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K.

KAB, or CAB, 2 Kgs 6:25. See Measures.

KAB'ZEEL (gathered by God), called Jekabzeel when rebuilt after the Captivity, Neh 11:25, a city of the tribe of Judah, situated farthest to the south, Josh 15:21; was the birthplace of Banaiah, the son of Jehoiada. 2 Sam 23:20; 1 Chr 11:22.

KA'DESH (sacred), or KA'DESH-BAR'NEA, a place on the southern frontier of Caanan. It was "11 days," or about 165 miles, distant from Horeb, Deut 1:2; on the border of Edora, Num 20:1, Num 20:6; not far from Gerar, Gen 20:1; to the east of Bered, Gen 16:14; in the desert of Zin. Num 20:1; Eze 27:14; Num 33:36; Deut 32:51; and the point to which Chedorlaomer returned, having driven the Horites over the Arabah into the Et Tih region, and then going northward, Gen 14:7. In Scripture it is sometimes called Kadesh alone, and sometimes Kadesh-barnea, and is identical with Meribah-kadesh, Eze 47:19: Josh 15:3, Acts 15:23: with "En-Mishpat" - the fountain of judgment, Gen 14:7; and with "Rithmah" - the broom, Num 33:18, thus called from a shrub growing in the desert. At Rithmah the Israelites encamped in the second summer after the exodus from Egypt, Num 33:18, and they stayed there for months. Spies were sent into the land of Canaan. The people rebelled, and were condemned to 40 years' sojourn in the wilderness, Num 13-14, during which time Kadesh seems to have been their chief centre. At the end of 40 years they encamped again at Kadesh for a march to Canaan, Num 20:1. Here Miriam died and was buried, and the rock was smitten for water. Num 20:1-21. Robinson, Porter, and many others located Kadesh at 'Ain el-Weibeh, which was long accepted by English scholars. Rowlands, 1842, identified it with Ain Gadis or Qadts, 40 to 50 miles directly south of Beersheba. This was stoutly disputed by Robinson, but accepted by Wilton, Palmer, Ritter, and others, and confirmed by H. Clay Trumbull, who re-discovered the springs of 'Ain Qadts in 1881. It is described as an extensive hill-encircled region, large enough for the camping-ground of a host; land arable, and having springs of rare sweetness and abundance.

KAD'MIEL (before God), a Levite who, with his descendants, returned from captivity with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:40; superintended the workmen, Ezr 3:9; and helped in the thanksgiving, Neh 9:4; Neh 12:8, and the reforms, Neh 10:9. It is possible that two persons are referred to.

KAD'MONITE (eastern), a people in the land of Canaan in Abram's time. Gen 15:19. As the term means also "ancient," it may be a name for the earliest inhabitants. The name is still found among the Nusairiyeh, north of Tripoli, who say they were driven from Palestine.

KA'IN (dance), Kenites, q.v., Num 24:22, margin.

KAL'LAI (swift runner of Jehovah), a priest, a chief of the fathers in the days of Joiakim. Neh 12:20.

KA'NAH (place of reeds).

  1. A town in the district of Asher, Josh 19:28; now a village, 'Ain Kana, 6 miles south-east of Tyre.

  2. A river forming the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh, Josh 16:8; Josh 17:9. Robinson identifies it with the present Wady Kanah, which rises 7 miles south-east of Nablus and enters the sea just above Jaffa; while Schwartz identifies it with the present Wady el-Khanah, "the reedy river," which rises close to Nablus and flows more northerly to the sea.

KARE'AH (bald), father of Johanan and Jonathan, adherents of Gedaliah. Jer 40:8,Jer 40:13, Jer 40:15-16; Jer 41:11, Jer 41:13-14, Gen 41:16; Jer 42:1, Jer 42:8; Jer 43:2, Jer 43:4-5. In 2 Kgs 25:23 it is Careah.

KARKA'A (foundation), a southern boundary of Judah, Josh 15:3, and therefore of the Holy Land itself.

KAR'KOR (foundation), the scene of Gideon's final dispersion of the defeated 494 hosts of Zebah and Zalmunna. Jud 8:10. It was "east of the Jordan, in the open region of the nomad tribes."

KAR'TAH (city), a town of Zebulun; assigned to the Merarite Levites. Josh 21:34.

KAR'TAN (double city), a town of Naphtali; assigned to the Gershonite Levites, Josh 21:32; called in 1 Chr 6:76 Kirjathaim.

KAT'TATH (small), a town of Zebulun. Josh 19:15.

KE'DAR (dark-skinned), second son of Ishmael. Gen 25:13. From him descended the leading tribes of Arabia and of the land east of Palestine. They and the country bear the name of Kedar. Isa 21:16; Jer 49:28. They were nomads, living in black hair-tents. Cant. Jer 1:5, as the modern Bedouins do, or in villages, Isa 42:11, and were rich in flocks and herds, and noted as archers and mighty men. Ptolemy calls them Darrse, and Pliny, Cedrie. The rabbins call the Arabs, Kedar. Tradition makes Mohammed a descendant of Kedar. They suffered much from the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar.

KED'EMAH (eastward), last-mentioned son of Ishmael. Gen 25:15; 1 Chr 1:31.

KED'EMOTH (easternmost), a town in the district east of the Dead Sea, belonging to the tribe of Reuben, Josh 13:18, and assigned to the Merarite Levites. Josh 21:37; 1 Chr 6:79. In the surrounding wilderness Moses encamped before passing through the Amorite country. Deut 2:26.

KE'DESH (sanctuary).

  1. A town on the southern boundary of Judah, Josh 15:23; perhaps identical with Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea.

  2. A city of Issachar; assigned to the Gershonite Levites. 1 Chr 6:72. In the parallel list, Josh 21:28, its name is Kishon.

  3. A fortified city belonging to the tribe of Naphtali; allotted to the Gershonite Levites, Josh 20:7; Josh 21:32; 1 Chr 6:76, and made a city of refuge. It was the residence of Barak, Jud 4:6, and here Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali. Jud 4:11. It was taken by Tiglath-pileser in the reign of Pekah, 2 Kgs 15:29, and here the battle took place between Jonathan Maccabaeus and Demetrius. 1 Mace. 11:63. Now it is a small village, Kades, 10 miles north of Safed and 4 miles north-west of Merom, beautifully situated on a high ridge jutting out in the depressed basin through which the Jordan flows to the Sea of Merom. It is surrounded with ruins; numerous sarcophagi have been found here.

KE'DRON, or KID'RON (black brook, from a Hebrew root signifying "black," not from cedars, cedar-brook), is a small stream dry in summer, but growing into a torrent in the rainy season; rises 1 1/2 miles north-west of Jerusalem; runs in a south-eastern direction; strikes the north-eastern corner of the wall of the city; sweeps through the valley of Jehoshaphat in a deep gorge along the eastern side of the city, whose wall rises 100 feet above its bottom, while on the other side the peak of Mount Olivet rises about 500 feet; breaks through a still narrower cleft between the Hill of Offence and Moriah, and continues its course through a wild and dismal channel through the wilderness of Judah, passing by the curious convent of Mar Saba, until it reaches the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. Its name perhaps refers to the gloom of the valley, or perhaps to the peculiar nature of impurity connected with it. Here Athaliah was executed, 2 Kgs 11:16; here Maachah's idols were burnt, 1 Kgs 15:13; 2 Chr 15:16; and hither the impurities and abominations of idolworship were regularly carried and destroyed.2 Chr 29:16: 2 Chr 30:14; 2 Kgs 23:4, 2 Kgs 23:6, 2 Kgs 23:12. In the time of Josiah it became the common burial-place of the city, 2 Kgs 23:16, and so it is to-day. The two events, however, connected with it, and which give it its greatest interest, are David's crossing it on his flight from Jerusalem when Absalom rebelled, 2 Sam 15:23, 2 Sam 15:30, and Christ's crossing it on his way to Gethsemane. John 18:1; Mark 14:26; Luke 22:39. As Caesar crossed the Rubicon for the military conquest of the world, so Christ crossed the Kedron for the salvation of the world.

KEEP'ER, used for a shepherd, a jailer, an armor-bearer, a captain of the body-guard, keeper of the wardrobe, chief forester, gate- or door-guard, chief eunuch, vineyard-guard, sweeper of the temple, and sentinel. Ps 121:5.

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KEHEL'ATHAH (assembly), one of the encampment-places of the Israelites during their wanderings through the desert. Num 33:22-23.

KEI'LAH (fortress), a city in the lowland of Judah, near the Philistine frontier. Josh 15:44. When captured and plundered by a Philistine invasion David came to its rescue, but the inhabitants treacherously plotted with Saul for his betrayal. 1 Sam 23:1-13. After the Captivity its rulers aided in restoring the walls of Jerusalem. Neh 3:17-18; now Kila, 7 miles east of Beit Jibrin.

KELA'IAH (swift messenger of God), one of the Levites who returned with Ezra; married a woman of the land; helped expound the Law; entered the covenant to follow the Law, and divorced his heathen wife; called also Kelita. Ezr 10:23; Neh 8:7; Jud 10:10.

KEL'ITA (dwarf). See Kelaiah.

KEMU'ELi (helper, or assembly of God).

  1. The third son of Nahor and Milcah, and father of Bethuel and five older sons. Gen 22:21.

  2. Son of Shiphtan, and prince of Ephraim; one of the twelve who divided Canaan. Num 34:24.

  3. A prince of Levi. 1 Chr 27:17.

    KE'NAN. See Cainan.

    KE'NATH (possession), a city of Gilead, in the tribe of Manasseh; captured by Nobah, Num 32:42; a place of splendor and importance under Rome; a Christian bishop's see; 20 miles from Bostra; now called Kenawat.

KE'NAZ (a hunt).

  1. A grandson of Esau, and prince in Edom, Gen 36:11, Gen 36:42; founder of the Kenezites. Josh 14:14.

  2. Brother of Caleb, and father of Othniel. Josh 16:17.

  3. Son of Elah, son of Caleb. 1 Chr 4:15 (though see margin).

KEN'EZITE (hunter), a Canaanitish tribe of which nothing further is known. Gen 15:19. The same word in Hebrew as Kenizzite.

KEN'ITE (smith), a tribe of Midian, between Palestine and Sinai and east of the Gulf of Akabah. Their land was promised to Abraham. Gen 15:19. Jethro, Moses's father-in-law, was a Kenite. Jud 1:16. They were mentioned in Balaam's prophecy. Num 24:21. Part of the tribe joined Israel, and lived south of Judah. Jud 1:16. One family migrated to the far north. There Heber dwelt. Jud 4:11. The Kenites were friendly with the Canaanites, Amalekites, and Israelites. Saul and David spared them in their raids on Amalek on account of their former kindness. 1 Sam 15:6; 1 Sam 27:10; 1 Sam 30:29. A family of Kenites came of Hemath, father of the house of Rechab. 1 Chr 2:55.

KEN'IZZITE (hunter), a tribe of Canaan in Abraham's time. Gen 15:19. The same word in Hebrew as Kenezite.

KER'CHIEFS (spread out), an article of dress or ornament like a veil or scarf, worn on the head by the idolatrous women of Israel. Eze 13:18, 2 Chr 11:21.

KER'EN-HAP'PUCH (painthorn). Job's third daughter, born after his restoration to prosperity. Job 42:14.

KE'RIOTH (cities).

  1. A town in the south of Judah, Josh 15:25; perhaps from whence Iscariot, "the man of Kerioth," came; perhaps Kureitein, or Umm Kheshram, near Beersheba.

  2. A strong city of Moab. Jer 48:24, 1 Chr 4:41: Am 2:2.

KERN'ELS (acrid), grape-seeds. Num 6:4.

KE'ROS (curved), one of the Nethinim, whose "children" came back with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:44; Neh 7:47.

KET'TLE (boiling), a vessel for cooking or sacrificial purposes. 1 Sam 2:14. The same word is translated "basket," Jer 24:2, "caldron," 2 Chr 35:13, and "pot," Job 41:20.

KETU'RAH (incense), the wife of Abraham after Sarah's death. Gen 25:1; 1 Chr 1:32. She was the mother of six sons.

KEY (Heb. the opener, Gr. the closer), an instrument, of wood or metal, for closing or opening a lock. Jud 3:25. They were sometimes so large as to be carried on the shoulder. Isa 22:22. When so borne a key proclaimed the bearer's importance and declared him to be an officer.

Egyptian lion Key. (From Wilkinson.)

The key is an emblem of office, as of a treasurer, Isa 22:22; of authority in 496 the Church of Christ, Matt 16:19; an emblem of the means of gaining knowledge of divine truth, Luke 11:52; of Christ's authority over hell and death, Rev 1:18; Hos 9:1; Eze 20:1; and of kingship. Rev 3:7.

Assyrian monuments show strong gates fastened by bars, and by locks opened by huge keys like those of modern Cairo. In ancient as in modern times the transfer of government was made by giving and taking a key. The rabbins represent God as holding the keys of various operations of nature.

KEZI'A (cassia), Job's second daughter, born after his restoration to prosperity. Job 42:14.

KE'ZIZ, a town on the eastern border of Benjamin. Josh 18:21.

KIB'ROTH-HATTA'AVAH (graves of lust), one of the stations of Israel on their wandering through the wilderness; situated about 3 days' journey from Sinai and 15 miles from the Gulf of Akabah. Here it was that a wind from the Lord brought immense swarms of quails down upon the encampment while the people were clamoring for flesh-meat. They fed on them for a whole month, but then a great plague smote them and many of them died. Num 11:31-35; Num 33:16-17; Deut 9:22. Travellers have often in these regions encountered swarms of quails, flying with the wind and so low that two or three of them may be killed by one blow of a stick, and at Erweis el-Ebeirig, near Wady el-Hadherah (Hazaroth) Israelite remains have been found.

KIB'ZAIM (two heaps), a city belonging to Ephraim and assigned to Kohathite Levites, Josh 21:22. In 1 Chr 6:68 it is called Jokmeam, which see. It has been identified as the present Karab, at the confluence of two streams on the north-western frontier of Ephraim. Comp. Josh 16:9; Josh 17:9-10.

KID, Jud 14:6, or the young of the goat, was among the luxuries of the ancients, Gen 38:17; Jud 6:19; 1 Sam 16:20, and is now esteemed a great delicacy by Eastern nations. Kids were among the sacrificial offerings. Num 7:11-87.

KID'NEY (longing?). The leaf-fat around the kidneys of sacrifices was to be burned. Ex 29:13, etc. The supposed seat of desire. Job 19:27 (margin); Ps 7:9, etc. See Reins. Used also for kernels of wheat, from their shape and richness. Deut 32:14.

KID'RON. See Kedron.

KI'NAH (lamentation, dirge), a city in the southern part of Judah, near the frontier of Edom. Josh 15:22.

KIN'DRED, in the O.T. the translation of the terms signifying — (1) "clan," persons belonging to a common stock. Gen 12:1; Gen 24:4, Job 24:7, Gen 24:38, Gen 24:40-41; (2) "birth," and so "offspring," as Gen 31:3; Gen 43:7; Esth 8:6; (3) "knowledge," one known by relationship, Ruth 3:2; (4) "redemption," from the duty of a near relation to redeem, Eze 11:15; comp. Ruth 4:6; (5) "brother," 1 Chron 12:29; (6) the immediate family. Gen 10:31.

In the N.T. it is used of (1) relatives by birth, Luke 1:61; Acts 7:13; (2) family in the larger sense. Acts 4:6; Acts 7:13,Acts 7:19; (3) tribe. Rev 5:9; Lev 14:6; (4) descendants in a direct line. Acts 3:25.

In the same way are used "kinsfolk," "man," "woman."

KINE, Gen 41:2, is used by the sacred writers as the plural of cow. The word is used figuratively by the prophet, concerning the Israelites to describe the feebleness, idleness, and luxury which characterized them. They were like the fatlings of Bashan, feeding carelessly and securely in rich pastures only to prepare them for the slaughter. Eze 39:18. See Cow, Herd.

KING, a general title for a supreme ruler. It is applied to —

  1. God, as "the Eternal, Immortal, Invisible, the Only wise." 1 Tim 1:17. The titles and attributes of earthly royalty are applied to God because much of the language of Scripture was formed under the monarchical idea, and the highest dignity and splendor was that of the king.

  2. Christ, as supreme over all rulers, 1 Tim 6:15; over the Jews. Matt 27:11; Luke 19:38; John 1:49.

  3. To human rulers, without regard to the size or importance of their dominions; e.g. sheiks or chiefs of Edom, Gen 36:31; Midian, Num 31:8; Moab, Num 23:7, etc. Rulers in single towns, as Melchizedek, king of Salem. Gen 14:18. To a victor, Num 23:21; to a person of splendid appearance, Jud 8:18; the Roman emperor, 1 Pet 2:13; the kings of Egypt, Ex 3:19; Judah,

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2 Kgs 8:16; Persia, Ezr 4:3, etc.; to the tetrarch Herod, Matt 14:9; to the people of God, Rev 1:6;Rev 5:10; see also Dan 7:22, Heb 7:27; Matt 19:27; 1 Cor 6:2; 1 Pet 2:9; to death, Job 18:14; to leviathan, Job 41:34; to the devil. Rev 9:11.

The name was given in Israel first to Saul, then to David and Solomon, and then to the rulers of Israel and Judah until the Captivity. The divine plan was that God alone should be King. But provision was made for the natural desire of the people for a king like those of other nations. Deut 17:14; 1 Sam 8:9. He was to be a native Israelite, was not to multiply horses, nor take the people back to Egypt, nor gather a harem, nor accumulate great treasure; he was to keep a copy of the Law by him and study it, to fear God, be obedient, humble, and righteous.

After the transition period of the Judges, Samuel, the last of the class, anointed Saul, 1 Sam 9, as a special military leader was needed at the siege of Jabesh-gilead. 1 Sam 11. After Saul's disobedience and rejection, 1 Sam 15, Samuel anointed David. For the succeeding dates, etc., see the table at the side and articles under the names of the kings.

The kings over the Hebrews were regarded as the representatives of God, drawing their power and receiving their appointment from him. 1 Sam 10:1; 1 Chr 28:4. His office was sacred, 2 Sam 1:14; he could declare war, 1 Sam 11:7; levy taxes and demand service, 2 Kgs 5; he was the court of justice of the last resort, 2 Sam 15:2; held

KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH.

Showing their Order, Relative Length of Reigns, Contemporary Kings of Judah and Israel after the Division, etc.

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KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH.— Continued.

DIAGRAM OF THE KINGS. — The design of the foregoing table of the kings of Israel and Judah is to represent to the eye the order in which the kings reigned, and the dates and relative duration of their reigns. The period of Jewish history covered by the table is from b.c. 1095 to rounded with splenb.c. 586, or about 509 years.

Where the reigns were very short (as one month or six months), it was necessary to make the "lines" or "steps "representing their reigns somewhat out of the exact proportion. Frequently parts of years are counted in round numbers as if full years. For example, Nadab's reign is given as "2 years," though it was not probably two full years, but only parts of them. This will explain several of the figures given. Jehoshaphat associated Jehoram with him during the last two years of his reign, so "25 years" and Jehoram's "6 years" overlap each other.

the power of life and death, 2 Sam 14; had some charge of the public worship. 1 Kgs 8; 2 Kgs 23. The Hebrew monarchy was in a sense limited, 1 Sam 10:25; 1 Kgs 12:4; 2 Kgs 11:17, checks being furnished by the Mosaic law and the protests of prophets and people.

The king could appoint his own successor, 1 Kgs 1:30; 2 Chr 11:21, and generally chose the firstborn. Anointing with sacred oil was the main feature of the ceremony of inauguration. 1 Sam 10:1; 2 Sam 2:4.

Some of the officers of the court were, (1) the recorder, 2 Sam 8:16; (2) scribe, 2 Sam 8:17; (3) chief steward or treasurer, Isa 22:15; (4) "king's friend," 1 Kgs 4:5; (5) keeper of the wardrobe, 2 Kgs 22:14; (6) captain of the bodyguard, 2 Sam 20:23; (7) commander-in-chief, 1 Chr 27:34; (8) royal counsellor, 1 Chr 27:32; (9) officers over storehouses, trees, vineyards, cattle, and laborers. 1 Chr 27:25. The king's revenues were from crown-lands, flocks, tithes, tributes, customs, presents, trading, spoils of war, and enforced labor. 1 Sam 8: 1 Kgs 20; 2 Chr 27. During life they were surrounded with spendor and signs of honor; after death they were buried in the royal cemetery. 1 Kings 2:10.

KING'DOM. The term "kingdom" is applied to the territory ruled by a king, Num 32:33; to the right to be a king, 2 Sam 3:10, or to have power, Esth 4:14; to a country, without reference to the form of government, 1 Kgs 10:20; to supreme power, Dan 7:14; to the priests, Ex 19:6; to the government of God the Father among men, Dan 4:17; 499 to the rule of the saints, Dan 7:18; to Christ's rule on earth. 1 Cor 15:24, and God's universal dominion, 2 Chr 29:11; Ps 22:28; to the state of salvation, Col 1:13; to heaven. 2 Pet 1:11; to the rule of Satan. Matt 12:26.

KINGDOM OF GOD, OF CHRIST, OF HEAVEN. Whenever the last phrase, drawn, probably, from Daniel, is used in the N.T., the word "heavens" is in the plural. These terms are nearly, if not exactly, synonymous, though emphasis may be laid at different times on different characteristics or points of time. Such emphasis is laid on, (1) a life of righteous allegiance to Christ, entered by faith, lived by love, and crowned with glory. Matt 6:33, etc.; (2) the condition of things Christ came to explain, Luke 1:13; Acts 1:3, and to bring on earth. Matt 4:17; (3) Christ's rule over Israel, Matt 21:13; (4) the rule that God offered or committed to Israel, Matt 21:43; 1 Chr 17:14; (5) the state of things in the history of the Church during the conflict on earth of the so-called kingdom of grace, preparatory to the kingdom of glory. Matt 13; (6) Christ's rule in spiritual and eternal righteousness over the redeemed earth, Rev 12:10, in contrast with the world-powers, Dan 7:18; then the kingdom will destroy and take the place of the four monarchies, Dan 7, and have its glorious manifestation; (7) the visible glory of Christ, Matt 16:28; (8) the rule of God the Father over earth and heaven, Matt 6:10; (9) the heavenly state. Matt 8:11.

The kingdom of God is perfectly established in the heavens. Matt 6:10. The power and glory of the divine kingdom are shown in a measure in creation and providence. From the moral kingdom the earth has revolted. God re-established it in Israel, taking the kingship himself. Ex 19:6; Hos 13:10. He made the kingship visible in David, 1 Sam 16, and permanent in his family. Ps 89:20, Acts 20:28, Eze 23:36. The kingdom ceased as a visible power, with the loss of its inner spirit, when the nation lapsed and persisted in idolatry. The prophets foretold its restoration, Dan 2:7; Ps 2; Isa 2; Mic 4; Jer 23:5; Eze 34:23; John the Baptist came to announce it. Matt 3:2. Jesus Christ preached it. Matt 4:17; explained its character and demands, as, for instance, that its citizens must be holy, meek. Christlike, etc.. that when established it will be a condition of peace, purity, and glory, Matt 25:34; Mark 9:47; Acts 14:22; Christ came as the King to Jerusalem, Luke 19:38; comp. Luke 1:32, but was rejected, and took the kingdom from Israel. Matt 21:43. He taught its mysteries to the disciples, especially after his resurrection. Acts 1:3: and sent them forth to preach it. He declared that the time of its manifestation was known only to the Father. Acts 1:7. He laid the foundations of it on the day of Pentecost by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and rules it from his throne in heaven. The disciples went everywhere preaching the word of grace, 1 Thess 2:12, and persuading men to enter the kingdom by faith and holiness. Acts 8:12; Job 20:25; Acts 28:23. The kingdom is to be fully manifested at the coming of Christ, the Son of man. 2 Tim 4:1; Dan 7:13; Matt 13:43; Luke 22:29.

At "the end" Christ is to deliver up to the Father the mediatorial kingdom that he received at his ascension, Eph 1:20, after having reigned and put down all rule, authority, and power, and all enemies under his feet, 1 Cor 15:24; and the kingdom of God, without distinction of persons, shall be complete and for ever. Heb 1:8.

The Church is not the kingdom, though in some respects like it and preparatory to its full manifestation as a training school of saints. The members of the "invisible Church" are citizens of the kingdom of heaven.

The kingdom of God is the greatest of all institutions. Its King is God as (1) the universal Ruler: or as (2) the covenant God of a single nation called to keep alive the thought and fact of a divine kingdom; or as (3) the Mediator, Christ, redeeming and recognizing the revolted world, making manifest the kingdom of grace and power — the first mainly to his friends, the latter to his enemies; or as (4) the victorious Son of man, Emperor of the ransomed earth; or as (5) God in the consummated kingdom of the heavens. The Holy Spirit explains and enforces the constitution of the kingdom, and enlightens, persuades, and enables men 500 to enter it. The Bible is the history and prophecy of the kingdom. Citizenship begins with faith, its loyalty is love, its life is devotion to Christ and those who are Christ's. It is opposed by the chaotic kingdom of sin, darkness, and Satan. In a world as yet unredeemed the power of the kingdom is but dimly seen, but when all men are citizens, and Christ is manifest, and righteousness shall cover the earth, the kingdom shall be seen in its glory. The law of God is the common law of the kingdom; the Sermon on the Mount is its magna charta; the Gospels are its books of the King. The Acts of the Apostles shows the manner and method of those who used the Church and its powers to gather from a godless world those who were to be manifest in the revealed kingdom; the Epistles are the constitutional expositions, and the Apocalypse the prophetic history, of the triumphs, glory, and everlasting peace of the kingdom.

KINGDOM OF IS'RAEL. See Israel.

KINGDOM OF JU'DAH. See Judah.

KING'S POOL, Neh 2:14, perhaps the same as the Solomon's pool of Josephus. See Siloam.

KINGS, THE BOOKS OF. In the Hebrew canon they formed one book. They follow the books of Samuel, which are also called books of the Kings. Indeed, the whole story, from the beginning of Judges to the end of Kings, runs on as one unbroken narrative. First Kings takes up the Hebrew history at the time when David was old and stricken in years, b.c. 1015; Second Kings ends with the beginning of the captivity of Judah in Babylon, b.c. 586, and the burning of the temple, though notice is made of the liberation and death of Jehoiachin more than 26 years later. The two books deal especially with the theocratic promise of 2 Sam 7:12; see 1 Kgs 14:7-11; 1 Kgs 15:29; 1 Kgs 16:1-7 — the promise that God so faithfully kept, and that points forward to Christ, King and Conqueror like David, Prince of peace, Builder of the temple of God, and enduring King — and treat the history from the kingly side, and show the evil of schism and the worship of idols set up for political reasons, as by Solomon, 1 Kgs 11, and Jeroboam, 1 Kgs 12:26. Great stress is laid on the sin of idolatry as the breaking of the covenant with Jehovah that made Israel a peculiar people. The reign of Solomon is described, with a minute account of the glorious temple and the royal houses. The story of the revolt of the larger and more populous part of the land to form the kingdom of Israel comes next, and we are given exact knowledge, though in few words, of the idolatry of the northern kingdom, of the work of the great prophets among them — one of the most important parts of the history — of the frequent changes of dynasty, no less than 7, which furnished 19 kings, every one evil, during the 253 years of its existence. Captivity of the best of the land closed the history of this kingdom.

The same books also show that David's royal house continued unbroken through a series of 19 kings, reigning in Jerusalem about 130 years longer, till Judah was punished for its Idolatry. The wars of the rival kingdoms are described, and the disastrous results to each of calling in foreign help — results seen first in yielding to idolatry, and then in the uprooting of both peoples. The prosperity of a number of the pious kings of Judah is contrasted with the calamities visited on the wicked rulers of Israel. The history shows the way by which God had led his people from the time of their highest prosperity to the deepest fall, and that the only way up to the light of divine covenant favor is by the path of repentance. The books touch, of course, the history of neighboring nations, and the latest discoveries in ancient history are strikingly in agreement with the inspired record.

The author cannot be identified. Ancient tradition in the Talmud names Jeremiah; some have supposed them compiled by Ezra or Baruch. The books, which were originally one, have a very marked unity of design, plan, and style, and were first divided in the Septuagint. They are in large measure a compilation from existing documents. They have always had a place in the Jewish canon. The concise narrative is illustrated, enlarged, and confirmed by the books of Isaiah and Jeremiah. This 501 history is referred to in the N.T. Luke 4:25; Acts 7:47; Rom 11:2; Jas 5:17, and modern research is continually bringing new evidence to the truth of the history.

The style is quiet and simple in the main, though showing great vigor in the record of stirring events, and breaking forth occasionally into true poetic fervor.

KINS'FOLK-MAN, WOMAN. See Kindred.

KIR (wall, or place surrounded with walls), the city from which the Syrians emigrated when they came to settle in the region north of Palestine, and to which Tiglath-pileser sent the captive Syrians after the conquest of Damascus. 2 Kgs 16:9; Am 1:5; Hos 9:7. About the location of this city scholars disagree, some placing it in Armenia, on the river Kar, others identifying it with Carena, of Carea, in Media.

KIR-HAR'ASETH (brick-fortress), 2 Kgs 3:26, or KIR-HAR'ESETH, Isa 16:7, or KIR-HA'-RESH, Isa 16:11, or KIR-HERES, Jer 58:41, Eze 23:36, or simply KIR OF MOAB, Isa 15:1, a strong fortress in Moab, situated near the south-eastern shore of the Dead Sea. It is now called Kerak, and was in the time of the crusaders a place of great strength, almost impregnable.

KIRIATHA'IM (double city), Jer 48:1, Heb 12:23; Eze 25:9, or KIR-JATHAIM, Num 32:37;Josh 13:19, a fortified town east of the Jordan belonging to the tribe of Reuben, but afterward occupied by the Moabites.

KIR'IOTH, Am 2:2, See Kerioth.

KIR'JATH (city), a city belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, Josh 18:28, and probably identical with Kirjathiearim; perhaps Karyet el Enab, 7 miles north-west of Jerusalem.

KIRJATHA'IM. See Kiriathaim.

KIR'JATH-AR'BA (the city of Arba, Arba being its founder, or the city of four, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Adam having been buried there) is mentioned Gen 23:2; Gen 35:27; Josh 14:15; Acts 15:13, Josh 14:54; Num 20:6; Rev 21:11; Jud 1:10; Neh 11:25. See Hebron and Mamre.

KIR'JATH-A'RIM Ezr 2:25. See Kirjath-Jearim.

KIR'JATH-BA'AL (the city of Baal) Josh 15:60; Josh 18:14. Identical with Kirjath-Jearim.

KIR'JATH-HU'ZOTH (the city of streets) a city in Moab. Num 22:39.

KIR'JATH-JE'ARIM (The city of woods), one of the four cities of the Gibeonites, Josh 9:17, situated on the border of Judah and Benjamin, Josh 15:9; Josh 18:14, 2 Sam 20:15; but belonging to Judah, Josh 15:60; Jud 18:12; was also called Baalah, Josh 15:9, 1 Kgs 16:10, or Baale of Judah, 2 Sam 6:2, or Kirjath-baal. Hither the ark was brought from Beth-shemesh, 1 Sam 6:21; Zech 7:1, Lev 10:2, and here it remained until it was removed by David. 1 Chr 13:5; 2 Chr 1:4. The prophet Urijah, who was put to death by Jehoiakim, Jer 26:20, was born here, and after the Captivity the people of the city returned to it in numbers. Neh 7:29. PerhapsKuryet el Enab, but the Pal. Memoirs suggest Erma, 4 miles east of 'Ain Shems, as its site.

KIR'JATH-SANNAH (palm-city), mentioned in Josh 15:49, and identical with Debir (which see) and Kirjath-Sepher; now Dhaheriyeh.

KIR'JATH-SE'PHER (city of books), mentioned in Josh 15:15 and Jud 1:11, same as Debir and Kirjath-sannah; now Dhaheriyeh.

KIR OF MOAB. See Kir-ha-raseth.

KISH (a bow).

  1. A Levite, grandson of Merari. 1 Chr 23:21; 1 Chr 24:29.

  2. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:30; 1 Chr 9:36.

  3. Father of King Saul, of the family of Matri, son of Ner. 1 Sam 9:1, Num 1:3; 1 Sam 10:11, 2 Chr 11:21; Lev 14:51; 2 Sam 21:14; 1 Chr 8:33; 1 Chr 9:39; Neh 12:1; 1 Chr 26:28.

  4. A Levite. 2 Chr 29:12.

  5. A Benjamite and ancestor of Mordecai. Est 2:5. In Acts 13:21 he is called Cis.

KISH'I (bow of Jehovah), a Levite of the family of Merari, Acts 1 Chr. 6:44; called Kushaiah, margin, Acts 15:17.

KISHI'ON (harness) Josh 19:20, or KI'SHON, Josh 21:28, a city belonging to the tribe of Issachar, and assigned to the Gershonite Levites.

KISHON (bending, curved), or in 502 one place, Ps 83:9, KISON, the present Nahr Mukutta, a river which drains the plain of Esdraelon, passes through the plain of Acre, and falls into the Mediterranean. Only the lower part of it is perennial, fed by some springs at the foot of Mount Carmel. The upper part, rising on Tabor and Little Hermon, is dry in the summer, but becomes a torrent in the winter, rushing along with great impetuosity and transforming parts of the plains it traverses into swamps. The total defeat of Sisera, Jud 4:7, Jud 5:21, and the executions of the idol priests by Elijah, 1 Kgs 18:40, took place on the shores of this river.

KISS, a salutation of respect and affection used in most nations and from the earliest times. It was an established custom in Jacob's day. It is especially common in the East. It is spoken of between parents and children. Gen 27:26; Gen 31:28, Gen 31:55; Gen 48:10; Gen 50:1; Ex 18:7; Ruth 1:9, 2 Kgs 22:14; 2 Sam 14:33; 1 Kgs 19:20; Luke 15:20; between male relatives or friends. Gen 29:13; Gen 33:4; Gen 45:15; Ex 4:27; 1 Sam 20:41; between persons of equal rank, given sometimes honestly, sometimes deceitfully. 2 Sam 20:9; Ps 85:10; Prov 27:6; Luke 7:45; Luke 22:48; Acts 20:37. It was used as a mark of condescension, 2 Sam 15:5; 2 Sam 19:39; of respect, Luke 7:38, 1 Chr 2:46; 1 Sam 10:1; of reconciliation, Gen 33:4; 2 Sam 14:33; of leavetaking. Gen 31:55; Ruth 1:14; Acts 20:37; of homage, Ps 2:12; as an act symbolical of Christian love and brotherhood. Rom 16:16; 1 Cor 16:20; 2 Cor 13:12; 1 Thess 5:26; 1 Pet 5:14. Kissing the lips was a token of love; on the cheek or forehead or beard, a kiss was a sign of respect or a salute; on the hands or feet, of submission or inferiority, Luke 7:45. Sometimes the writing of the king was received with a kiss, and even the ground was kissed where the superior had stepped. Ps 72:9; Isa 49:23. Respect or adoration of idols was shown by kissing the image or the hand toward the image. 1 Kgs 19:18; Hos 13:2.

In the Christian Church the kiss of peace or holy kiss accompanied social worship during and long after apostolic days. The Greek and Russian Catholics kiss sacred images.

The Hebrew word is translated "ruled," Gen 41:40; "armed," 1 Chr 12:2; 2 Chr 17:17 and Ps 78:9; "touched." Eze 3:13. The Greek word translated "kiss" in Matt 26:48, and the parallel passages, Mark 14:44 and Luke 22:48, is translated "love" in all other places.

This extreme sign of affection and most familiar act has been used constantly in worship. The character of the act and its association gave a peculiar aggravation to the kiss with which the traitor saluted our Lord.

KITE, Lev 11:14, a rapacious

Kite. (Milvus regalis. After Tristram.)

bird (Milvus regalis) of the hawk family, mentioned as unclean by the ceremonial law. The common kite breeds 503 in Northern Palestine, and in winter is common in other districts. There is reference to this bird in Job 28:7, under the rendering Vulture, which see. The kite is said to have a vision remarkably keen, even for a bird of prey.

KITH'LISH, a town in the lowland of Judah. Josh 15:40.

KIT'RON (knotty), a town belonging to the tribe of Zebulun, but from which the Canaanites were not expelled, Jud 1:30.

KIT'TIM. Gen 10:4; 1 Chr 1:7. See Chittim.

KNEADING-TROUGHS. See Bread.

KNEE. Besides the literal use of the word, it is used figuratively. Taking children on the knees is adopting them. Gen 30:3; Jer 50:23. The knees were the seat of strength. Deut 28:35; Job 4:4; Isa 35:3; Nah 2:10; Heb 12:12. The head was put between the knees in abject supplication. 1 Kgs 18:42.

Bending the knee is the simplest and most striking way of making or declaring one's self inferior to another, and thus it came to be used in prayer, worship, or humiliation. 2 Kgs 1:13; Isa 45:23; Dan 6:10-11; Luke 22:41; Rom 11:4; Eph 3:14; Phil 2:10; Acts 9:40; Acts 20:36.

The common Hebrew word for blessing is a form of the word translated "knee," and it is used for invoking God to bless, Gen 28:6; Josh 24:10; for invoking God for his blessing, Gen 12:3; Matt 18:18; for celebrating, praising, and adoring God, 2 Chr 6:13; Dan 6:11; for invoking blessings on others in the name of God. Ps 129:8; Gen 48:9; for God blessing his creatures. Gen 1:22; for emphatic greetings among men. 1 Sam 15:13:for invoking evil. 1 Kgs 21:10; Job 31:30.

KNIFE (Heb. the waster), instrument for eating, separator (once, Prov 23:2), that which glides through (once, Ezr 1:9), an instrument of stone, Ex 4:25, margin; bone, copper, or bronze, afterward of iron; seldom used at meals, but necessary in killing and preparing animals for food or sacrifice. Lev 7:33-34; Lev 8:15,Lev 8:20, Lev 8:25; Ezr 1:9. They were used for sharpening pens. Jer 36:23. The razor was used for Nazarite purposes. Num 6:5, Gal 1:9, Acts 1:19; Eze 5:1. Curved knives were used for pruning-hooks. Isa 18:5. The lancets of the priests of Baal were probably pointed knives. 1 Kgs 18:28.

The word for "knife" ("waster") is usually translated "sword," sometimes "tool," Ex 20:25, "dagger," Jud 3:16, "mattock," 2 Chr 34:6 (margin "mauls"), and "axes." Eze 26:9. Of the cruel avarice of the wicked, Prov 30:14 says, "Their jaw-teeth are as knives to devour the poor."

KNOCK, a summons to open the door, Jud 19:22; Cant. Song of Solomon 5:2; Acts 12:13; used as a sign of importunity. Matt 7:7-8; Luke 13:25, and of the signs of the coming of Christ. Luke 12:36; Rev 3:20. Oriental customs require knocking or calling at the outer door or gate, but not at the doors of rooms. Creditors were required by Moses to stand without and call. Deut 24:10-11.

KNOP. Two Hebrew words are thus rendered. One, Ex 25:31; Ex 37:17, from the connection, probably denotes an imitation of the fruit of the almond used in the ornamental work of the sacred candlestick; translated "lintel," margin "chapiter" or "knop." Am 9:1; Zeph 2:14. The other describes carvings upon the cedar wainscot within the temple, and castings upon the brim of the brazen sea. 1 Kgs 6:18; 1 Kgs 7:24. There is reason to think that these knops were representations of the beautiful fruit of the colocynth. See Gourd, Wild.

KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL, TREE OF, a tree placed in Eden, the fruit of which man was not to eat or touch under penalty of death. It became the instrument of his temptation. Gen 2:9, 2 Sam 21:17; Heb 3:3.

KO'A (he-camel), probably a prince or leader, possibly a city of Babylonia; one of the enemies of Jerusalem. Ezr 23:23.

KO'HATH (assembly), second son of Levi; ancestor of the great Kohathite family of the priests. He lived 133 years. Gen 46:11; Ex 6:16, 1 Sam 30:18; Num 3:17, Gen 1:27; Num 26:57-58; Josh 21:5, Ruth 4:20, Acts 11:26; 1 Chr 6:1.

KO'HATHITE, one of the three great families of Levi, afterward divided into four branches. 1 Chr 23:12. They were Levites of the highest rank. In the 504 wilderness they encamped on the south side of the tabernacle, and had charge of the ark, table, the most holy parts of the tabernacle, etc., Num 3:29-31; Num 4:2, Num 4:34, carrying them on their shoulders after they had been covered by the priests. In Canaan the Kohathite priests had 13 cities in Judah, Benjamin, and Simeon, the rest of the family 10 cities in Ephraim, Dan, and western Manasseh. Josh 21:4-5, Rev 21:20. They were included in the courses arranged by David. 1 Chr 25-26. They helped bring the ark to Jerusalem. 1 Chr 15:5. They attained wealth and importance, kept the sacred treasures, and were judges, officers, and rulers. 1 Chr 23:12; 1 Chr 26:20-26. They also appear as singers. 2 Chr 20:19.

KOLAI'AH (voice of Jehovah).

  1. A Benjamite. Neh 11:7.

  2. Father of the false prophet Ahab. Jer 29:21.

KO'RAH. (baldness).

  1. Third son of Esau and Aholibamah, Gen 36:5, Gen 36:14, Gen 36:18; 1 Chr 1:35; named as son of Eliphaz. Gen 36:16.

  2. Son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, Ex 6:18, Ex 6:21, Ex 6:24, the proud and ambitious ringleader in the rebellion with Dathan, Abiram, and On, of the tribe of Reuben, against his cousins, Moses and Aaron. It was a widespread political rebellion against Moses, who held the leadership, to which the tribe of Reuben, the first-born, aspired, and from which they had been excluded, and an ecclesiastical rebellion against Aaron by Korah, a Levite, who, with his immediate relations, had been shut out of the higher priestly service to the inferior service of the tabernacle. With 250 men prominent in the congregation, they went to Moses and Aaron and impudently and impiously charged them with usurpation. Moses, astonished at the revolt — the most serious that had taken place — appealed to Jehovah by a test to be made the next day with censers. Then, after God had expressed his intention to destroy the people, and Moses and Aaron had interceded successfully for them, Moses warned them as to that which should follow; the earth opened and swallowed Dathan and Abiram and their followers and families, and fire from the Lord devoured Korah and the Levites who offered incense. Num 16; Num 26:9; 1 Sam 27:3. The children of Korah survived, and became prominent in the temple service. 1 Chr 6:22, 1 Chr 6:37; 1 Chr 9:19. Jude couples Korah (Core) with Cain and Balaam in his warning against false and self-seeking teachers, Jude 11.

  3. A son of Hebron, and descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:43.

KO'RAHITES, descendants of Korah. Some were noted as singers among the Kohathites. 2 Chr 20:19. Eleven of the Psalms bear their name: Ps 42, Ps 44-49, Ps 84-85, Ps 87-88. Others were doorkeepers. 1 Chr 9:17-19. One, Mattithiah, was over "things that were made in the pans," 1 Chr 9:31; probably the meat-offering.

KO'RATHITES. Num 26:58. See Korahites.

KO'RE (partridge).

  1. A Korahite, father of Shallum and Meshelemiah, temple-porters. 1 Chr 9:19; 1 Chr 26:1.

  2. A Levite porter, son of Imnah, who had charge of the offerings and of the east gate. 2 Chr 31:14.

  3. To be translated "Korahite." 1 Chr 26:19.

KOR'HITES. Ex 6:24; Num 26:58; 1 Chr 12:6; 2 Chr 20:19. See Korahites.

KOZ (thorn).

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:8. See Coz.

  2. A priest, head of one of the courses. 1 Chr 24:10. See Hakkoz. It was probably the descendants of this priest who could not find the record of their genealogy on the return from captivity, and were put from the priesthood. Ezr 2:61; Neh 7:63. Meremoth, of the family of Koz, repaired part of the wall. Neh 3:4, 2 Chr 11:21.

KUSHA'IAH. 1 Chr 15:17. See Kishi.

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