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LA'ADAH (order), grandson of Judah 1 Chr 4:21.

LA'ADAN (put in order).

  1. An Ephraimite, ancestor of Joshua. 1 Chr 7:26.

  2. Son of Gershon. 1 Chr 23:7-9; 1 Chr 26:21. Elsewhere and in the margin called Libni.

LA'BAN (white), son of Bethuel, grandson of Nahor, grand-nephew of Abraham, brother of Rebekah, and father of Leah and Rachel. He lived in Haran, the old family home. There he hospitably received Abraham's servant, according to the custom of the country, as head of the house, and took the chief part in betrothing Rebekah to Isaac. Gen 24:29; Gen 25:20. To him Rebekah sent Jacob after their trick had angered Esau, Gen 27:43, Isaac adding the charge that his son was to take a wife of the daughters of Laban. Gen 28:2, 1 Chr 6:5. Laban cordially received him. Gen 29:5, 1 Kgs 16:10, and to gain his valuable services engaged him and allowed him to name his own wages. He asked for Rachel, and through love for her served seven years. At the end of that time Laban cheated him by giving him Leah, Heb 12:23, and afterward he gave him Rachel, for whom Jacob served seven years more. Acts 20:28. In the six additional years during which Jacob remained in Mesopotamia, he managed by artifice and shepherd's skill to transfer the best part of his uncle's flocks to himself. Gen 30. Then, through the jealousy of Laban, now in his old age, and the influence of his sons, and the estrangement of his daughters, and the anger of Jacob at being deceived, and at having his wages changed so often, there came an open rupture. While Laban was absent shearing sheep, Jacob, expecting to be plundered, stealthily fled toward Canaan with his family, and retinue, and flocks, and household goods. Gen 31. Laban followed in wrath and overtook the slow caravan among the mountains of Gilead, Gen 31:25, but God checked him from violence, Prov 31:24. He was again outwitted by Rachel in his search for the teraphim, Gen 31:34; but, after some sharp wrangling, and a falsehood as to the grounds of his displeasure, he and Jacob set up a stone and a cairn as a witness of the covenant proposed by Laban, and a boundary beyond which neither was to pass to harm the other, Gen 31:44; and Laban then took a loving farewell and went back to Mesopotamia, and appeared no more, being only referred to as the past history is brought up. Ex 32:4; Gen 46:18, Gen 46:25.

Laban appears first as showing a hearty hospitality, but later as having hardened into a tricky, grasping, unprincipled, harsh, selfish old man.

LA'BAN (white), perhaps Libnah, near the Elanitic gulf or the Arabah desert. Deut 1:1; Comp. Num 33:20.

LACE (Heb. twisted), the blue string that bound the breastplate to the ephod, Ex 28:28; the frontlet to the mitre, 2 Kgs 18:37; Ex 39:31. The same word is used for the cord that held the signet-ring. Gen 38:18, Gal 4:25 (trans, "bracelets"); for wires, Ex 39:3; for ribband. Num 15:38; for a chain (bound) to hold a cover, Num 19:15; for a thread of tow, Jud 16:9, and for a measuring-line. Eze 40:3.

LA'CHISH (invincible), a city of the Amorites, lying south of Jerusalem, and toward the border of Simeon. Josh 10:3. It was one of the Canaanitish cities which was subdued by Joshua and included in Judah; fortified by Jeroboam. 2 Chr 11:9. King Amaziah was killed there. 2 Kgs 14:19. Lachish was besieged by Sennacherib and perhaps taken. 2 Kgs 18:13-14; Isa 36:1-2. The siege is considered by some to be depicted on the slabs found in one of the chambers of the palace at Kouyunjik. Layard reads the cuneiform inscription thus: "Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish, — I give permission for its slaughter." Compare 2 Chr 32:1; 2 Kgs 19:8; Jer 34:7. It was a place of great strength, favorably situated upon the side of a hill. From Lachish had 506 been introduced into Jerusalem the idolatry of the ten tribes. Mic 1:13. Lachish was reoccupied after the Captivity. Neh 11:30. It has been identified

Plan of Lachish. (From the monuments. After Layard.)

with Um Lakis, but better with Tel el-Hesy.

LAD. The Hebrew word is used for a new-born infant, Ex 2:6; Jud 13:5, 1 Kgs 15:7; of a boy not full-grown, Gen 21:16; of a youth nearly twenty, Gen 41:12, and perhaps older, Jud 17:1; emphatically to express tender age, Jer 1:6; for a servant, Gen 37:2; Jud 7:10; of soldiers, 1 Kgs 20:15; of a young nation. Hos 11:1.

LAD'DER (Heb. a staircase, from the verb "to raise up"), the object seen by Jacob in his vision. Gen 28:12. The use of the word in other writers suggests that the patriarch saw mountains or rocks piled up as a staircase. It was a symbol of communion with heaven through Christ. See John 1:51.

LA'DY, the translation of two Hebrew words, one the feminine of "mighty man," and usually rendered "mistress," as distinguished from "servant." Gen 16:4, Isa 16:8-9; 2 Kgs 5:3; Ps 123:2; Prov 30:23; Isa 24:2. It is applied to Babylon as mistress of nations. Isa 47:5, Isa 47:7. The other word is rendered "ladies," Jud 5:29; Esth 1:18; "princess," 1 Kgs 11:3:Lam 1:1; Isa 49:23; "queens" (margin, "princesses"). In the N.T. it occurs in 2 John 5; as a title or perhaps a proper name, kuri'a.

LA'EL (of God), a Gershonite prince. Num 3:24.

LA'HAD (oppression), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:2.

LAHAI'ROI. See Beer-lahairoi.

LAH'MAM (provisions), a town of Judah, Josh 15:40; identified with el Lahm, 2 1/2 miles south of Beit Jibrin.

LAH'MI (warrior), brother of Goliath. 1 Chr 20:5.

LA'ISH (lion),father of Phaltiel, to whom Saul gave Michal, David's wife. 1 Sam 25:44;2 Sam 3:15.

LA'ISH, or LESH'EM. See Dan 2. The Laish mentioned in Isa 10:30 can hardly have been the same as Dan. The introduction in this connection of a place so distant, and, moreover, under its old half-forgotten name, would be very strange. Probably some small village, situated between Gallim and Anathoth; Wilton suggests el 'Aisaiiolyeh?, 2 miles north of Jerusalem.

LAKE. Luke 5:1. The principal lakes mentioned in the Bible are Tiberias or Gennesaret, the Salt or Dead Sea, and Merom. See those articles.

LA'KUM (way-stopper, fortress), a place situated on the boundary of Naphtali, between Jabneel and the Jordan. Josh 19:33.

LAMB. See Sheep.

LA'MECH (strong).

  1. Son of Methuselah, and father of Noah. Gen 5:25, 1 Chr 24:31; 1 Chr 1:3; Luke 3:36.

    1. The fifth descendant from Cain, the first polygamist, father of Jabal, Jubal, the inventor of musical instruments, and Tubal-cain, the worker of metals. He was the author of the earliest verses extant, in which he addresses his wives on account of having slain a man. Gen 4:18-24:

"Adah and Zillab, hear my voice;

Ye wives of Laraech, hearken unto my speech;

For I have slain a man for my wound,

And a young man for my bruise;


Truly, Cain shall be avenged sevenfold,

And Lamech seventy and sevenfold."

LAMENTA'TIONS OF JEREMI'AH. Contents. — The Lamentations are an elegiac poem on the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah by Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldees — a sort of funeral dirge of the theocratic state, yet not without hope of its future resurrection in a purer and better form. The book consists of five separate poems, each complete in itself. The first verse strikes the keynote, where Jerusalem, once a princess among cities, is personified as a lonely widow, weeping sorely in the night with none to comfort her, her very friends having become her enemies. Chs. 1 and 2 describe the calamities of the siege, its causes and destructive results. The long siege brought on the horrors of famine; the city was taken by storm, the temple was polluted, the priests who defended it were massacred, and it was then destroyed. The fortresses of Judah were thrown down; the chief of the people were carried into exile; under the rule of the foreigner the Sabbaths and solemn feasts were forgotten. Ch. 3 deplores the persecutions which Jeremiah suffered, and represents the lowest depth of sorrow, almost in the midnight darkness of despair, yet followed by the dawn of a better day. The fourth chapter laments the ruin and desolation of the city and temple and the misfortune of Zedekiah. The fifth chapter is a prayer for the Jews in their captivity.

The poetical form of this composition is a very elaborate alphabetical structure. The first four chapters are acrostics, like Ps. 25, 34, 37, 119, etc.— that is, every verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet in regular order. Chs. 1, 2, and 4 contain twenty-two verses each, according to the number of Hebrew letters. The third chapter has three successive verses beginning with the same letter, making sixty-six verses in all. The verses are nearly of the same length, and each has three nearly-balanced clauses. The fifth chapter is not acrostic, but contains the same number of verses as 1, 2, and 4. At first glance this artificial form may seem inconsistent with the subject and the spirit. It must be remembered, however, that the purpose of the author of the Lamentations was not simply to give an artistic representation of the grief of the Exile, but much more to give to the exiles a means of assuaging their grief; and for this purpose the peculiarly complicated form was of great advantage, its complications being so many aids to the memory. And, indeed, few sections of the O.T. have done their work more effectually than this. It has soothed the weary years of the Babylonian exile, and afterward kept up a lively remembrance of the days of the deepest humiliation. On the ninth day of the month of Ab (July) it was read, year by year, with fasting and weeping, to commemorate the national misery and the final deliverance.

Authorship. — The author is not named anywhere in the Bible, and the book is not quoted in the N. T.; but general tradition assigns the composition to Jeremiah, and this is the prevailing opinion to this day. A cavern is still pointed out in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, outside of the Damascus gate, to which he retired to write the book; it is now called the Grotto of Jeremiah, and is by some regarded as the true site of Calvary. But besides the old traditions, the general fitness of things also speaks for Jeremiah's authorship, and the objections which have been raised against it are not conclusive. See Jeremiah.

LAMP. The lights of the East are of various kinds; not only oil, but pitch, naphtha, and wax are used to maintain the flame. The wicks were generally made of cotton or of flax. According to rabbinical tradition, the wicks of the sacred lamps were made of the old linen garments of the priests. The form of Oriental lamps was fanciful, and often elegant. We have no descriptions of the forms specially used by the Hebrews, but they were probably not different from those used in Egypt and Western Asia. The materials of which lamps were made were baked clay, terra cotta, bronze, etc. The lamps of the Hebrews, it is probable, were suffered to burn all night, and this occasioned no great expense in a country so rich in oil. We are told that this was considered indispensable to the comfort of a family, and that the poorest people would rather deny themselves food than neglect it. The putting out of the light denoted the ruin and extinction of 508 the family and the desertion of the house. This gives force to the words in Job 18:5-6; John 21:17; Job 29:3:" The light of the wicked shall be put out; * * * light shall be dark in his tabernacle, and his candle shall be put out with him." "How oft is

Assyrian Terra-Cotta and Glass Lamps. (From British Museum.)

Chaldaean Lamps

Lamp with Christian Inscription.

the candle of the wicked put out." Jer 25:10-11: Prov 20:20. Also in Prov 13:9: "The light of the righteous rejoiceth, but the lamp of the wicked shall be put out;" and of the prudent wife, "Her candle goeth not out by night." Prov 31:18.

LANCE. Jer 50:42. See Armor.

LAN'CET, a javelin or light spear. 1 Kgs 18:28. But see Knife.

LAND'MARK. According to the ordinances given by Moses, the land, when conquered, was divided by lot and measurement among the tribes, families, and individuals of the nation. The lines separating one man's field from that of another were sometimes marked by rows of trees, but most often simply by a heap of stones at the corners. To remove these landmarks was easy enough, and hence the severe penalty incurred for doing it. Deut 19:14; Deut 27:17; Prov 23:10.

LANES were narrow streets where the poorer people lived. Luke 14:21.

LAN'GUAGE. Gen 2:20; Dan 11:1. It is generally supposed that Adam was endued with the power of speech and furnished with a language at his creation, and that it was sufficiently perfect and comprehensive for all the purposes of his being. This was the language of the whole earth for nearly 2000 years, or until about a century after the Flood. It was then that the Tower of Babel was erected, and God caused a confusion of languages — an event which forms the antitype of the speaking in tongues by the apostles at the first Pentecost. Some of the older divines supposed, without any good reason, that the Hebrew was the original language given by God to Adam, and that all the other languages resulting from the division and dispersion of mankind over the face of the earth are derived from that as the root. The modern science of comparative philology distinguishes three distinct families of languages — the Shemitic (to which the Hebrew belongs), the Indo-Germanic or Aryan (which includes the Greek), and the Turanian, For a brief account of the languages in which the Bible was written, see Bible.

LAN'TERNS, probably some kind of covered torch. John 18:3.

LAODICAE'A, the old city of Diospolis, the present village of Eski-hissar, stood on the banks of the Lycus, an affluent of the Meander, a few miles distant from Colosse and Hierapolis, in the Roman province of Asia, the present Asia Minor. By the Syrian king Seleucus II., Diospolis was enlarged and beautified, and from his wife, Laodice, it received its new name. Under the Roman rule it became a great commercial centre, situated as it was on the great route through Asia, and acquired great wealth. When, in the middle of the first century of our era, an earthquake destroyed Colosse, Hierapolis, and Laodicaea, the latter was rebuilt by its own inhabitants 509 without any aid from the Roman senate. A Christian church was early established here, probably from Ephesus, and to this church Paul sent a salutation when writing to the Colossians, Col 4:15; it is also mentioned in Rev 1:11; Num 3:14. From Col 4:16 it appears that Paul wrote a letter to the Laodicaians, but of this letter no certain account can be made; some think to recognize it in the Epistle to

Ruins of Laodicaea.

the Ephesians, which was a circular letter. The "Epistle to the Laodicaeans," so called, which exists only in Latin, is a literary forgery of late date, and compiled from the Galatians and Ephesians. The church of Laodicsea flourished for several centuries. In the fourth century an important council gathered here. The Mohammedans destroyed the city, and it is now only a heap of ruins around a small and miserable village.

LAODICAE'ANS, the inhabitants of Laodicaea. Col 4:16; Rev 3:14.

LAP, LAP'PETH. The Eastern people are accustomed to take up water in the hollow of the hand, and they do it with surprising agility, sitting on their heels with the face close over the water, and putting out the tongue to meet the water. The alertness of the men of Gideon was tested in this manner. Jud 7:5.

LAP'IDOTH (torches), the husband of the prophetess Deborah. Jud 4:4.

LAP'WING, doubtless the hoopoe, a bird so named from its call-note, of about the size of the thrush, and of singular appearance and ways. Lev 11:19.

Lapwing or Hoopoe.

It is abundant in Palestine and the warmer parts of the Old World, and is sometimes seen in England.


LASAE'A, a town of Crete, near Fair Haven, now in ruins, but identified without doubt. Acts 27:8.

LA'SHA (fissure), a place on the south-eastern boundary of Canaan, Gen 10:19; identified by earlier Christian writers as Callirhoe, situated near the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, and famous for its hot springs.

LASHA'RON (the plain), a district whose king was killed by Joshua. Josh 12:18; now Sarona, near Tabor.

LATCH'ET. Mark 1:7. See Clothes.

LAT'IN, Luke 23:38, LAT'IN VER'SIONS. See Bible.

LAT'TICE. 2 Kgs 1:2. See Dwellings.

LAUGH, LAUGH'TER. When these forms are used concerning God, as in Prov 1:26; Ps 2:4; Ps 37:13, they signify that he despises or pays no regard to the persons or subject.

LA'VER, a brazen vessel belonging to the tabernacle, and standing in the court, between the altar and the sacred tent. Ex 30:18, Ex 30:21. It contained

A Brazen Laver on Wheels.

water for the priests to wash their hands and feet before offering sacrifice, and probably also for washing the things offered. Its form is not described, but it was made from the brazen mirrors of the women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle court. Ex 38:8. In the temple of Solomon there were ten brazen layers on feet, 1 Kgs 7:27-39, five on each side of the court of priests which, were used for washing the animals to be sacrificed. 2 Chr 4:6. See Sea, The Molten.

LAW, THE. This term is applied in the N.T. to the old dispensation, in distinction from the new; the dispensation under the law in distinction from the dispensation under the gospel; the dispensation by Moses in distinction from the dispensation by Christ. John 1:17; Acts 25:8; Heb 10:1-18. But besides this its general sense, which is never entirely lost sight of by the writers of the N.T., the term refers more specially to the Mosaic legislation, including the moral, Matt 5:17, the ceremonial, Eph 2:15, and the political, but more especially the first. Sometimes St. Paul uses the word "law" (without the article) in a wider sense — of principle, rule of moral conduct — and speaks of the heathen as having such a law written on their conscience or being a law to themselves. Rom 2:14-15.

The moral law of the old dispensation, embodied in the ten commandments (the Decalogue), was promulgated with extraordinary solemnity on Mount Sinai by God himself, under the manifestation of his holy majesty, and recorded by his own finger on two tables of stone. Ex 19. Afterward it was preserved by the Jews in the ark of the covenant, in the holy of holies of the tabernacle and the temple, and, spreading from the Jews among other nations, it forms the indispensable and immovable foundation of all social order and well-being. For, though the Decalogue has the form of a law, it is what its history proves it to be — something more than mere rules of conduct. It is a revelation of the nature of God: "Ye shall be holy; for I the Lord your God am holy," Lev 19:2; and therefore Christ says, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets; I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." See Ten Commandments.

The ceremonial law, prescribing the forms of Hebrew worship, public and private, the modes and times of sacrifice, fast, purification, prayer, festivals, etc., rested on this moral law and formed a transition to the political or civil law. Many of its ordinances — for instance, those relating to diet and purification — had a social, a sanitary purpose besides their religious meaning. By this ceremonial 511 law the Hebrews were formed into a nation distinct from all other nations, and every single feature of the ritual served to remind them that they were the chosen people of God. Though God was certainly the God over all nations, he was by a special covenant the God of Israel. The ceremonial law was to the Jews an awful duty, and at the same time a magnificent promise. Its whole character was typical, prophetical. Its whole bearing pointed toward Christ, and when Christ came it was thereby fulfilled and abolished, for "we are not under the law but under grace." Rom 6:14-15; Acts 7:4, Song 4:6; Gal 3:13, Gal 4:25; 2 Sam 5:18.

The political or civil law of the Mosaic constitution, which made the Hebrews a people and founded a state, was, as all political or civil laws must be, simply the expression of a certain stage of historical development, and as such subject to the historical laws of growth, decay, and destruction. But this civil law was in perfect harmony with the moral and ceremonial law, and was formed throughout in accordance with the same principles — the principles of theocracy. Civil law is confined to certain relations between man and man. Nevertheless, at every point of the political order of the Hebrew state, a direct reference is made to God as the King. The basis of the whole system is the absolute sovereignty of God, and the principle according to which all the details are worked out is, first, the relation between each individual and God, and then the relation between individual and individual. This is evident, for instance, from the ordinances relating to property. In the Roman republic all land was held by the state; in the feudal monarchies of mediaeval Europe all land was held by the king: in the theocracy of the Hebrews all land belonged to Jehovah: "The land is mine, and ye are strangers and sojourners with me." Lev 25:23. Hence the payment of tithes, Lev 27:23-26; the offering of the first-fruits, Deut 26:1-10; the impossibility of alienating landed property, the ground reverting at the jubilee year to its original possessor, etc. But not only the land was the absolute property of Jehovah; also the persons of the Israelites belonged to him. Hence the dedication and ransom of the first-born, Ex 13:2-13; the payment of the half shekel at the numbering of the people" as a ransom for their souls to the Lord," Ex 30:11-16; the very limited power which a master held over Hebrew slaves. Lev 25:39-46. etc.

Though the law, in the widest sense of the word, denoting the whole Mosaic constitution, stands before us a wonderful system both with respect to completeness and with respect to consistency, it is nevertheless essential to its full understanding to remember that, just as it came itself to prepare the way for the gospel, it too has had its precursors and had the way prepared for it by the Abrahamic covenant and its promises. That, on the whole, much of the materials of the Mosaic legislation existed before the time of Moses may be inferred from the penalties against murder and adultery. Gen 9:6; Gen 38:24; from the Levirate law, Gen 38:8; from the distinction of clean and unclean animals, Gen 8:20; and from the probable observance of the Sabbath. Ex 16:23, Gen 1:27, 1 Chr 2:29: comp. Gen 2:3.

LAWYERS, among the Hebrews, were not pleaders before a court, but expounders of the law in the schools and synagogues; and it is even doubtful whether there was any difference at all between a lawyer and a scribe. Matt 22:35; Luke 10:25; comp. Mark 12:28


LAZ'ARUS, an abbreviation of ELEAZAR (whom God helps).

  1. A citizen of Bethany residing with his two sisters; of their household Christ was a frequent guest. He was raised from the grave by Christ in sight of the city of Jerusalem, in the presence of the family and a number of Jews, after he had been dead four days; and so incensed were the Jews at this that they sought to kill not only Christ, but even Lazarus. John 11; John 12:1-11.

  2. In the parable by which our Saviour illustrates the retributions of eternity one of the parties is named Lazarus, Luke 16:19-31; and it is from this character the Knights of St. Lazarus, an order half military and half monastic, founded in 1119, and specially destined to administer to the lepers, received their name. Also, lazaretto, or "hospital," and lazzarone, or "beggar," are derived from the name,


which shows that the parable must have made an extraordinarily deep impression on the mediaeval Church.

LEAD, a metal known to the ancients from a very early period, and alluded to in Ex 15:10 on account of its weight. It is mentioned several times in Scripture as entering into the process of purifying more precious metals, Jer 6:29; Eze 22:18, Ruth 4:20; for which purpose quicksilver is now used. The words of Job 19:24, "That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever!" refer to the custom of pouring molten lead into letters carved in the rock in order to make them more striking to the eye.

LEAF. Isa 64:6. The bright fresh color of the leaf of a tree or plant shows that it is richly nourished by a good soil. Hence the fresh leaf is often used in Scripture as a symbol of prosperity, Ps 1:3; Jer 17:8; Eze 47:12; the faded leaf as a symbol of decay. Job 13:25; Isa 1:30; Isa 64:6; Jer 8:13; Eze 17:9. Also other illustrations are derived from leaves. Lev 26:36; Isa 34:4; Dan 4:12, 2 Kgs 22:14, 2 Chr 11:21; Mark 13:28; Rev 22:2.

LE'AH (wearied), the eldest daughter of Laban, and married to Jacob by her father's deceit. Gen 29. She bore him six sons and one daughter, and died after he went down to Egypt, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah. Gen 49:31. She was aware of the greater affection which Jacob felt for her sister, and suffered thereby, Gen 29:21-25, Gen 29:31-35; Gen 30:1-25, but she was nevertheless heartily devoted to her husband.

LEAS'ING, lies, falsehood. Ps 4:2; Jud 5:6.

LEATH'ER was used by the Jews for clothing, Job 31:20; Heb 11:37; for covering, Ex 26:14; for girdles, 2 Kgs 1:8; Matt 3:4, etc.; but the trade of the tanner, probably learnt in Egypt, where it was highly developed, was not held in high esteem.

LEAV'EN, a ferment mixed with dough to make it light, or a piece of dough or bread thus mixed and used to lighten a larger mass. Ex 12:15. It makes a thorough change in the whole, and hence the force of the parable. Matt 13:33, by which the silent influence of the gospel on the heart of man is beautifully illustrated. And so also it figuratively denotes the influence of false and corrupt doctrines, Matt 16:6, as well as the evil passions of the depraved and unregenerate heart. 1 Cor 5:7-8. The Jews were forbidden to offer leaven and honey in the temple. Lev 2:11, and during the seven days of the Passover leaven was not even allowed to be found in their houses; whence the festival was often called the "feast of unleavened bread." Comp. 1 Cor 5:6.

LEB'ANA (white), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Neh 7:48.

LEB'ANON (exceeding white, viz., with snow, as Mont Blanc), a double mountain-range to the north of Palestine, consisting of a western chain, Lebanon proper, and an eastern, "Lebanon toward the sun-rising," Josh 13:5; or by classic writers, Anti-Libanus, and enclosing a valley from 5 to 8 miles broad — "the valley of Lebanon," Josh 11:17; or by classic writers, Coelo-Syria, the present El-Bukua, which connects to the north with the valley of the Orontes, and to the south with the valley of the Jordan. The western range, the Lebanon proper, begins on the north near the banks of the Eleutherus, which passes through the plain of Emesa, the "entrance of Hamath," Num 34:8, to the Mediterranean, and runs for a distance of 90 geographical miles, in the direction from north-east to south-west, parallel with the Mediterranean, to the banks of the Litany, the ancient Leontes, which, draining Coelo-Syria and breaking through the Lebanon by a wild gorge, enters the Mediterranean a few miles north of Tyre. The average height of this range is from 6000 to 8000 feet. Its highest peaks are Jebel Mukhmel, 10,200 feet, and Sannin, 9000 feet. The line of cultivation runs at an elevation of about 6000 feet. The peaks which pass beyond this line are generally barren and covered with small fragments of limestone, through which the naked rocks jut up in jagged points. The highest of them, however, are covered with perpetual snow and ice, towering aloft in their glittering magnificence, visible far off by sea and by land, and sending forth streams of cooled air over the scorched plains of Syria and Palestine. The eastern descent toward Coelo-Syria is steep, wild, often forbidding; but to 513

View of Lebanon from the Sea.

the west the Lebanon descends gradually through broad terraces to the Mediterranean, generally facing the sea with ranges of bold limestone cliffs. Everywhere broken by the sudden rise of high peaks of rock or rent by deep precipices and ravines, these terraces present a most romantic prospect, and the beauty of the country is still more enhanced by the salubrity of the air and the fertility of the soil; by the luxuriant vegetation which covers all forms; pine, oak, and Cedar (which see) on the peaks; mulberry and orange trees, figs, vines, corn, and melons on the slopes; olive and cotton trees in the valleys, besides a multitude of fragrant herbs and gorgeous flowers. "The smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon," Cant. Song 4:11. The eastern chain, the Anti-Lebanon, runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain of Emesa until, in the south, it connects with the hills of Galilee. Its highest point is Mount Hermon (which see). Its western descent toward Coelo-Syria is abrupt and steep; to the east it gradually sinks into the plains of the desert. Its general aspect is bleak and barren, the abode of wild beasts and birds of prey. From both ranges numerous rivers descend — the Eleutherus, Leontes, Jordan, Abana, and Pharpar (which see); and the cold-flowing waters of the springs and streams of Lebanon were and are still proverbial.

Lebanon, the land of which Moses said, "I pray thee let me go over and see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly mountain, and Lebanon," Deut 3:25, was in the oldest times inhabited by the Hivites and Giblites, Jud 3:3; Josh 13:5-6, of whom the latter built the city of Gebal, the Greek Byblus, the present Jebail. The land was assigned to the Israelites, but never conquered by them. Josh 13:2-6; Jud 3:1-3. It "stood under Phoenician rule. 1 Kgs 5:2-6; Ezr 3:7. In the times of David and Solomon, however, the Jews became quite intimately acquainted with the country, and the deep impression it made on them is apparent throughout the books of the O.T. Its cedars. Cant. Am 5:15, its wines, Hos 14:7, its cold waters, Jer 18:14, etc., are repeatedly mentioned, and from it the sacred writers very frequently take the materials for their most striking similes. Ps 72:16; Ps 29:5-6; Ps 104:16-18; Isa 35:2; Isa 60:13; Zech 11:1-2, etc. Anti-Lebanon stood under the rule of Damascus, though in the southern part several fierce tribes 514 remained independent up to a very late date. 1 Chr 5:19-23. When the whole region came under the sway of the Seleucidae, b.c. 312-65, several large and important cities were built here, such as Laodicaea, Chalcis, Abila, etc. (which see), and as a Roman province the prosperity of the country still increased, as the ruins of Chalcis and Baalbek show. Also, during the wars with the Saracens and Turks, it remained comparatively undisturbed, and it is now inhabited by some 200,000 or 300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses. In Anti-Lebanon, however, most of the inhabitants are Mohammedans, and the governor is a Turkish offcial of the common stamp; while the governor of Lebanon is a Christian, and his position is guaranteed by the powers of Europe.

LEB'AOTH (lionesses), a town belonging to the tribes of Judah; probably identical with Beth-Lebaoth or Beth-Birei. Josh 15:32 now Birek.

LEBBAE'US (hearty, courageous), one of the names of the apostle Jude, Matt 10:3.

LEBO'NAH (frankincense), the present El-Lubban, south of Nablous, is mentioned, Jud 21:19, as a place in the vicinity of Shiloh.

LE'CAH (walking, course) occurs only in the genealogies of Judah, 1 Chr 4:21, and possibly is the name of a town.

LEECH. See Horse-leech.

LEEK, a bulbous vegetable like the onion, a particular species of which has been cultivated in Egypt from a very early period. Num 11:5. It is eaten raw with bread. In the passage cited it is supposed that lettuce, salads, or savory herbs generally may be intended, as the original word in the O.T. is twelve times rendered '"grass" and once "herb."

LEES. "Wine on the lees," Isa 25:6, means well-preserved, full-bodied wine. "He hath settled on his lees," however, is used figuratively, Jer 48:11; Zeph 1:12, as an expression of sloth and indifference. To drink the lees or "dregs," Ps 75:8, denotes extreme suffering.

LE'GION, a band of soldiers in the Roman army, consisting of from 6000 to 7000 men; the ordinary number

Common Leek. (Allium porrum.)

was 6200 foot and 730 horse. In Matt 26:53, and also in Mark 5:9, 2 Sam 20:15, it means a large but indefinite number, and corresponds to the "hosts" of the 0.T. Gen 32:2; Ps 148:2.

LE'HABIM (fiery, flaming), Gen 10:13; 1 Chr 1:11, LU'BIM or LIB'YANO, Dan 11:43; 2 Chr 12:3; 2 Chr 16:8; Nah 3:9; is the name of a people which in the Egyptian inscriptions is called "Lebu," and in classic and modern literature "Libyans." They were of Hamitic descent, and inhabited the northern part of Africa, west of Egypt. At Carthage they were thrown back toward the interior by a Phoenician colony, at Cyrene by a Greek colony; and the country Libya became finally a part of the Roman empire. In the oldest times, however, the Libyans seem to have been allies rather than the subjects of the Egyptians.

LE'HI (Jawbone), a place in Judah, between the Philistine frontier and the cliff of Etam, where Samson slew the Philistines. Jud 15:9 ff.; possibly Beit Likia, or 'Ayun Kara.

LEM'UEL (dedicated to God), the name of the king to whom the counsels, contained in Prov 31:2-9 are addressed by his mother. The Rabbins identify Lemuel with Solomon; others consider the name a mere personification; nothing is known with certainty.

LEND, LEND'ER. See Loan.

LEN'TILES (Ervum lens), a cultivated 515 plant, smaller than the garden pea, but of the same family. In the markets of Palestine red lentiles are still sold as the best variety, and from them a pottage is made which Dr. Robinson

Lentiles. (Ervum lens.)

and others who have eaten it affirm would be a savory meal for a weary hunter. Gen 25:29-30. The "piece of ground full of lentiles," 2 Sam 23:11, is still common in the Holy Land, and the poor not infrequently make lentiles into bread. Eze 4:9. This pulse is much used in Roman Catholic countries during Lent, and from it the name

Leopard. (Felis leopardus.)

of the season is said to be derived. As a crop it is cut and threshed like wheat.

LEOP'ARD (Heb. spotted). In the Bible there Is frequent reference to this fierce animal, which still lurks among the forests of Gilead, the jungles of the Jordan, and more rarely among the thickets of Tabor and Carmel. Jer 13:23. The local names Nimrim, "leopard," and Beth-Nimrah, "house of the leopard" (perhaps) are to be remembered. Near the latter place Tristram saw the fresh footprints of these creatures, "clear and unmistakable, on the moist ooze." It is the habit of the leopard to wait patiently hour after hour that it may pounce upon cattle. Jer 5:6; Hos 13:7. Isa 11:6 alludes to its cruelty, and Dan 7:6 to its power. But it is thought there is reference under the same name in Hab 1:8 to the cheetah, a similar but smaller animal still found in Palestine, the rush of which upon its prey exceeds in swiftness the motion of any other carnivorous animal.

LEP'ER, Leprosy is a loathsome disease still prevalent in Egypt and Syria, and occurring also in India, China, the Crimea, and Norway. The bones and the marrow are pervaded with the disease, so that the joints of the hands and feet lose their power, the limbs of the body fall together, and the whole system assumes a most deformed and loathsome appearance. The progress and effect of the disease are described in Job 2:7-8, Jud 4:12; Esth 6:2 Job 7:3-5; Job 19:14-21.

There are two forms of the disease — the tuberculated, incrusting the whole person with ulcerous tubercles, and the anaesthetic, making the skin mummylike — but under both forms "Death lives," and the diseased is a "walking tomb," "a parable of death." There was also a milder form of the disease, the so-called "white leprosy," often attacking only one limb, and generally curable, as when "Moses' hand ivas leprous as snow." Ex 4:6. Notice also the cases of Miriam, Num 12:10; Gehazi, 2 Kgs 5:27; and Uzziah. 2 Chr 26:16-23.

Although the laws respecting this disease which we find in the Mosaic code are exceedingly rigid, it is by no means clear that the leprosy was considered contagious. The horror and 516 disgust which was felt toward a disease so foul and loathsome might be a sufficient reason for such severe enactments, and strict seclusion was at all events an effective means of arresting the progress of the disease by preventing intermarriage

Leprous Beggars.

between lepers and the sound. The leper was excluded from the tabernacle and the camp, and when he was healed his restoration to social intercourse with his fellow-men was twofold, performed both in the camp and in the tabernacle. Lev 14:3-32. A house for lepers was built outside Jerusalem on the hill of Gareb — i.e., "the hill of scraping," Jer 31:40;

Head of a Leper.

Job 2:8 — and the leper was compelled to wear mourning. Lev 13:45.

With respect to the leprosy of houses and of clothes, Lev 14:55, the expression is only analogical, referring to the spots and disfigurations which appeared upon the walls and articles of clothing, resembling the leprous spots, and originating from a species of mould or mildew, indicating a great degree of dampness, corrupting the air, injurious to health, and often the occasion and precursor of fatal diseases. The rites ordained for cleansing and purifying this kind of "leprosy" are in their symbolical bearing strictly analogous to the laws concerning leprosy proper. Lev 13:47-59; Lev 14:33-53.

LEP'ROSY. See Leper.

LES'BOS. Acts 20:14. See Mitylene.

LE'SHEM, an ancient form for LAISH, the original name of Dan (which see). Josh 19:47.

LET is used in the old sense "to hinder" in Ex 5:4; Isa 43:13; Rom 1:13; 2 Thess 2:7.

LE'THECH, occurring in the margin of Hos 3:2, is derived from a root signifying "to empty," "to pour out," and denotes a measure of grain — half a homer.

LET'TER. The letters mentioned, 2 Sam 11:14, 2 Kgs 10:1; Ezr 4:11, were in the form of rolls, not unlike those used in the East at the present day. Thus the Arabs roll up their letters, and then flatten them to the breadth of an inch and paste up the end instead of sealing them, and the Persians make up their letters in the form of rolls, about 6 inches long, and paste 517 a bit of paper around them with gum and seal them with an impression of ink. When sent to inferiors they were often

Part of a Turkish Firman.

sent open, Neh 6:5; but when sent to equals or superiors they were enclosed in a purse or bag. See Writing.

LETU'SHIM (sharpened, hammered), an Arabian tribe descended from Dedan, the son of Jokshan. Gen 25:3.

LEUM'MIM (peoples, nations), an Arabian tribe descended from Dedan, the son of Jokshan. Gen 25:3.

LE'VI (joining).

  1. The third son of Jacob and Leah, thus named by the mother because "now will my husband be joined unto me, because I have born him three sons." Gen 29:34. Together with Simeon he avenged the wrongs of their sister Dinah by slaying the Shechemites, Gen 34:25-31, but thereby he incurred the curse of Jacob. Gen 49:5-7. By the zeal, however, of his descendants on occasion of the golden calf, Ex 32:26-29, the curse was transformed into a blessing. He had three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, and died in Egypt 137 years old. Ex 6:16.

  2. Two of the ancestors of our Lord. Luke 3:24, 1 Chr 2:29.

  3. The original name of Matthew, the publican and afterward the apostle, son of Alpheeus. Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27, 1 Chr 2:29; Matt 9:9.

LEVI'ATHAN, the Hebrew name of an animal minutely described in Job 41, the monster of the water, as behemoth was of the land. Probably- the crocodile is here intended — a reptile which resembles the alligator, but is larger and more formidable, with narrower snout, and feet webbed to the end of the toes. "The whole head, back, and tail are covered with quadrangular horny plates or scales, which not only protect the body — a rifle-ball glancing off from them as from a rock — but also serve as ballast, enabling the creature to sink rapidly, on being disturbed, by

Leviathan. (Crocodilus Vulgaris. After Tristram.)

merely expelling the air from its lungs." — Tristram. It is believed that the crocodile was once abundant in the lower Nile to its mouth, but it is now rarely seen within the confines of Egypt. This reptile once abounded also in the Zerka or Crocodile River, which flows through 518 the Plain of Sharon, and doubtless in the Tigris.

The crocodile seems to be meant by the word "leviathan" in Ps 74:14; Isa 27:1. But in Ps 104:26 the word is evidently used for some sea-monster, perhaps the whale. Several large cetaceous animals are found in the Mediterranean.

LE'VITES. In analogy with the names of the other tribes of Israel, the term should mean all the descendants of Levi, the whole tribe of Levi, and in this sense it is used in Num 35:2; Josh 21:3, 1 Chr 4:41; Ex 6:25; Lev 25:32, etc. As, however, the "sons of Aaron" were separated from the rest of the descendants of Levi and consecrated priests, the term came to denote a distinction within the tribe itself; and the Levites comprised only those descendants of Levi who were not "sons of Aaron" — that is, priests. 1 Kgs 8:4; Ezr 2:70; John 1:19, etc. Sometimes, also, the term was used as an epithet — "the priests the Levites," Josh 3:3; Deut 17:18 — but its general acceptance was, and is, that of the second sense here given.

No allusion is made in Genesis to the consecrated character of the Levites. It was given on the occasion of the making of the golden calf by the Israelites while encamped about Mount Sinai. Ex 32:25-29. When Moses came down from the mountain and discovered the idol, he cried out: "Who is on the Lord's side? let him come unto me." The Levites immediately gathered around him, and in reward of their faithfulness on this occasion they were selected as the special servants of the Lord and the ministers of his sanctuary. Deut 10:8-9; Deut 18:1-2; Deut 33:8-11. Their number was at this time 22,000, and corresponded nearly to that of the first-born males of the whole people. Since the day when the first-born of Egypt were slain, while those of Israel were spared, all first-born males of Israel belonged to the Lord. They numbered 22,273, and in their place, as the special inheritance of Jehovah, the Levites were now substituted, the 273 surplus being redeemed at five shekels each, Num 3:45-51, which was the fixed ransom for a victim vowed in sacrifice. Num 18:16; Lev 27:6. Thus the Levites came to occupy in the Hebrew theocracy a position midway between the priests and the people. They were not allowed to offer sacrifice, to burn incense, to see the "holy things" until covered. Num 4:5, etc., but they marched nearer the ark than the people, they carried the sacred tent in parts, they pitched it again at halting-stations, etc. For service they were purified by bathing, shaving, etc., and consecrated by the imposition of hands. The duties of their office during the wanderings in the wilderness were minutely described. They consisted of three great families, the Kohathites, the Gershonites, and the Merarites, of which the first carried the sacred vessels, the second the hangings and curtains of the tabernacle, and the third the boards and pillars. They also kept the book of the Law, Deut 17:8-12, and served as judges, etc.

Forty-eight cities, with one thousand cubits of the country surrounding, were appropriated for the residence and maintenance of the Levites. These cities, of which thirteen were allotted to the priests and six were cities of refuge, were selected by lot, and lay scattered all over the country in the following way: in Judah and Simeon: Hebron or Kirjath-arba, Libnah, Jattir, Eshtemoa, Holon or Hilen, Debir, Ain or Ashan, Juttah, Beth-shemesh; in Benjamin: Gibeon, Geba, Anathoth, Almon or Alemeth; in Ephraim: Shechem, Gezer, Kibzaim or Jokmeam, Beth-horon; in Dan: Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Aijalon, Gath-rimmon; in Manasseh: Taanach or Aner, Gath-rimmon or Bileam, Golan, Beeshterah or Ashtaroth; in Issachar: Kishon or Kedesh, Dabareh or Daberath, Jarmuth or Ramoth, En-gannim or Anem; in Asher: Mishal or Mashal, Abdon, Helkath or Hukok, Rehob; in Naphtali: Kedesh, Hammoth-dor or Hammon, Kartan or Kirjathaim; in Zebulun: Jokneam, Kartah, Dimnah, Nahalal or Rimmon, and Tabor; in Reuben: Bezer, Jahazah or Jahzah, Kedemoth, Mephaath; in Gad: Ramoth, Mahanaim, Heshbon, and Jazer. Besides these cities, with adjacent districts, the Levites received a tithe of all produce, animal and vegetable, but of this they paid a tithe to the priests. Num 18:20-32. Another tithe they received every third year, and special provision was made for them during the term they administered in the sanctuary.

In the time of David their number had 519 increased to 38,000, of which 24,000 were set apart for the ordinary services, 6000 for the teaching of the Law and the administration of justice, 4000 as porters, and 4000 as musicians. They were divided into courses, and came up from their cities to the sanctuary in regular rotation. 1 Chr 23:24 1 Chr 24:20-31; 1 Chr 24:25-26. When the separation took place between the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judah, all the Levites gathered to Judah, 2 Chr 11:13-15, and they continued to play a conspicuous part in the destinies of this kingdom, under Jehoshaphat, 2 Chr 19:8-11; 2 Chr 20:14-28; Joash, 2 Chr 23:1-8; Hezekiah, 2 Chr 29:3-36; 2 Chr 30:21-22; 2 Chr 31:2-4; under Josiah. 2 Chr 34:12; 2 Chr 35:3-18, etc. After the Captivity, however, only a small number of them returned, Ezr 2:36-42; Ezr 3:10; Neh 6:18, but in the new organization they assumed their old positions. They settled in the villages near Jerusalem, received their old tithes, etc. Neh 10:37-39; Neh 12:29. In the N.T. they occur as representatives of a formal worship destitute of love. Luke 10:32. The distinction of Levite is still maintained among the Jews.

LEVIT'ICUS is the name of the third book of the Pentateuch, derived from its contents. Only the chapters 8-10 are history; the rest treats of the Levitical services — namely, chs. 1-7, the laws of offerings; 8-10, the consecration of Aaron and his family; 11-15, the laws concerning that which is clean and that which is unclean; 16, the atonement as the sum-total of all means of grace; 17-20, the separation of Israel from heathendom in food, marriage, etc.; 21, 22, the holiness of priests and offerings; 23, 24, the holiness of convocations, Sabbaths; 25, on redemption; 26, on repentance; 27, on vows.

The authenticity and integrity of this book are generally admitted, and the doubts which have been raised concerning its Mosaic authorship by some modern critics regard only minor points or passages. See Law and Pentateuch.

LEWD'NESS. This word, which occurs Acts 18:14, is not used there in its present common acceptation, but in the wider sense of "wicked" or "villany." See Rev. Version.

LIB'ERTINES, mentioned only in Acts 6:9, were Jews who, having been taken prisoners in the Syrian wars, were carried to Rome and reduced to slavery, but afterward emancipated. That their number was considerable is apparent from the fact that 4000 of them were banished from Rome in a.d. 19. In Jerusalem they had a synagogue, and there they came in collision with Stephen.

LIB'NAH (whiteness).

  1. The fifth station at which Israel encamped on their journey from Sinai; situated between Rimmon-parez and Rissah, Num 33:20-21, but not yet identified.

  2. A city of Canaan, in the lowland of Judah, was taken by Joshua, Josh 10:29-32,Gen 36:39; Jud 12:15, and assigned to the priests. Josh 15:42; Josh 21:13; 1 Chr 6:57; revolted against Joram, 2 Kgs 8:22; 2 Chr 21:10; was besieged by Sennacherib, 2 Kgs 19:8; Isa 37:8; and has been identified by some with Arak-el-Menshiyeh, and by others with Tell-es-Safieh.

LIB'NI (white).

  1. A Levite, eldest son of Gershon. Ex 6:17; Num 3:18; 1 Chr 6:17.

  2. A Levite, grandson of Merari. 1 Chr 6:29.

LIB'NITES, the descendants of Libni, the eldest son of Gershon. Num 3:21; Num 26:58.

LIB'YA, occurring only in Eze 30:5 and Acts 2:10, is the classic name of Northern Africa, west of Egypt. It was inhabited by a Hamitic race, spoken of in the O.T. under the name of Lehabim or Lubim, which see.

LICE. Ex 8:16. These parasitic insects are still a pest in the Nile valley. Herodotus tells us that the ancient Egyptians peculiarly abhorred such vermin, and were taught by their priests that contact with lice rendered them ceremonially unclean.

Some authorities have held that gnats were here intended, but there is less ground for this opinion than for that of Sir S. W. Baker (Nile Tributaries, p. 122), which the writer's own observation inclines him to favor: "The louse that infects the human body and hair has no connection whatever with 'dust,' and if subject to a few hours' exposure to the dry heat of the burning sand it would shrivel and die; but the tick is an inhabitant of the dust — a dry, horny insect without any apparent moisture in 520 its composition. It lives in hot sand and dust, where it cannot possibly obtain nourishment until some wretched animal should lie down upon the spot and become covered with these horrible vermin. I have frequently seen dry places so infested with these ticks that the ground was perfectly alive with them, and it would have been impossible to have rested on the earth; in such spots the passage in Exodus has frequently occurred to me as bearing reference to these vermin, which are the greatest enemies to man and beast." These ticks are much larger than lice. The body is ordinarily about the size of a small pea; the legs are long, and the creature runs rapidly.

LIEUTEN'ANTS, the general name of the satraps or viceroy's of the provinces of the Persian empire, Ezr 8:36; called princes in Dan 3:2; Gen 6:1, etc.

LIFE is used in Scripture both in a natural and in a spiritual sense. In the former it means physical life as opposed to death. Gen 2:7; Deut 25:7; Luke 16:25; Acts 17:25; and hence the expressions "tree of life," Gen 2:9; Gen 3:22; Rev 2:7; Rev 22:2; "bread of life," John 6:35, Jer 25:51; "water of life," Rev 22:1, 2 Sam 21:17, etc. In the latter it means moral conduct as opposed to mere animalism, and hence the identification of life with that which is good, Deut 30:15; John 3:16; John 5:24; Rom 5:12, etc., and of death with that which is evil. Jer 21:8; John 6:50; Rom 1:32.

LIGHT. By an easy transition from the physical to the moral sphere, light is used in Scripture in numerous figurative expressions imaging forth the mysteries of the spiritual world. Not only are cheerfulness, joy, intellectual clearness, moral truth, and divine blessedness repeatedly described as light, but the expression is also applied to the sources of these states; to men, John 5:35; Matt 4:16; to angels, 2 Cor 11:14; to Christ Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9; Ezr 8:12; John 12:35; and to God himself. Jas 1:17; 1 John 1:5; 1 Tim 6:16.

LIGHTENING. The terrors of the divine wrath are often represented by thunder and lightning; and thunder, on account of its awful impression on the minds of mortals, is often spoken of in Scripture as the voice of the Lord. Ex 9:28; Job 28:26; Job 37:3, Job 37:5; Job 38:25; Job 40:9.

LIGN-AL'OES. See Aloes.

LIG'URE. There is more difficulty in identifying this stone than any other in the breastplate of the high priest, Ex 28:19. No mineral is at the present day known by this name. Some high authorities suppose that the ligure is amber because Pliny and Theophrastus mention that amber is found in Liguria, whence this name might naturally be derived. But it is objected that amber was too soft for permanent engraving. The opinion that the ligure was red tourmaline or rubellite — sometimes called red sapphire — finds much favor. This hard and often transparent stone is certainly used as a gem. See Amber.

LIK'HI (learned), a grandson of Manasseh. 1 Chr 7:19.

LIK'ING, as a noun, means "condition." and as a participle "conditioned." Job 39:4; Dan 1:10.

LIL'Y (Heb. shusan; Arabic susan). The Arabs use this word for any beautiful flower resembling a lily, and in this general sense it is probably employed

Scarlet Lily. (Lilium Chalcedonicum.)

in the Bible, the connection often suggesting to an Oriental mind the particular species meant.

The only true lily now found in Palestine 521 is the scarlet martagon (Lilium chulcedonicum). It is likely that a white and fragrant kind (L. candidum) was once found on the coast, and this may have been the species referred to in such

Lily. (Anemone coronarla.)

passages as Cant. Song 2:1. But neither kind was probably ever generally abundant. Many related flowers of great beauty are common, such as irises, tulips, hyacinths, and a gladiolus.

If any particular plant is meant, the scarlet anemone (Anemone coronaria) best answers the conditions of color, Cant. Song 5:13, universal abundance, and gorgeousness. Matt 6:28-29. This flower is called a lily by the Arabs.

In the scarcity of wood the common flowering weeds of the fields are ordinarily gathered for fuel, and under the hot sun and dry wind Matt 6:30 is often literally fulfilled.

LIME, a well-known substance obtained by burning limestone, bones, shells, etc., and used for plaster or the cement of brick-work. Deut 27:2; Isa 33:12. It is inferred from the above passage, and from Am 2:1, that the modern mode of manufacturing this article was known to the ancients. Untempered mortar is that which is so imperfectly or unskilfully mixed that it cannot be worked. Eze 13:10-11.

LIN'EAGE, family or race. Luke 2:4.

LIN'EN, a cloth made of flax. It was much valued and used in ancient as it is in modern times. Fine white linen is in Scripture the emblem of innocence or moral purity. Rev 15:6, though it is also mentioned as a mark of luxury. Luke 16:19.

The best linen was anciently made in Egypt, as that country afforded the finest flax. The dress of the Egyptian priests was made of linen, and so was the dress of state in which Pharaoh arrayed Joseph. Gen 41:42. Also the sheets in which mummies were wrapped, and which formerly were held to be some kind of cotton fabric, have been proved by microscopic examination to consist of linen.

In the Hebrew text several different words are employed to denote linen. The exact distinction between these words has not been made out, but it is probable that they denote native fabrics in distinction from those imported from Egypt and Syria, or perhaps only different kinds of the same native product. For linen in general was highly valued and much used among the Jews. The temple veil, 2 Chr 3:14; 2 Chr 2:14, the holy garments of the priests, 1 Chr 15:27, and of the Levite choir, 2 Chr 5:12, the over-garment of the king, 1 Chr 15:27, etc., were made of it.

LINES. This expression refers to the mode of measuring land with a cord or line, Am 7:17; Zech 1:16; Zech 2:1-2, and came thus to denote a definite allotment of real estate, an inheritance. Ps 16:6.

LIN'TEL, the head-piece of a doorframe, by which the superimposed mass is supported. The Hebrews were commanded to strike blood upon it on the Passover night. Ex 12:22.

LI'NUS, a Christian of Rome, a friend of St. Paul and Timothy, 2 Tim 4:21, and, according to tradition, the first bishop of Rome after Peter.

LI'ON. This animal was found in Palestine as late as the twelfth century, but has disappeared with the forests. Doubtless it was of the Asiatic species, with a short curly mane, smaller, more compact, and less formidable than the 522 African lion. The king of beasts is mentioned about one hundred and thirty times in the Bible. Besides the general name, six Hebrew words are used for this animal, marking different conditions of


age and prowess. His roar is described by four words, and his movements by six. Lebaoth, Arieh, Laish, and other places were named from this animal.

Lions were captured in pitfalls, to which there is allusion in Eze 19:4, 1 Kgs 15:8; 2 Sam 23:20. Shepherds occasionally attacked them single-handed. 1 Sam 17:36. The Scriptures record how the lion, when famished, often attacked the flock, devoured men, and even ravaged villages. This animal was partial to the jungles of the Jordan, and when driven thence by the annual freshet was much enraged. Jer 49:19; Jer 50:44. As the symbol of royal power and strength, the most princely of all the tribes bore this animal on its banner. Gen 49:9, and in the Revelation Christ is called "the Lion of the tribe of Judah."

The representations of this animal in the sculptures of Solomon's temple and palace will be remembered, as will also frequent rhetorical references to it as the symbol of various well-known characteristics, such as courage and ferocity.

LIPS. This word has various peculiar significations in the Scriptures. Unclean lips, Isa 6:5, are lips polluted by sinful words; calves of our lips, Hos 14:2, sacrifices of praise; burning lips, Prov 26:23, lips through which the expressions of malice, envy, and other malignant passions are continually passing. Acts 9:1, or, as it is oftener interpreted, burning with false professions of piety and friendship. Covering the lips, Eze 24:22, or chin with the outer garment was a token of mourning. The word occurs, besides, in a great number of metaphorical expressions easy to understand.

LIQ'UOR, or LIQUORS, the translation of three different Hebrew words. One denotes a "tear" — i.e., the juice of the olive and grapes, Ex 22:29; the second denotes "maceration " — i.e., drink prepared by steeping grapes. Num 6:3; the last, "mixture " — i.e., highly-flavored wine. Cant. Song 7:2. See Wine.

LIT'TER, a covered chair sheltering the occupant against rain and the sun, and carried either by men or animals. Isa 66:20.

LIVE'LY, in 1 Pet 2:5, means "living;" in Ex 1:19 it means "full of life," "vigorous."

LIVER. The expression "the caul above the liver," so frequently occurring in the Pentateuch, Ex 29:13, Josh 11:22; Lev 3:4, 1 Kgs 16:10, 2 Sam 20:15; Ruth 4:9; Acts 7:4; Lev 8:16; Lev 9:10, etc., means one of the lobes of the liver, which was to be burned on the altar, and not eaten as sacrificial food.

LIZ'ARD (that which clings to the ground). Lev 11:30. Many species of these reptiles abound in Palestine, some of which are very slow in their movements, while others run very rapidly. Some kinds are eaten by the very poor inhabitants. See Chameleon, Ferret, Mole, Snail, and cut on next page.

LOAF. 1 Chr 16:3. See Bread.

LO-AM'MI (not my people), the 523 name applied symbolically to the son of the prophet Hosea. representing Israel. Hos 1:9. See Lo-Ruhamah.

LOAN. The Mosaic law repeatedly enjoined it on the rich to come to the relief of the poor, not only with alms, but


also with loans. Ex 22:25; Lev 25:35-37; Deut 15:3; Deut 15:7-10; Deut 23:19-20. No interest was to be taken, Ex 22:25; Lev 25:36; Deut 23:19, and a pledge or security only under certain restrictions; the creditor was not allowed to enter the house of the debtor in claim of the pledge, Deut 24:10-11; a widow's raiment could not be taken as a pledge, Deut 24:17, or a millstone, Deut 24:6, nor could a poor man's raiment be kept over-night. It was allowed to hold a debtor in bondage, but only to the jubilee — that is, for six years at the utmost, Lev 25:39-41, and in the sabbatical year all debts were cancelled and all pledges returned. Deut 15:1-3, Deut 15:7-10. These laws, however, had no reference to foreigners, from whom the Jews took interest and retained forfeited pledges; they also kept them as slaves. Nor were these laws kept strictly for a very long time. Sons were later on seized for their fathers' debts, 2 Kgs 4:1, and interests were exacted, Neh 5:1, 2 Kgs 11:13; and in the time of our Lord the economic principles of the Jews seem to have approached very nearly to those of the rest of the commercial world. Matt 5:42; Matt 25:27; Luke 6:35; Luke 19:13.

LOCK. The doors of the ancient Hebrews were secured by bars of wood or iron, though the latter were almost entirely appropriated to the entrance of fortresses, prisons, and towns. Thus we find it mentioned in 1 Kgs 4:13, as something remarkable concerning Bashan that there were threescore great cities having walls and brazen bars. These were almost the only locks known in early times, and they were furnished with a large and clumsy key, which was applied to the bar by pushing the whole arm through an orifice from the outside Cant. Song 5:4. There were also smaller contrivances for inner doors, Jud 3:24, and probably projecting pieces by which to push the bolt with the hand. See Key.

LO'CUST, an insect of the grasshopper family, remarkable for numbers and voracity, and hence one of the most dreadful scourges of Eastern countries. Locusts, when mature, can fly to a considerable height, and, occasionally alighting for food and rest, they are often borne by the wind hundreds of miles. There are many species of these insects found in the United States, but none precisely such as live in the Orient. The locusts most destructive and doubtless ordinarily referred to by the Bible are of two kinds, Acrydium peregrinum and OEclipoda migratoria. In our English Bible seven terms probably describe this insect or allied species — viz., locust, bald locust, beetle, canker-worm, caterpillar, grasshopper, palmer-worm. These seven terms are made to translate nine Hebrew names. The confusion of the entire subject may be seen by the fact that "locust" represents four original words, "grasshopper" two, and "caterpillar" two, while two original words have each a twofold translation. Doubtless the Jews themselves applied some of these terms as loosely and widely as we do such a word as "worm."

It is probable that several of the seven names mentioned describe locusts in their immature state. After leaving the egg this insect passes through changes answering to those of the butterfly, but is never dormant as a chrysalis. From first to last it is voracious, but when it is mature and can fly, it lays its eggs and drifts away in vast clouds, perhaps to perish in the ocean. The locusts which the writer saw devastating portions of Syria were fully three inches long when their wings were closed. Lev 11:22 describes four distinct insects of the locust order. "Beetle" is plainly a mistranslation for some one of these leapers, since what 524


  1. Truxalis. 2. Acridum peregrinum. 3. OEdipoda migratoria. (After Tristram.)

ever only crept and flew might not be eaten, Lev 11:21, Heb 12:23. Joel 1:4, probably names, as has been suggested, four different kinds of locust or stages of its growth.

These insects were often the instruments of divine judgment. Ex 10:4-15; Deut 28:38-42; 1 Kgs 8:37; Joel 2:1-11. The last-named passage gives a most vivid and accurate description of this fearful visitation. As locusts enter Palestine from the south or east, the "northern army," Joel 2:20, probably describes, under the figure of locusts, the Assyrians, who entered the land in similar swarms, but from a different quarter.

The account in Joel 2 is illustrated by the following extract from the journal of an Eastern traveller: "The locusts, properly so called, which are so frequently mentioned by sacred as well as profane authors, are sometimes gregarious beyond expression. Those which I saw were much bigger than our common grasshoppers, and had brown spotted wings, with legs and bodies of a bright yellow. Their first appearance was toward the latter end of March, the wind having been some time from the south. In the middle of April their numbers were so vastly increased that in the heat of the day they formed themselves into large and numerous swarms, flew in the air like a succession of clouds, and, as the prophet Joel expresses it, 'the sun . . . shall be dark.' When the wind blew briskly, so that these swarms were crowded by others or thrown one upon another, we had a lively idea of 525 that comparison of the Psalmist, Ps 109:23, of being 'tossed up and down as the locust.' In the month of May, when the ovaries of these insects were ripe and turgid, each of these swarms began gradually to disappear, and retired into the Metijiah and other adjacent plains, where they deposited

Locust Flying.

their eggs. These were no sooner hatched, in June, than each of the broods collected itself into a compact body of an eighth of a mile square, and, marching afterward directly forward toward the sea, they let nothing escape them, eating up everything that was green and juicy, not only the lesser kinds of vegetables, but 'the vine' likewise, 'the fig tree, . . . the pomegranate tree, the palm tree also, and the apple tree, even all the trees of the field,' Joel 1:11-12; in doing which, they kept their ranks like men of war, climbing over, as they advanced, every tree or wall that was in their way; nay, they entered into our very houses and bedchambers like thieves. The inhabitants, to stop their progress, made a variety of pits and trenches all over their fields and gardens, which they filled with water, or else they heaped up therein heath, stubble, and such-like combustible matter, which were severally set on fire upon the approach of the locusts. But this was all to no purpose, for the trenches were quickly filled up and the fires extinguished by infinite swarms succeeding one another, whilst the front was regardless of danger and the rear pressed on so close that a retreat was altogether impossible. A day or two after one of these broods was in motion others were already hatched to march and glean after them, gnawing off the very bark and the young branches of such trees as had before escaped with the loss only of their fruit and foliage. So justly have they been compared by the prophet to a great army, who further observes that 'the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness.'"

Van Lennep says:" The ground over which their devastating hordes have passed at once assumes an appearance of sterility and dearth. Well did the Romans call them 'the burners of the land,' which is the literal meaning of our word 'locust.' On they move, covering the ground so completely as to hide it from sight, and in such numbers that it often takes three or four days for the mighty host to pass by. When seen at a distance this swarm of advancing locusts resembles a cloud of dust or sand, reaching a few feet above the ground as the myriads of insects leap forward. The only thing that momentarily arrests their progress is a sudden change of weather, for cold benumbs them while it lasts. They also keep quiet at night, swarming like bees on the bushes and hedges until the morning sun warms and revives them and enables them to proceed on their devastating march. Nah 3:17. They 'have no king' nor leader, yet they falter not, but press on in serried ranks, urged in the same direction by an irresistible impulse, and turn neither to the right hand nor to the left for any sort of obstacle. Prov 30:27. When a wall or a house lies in their way they climb straight up, going over the roof to the other side, and blindly rush in at the open doors and windows. Ex 10:6; Joel 2:9. When they come to water, be it a mere puddle or a river, a lake or the open sea, they never attempt to go round it, but unhesitatingly leap in and are drowned; and their dead bodies, floating on the surface, form a bridge for their companions to pass over. The scourge thus often comes to an end, but it as often happens that the decomposition of millions of insects produces pestilence and death. Joel 2:20. History records a remarkable instance which occurred in the year 125 before the Christian era. The insects were driven by the 526 wind into the sea in such vast numbers that their bodies, being driven back by the tide upon the land, caused a stench, which produced a fearful plague, whereby 80,000 persons perished in Libya, Cyrene, and Egypt.

"The locust, however, soon acquires its wings, and proceeds on its way by flight whenever a strong breeze favors its progress. Our attention has often been attracted by the sudden darkening of the sun in a summer sky, accompanied by the peculiar noise which a swarm of locusts always makes moving through the air, and, glancing upward, we have seen them passing like a cloud at a height of 200 or 300 feet. Joel 2:10. Some of them are constantly dropping to the earth, and, after resting a while, are driven by a common impulse to rise again and proceed with the wind; so that, besides the principal cloud, single locusts or a few together may be seen in almost every part of the sky. During a great flight they sometimes drop so thickly upon the ground that it is impossible to step without treading upon some of them, and the poor villagers, in consternation, busy themselves kindling fires, whose smoke serves to prevent the locusts from alighting upon their fields, orchards, or vineyards. The people of Syria believe noise to be as effectual in driving away locusts as in attracting a swarm of bees; hence, upon the appearance of a flight of these dreaded insects the inhabitants of the villages, men, women, and children, rush out, armed with any tin or copper pans or kettles or rattles they can lay hold of, and strive, by their deafening shouts and din, Jer 51:14, to scare the unwelcome visitors away."

Some species of the locust are eaten at this day in Eastern countries, and are even esteemed a delicacy when properly cooked. Lev 11:22; Matt 3:4. After tearing off the legs and wings and taking out the entrails, they stick them in long rows upon wooden spits, roast them at the fire, and then proceed to devour them with great zest. There are also other ways of preparing them. For example, they cook them and dress them in oil, or, having dried them, they pulverize them, and when other food is scarce make bread of the meal. The Bedouins pack them with salt in close masses, which they carry in their leathern sacks. From these they cut slices as they may need them. When the Arabs have them in quantities, they roast or dry them in an oven or boil them and eat them with salt. The Arabs in the kingdom of Morocco boil the locusts, and the Bedouins eat locusts, which are collected in great quantities in the beginning of April, when they are easily caught. After having been roasted a little upon the iron plate on which bread is baked they are dried in the sun, and then put into large sacks with the mixture of a little salt. They are never served up as a dish, but every one takes a handful of them when hungry. The food of John the Baptist consisted of such dried locusts, and not of the fruit of the carob tree. See Husks.

In the book of Revelation, Rev 9:7, we have a literal description of the symbolical locust, which gives us a terrific impression of their power, and which is curiously illustrated by a passage from an Eastern traveller. An Arab from Bagdad, he says, compared the head of the locust to that of the horse; its breast to that of the lion: its feet to those of the camel; its body to that of the serpent; its tail to that of the scorpion; and so of other parts. In like manner the Italians still call locusts little horses, and the Germans call them hayhorses.

LOD. 1 Chr 8:12. See Lydda.

LO-DE'BAR, a place in the tribe of Gad, not far from Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok, east of the Jordan. 2 Sam 9:4; 2 Sam 17:27. Here dwelt Machir the Ammonite, who assisted David when he retired from Absalom's usurpation, and in whose house lived Mephibosheth, Jonathan's lame son, who sat at David's table and received from him all that pertained to Saul and his house. Some suppose it to be the same as Debir, Josh 13:26, but by modern travellers it has not yet been identified.

LODGE. Isa 1:8. See Garden.

LODGE, TO means, except in Josh 2:1, "to stay over-night." Isa 1:21.

LOG. Lev 14:10. See Measures.

LOINS. The dress of the Oriental nations being loose, it was necessary, when they were travelling or working, to gird up their garments and fasten them about their loins. See Clothes. Hence the expression is figuratively used, 1 Pet 1:13, to denote a state of 527 mind in which the soul is prepared to work and exert itself under the influence of divine grace.

LOIS, the grandmother of Timothy. 2 Tim 1:5.

LOOKED means, in Acts 28:6, "expected"

LOOK'ING-GLASS. What is thus translated was in fact a plate of metal polished so highly as to produce a very good reflection of objects. Generally, these mirrors were of a round shape and provided with a handle. Ex 38:8; Job 37:18; Isa 3:23.

LORD. This word is in our translation of the O.T. the rendering of the two Hebrew words "Jehovah" and "Adonai." When it represents the former, which may be considered a proper name, it is printed with capitals. Gen 15:4. When it represents the latter, of which it is the translation, it is printed with a capital initial. Ps 97:5, etc.

LORD'S DAY, Rev 1:10. From the times of the apostles the first day of the week was kept sacred by the Christians in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ, and it is invariably designated as the Lord's day by the Fathers of the primitive Church up to the time of the edict of Constantino (321), when the name Sunday became common. See Sabbath.

LORD'S PRAYER, the name given to the prayer which our Lord himself taught his disciples, and which is recorded Matt 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4. "The Lord's Prayer is the Prayer of prayers, as the Bible is the Book of books and the Apostles' Creed the Creed of creeds. It is the best and most beautiful, the simplest and yet the deepest, the shortest and yet the most comprehensive, of all forms of devotion. Only from the lips of the Son of God could such a perfect pattern proceed. An ancient Father calls it a summary of Christianity or the gospel in a nutshell. It embraces all kinds of prayer, petition, intercession, and thanksgiving, all essential objects of prayer, spiritual and temporal, divine and human, in the most suitable and beautiful order, commencing with the glory of God, gradually descending to man's needs, then rising to the final deliverance from all evil, and ending in thanksgiving and praise, as all prayer must end at last, in heaven, where all our wants shall be supplied. It accompanies the Christian from the cradle to the grave. It can never be superseded. If we have exhausted the whole extent of our religious wants and the whole vocabulary of devotion, we gladly return to this model prayer as infinitely superior to all our own effusions. It may indeed, be abused, like every gift of God, and become a dead form — Luther called it in this respect 'the greatest martyr on earth' — but this is no argument against its proper and frequent use. It is not intended, of course, to supersede other forms or extemporaneous prayers, but it should serve as a general pattern and directory to all our devotions, and breathe into them the proper spirit." — Schaff.

The Lord's Prayer is divided into three parts — the address ("Our Father who art in heaven"), the petitions (six or seven), and the doxology. The address or preface puts us into the proper filial relation to God as our Father, to our fellow-men as our brethren ("our"), and into the proper attitude of prayer as an ascension of the soul to heaven ("who art in heaven") as our final home. The petitions are divided into two classes. The first three refer to the name, the kingdom, and the will of God; the other three or four to the temporal and spiritual wants of man till his final deliverance from all evil (or, better, from "the evil one" — that is, from Satan, sin, and its consequences). The doxology is wanting in Luke and in the oldest manuscripts of Matthew; it probably found its way into the margin and then into the text from the habit of the Christians, inherited from the Jews, to wind up their prayers with a doxology. It is certainly very ancient and appropriate, and will never drop out of use, whatever critics may do with the text.

The Lord's Prayer is intended for his disciples. He himself addressed God, not as "our Father," but as "my Father," or simply "Father," owing to his unique relation to him as the eternal and only begotten Son; and, being free from sin and guilt, he had no need to pray, "Forgive us our debts."

LORD'S SUPPER, or THE HOLY COMMUNION, is the ordinance which commemorates the dying love and sacrifice of Christ for the sins 528 of the world. Christians are commanded to observe it till he shall return in glory. It was instituted in the night preceding the crucifixion. The Lord Jesus, after eating the paschal supper with his disciples, took bread and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said. Take, eat, this is my body, which is broken for you; this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, and gave thanks and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is the new covenant in my blood, which is shed for many for the remission of sins; this do ye as oft as ye drink it in remembrance of me. Matt 26:19-30; Mark 14:16-26; Luke 22:13-20; 1 Cor 11:23-26. Nothing can surpass the touching simplicity and appropriateness of this memorial service, which has always been regarded in the Christian Church as the holy of holies of worship and communion with the crucified and ever-living Saviour.

In course of time, as the development of the doctrine of the ordinance became the subject of theological controversy, three different explanations of the words of institution led to three different theories — the Roman Catholic dogma of transubstantiation, or the miraculous transformation of the sacramental elements into the body and blood of Christ; the Lutheran doctrine of the co-existence of the real body and blood of Christ in, with, and under the elements during the time of sacramental transaction, and their participation by all communicants; and the figurative explanation of the words of institution with the idea of a spiritual fruition of Christ by faith only, as held in the Reformed Churches.

It is a sad reflection that the ordinance of the Lord's Supper — this feast which should bind all pious hearts to Christ and to each other and fill them with the holiest and tenderest affections — has been the innocent occasion of the bitterest and most violent passions and the most uncharitable abuse. The eucharistic controversies, before and after the Reformation, are among the most unrefreshing and apparently fruitless in Church history.

Happily, the blessing of the holy communion does not depend upon the scientific interpretation and understanding of the words of institution, however desirable this may be, but upon the promise of the Lord and upon childlike faith. And therefore even now Christians of different denominations and holding different opinions can unite around the table of their common Lord and Saviour, and feel one with him and in him.

With respect to the views held by the various evangelical Protestant churches, at least, the chief elements of reconciliation, when subordinate differences and scholastic subtleties are yielded, may be found in the following propositions. The Lord's Supper is, 1. A commemorative ordinance, a memorial of Christ's atoning death; 2. A feast of living union of believers with the Saviour, whereby we truly, though spiritually, receive Christ, with all his benefits, and are nourished with his life unto life eternal; 3. A communion of believers with one another as members of the same mystical body of Christ.

LO-RU'HAMAH (the uncompassionated), the name of the daughter of Hosea the prophet, and referring to the hopeless condition of the kingdom of Israel, from whom Jehovah seemed to have withdrawn his mercy. Hos 1:6, 1 Kgs 15:8.

LOT (a covering, veil), the son of Ilaran and nephew of Abraham, was born in Ur, a city of Chaldea, where his father died, and followed, with Abraham and Terah, to Mesopotamia, where the latter died at Haran. Gen 11:31-32, thence to Canaan, Gen 12:4-5, and probably also to Egypt. After the return from Egypt the herds of Abraham and Lot had greatly increased. The tract of land they occupied was inconveniently small; strife arose between their herdmen, and Abraham proposed they should separate, leaving the choice to Lot whether he would go eastward or westward. Lot chose that region of the valley of the Jordan in which Sodom and Gomorrah were situated, but thereby he became involved in the warfare waged by Chedorlaomer against the two cities, was carried away as a prisoner of war, and was only rescued by the valor of Abraham, who attacked and defeated Chedorlaomer. Lot returned to Sodom, and, though he loathed the life of perdition which was led in that city, he remained there and chose his sons-in-law 529 among the Sodomites. When, at last, the measure of iniquity was full and doom was passed over the city, Lot and his family were saved only by the aid of special messengers from the Lord, who accompanied them from Sodom to Zoar; but Lot's "wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt." Gen 19:26. Lot removed from Zoar and dwelt in the mountains, after which he disappears from history. The nations of the Ammonites and Moabites descended from him.

LO'TAN (covering), the eldest son of Seir the Horite, and chief of his tribe in the land of Edom. Gen 36:20, Josh 11:22, 1 Chr 2:29; 1 Chr 1:38-39.

LOTS, a method used to determine chances or preferences or to decide a debate. The decision by lot was often resorted to in former times, but always with the strictest reference to the interposition of God; as in the choice of the apostle Matthias, Acts 1:26, and in the cases of Saul and Jonathan, and Jonah and his companions to determine who had offended God. 1 Sam 14:41-42; Jon 1:7. In the division of the Promised Land among the tribes of Israel the use of the lot was expressly commanded by God himself, it being understood that the extent of territory should be proportioned to the population of each tribe. Num 26:55. So the selection of the scapegoat on the day of atonement was to be determined by lot. Lev 16:8. Property was divided in the same way. Ps 22:18; Matt 27:35. The orders of the priests and their daily service were also assigned by lot. 1 Chr 24-25.

As to the manner of casting lots we have no certain information. It is supposed by some that the stones or marks which were used in determining the lot were thrown together into the lap or fold of a garment, or into an urn or vase, and that the person holding them shook them violently, so that there should be a perfect mingling of the whole contents, to prevent all preference by the hand of him who should draw; so that the passage Prov 16:33 is paraphrased thus: "In a lot-vase the lots are shaken in all directions; nevertheless, from the Lord is the whole decision or judgment."

LOTS, FEAST OF. See Purim.

LOVE. This term signifies one of the constituent principles of our nature, and in the perfect exercise of it is comprehended the whole of our duty to God and to our fellow-creatures. Matt 22:37-40; Rom 13:8, 1 Kgs 16:10; Gal 5:14; Jas 2:8. Hence it evidently comprehends all holiness of heart and life. The highest and most glorious display of the divine character which has ever been made to man is the love of God in Jesus Christ, Rom 5:8, and the great principle and fruit of both faith and obedience consists in the possession and exercise of love. John 13:34-35,.

LOVE-FEASTS were held in connection with the Lord's Supper, and paid for out of the common fund. Jude 12; 2 Pet 2:13. When the community of goods had ceased, Chrysostom says, the rich provided them. Originally these feasts were held in the churches, but this was forbidden by the Council of Laodicaea a.d. 320. and in the following century the custom was dropped or assumed other forms.

LU'BIM (thirsty; thence, dwellers in a scorched land). 2 Chr 12:3; 2 Chr 16:8; Dan 11:43; Nah 3:9. See Lehabim and Libya.

LU'CAS. Phile 24. See Luke.

LU'CIFER. This word, signifying "light-giver," occurs but once in our Bible, Isa 14:12, and is then applied to the king of Babylon to indicate his glory as that of a morning star, or, figuratively, "a son of the morning." Tertullian and some others suppose the passage to relate to the fall of Satan, and hence the term is now usually applied in that way, though, as it seems, without sufficient warrant.


  1. A kinsman of St. Paul, Rom 15:21, and, according to tradition, bishop of Cenchraea, from which place the Epistle to the Romans was written. He is perhaps identical with —

  2. Lucius of Cyrene, a Christian teacher in Antioch. Acts 13:1.

LUD, son of Shem, from whom the Lydians of Asia Minor are supposed to have descended. Gen 10:22.

LU'DIM, son of Mizraim, whose posterity, also called Lydians, Jer 46:9, settled on the continent of Africa, as we infer from the connection in which they and their country are mentioned, Isa 66:19; Eze 27:10; Eze 30:5; Gen 10:13. Their precise location is unknown.


LU'HITH (made of boards), a place in Moab. Isa 15:5; Jer 48:5.

LUKE (Greek Lucas), Col 4:14; 2 Tim 4:11; Phile 24, is probably an abbreviation of Lucanus, possibly of Lucilius, but not of Lucius. Acts 13:1; Rom 16:21. The evangelist was not a Jew, as is evident from Col 4:14, where the "beloved physician" is distinguished from "those of the circumcision." The opinion that he was a native of Antioch may have arisen from confounding him with Lucius. That he was one of the Seventy or of the two who were walking to Emmaus is unlikely, as he was not himself an "eye-witness," Col 1:2, of the gospel facts. According to the N.T., he was a physician, and his style in general, as well as his mode of describing diseases, proves him to have been an educated physician. Tradition adds that he was also a painter. He comes into historical prominence as the companion of Paul in his later journeys, though his presence is modestly indicated in his own narrative only by the change to the first person plural. Joining the apostle at Troas, Acts 16:10, he accompanied him to Philippi on his second journey; rejoining him some years later at the same place, Acts 20:5, he remained with Paul until the close of his first Roman captivity. Acts 28:30. Of his subsequent life nothing certain is known. According to common consent and internal evidence, he is the author of the Gospel named after him, and of the Acts.

Luke, The Gospel of, was written primarily for the use of one Theophilus. Luke 1:3. As this name means "lover of God," some have supposed that it ought to be applied to any Christian reader in general, but it is better to refer it to a person of high rank ("most excellent," equivalent to our word "honorable"), who was either a convert or a catechumen. To the same person the Acts are dedicated. Acts 1:1. The minute description of places in Palestine indicates that this person was not an inhabitant of that country, while the mention of small places in Italy as familiarly known. Acts 27:8-16, makes it probable that his home was at Rome — a view confirmed by the abrupt conclusion of Acts. In any case, he was a Gentile, and the Gospel was designed mainly for Gentile Christians, representing the universal import of the coming of Christ for all nations and for all classes of men. This agreement with Paul is a natural result from the close personal intimacy between the apostle and the author, but there is no evidence that Paul dictated the Gospel or referred to it as his Gospel. 2 Tim 2:8. The verbal resemblances, especially in the account of the words of institution of the Lord's Supper, Luke 22:19-20; 1 Cor 11:23-25, are such as would naturally result from companionship with Paul. In other respects the peculiarities of the third Gospel are marked. The style closely resembles that of the Acts, but has a larger number of Hebraisms, especially in the first two chapters, which indicate the use of Hebrew documents by the evangelist. Where he describes scenes he had witnessed himself, the style is far more pure. A large number of words are peculiar to Luke, and to him we are indebted for nearly all the chronological notices which link the Gospel facts with ancient history in general. The narrative is more complete than the others, and contains several portions peculiar to it; as, for instance, the account of the Nativity, the presentation in the temple, the miraculous draught of fishes, the sending out of the Seventy, the parables of the Good Samaritan, the Barren Fig Tree, the Lost Sheep, the Prodigal Son, the Unjust Steward, Dives and Lazarus, etc. The Gospel was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, and also before the Acts. Acts 1:1. It is probable that it was written at Caesarea in Palestine during Paul's imprisonment there, 58-60. Some, however, date it still earlier.

LUKE'WARM denotes the indifferent, who receive the call from the Lord, but, without either accepting or formally refusing it, remain entirely unimpressed by it. Rev 3:16.

LU'NATIC. It was formerly supposed that the changes of the moon (Luna) had an influence upon certain diseases of a paroxysmal character, and persons affected with those diseases were therefore called lunatics; hence, distracted persons who are sane at intervals are still called lunatics though the idea of their being at all under the influence of the moon is generally regarded as irrational.

In the two places in which the word 531 occurs in our translation of the Bible, Matt 4:24; Lev 17:15, it seems to be nearly identical with "epileptic."

LUST was not used formerly in its present restricted sense, but of any strong desire. In the A.V. it is the translation of three Hebrew and four Greek words. "To lust" appears six times in the A.V. Ps 81:12; Rom 1:24-27.

LUS'TY, "vigorous." Jud 3:29.

LUZ (almond tree).

  1. The Canaanite name for the place in which Jacob rested and had a prophetic vision, and afterward the city of Bethel; now Beitin. Gen 28:19; Gen 35:6; Gen 48:3; Josh 16:2; Josh 18:13; Jud 1:23.

  2. A city in the land of the Hittites, built by an inhabitant of the original Luz, who was spared when the city was sacked. Jud 1:23; now Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.

LYCAO'NIA, a province of Asia Minor which the apostle Paul twice visited. Acts 14:1-23; Acts 16:1-6; Acts 18:23; Gen 19:1. It was separated from Phrygia, and bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Cilicia, and west by Pisidia and Phrygia. It consisted of a plateau with a hilly surface, not very fertile, but affording excellent sheep-walks. Its principal industry was wool-growing. Its chief towns were Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra.

The speech of this province, Acts 14:11, is supposed to have been either a Syrian or a corrupted Greek dialect, and the standard of civilization seems not to have been so very high.

LY'CIA (lish'ia), a region of Asia Minor, extending along the Mediterranean, just opposite to the island of Rhodes, between Caria and Pamphylia, and covered by the spurs of the Taurus. Having belonged to the empire of Alexander and the Seleucidae, it was for some time in the possession of Rhodes, but made itself independent and became very prosperous, as the ruins of its two largest cities, Patara and Myra, testify. It also acquired some political importance, as shown by 1 Mace. 16:23. In the reign of Claudius it became a Roman province. Paul visited it, and preached the gospel both at Patara, Acts 21:1, and at Myra. Acts 27:5.

LYD'DA, the Greek name for the Hebrew Lod, the present Lydd, now a village, but in ancient time a flourishing town situated in the plain of Sharon, a few miles east of Joppa, on the road to Jerusalem. It was burnt several times by the Romans, but again rebuilt. Vespasian gave it the name of Diospolis, "city of Jupiter," but the old name prevailed. It was the birthplace of St. George, the patron saint of England, and Justinian built a church in his commemoration. By the Saracens it was again burnt, but rebuilt by the Crusaders. Now the church is in ruins, but the village is prospering. Here St. Peter healed the paralytic AEneas. Acts 9:32.

LYD'IA, a Jewish proselyte from the city of Thyatira, in Lydia, engaged in the purple trade, possessed of wealth, and temporarily residing at Philippi, where she heard Paul preach. Acts 16:14. She accepted the Gospel, was baptized together with her household, and tendered hospitality to the apostle.

LYD'IA, a coast-region of Asia Minor, extending along the Mediterranean from the promontory of Mycale to the mouth of the Hermas. It formed in olden times the centre of a great empire under Croesus; afterward it belonged successively to Syria, Pergamus, and the Romans. Its principal cities were Sardis, Thyatira, and Philadelphia. It is mentioned in 1 Mace. 8:8 among the provinces which the Romans transferred from Syria to Pergamus.

LYRE. See Harp.

LYSA'NIAS. See Abilene.

LY'SIAS. See Claudius.

LYS'TRA, a city of Lycaonia, situated in the eastern part of the great plain, probably at the present Bin-bar-Kilisheh. Paul visited this place twice, the first time in company with Barnabas, Acts 14, when he was saluted as the god Mercury, but afterward stoned, the second time in company with Silas. Acts 16. Timothy was probably born here. 2 Tim 3:11.

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