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I.

IB'HAR (whom God chooses), a son of David. 2 Sam 5:15,1 Chr 3:6; 1 Chr 14:5.

IB'LEAM (consuming the people), a city of Manasseh, but in the territory of either Issachar or Asher, Josh 17:11; Jud 1:27; 2 Kgs 9:27, and doubtless identical with Bileam. 1 Chr 6:70. It is proposed by some to identify Ibleam with Jelama, north of Jenin; by others, with Belnmeh.

IBNE'IAH (Jehovah builds), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 9:8.

IBNI'JAH (Jehovah builds), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 9:8.

IB'RI (Hebrew), a Merarite Levite. 1 Chr 24:27.

IB'ZAN (beautiful ?), a Bethlehemite who '"judged" Israel for 7 years after Jephthah. Jud 12:8, Neh 12:10.

ICE. See Crystal.

ICH'ABOD (where is the glory? or inglorious), the son of Phinehas, and grandson of Eli, the high priest. 1 Sam 4:21-22. He was born just after his mother received the sad tidings that her husband and father-in-law were dead and the ark of God taken by the Philistines.

ICO'NIUM (place of images?), a large and rich city of Asia Minor, in the province of Lycaonia. It was situated on the great Roman highway from Ephesus to Tarsus. Antioch, and the Euphrates, and near the confines of Phrygia and Pisidia, at the foot of Mount Taurus, in a beautiful and fertile country, about 200 miles south-east of Constantinople and about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean. Mountains covered with snow rise on every side, except toward the east, where there is an extensive plain. Its importance as a centre for the spread of the gospel is therefore obvious. Paul visited it on his first and second missionary journeys. Acts 13:51; Eze 14:1, Acts 14:19, Acts 14:21; Acts 16:2; 2 Tim 3:11.

It is now called Konieh, and has a population of about 30,000. In 1832, on the great plain before Konieh, the Turkish army was totally defeated and dispersed by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha, There are important ruins of the Saracenic period around the town.

IDA'EAH, or ID'ALAH, a place in Zebulun, Josh 19:15; possibly Ed-Dalieh, in Carmel.

ID'BASH (stout), a son of Abi-etam, 1 Chr 4:3.

ID'DO. The name occurs six times in the A.V., but is the uniform rendering of three different names.

  1. (timely). A prophet who is quoted as the author of an historical writing, 2 Chr 12:15; 2 Chr 13:22; also of visions against Jeroboam. 2 Chr 9:29.

  2. The grandfather of the prophet Zechariah. Zech 1:1, Zech 1:7.

  3. The father of Abinadab. 1 Kgs 4:14.

  4. A Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 6:21,

  5. (calamity). A Nethinim chief. Ezr 8:17.

  6. (favorite). A ruler of Manasseh. 1 Chr 27:21.

I'DLE, Matt 12:36, in this connection means morally useless.

IDOL, IDOLATRY. Whatever receives the worship which is due only to God is an idol. In a figurative sense, the word denotes anything which draws the affections from God, Col 3:5, and in a restricted sense, it denotes any visible image or figure which is consecrated to religious worship, Deut 29:17.

Idolatry consists (1) in worshipping as the true God some created object, as stars or animals or men; (2) in worshipping the Deity through the medium of symbolical representations, as pictures and statues. It is the greatest sin, and strictly forbidden in the first and second commandments. Ex 20:3-4; Deut 5:7; Deut 6:14-15; Deut 8:19-20; Jer 44:3-8.

The origin of idolatry is involved in obscurity, and goes back to the remotest antiquity. All the heathen are idolaters, and they embrace two-thirds of the human race. The ancient Chaldaeans worshipped the forces and phenomena of nature, as the sun and the moon and the stellar luminaries; the ancient Egyptians all sorts of animals, as bulls, beetles, even cats, monkeys, and crocodiles. The 399 ancient Greeks and Romans worshipped men and women representing all human virtues and vices. Some degraded nations have made the devil himself an object of worship, and made images of the spirit of evil for purposes of devotion. St. Paul gives the best description of the progress of idolatry, with its attending immorality, in Rom 1:18 ff. The Israelites showed a constant tendency to relapse into the idolatry of the surrounding nations. The principal heathen gods mentioned in the O.T. are Dagon, Molech, Baal, and Ashteroth.

History of Idolatry among the Hebrews. — The first definite allusion to idols in the Bible is in Gen 31:19, where Rachel is said to have stolen her father's household gods, the teraphim. To what extent Laban worshipped them it is difficult to say, for he also seems to have acknowledged the true God of Abraham. Gen 31:53. The Israelites became tainted with idolatry in Egypt. Josh 24:14. In the wilderness, so potent was the inclination in this direction that the people clamored till they induced Aaron, in imitation of the Egyptian Apis-worship, to make the golden calf, which is expressly termed an idol by Stephen, Acts 7:41. In the days of Joshua the worship of the true God seems to have been universal, but during the period of the Judges there was a vacillation between the worship of Jehovah and idolatry. Altars to Baal were erected, and, upon the whole, the people leaned toward the abominations of the neighboring nations, from which they were recalled only by special visitations. During the lifetime of Samuel and David a purer worship prevailed, but in the reign of Solomon idolatry was prominent. Solomon's own heart was turned away after other gods, 1 Kgs 11:4, and his wives had their own special heathen altars. By polygamy and idolatry the wisest man became the greatest fool, and left the world the sad lesson, "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity."

The subsequent history of the divided kingdom is the history of a contest between idol-worship and the worship of the true God. At the time of Elijah the whole kingdom of the Ten Tribes seemed to have bowed the knee to Baal, and there were only 7000 exceptions. After the Babylonish captivity the people were more steadfast, and despite the influence of the Greek religion remained true to the worship of Jehovah.

The causes of this vacillation and falling away into idolatry are not far to seek. To Israel alone were committed the oracles of God. The other nations had only the light of natural religion, and were, for the most part, grossly idolatrous. Constant contact with these peoples, the intermarriage of the common people and their kings with "strange women," 1 Kgs 11:4-5, and an innate propensity of depraved human nature for idolatry, sufficiently explain the frequent defections of the Hebrew nation from the worship of the one God.

It may well be expected, among a people one of the chief designs of whose existence was to conserve the doctrine of God's unity and spirituality, that idolatry would be visited with severe punishments. The first two commandments of the Decalogue forbid it. The individual offender was devoted to destruction. Ex 22:20. Idolatry was a criminal offence against the state and treason against Jehovah. A favorite figure of speech in the O.T. represents the Israelitish people as sustaining a relation of marriage with Jehovah, and idolatry is represented by the later prophets as a state of whoredom or conjugal infidelity. Hos 2:2, Hab 2:4, etc.: Eze 16:28; Jer 3:3. Whenever a good and God-fearing king came to the throne, as Josiah, Asa, Hezekiah, he considered it his first duty to wage a war against the altars, images, and pillars of idolatrous worship. The Canaanites are frequently referred to as meriting national extermination on account of their idolatry. Deut 12:29-31; Ex 34:15-16, etc. The prophets speak of idolatry as defiling and polluting in its influences, Eze 20:7, etc., and Isaiah ridicules the idea of divinity in false gods and idols by a reference to a piece of wood of which a part is thrown into the fire and a part shaped into an image. Isa 44:15-17.

The rites of idolatry were often obscene and licentious. When the people assembled around the golden calf in the wilderness for worship, they went about naked, or unruly, as some translate. Ex 32:25. Feasting and revelry were frequently connected with this worship.

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The Christian Church is exposed to the same peril of falling into the sin of idolatry as was the Jewish Church, although it assumes more refined forms, such as worship of saints, images, and relics, of wealth, glory and pleasure. Paul calls covetousness, or the worship of mammon, "idolatry." Col 3:5. The last verse in the First Epistle of John is the warning, "Little children, keep yourselves from idols."

IDUMAE'A, the Greek name for Edom. Isa 34:5-6; Mark 3:8. See Edom.

IDUMAE'ANS, OR E'DOMITES. The inhabitants of Idumaea or Edom, commonly called Edomites, were descendants of Esau (Gen 36:1, Ex 36:8), and dwellers in the clefts of the rocks in the Sinaitic peninsula. Jer 49:16. Petra, their stronghold in Amaziah's day, 2 Kgs 14:7, and chief city, was literally cut in the rocks, and the southern part of the country abounds in cave-dwellings. They had kings long before the Hebrews. Gen 36:31. Though they were of the same primitive parentage as the Hebrews, they were by no means friendly to them. They perpetuated the enmity between Esau and Jacob. They opposed their passage through their country when Israel came from the wilderness. Num 20:20-21. But finally they allowed a passage through their eastern border, accepting also Israel's offer to pay for provisions. Deut 2:28-29. The Edomites were conquered by Saul in the eaily part of his reign, 1 Sam 14:47, and by David likewise, 2 Sam 8:14; but at the instigation of Hadad they revolted against Solomon. 1 Kgs 11:14. Edom was for a long time a vassal of the kingdom of Judah, but again revolted, and after a struggle got its independence in the reign of Jehoram. 2 Kgs 8:20-22. The later kings attacked and were attacked by the Edomites. In the days of the Maccabees they were again active foes to the Jews, but Judas Maccabaeus defeated them and John Hyrcanus completely subjected them, compelling them to adopt the Mosaic Law. But out of this humbled but turbulent people came Antipater, who obtained the government of Judaea, b.c. 47; and his son was Herod the Great. The prophets foretold the desolation of the descendants of Esau and their country. Jer 49:17-18; Ob 8. Thirty ruined towns within three days' journey from the Red Sea attest their former greatness and their present desolation.

I'GAL (whom God redeems).

  1. The spy of the tribe of Issachar. Num 13:7.

  2. One of David's guard. 2 Sam 23:36; called Joel, 1 Chr 11:38.

IGDALI'AH (whom Jehovah makes great), a prophet in the days of .Jeremiah; mentioned only once. Jer 35:4.

IG'EAL (whom God redeems), a descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:22.

I'IM (ruinous heaps).

  1. Num 33:45. See Ije-abarim.

  2. A town in the south of Judah, Josh 15:29, which Wilton connects with Azem and identifies with el-Aujeh, near the Wady el-Ain.

IJ'E-AB'ARIM (ruins of Aharim), a station of the Israelites in the south of Moab, Num 21:11; Num 33:44; the same as lim, and near to the stream Zared.

I'JON (ruin), a city of Naphtali, lying in the north of Palestine; taken and plundered by the captains of Benhadad, 1 Kgs 15:20; 2 Chr 16:4, and again by Tiglath-pileser, 2 Kgs 15:29. Robinson identifies it with the ruin Dibbin, on the plain Merj Ayun, about 10 miles north-west of Banias (Cajsarea Philippi); Conder with el-Khidm.

IK'KESH (perverse), the father of one of David's guard. 2 Sam 23:26; 1 Chr 11:28; 1 Chr 27:9.

I'LAI (exalted), one of David's guard. 1 Chr 11:29.

ILLYR'ICUM, a Roman province of south-eastern Europe, lying along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, from the boundary of Italy on the north to Epirus on the south, and contiguous to Moesia and Macedonia on the east. On account of the insurrection of the Dalmatians, b.c. 11, the province was divided, and the northern portion called Dalmatia: the southern portion remained one of the Senate's provinces. Paul preached round about unto Illyricum. Rom 15:19.

IM'AGE. We are told that God "created man in his own image," Gen 1:26-27, and Christ is said to be "the image of God." Col 1:15; Heb 1:3. The term used of our Lord imports a complete likeness, like that which exists between a seal and its impression when the original is perfectly 401 preserved in the representation. Used of man, the term refers especially to man's knowledge and capacity to comprehend God, Col 3:10; to his original holiness, Eph 4:24, thus being like God in the tone of his moral nature; and to his dominion over the creatures of the earth. Gen 1:28. The word is usually employed to denote an object of idolatrous worship. See Man, Idol.

IM'AGE OF JEALOUSY. Eze 8:3, Song of Solomon 8:5. This was not any particular idol, but a general phrase for the idolatrous practices which excited the jealousy of Jehovah.

IMAGERY, CHAMBERS OF, Eze 8:12, or CHAMBERS OF IMAGES. The phrase refers to the custom, so extensively followed by the Egyptians and Assyrians, of painting pictures of the gods upon the walls of temples and other buildings.

IM'LA (filled), father of Micaiah, the Jehovah-prophet who foretold the defeat at Ramoth-gilead, 2 Chr 18:7-8; called Imlah, 1 Kgs 22:8-9.

IM'LAH. Same as preceding.

IMMAN'UEL, a Hebrew word signifying "God with us," and used as one of the distinctive titles of the Messiah. Isa 7:14; Matt 1:23. See Christ.

IM'MER (talkative), father of a priestly family. 1 Chr 9:12; Ezr 2:37; Neh 11:13.

IM'MER, apparently the name of a place in Babylonia. Ezr 2:59; Neh 7:61.

IMMORTAL'ITY. 1 Cor 15:53. The immortality of the soul was held as a popular belief by the Egyptians and other ancient nations, and taught by some of the greatest philosophers of the heathen world -Socrates, Plato, Cicero, and others. In the O.T. a belief in it is taken for granted, and the doctrine is not specially taught.

Particular passages and the cases of individuals are a sufficient proof that the Hebrew people believed in a future life. The translation of Enoch and the withdrawal of Elijah are evidences of this. One of the great questions dependent upon the central question of the book of Job is whether a man that dies shall live again. Job 14:14. A most emphatic affirmative answer follows in ch. Job 19:25, where the patriarch looks forward to another state of being for his vindication. Such passages as Ps 17:15 admit us to the assurance of the Hebrews on this point. The expressions "gathered unto his people," Gen 25:8, and "bury me with my fathers," Gen 49:29, so frequently recurring, are often interpreted to refer to the future life. The books of Moses do not refer specially to the immortality of the soul, but the doctrine is assumed; for otherwise the sacrificial and penitential system of the Mosaic Law would be unintelligible. The exhortations and commands thus made are based upon the certainty of rewards and punishments in a future state of existence. Moreover, God is frequently called, in the Mosaic writings, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and this designation our Lord uses as an argument for the immortality of the soul. Matt 22:32.

In the N.T. the doctrine of the immortality of the soul is definitely taught in close connection with the resurrection of the body.

Our Lord speaks of the future state of the soul, when it shall suffer either unending pain or enjoy unending bliss. Matt 25:46. The parable of Lazarus and Dives presupposes the same fundamental truth. In the Epistles of Paul we have prolonged references to this subject and discussions of it, Phil 1:21-23; 2 Cor 5:1-6; 1 Thess 4:13-18, and especially in the fifteenth chapter of First Corinthians.

In our English Version, God is said to be "immortal." 1 Tim 1:17. The word is the same as that translated "uncorruptible," Rom 1:23, and should be so translated here.

IM'NA (holding back), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:35.

IM"NAH (success).

  1. Asher's firstborn. 1 Chr 7:30.

  2. A Levite. 2 Chr 31:14.

IMPLEAD', a technical term; "to prosecute by a due course of law." Acts 19:38.

IM'POTENT, "sick." John 5:3; Acts 4:9; Acts 14:8.

IMPRISONMENT. See Punishments.

IMPUTE'. Rom 4:8. The Greek word of which this is a translation is rendered in our English Bible by no less than eleven different terms; for example, "reckon," Rom 4:4; "lay to one's charge," 2 Tim 4:16; "account." 402 Gal 3:6, The meaning of the word is "to put to the account of a person that of which he is or is not possessed." In the former sense, God is said to impute sin, Rom 4:8; in the latter sense the righteousness of Christ is said to be imputed to man on condition of the exercise of faith in Christ's sacrifice. Rom 4:11-24.

IM'RAH (obstinacy), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:30.

IM'RI (eloquent).

  1. A Judite. 1 Chr 9:4.

  2. Father of a wall-builder. Neh 3:2.

INCANTA'TIONS. See Divination.

IN'CENSE. Ex 30:8. This was a compound of frankincense and other gums or spices, the materials and manufacture of which are particularly prescribed. Ex 30:34-36. See Frankincense. It was the business of the priest to burn it morning and evening upon an altar specially erected for this purpose, and thence called the altar of incense. The preparation of it for common use was positively forbidden; neither could any other composition be offered as incense on this altar, nor could this be offered by any but the priest. The offering of incense was symbolical of prayer, or, as some think, rather of that which makes prayer acceptable — the intercession of Christ. See Altar, Censer, Frankincense.

Incense was considered sacred, and might be offered by the priest only. When King Uzziah attempted to use it in the temple, he was struck with leprosy. 2 Chr 26:16-21. Incense was offered to heathen deities and idols, Jer 11:12, 1 Kgs 11:17, and the angels offer it in heaven. Rev 8:3.

IN'DIA. The Persian king Ahasuerus is described as reigning "from India unto Ethiopia." Esth 1:1; Rom 8:9. The India of the book of Esther is not the peninsula of Hindostan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab, and perhaps Scinde. Later, India is reckoned among the countries which Eumenes, king of Pergamus, received out of the former possessions of Antiochus the Great. 1 Mace. 8:8; 11:37. The people and productions of that country must have been tolerably well known to the Jews. An active trade was carried on between India and western Asia. The trade opened by Solomon by his navy and through Hiram, king of Tyre, consisted chiefly of Indian articles. 1 Kgs 10:10-22.

INGATHERING, FEAST OF. See Tabernacles, Feast of.

INHER'ITANCE. In the O.T. we have no record of wills. The property-holder made a disposition of his property during his lifetime. There do not seem to have been very definite laws stipulating the exact proportion to be given to each heir. The sons had priority of right, and, in case there were no sons, the daughters became heirs. Num 27:8. As between the children of concubines and the children of legal wives, the latter seem to have received the whole inheritance, Gen 21:10; Gen 24:36, while gifts were bestowed upon the former. Gen 25:6. However, while these principles were acted upon by Abraham, we dare not make the sweeping assertion that they were of universal application. Jacob blessed both sons of his concubines and sons of his legal wives. Gen 49:1 ff. According to Deut 21:15-17, the first-born son received a double portion.

Believers have for their inheritance salvation, Heb 1:14, and the kingdom of heaven. Jas 2:5. They are declared to be "joint-heirs" with Christ and heirs of God because of their sonship. Rom 8:17.

INIQ'UITY. Gen 15:16. Whatever is done contrary to the law of God. To "bear the iniquity of the congregation," Lev 10:17, is to make that expiation or atonement which is a prerequisite to their forgiveness. Isa 53:6. "The mystery of iniquity," 2 Thess 2:7, should be rendered "the mystery of lawlessness."

INK, INK'HORN. Jer 36:18; Eze 9:2-3, Eze 9:11; 2 Cor 3:3; 2 John 12; 3 John 13. See Writing.

INN. In the Bible the "inn" was not a hotel in our sense. The word so translated means either a "lodging-place for the night" — not necessarily a covered place, but a mere station of caravans, where water could be obtained:such was the "inn" at which Joseph's brethren stopped, and where Moses was met by the Lord, Gen 42:27; Ex 4:24— or else a khan or caravanserai, which was, and is, a large square building enclosing an open court, in whose centre 403 is a fountain; the building contains a number of rooms. There is no provision for meals or feed for the animals; the travellers carry such necessaries with them. These caravanserais are often built by benevolent persons. Jer 9:2.

Inn.

Another kind of "inn" is that mentioned in the parable of the Good Samaritan. Luke 10:34. This had a host, who was probably paid to attend to the wants of travellers. And it was in one of the stables of a mere caravanserai provided for the horses of travellers that our Lord was born.

In modern Syria, in villages where there is no khan, there is a house for the entertainment of travellers, with a man appointed to look after it; for its accommodations, meagre as they are, payment is exacted, and the keeper likewise gets a fee.

INSPIRA'TION. By "inspiration," in the theological sense, is meant that influence of the Spirit of God upon the mind of the sacred writers by which he communicated the knowledge of religious truths or future events, and guarded them against error in delivering these truths to others, either orally or by writing. The prophets and apostles spake "as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." 2 Pet 1:21. They were, however, not merely, passive: they were in a condition of receptivity, and their faculties were raised to the highest exercise. The divine Spirit acted upon each author according to his individuality, and used him, not as a machine, but as a free and responsible agent. Hence the differences of style and mode of treatment. The Bible is both human and divine, like the person of Christ, whom it reflects.

There are various theories of inspiration, as to its mode and degrees, which lie outside of our purpose; but all Christians agree that in the Bible, and in the Bible alone, we have a full and perfectly trustworthy revelation of God, and that it is the infallible rule of our faith and practice.

INSTANT, IN'STANTLY, used five times in the A.V. for "urgent," "earnest." Luke 7:4; Luke 23:23; Acts 26:7; Rom 12:12; 2 Tim 4:2.

IN'STRUMENTS OF MUSIC. See Music.

INTERCES'SION, Heb 7:25, means interposition by prayer for others, 1 Tim 2:1, and implies wants and needs.

Our Lord, by reason of his highpriestly office, performs the functions of intercessor or advocate. 1 John 2:1. He performed this office while on earth. The most conspicuous instance is found in the so-called sacerdotal prayer, John 17, where intercession is made for the disciples, v.9, and for future believers, v.20. Our Lord continues to make intercession for us in his state of exaltation. Heb 9:24;Rom 8:34. The Holy Spirit is also said to make intercession. Rom 8:26. This is accomplished through his dwelling in the hearts of believers, praying in them and enabling them to pray. Believers also have the privilege of making intercession for one another and for the unconverted. Gen 18:23-33; 1 Thess 5:25 etc.

IN'TEREST. See Loan.

INTERPRETER. See Prophet.

IN'WARD, used in the A.V. of 404 Job 19:19 for "familiar," "confidential."

IPHEDE'IAH (whom Jehovah frees), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:25.

IR (a city), a Benjamite, 1 Chr 7:12; called Iri, v. 1 Chr 7:7.

I'RA (watchful).

  1. One of David's "chief rulers." 2 Sam 20:26.

2, 3. Two warriors of David. 2 Sam 23:26, 2 Sam 23:38; 1 Chr 11:28, 1 Chr 11:40; 1 Chr 27:9.

I'RAD (fleet), a grandson of Cain. Gen 4:18.

I'RAM (watchful), an Edomite chieftain. Gen 36:43:1 Chr 1:54.

IR-HAHE'RES, Isa 19:18. The Hebrew reads heres, "destruction;" the Syriac, Arabic and Latin, and several MSS. read chares, "the sun;" the Chaldee combines both readings; while the Septuagint reads "city of righteousness." These varied readings lead to various interpretations of this expression: (1) That it refers to the city of the sun, Heliopolis, in Egypt: (2) To a city destroyed, meaning one of the five cities noticed by the prophet; (3) To one of these same cities which should be preserved from destruction.

I'RI (watchful), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 7:7, 1 Chr 7:12.

IRI'JAH (Jehovah sees), a captain of the ward, who arrested Jeremiah. Jer 37:13-14.

IRNA'HASH (serpent city). In the margin it is called "the city of Nahash." 1 Chr 4:12. Jerome regards it the same as Bethlehem, but this is not probable. Van de Yelde proposes to identify the town with the village and ruins called Deir Nahhaz, east of Beit-Jibrin, on the road to Hebron.

I'RON. Prov 27:17. Some of the uses of this well-known and most valuable metal were probably understood at a very early period. Gen 4:22. We find it mentioned as the material for tools, Deut 27:5; 2 Kgs 6:6; weapons of war. 1 Sam 17:7; furniture, Deut 3:11; implements of husbandry, 2 Sam. 12:31: Jer 28:14; and chariots of war. Josh 17:16, etc. By "northern iron," Jer 15:12, probably is intended a species of iron-ore or manufacture remarkable for its hardness, found in a region bordering on the Euxine Sea, and of course north of Judaea. The expression "a land whose stones are iron," Deut 8:9, seems to describe an abundance of iron-ore, which is certainly true of the northern parts of Palestine, as shown by recent exploration. See Steel.

I'RON (pious), one of the cities of Naphtali, Josh 19:38; now Yarun.

IR'PEEL (God heals), a town of Benjamin, Josh 18:27, which the Pal. memoirs identify with the modern Ra-fa, 15 miles west of Jerusalem.

IRSHE'MESH (city of the sun), A place in Dan. Josh 19:41; probably Ain Shems. See Beth-shemesh.

I'RU (watch),the eldest son of Caleb, the faithful spy. 1 Chr 3:15.

I'SAAC (laughter), the son which Sarah bore to Abraham when he was a hundred years old. He was the second of the Hebrew patriarchs, and lived the longest of the three -to the age of 180. Gen 35:28. The origin of his name, which signifies "laughter" or "mocking," is given in Gen 17:17; Josh 18:12; Jer 21:6. The only event recorded of his earlier years is the most significant of his life for the history of the Church: he appears in the sacrificial scene as the victim. Directed of God, Abraham led his son to the mountain of sacrifice; Isaac was wholly unconscious of the disposition that was to be made of himself, and is represented in the narrative, Gen 22:1-13, as artlessly inquiring about the lamb to be offered, while he himself was to be the offering. The divine interposition intervened just as the gleaming knife was about to do its bloody work in the hands of the despondent father. Josephus says this event occurred when Isaac was 24 years old, but no indication of time is given in the narrative. This occurrence is considered typical of the later sacrifice of the only Son of God on Calvary. The record of Isaac's wooing and marriage is graphic and beautiful. Abraham sent his trusty servant Eliezer with gifts to Padan-aram for this purpose. He there found Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel, whom Isaac married at the age of 40. Gen 25:20. The account of their meeting and of the preliminaries of the marriage, Gen 24, gives a most charming picture of the manners of that early day.

Isaac seems to have been a prosperous agriculturist, Gen 26:12, and a rich herder, v. Gen 26:14, but was not without his 405 domestic troubles with Jacob and Esau. The promise that was given to Abraham of an indefinite increase of his seed, and of the blessings to flow from it to the world, was repeated to him. Gen 26:4. The N.T. refers to the intended sacrifice of Isaac, Heb 11:17; Jas 2:21, and contains an allegorical allusion to him and Ishmael. Gal 4:28, Gal 4:38.

The life of Isaac was a comparatively uneventful one, but in it we have the record of an honest, humble, and pious nomad. He excelled in the domestic traits of character; his disposition was peaceable, Gen 27:22; his married life is assumed to have been peculiarly tranquil and happy, and prominent in his biography stands out his tender regard for his mother. Gen 24:67.

Isaac is a type of the Saviour in the peculiar meekness and humility of his disposition. His signal patience and resignation at the intended sacrifice and the humility of his life are typical of the Son of man, who "opened not his mouth."

I'SAAC, twice used as a poetic synonym for Israel — i.e. the ten tribes, Am 7:9, Am 7:16.

ISA'IAH (Jehovah's salvation). Very little is known of the personal history of this eminent prophet. He was the son of Amoz. Isa 1:1; 2 Kgs 20:1. He began his prophetic career under Uzziah, probably in the last years of his reign, Isa 6:1, and continued it during the succeeding reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. Zech 7:1. This would throw his prophetic activity between the years b.c. 760 and 713 or 698, the year of Hezekiah's death. He was married and had two sons. 1 Kgs 7:3; Isa 8:3, etc. His wife is called a prophetess, and his children, like himself, had prophetical names emblematic of Israel's future. He wore a hair-cloth dress. Rev 20:2. He seems to have been held in high esteem, especially by Hezekiah. Isa 37:2; Isa 38:1. In addition to the prophecies which we have by this prophet, he wrote a history of Uzziah's reign, 2 Chron 26:22, which is lost. The Bible does not indicate the mode of his death. A Jewish tradition (in the Talmud), however, states that when nearly 90 years old he was sawn asunder in a hollow carob tree, in Manasseh's reign. Comp. Heb 11:37. The "mulberry tree of Isaiah," in the Kedron valley, near Jerusalem, marks the traditional spot of his martyrdom. "It signifies much that he was not a celibate, but had a family; that he was not a wanderer in the desert or over hill and vale, but had a house and home; that he lived not in a secluded retreat or remote village, but in the great city, at the capital and court of Judah, the seat of all Hebrew blessings and hopes, with all its social, political, and religious influences. He is the first prophet since Elisha of whom we have any details. Of himself, like the apostle John, he says almost nothing." He mentions, however, distinctly his divine call and commission. Heb 6:1-8.

Isaiah is the evangelist among the prophets of the O.T. He comes nearest to the N.T., and is more frequently quoted than any other. In him the Messianic prophecies reach their highest perfection. He draws the picture of the suffering and triumphing Saviour of Israel and the world, lineament after lineament, until at last he stands before us in unmistakable clearness and fulness. Isaiah is also one of the greatest of poets. "In him we see prophetic authorship reaching its culminating point. Everything conspired to raise him to an elevation to which no prophet, either before or after, could as writer attain. Among the other prophets each of the more important ones is distinguished by some one particular excellence and some one peculiar talent; in Isaiah all kinds of talent and all beauties of prophetic discourse meet together, so as mutually to temper and qualify each other; it is not so much any single feature that distinguishes him as the symmetry and perfection as a whole. . . . In the sentiment he expresses, in the topics of his discourses and in the manner, Isaiah uniformly reveals himself as the king-prophet." — Ewald.

Propetecy of. Isaiah is divided into two parts. The first, comprising the first thirty-nine chapters, is composed of a variety of individual prophecies against nations and denunciations of sin. Social vices, ch. Isa 3, and idolatry, ch. Isa 8, are rebuked without mercy. Assyria, Babylon, Isa 13:19 sq., Moab, Isa 15, Ethiopia, Isa 18, Egypt, Isa 19, and Tyre, Isa 23, pass successively before the prophet's mind, and their doom is predicted. The prophecies of Babylon's desolation and 406 of Tyre's ruin are among the most poetic and the sublimest passages in all literature. Chs. Isa 36-39 are concerned with Sennacherib's invasion and episodes in the life of Hezekiah.

The second part of Isaiah begins abruptly with the fortieth chapter: "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people." It takes its position at the close of the Babylonian captivity, and prophesies its close and the glories of the Messianic period of Israel's history. Of all the prophetic writings, none are more evidently inspired and truly evangelical than these last twenty-seven chapters.

Isaiah prophesies of the Messiah with distinctness and in a way that his predecessors had not done. We find prophecies of his birth, Isa 7:14; Isa 9:6, of his Davidic descent, Isa 11:1-2, etc. But the fullest as well as the most distinct of the predictions is contained in the fifty-third chapter. It may be called the Gospel of the O.T., on account of the graphic and faithful picture it gives of the Messiah, as the "Man of sorrows," suffering in the stead of mankind. This chapter of itself will stand always as an evidence of prime importance for the divine mission of Christ.

The authenticity of the second part of Isaiah, from chs. Isa 40-66, has been assailed by modern critics, who regard it as a later production of some "great unknown" prophet at the end of the Babylonian exile. But it is characteristic of prophetic vision to look into the far future as if it were present; and it makes not much difference for the divine character of the prophecy whether it was uttered 500 or 700 years before its fulfilment. The description of the servant of God who suffers and dies for the sins of the people in ch. Isa 53 applies to no other person in history, with any degree of propriety, but to Jesus Christ.

IS'CAH (she looks abroad), a sister of Lot. Gen 11:29.

ISCAR'IOT. See Judas Iscariot.

ISH'BAH (praising), a Judite. 1 Chr 4:17.

ISH'BAK (leaving behind), a son of Abraham by Keturah. Gen 25:2; 1 Chr 1:32. From him sprang the northern Arabians.

ISH'BI-BE'NOB (*dwelling in rest), a son of Kapha, a Philistine giant slain by Abishai. 2 Sam 21:16-17.

ISH'-BO'SHETH(man of shame), son and successor of Saul, was persuaded by Abner to go up to Mahanaim and assume the government while David reigned at Hebron, 2 Sam 2:8, 2 Sam 2:11; and all Israel except Judah acknowledged him as king. A severe battle soon after occurred at Gibeon, between the army of David, under Joab, and the army of Ish-bosheth, under Abner, in which the latter was utterly defeated. Abner was killed afterward by Joab. Ish-bosheth, thus deprived of his strongest supporter, was assassinated at noonday upon his bed after a brief reign of two years. 2 Sam 4:5-7.

I'SHI (saving).

1,2. Judites. 1 Chr 2:31; 1 Chr 4:20.

  1. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:42.

  2. A Manassite. 1 Chr 5:24.

I'SHI, Hos 2:16, signifying my husband, and BAALI, in the same passage, signifying my Lord, are figuratively used to denote that Israel once played the whore in serving idols, but would now serve the living God. The latter having been used in idol-worship, would become obsolete in this sense. Hos 2:17.

ISHI'AH (whom Jehovah lends), a chieftain of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:3.

ISHI'JAH (whom Jehovah lends), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:31.

ISH'MA (desolation), a Judite. 1 Chr 4:3.

ISH'MAEL (whom God hears). 1. The son of Abraham by Hagar. Previous to his birth, when his mother, being ill-treated by Sarah, had fled from the house, the angel of the Lord announced to her that her seed should be innumerable, and that her offspring should be of a belligerent and wild disposition: "He will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man's hand, and every man's hand against him." Gen 16:12.

Ishmael was circumcised at the age of 13. Gen 17:25. Subsequently, the jealousy of Sarah was aroused by Ishmael's mocking at Isaac, Gen 21:9, and she demanded that the offender and his mother be sent away from the home.

Abraham, granting Sarah's request, sent the bondwoman and her son off, after supplying them with water and bread. Departing, they went off into the wilderness of Beer-sheba. The stock 407 of water became exhausted, and the lad, overcome with fatigue and thirst, sunk down, apparently to die. God appeared for their deliverance, directed Hagar to a fountain of water, and renewed his promise to make of him a great nation. Ishmael remained in the wilderness and became a hunter. Gen 21:13-20. At length he married an Egyptian woman, and so rapidly did his progeny multiply that in a few years afterward they are spoken of as a trading nation. Gen 37:25.

The last we see of the first-born son of Abraham is at the cave of Machpelah, where he joins with Isaac in interring the remains of his father. Gen 25:9.

Ishmael no doubt became a wild man of the desert, the progenitor of the roaming Bedouin tribes of the East, so well known as robbers to this day that travellers through their territory must be well armed and hire a band of robbers to protect them against their fellow-robbers. Ishmael is also the spiritual father of the Mohammedans, who are nothing but bastard Jews. They apply to themselves the promise of a large posterity given to Ishmael. Gen 21:13, Gen 21:18.

  1. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:38; 1 Chr 9:44.

  2. A Judite. 2 Chr 19:11.

  3. A Judite, one of the captains who assisted Jehoiada to set Joash on the throne, 2 Chr 23:1.

  4. A priest who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:22.

  5. Ishmael, "the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal "of Judah, murdered, at Mizpah, Gedaliah, the governor of Judyea, appointed by Nebuchadnezzar, who, although warned by Johanan, had unsuspiciously received him. Every circumstance contributed to increase the baseness of the deed — the generous incredulity of Gedaliah, the fact that the murder took place immediately after a feast given by Gedaliah to Ishmael and other prominent Jews who had conspired with him, and the slaughter of all the attendant Jews and also of some Chaldaean soldiers. The secrecy of the deed was so profound that the town knew nothing of it until the second day, when Ishmael hypocritically received eighty devotees who came bearing offering and incense to the house of the Lord, and murdered all but ten of them, who purchased their lives by promise of money. This carnival of blood being over, Ishmael surprised the town and carried away to the Ammonites the inhabitants, including the daughters of Zedokiah. But Johanan followed him, met him in battle at "the great waters" — probably the Pool of Gibeon — defeated him, rescued the prisoners, and compelled Ishmael to flee to the Ammonites. See Jer 41; 2 Kgs 25:23, 2 Kgs 25:25. See also Gedaliah. The motives of Ishmael were partly corrupt, since he had been tampered with by Baalis, king of the Ammonites, and partly mistaken patriotism, bitter hatred, and craven fear of the Chaldaeans.

ISH'MAELITES, the descendants of Ishmael. Gen 37:25. The company of Ishmaelites to whom Joseph was sold are elsewhere called Midianites. Gen 37:28. Probably they were Ishmaelites who dwelt in Midian. It is evident, however, that the two names were sometimes applied to the same people, Jud 8:22, Jud 8:24, though we know the descendants of Midian were not Ishmaelites, for Midian was a son of Abraham by Keturah.

ISHMAI'AH (Jehovah hears), the ruler of Zebulun during David's reign. 1 Chr 27:19.

ISH'MEELITE. 1 Chr 2:17. See Ishmaelites.

ISH'MERAI (whom Jehovah keeps), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:18.

I'SHOD (man of renown), a Manassite. 1 Chr 7:18.

ISH'PAN (bald), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:22.

ISH'TOB (men of Tob), apparently a small kingdom which formed a part of the country of Aram, and named with Zobah, Rehob, and Maachah. 2 Sam 10:6, 2 Sam 10:8. See Tob.

ISH'UAH (quiet), the second son of Asher, Gen 46:17; called Isuah 1 Chr 7:30.

ISH'UA (quiet). A son of Asher. 1 Chr 7:30.

ISH'UI (quiet).

  1. The third son of Asher, 1 Chr 7:30; called Isui and Jesul Gen 46:17; Num 26:44.

  2. A son of Saul, 1 Sam 14:49:not elsewhere mentioned; he probably died young.

ISLES OF THE GENTILES. Gen 10:5; Zeph 2:11; Ps 72:10; 408 Eze 26:15. The Hebrew word signifies any land bordering on the sea, and "the isles of the Gentiles" refers to the coasts of the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas.

ISMACHI'AH (whom Jehovah supports), a Levitical overseer of offerings under Hezekiah. 2 Chr 31:13.

ISMAI'AH (Jehovah hears), a Gibeonite chief who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:4.

IS'PAH (bald), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:16.

IS'RAEL. Gen 35:10. The surname of Jacob, given to him by the angel at Peniel. Gen 32:28; Hos 12:3. It signifies "the prince that prevails with God." One of the finest hymns of Charles Wesley describes that mysterious wrestling with God in prayer, and begins,

"Come, thou Traveller unknown,

Whom still I hold, but cannot see;

My company before is gone,

And I am left alone with thee;

With thee all night I mean to stay.

And wrestle till the break of day.

* * * * * * * * *

"What though my shrinking flesh complain,

And murmur to contend so long?

I rise superior to my pain;

When I am weak, then I am strong;

And when my all of strength shall fail,

I shall with the God-man prevail."

We find the name "Israel" soon after used for the whole race of Jacob's posterity, Ex 3:16; also for the kingdom of the ten tribes, as distinguished from Judah, 2 Kgs 14:12; and again, in a spiritual sense, for the whole body of true believers. Rom 9:6; Jud 11:26.

Land of. See Canaan.

IS'RAELITE, a member of Israel.

ISRAEL, KING'DOM OF, a term not infrequently applied to the united kingdom before the revolt of the ten tribes, 1 Sam 13:1, 1 Sam 13:4; 1 Sam 15:28; 1 Sam 16:1; 2 Sam 5:12; 2 Sam 7:16; 1 Kgs 2:46; 1 Kgs 4:1; but the term was also used to designate the country of the ten tribes only during the dissensions which followed the death of Saul. After the death of Solomon and the revolt under Rehoboam, 1 Kgs 12:20, 1 Kgs 12:28, 1 Kgs 12:32, it was generally, but not uniformly, applied to the independent kingdom formed by the ten tribes in the north of Palestine; so that thenceforth the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," and the descendants of David, who ruled over Judah and Benjamin, were called "kings of Judah." In the prophets "Judah" and "Israel" are often mentioned. Hos 4:15; Ex 5:3, Hos 5:5; Jer 6:10; Zech 7:1;Hos 8:2-3, Isa 8:6, Hos 8:8; Hos 9:1, Hos 9:7; Am 1:1; Am 2:6; Num 3:14; Mic 1:5; Isa 5:7. The two kingdoms are sometimes called "the two houses of Israel." Isa 8:14.

The area of the kingdom of Israel is estimated at about 9000 square miles, or about the same as that of the State of New Hampshire, and its population at from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000. The kingdom lasted 254 years, b.c. 975-721. The capitals were Shechem, 1 Kgs 12:25, Tirzah, 1 Kgs 14:17, and Samaria, 1 Kgs 16:24. Jezreel was also a summer residence of some of its kings. Of the 19 kings, not counting Tibni, not one was a godly man. The idolatry introduced by Jeroboam was continued, notwithstanding the partial reformations of Elijah, Elisha, and other faithful prophets.

The following admirable summary of the history of the kingdom in four periods is given in Smith's Abridged Dictionary, by W.A. Wright.

"(a) b.c. 975-929.— Jerohofim had not sufficient force of character in himself to make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation. The army soon learned its power to dictate to the isolated monarch and disunited people. Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor of Jeroboam; Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of Baasha; Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri; and after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of half the people.

"(b) b.c. 929-884.— For forty-five years Israel was governed by the house of Omri. That sagacious king pitched on the strong hill of Samaria as the site of his capital. The princes of his house cultivated an alliance with the kings of Judah, which was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to the extinction of the house of Ahab, in obedience to the bidding of Elisha,

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"(c) b.c. 884-772.— Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation, awaited the kingdom of Israel under the dynasty of Jehu. Hazael, the ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal, and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between them, and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the Syrians, and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of Israel, captured Damascus and recovered the whole ancient frontier from Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last king of Jehu's line.

"(d.) b.c. 772-721.— Military violence, it would seem, broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was sufficient to ensure for his son and successor, Pekahiah, a ten years' reign, cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and trans-Jordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Israel. But Assyria, interposing, summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invader, Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty and by the capture, after a three years' siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed, and deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which theirforefathers won under Joshua from the heathen." After the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, b.c. 721, the name "Israel" began again to be applied to the whole surviving people. "Israel" is sometimes put for the true Israelites, the faithful worthy of the name. Ps 73:1; Isa 45:17; Jer 49:3; John 1:47; Rom 9:6; Jud 11:26. See Judah.

IS'SACHAR (God hath given me my hire).

  1. The fifth son of Jacob and Leah. Gen 30:18. The prophetical description of him uttered by his father, Gen 49:14-15, was fulfilled in the fact that the posterity of Issachar were a laborious people and addicted to rural employments, and were subject to the tributes of marauding tribes. See Tribes.

  2. A Korhite Levite. 1 Chr 26:5.

ISSACHAR, THE TERRITORY OF, included the great plain of Esdraelon, or Jezreel, and lay above that of Manasseh; its boundaries are given in Josh 19:17-23. It extended from Mount Carmel to the Jordan, and from Mount Tabor to En-gannim. Zebulun was on the north, Manasseh on the south, and Gilead on the east, across the Jordan. It contained 16 noted cities and their villages. Among them were Megiddo, Jezreel, Shunem, Beth-shan, Endor, Aphek, Taanach; and Jezreel stood almost exactly in the centre of the territory. This region was one of the richest and most fertile in Palestine. Many historical events of great interest took place within the territory. It furnished two kings to Israel — Baasha and Eiah. 1 Kgs 15:27; 1 Kgs 16:6. Their portion of Palestine is still among the most fertile of the whole land. See Jezreel, Plain OF, and Palestine.

ISSHI'AH (whom Jehovah lends).

  1. A descendant of Moses, 1 Chr 24:21; called Jeshahiah 1 Chr 26:25.

  2. A Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr 24:25.

IS'UAH (quiet), second son of Asher. 1 Chr 7:30.

IS'UI (quiet), third son of Asher. Gen 46:17.

ITAL'IAN BAND, a cohort, composed of native Italians, stationed at Caesarea. Acts 10:1. Cornelius was their centurion.

IT'ALY, a well-known country in the south of Europe, and including the 410 whole of the peninsula west of the Adriatic Sea. It has an area of about 100,000 square miles and a population of over 25,000,000. It is named in the N.T. only three times: (1) as the country from which Aquila and Priscilla were expelled. Acts 18:2; (2) Paul sailed for Italy, Acts 27:1; and (3) in the Epistle to the Hebrews some of that country joined in the salutations sent. Heb 13:24.

ITH'AI (with Jehovah), a Benjamite, one of David's guard, 1 Chr 11:31; called Ittai 2 Sam 23:29.

ITH'AMAR (land of palms), a son of Aaron. Ex 6:23. After the violent death of Nadab and Abihu for their act of desecration. Lev 10:1-2, he and Eleazar were alone left for the priestly office. Lev 10:6, Eze 10:12. Eli was the only high priest of the line of Ithamar, 1 Chr 24:6, and, in fact, his house does not seem to have exercised as much influence as that of Eleazar. 1 Chr 24:4.

ITH'IEL. (God is with me).

  1. A Benjamite. Neh 11:7.

  2. A friend of Agur. Prov 30:1.

ITH'MAH (orphanage), one of David's guard. 1 Chr 11:46.

ITH'NAN (bestowed), one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah, on the borders of the desert. Josh 15:23. Wilton says it is identical with el-Hora, east of Beer-sheba; but this is only conjectural.

ITH'RA (abundance), David's brother-in-law. 2 Sam 17:25. See Jether.

ITH'RAN (abundance).

  1. A Horite. Gen 36:26; 1 Chr 1:41.

  2. An Asherite. 1 Chr 7:37.

ITH'REAM (residue of the people), a son of David, born at Hebron. 2 Sam 3:5; 1 Chr 3:3.

ITH'RITE, THE, the designation of two of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:38; 1 Chr 11:40.

IT'TAH-KA'ZIN (time of the judge), one of the landmarks of Zebulun, Josh 19:13.

IT'TAI (in time).

  1. A native of Gath, and high in position in the army of David during the rebellion of Absalom. 2 Sam 18:2. He was sincerely attached to David. 2 Sam 15:19-22. He reminds us of the attachment of Ruth to Naomi, and his words of devotion, 2 Sam 15:21, are only inferior to hers, Ruth 1:16, for pathos.

  2. One of David's guard. 2 Sam 23:29.

ITURAE'A (an enclosed region), a small province on the north-western border of Palestine, and at the southeastern base of Hermon, between Trachonitis and Galilee. It derived its name from "Jetur," a son of Ishmael. Gen 25:15; 1 Chr 1:31; 1 Chr 5:19. This district is now called Jedur, and is about 17 miles from north to south by 20 from east to west. The greater portion is a fine plain, with a rich and well-watered soil; the sub-stratum is black basalt. The district contains 38 villages, 10 of them entirely desolate; the others have a few peasant families living in wretchedness and amid ruins, Philip was "tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis." Luke 3:1.

I'VAH, or A'VAH, an Assyrian or Babylonian city mentioned with Hena and Sepharvalm, 2 Kgs 18:34; 2 Kgs 19:13; comp. Isa 37:13, and with Babylon and Cutha, 2 Kgs 17:24. Rawlinson identified it with Hit, on the Euphrates.

I'VORY (tooth), the substance of the tusk of the elephant. From the meaning of the Hebrew word, it is seen that the Jews of Solomon's time understood that it was obtained from a tooth, not from a horn. That which is brought from Ceylon is regarded as most valuable. It was among the merchandise of Tyre, Eze 27:15, and Tarshish. 1 Kgs 10:22. Solomon's throne was built of it, 2 Chr 9:17, 2 Chr 9:21; and so lavishly was it used in various kinds of architecture and in cabinet-work as to justify the expressions found in Am 3:15; Am 6:4 and Eze 27:6.

"Ivory palaces," Ps 45:8, probably refers to boxes richly wrought or inlaid with ivory, in which perfume was kept.

IZ'EHAR. Num 3:19. See Izhar.

IZ'HAR (oil), a son of Kohath, and grandson of Levi. Ex 6:18, Ex 6:21; Num 3:19; Mark 16:1; 1 Chr 6:2, 1 Chr 6:18.

IZ'HARITES, descendants of Izhar.

IZRAHI'AH (whom Jehovah causes to sparkle), a chieftain of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:3.

IZ'RAHITE, THE, the designation of one of David's captains, 1 Chr 27:8; probably a Zahrite.

IZ'RI (built), a Levite, leader of the fourth course. 1 Chr 26:11.

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