly blessing. Num 6:23-26; Daniel's three hours of prayer. Dan 6:10, etc.

  2. Four symbolizes the world or humanity. There are four winds, Eze 37:9, four beasts, Rev 4:6, and four living creatures with four faces, four wings, and four sides. Eze 1:5-10, etc.

  3. Five, the half of ten, as in Ex 22:1; Lev 22:14; Matt 25:2, etc. The Decalogue is divided into two tables, each containing five commandments.

  4. Seven, the union of three and four, is the number of the covenants between God and man. It implies perfection. The number occurs very frequently in connection with both holy things and things unholy; for example, the seven priests that carried seven trumpets seven times in front of the ark and around the walls of Jericho, Josh 6:4, the seven days in the week, the seven churches, Rev 1:4, the seven years of plenty in Egypt, Gen 41:26, the seven angels with seven golden vials. Rev 15:1; but also the seven heads and seven crowns of the dragon. Rev 12:3.

  5. Ten, the number of fingers (two hands), symbolizes harmony and completeness. It is the number of the fundamental commandments.

  6. Twelve, the multiple of three and four, is also a covenant number, like seven. Hence we have the twelve tribes, the twelve stones in the high priest's breastplate, Ex 28:21, twelve apostles, twelve gates in the New Jerusalem, etc.

  7. Forty, four multiplied by ten; as

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the forty days of our Lord's temptation, Matt 4, the forty years in the wilderness, etc.

  1. Seventy, seven multiplied by ten; as the seventy elders of Israel, Num 11:16, the seventy disciples of our Lord. Luke 10:1.

It is very difficult, if indeed at all possible, to get the exact and definite meaning of these numbers, and we must not carry the search too far. But that they had a special meaning for the Hebrews there can be little doubt. (Compare the extended and ingenious treatment of Lange, Com. on Revelation, pp. 14 sqq.)

NUMBERS, BOOK OF, the fourth book of Moses, and so called on account of the two censuses to which it refers. It gives some detached legal enactments and many valuable historical facts.

  1. In the first division, chs. 1-10:10, an account is given of the preparations for the departure from Sinai. In ch. 6 we have the, description of the Nazarite's vow.

  2. The second division, ch. 10:11-14, contains an account of the journey from Sinai to the borders of Canaan. In chs. 13 and 14 the spies are mentioned by name, and a most interesting description is given of their discoveries in Canaan, their return to the camp, and the treatment they received.

  3. The third division, chs. 15-19, gives various legal enactments and a few historical facts.

  4. The last division, chs. 20-36, contains an account of the events of the last year before crossing the Jordan. In ch. 20 we have the description of Moses smiting the rock and the notices of Miriam's and Aaron's deaths. In ch. 21 we have a picture of the discontentment and rebellion of the Israelites, their punishment through fiery serpents, and the simple remedy of a brazen serpent erected on a pole. Comp. John 3:14-15. Chs. 22-24 are concerned with Balaam, In ch. 32 the land east of the Jordan is assigned to Reuben and Gad, and in ch. 33 a list is given of the various stations in the wilderness.

NUN (fish), the father of Joshua, Ex 33:11; also called Non. 1 Chr 7:27.

NURSE. The position was one of much importance and honor. Rebekah's nurse accompanied her mistress to Canaan, and was buried with much mourning at Allon-bachuth. Gen 24:59; Gen 35:8. The tenderness of a nurse is not infrequently referred to. Isa 49:23; 1 Thess 2:7.

NUTS. Those mentioned in Gen 43:11 are doubtless pistachio-nuts, which were produced in Syria, but not in Egypt. The pistachio tree (Pistacia vera) resembles the sumac, to whose family it belongs. It is still cultivated in the Levant, and produces thin-shelled nuts resembling almonds, but smaller and with a green meat tasting like that of the walnut.

Pistachio -Nuts.

Another word translated "nuts" in Song 6:11 denotes what are known in our markets as "English walnuts," produced by a noble tree (Juglans regia) which is everywhere cultivated in the East.

NYM'PHAS (bridegroom), a member of the church of Laodicgea. Col 4:15.

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