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FA'BLE is a form of narrative in which plants and animals, or even lifeless objects, are represented as endowed with some of the attributes of man, as the gift of speech and rational action. Sometimes the fable is designed to teach moral and practical truths, and sometimes only to interest and entertain. It differs from the parable in this: what the fable relates is not real and cannot occur, as trees speaking, Jud 9:8; while that which the parable relates may and does take place, as the sower sowing seed in soil of various degrees of productiveness. Matt 13:3. The fable was often used in ancient heathen as in modern Christian literature. In the Bible there is only one fable, Jud 9:7-15, where Jotham represents the trees as seeking a king and asking, one by one, the olive and others to reign over them, till the bramble finally consents. This is often erroneously called a parable.

Fables are referred to in the N.T., 1 Tim 1:4, etc., as "cunningly devised," etc. Here "fables" mean false stories or foolish systems and opinions.

FACE. Gen 3:19. See Blackness. Whatever of a thing is most exposed to view is called its face; hence we read of the face of the country, field, gate, house, wilderness, water, sky, etc.

"Face," when applied to God, denotes, (1) His omniscience, 1 Sam 26:20, and to "provoke him to the face" is to act very openly and impudently Isa 65:3. (2) The brighter displays of his glory, which cannot be enjoyed in this world. Ex 33:20; 1 Tim 6:16. (3) His favor and love, and the gracious displays thereof: this is always meant when his face is said to "shine," or it is represented as a mercy to behold and enjoy it or a misery to be deprived of it. 2 Chr 30:9; Ps 31:16; Ps 80:7; Dan 9:17. (4) His wrath, and the providential displays thereof. Ps 34:16. Christ's "face" denotes, (1) His person and office as the image of the invisible God. 2 Cor 4:6. (2) His gracious, glorious, or terrible appearances. Rev 20:11.

FAIR HA'VENS, a harbor on the southern shore of the island of Crete. Acts 27:8-10,Acts 27:21. It is about midway between the eastern and western ends of the island, and is still known as Kalous Limionas, or "Fair Havens." It is a fair winter harbor, though not as good as Phoenice, 40 miles westward.

FAIRS. The word occurs in Eze 27:12, Eze 27:14, Eze 27:16, Eze 27:22, Eze 27:27, Eze 27:33. In v. 33 the Hebrew word is translated "wares," and this is probably the true meaning in all the passages.

FAITH. The word in the N.T. denotes

(1) the truth of the gospel of Christ and the kingdom of God. Acts 6:7; Rom 1:5; Gal 1:23; 1 Tim 3:9; Jude 3 ("the faith which was once delivered to the saints").

(2) The act by which we lay hold of and appropriate the truths of the gospel and Jesus Christ, and rely for salvation upon the work done by him in our stead. This is the prevailing sense of the word. Matt 8:10; John 3:16; Rom 1:16, etc., and all through John and the Pauline Epistles.

The verb corresponding to the noun "faith" is "believe." Acts 16:31. The word occurs only a few times in the O.T., but the principle is there designated by other terms, such as to "look" to God, Isa 45:22, to "wait on" him, Ps 27:14, and to "trust" in him, Nah 1:7. Abraham is "the father of the faithful," because unbounded trust in God was the very essence of his piety. Comp. Rom 4:1. Paul derives the theme of his Epistle to the Romans from the passage of Habakkuk: "The just shall live by faith." Rom 1:17; comp. Hab 2:4. The Epistle to the Hebrews gives a bright catalogue of the heroes of faith under the old dispensation. Heb 11:1 ff.

The nature of saving faith is threefold. It includes a conviction of the understanding, assent of the will, and trust of the heart. The principal element of faith is trust when its object is Christ. But it is impossible for us to trust in him without first being convinced 299 of the genuineness of his claims. We believe a thing when we are assured of its reality; in a person when we add to this assurance trust. Faith apprehends Christ, and takes actual hold of him and all his benefits. Hence he who believes in Christ has already eternal life. John 3:36. Faith is opposed to doubt, Matt 21:21, and to sight, 2 Cor 5:7. Things which are the objects of faith we do not see. Heb 11:1.

The importance of faith consists in this-that without faith we cannot become partakers of the merits and righteousness of Christ. As by the hand we lay hold of a treasure, and as by the eye we perceive the beauties of scenery, so by faith we lay hold of Christ. We who come within hearing of the gospel must exercise faith in order to become heirs of salvation. By faith we "put on" Christ. It is by faith that we are justified, and not by works. The work of salvation was all accomplished when the Saviour uttered the words, "It is finished." But a living faith will be accompanied by works, as much as a rose must diffuse perfume, and a good tree bring forth good fruit. As our Lord said, "Thy faith hath made thee whole," so Paul says, "By grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God," Eph 2:8. But "faith without works is dead." Jas 2:26. Faith is operative in love. Gal 5:6.

The "faith of God," Rom 3:3, means his faithfulness.

FAITH'FULNESS is a divine attribute, and denotes the certainty of the accomplishment of all that the divine Being has declared. Num 23:19; Ps 89:1, Ps 89:33-34; Heb 10:23.

FAL'LOW-DEER. "Deer" is

The Bubale, or Fallow-Deer of Scripture. (After Wood.)

a general name of a class of quadrupeds, as the stag, fallow-deer, reindeer, elk, etc., but the animal is never mentioned by this generic name in the Bible. 300 The deer mentioned in 1 Kgs 4:23 was, by the Levitical law, a clean animal. Deut 14:5. It was formerly supposed to be the European red deer, called fallow from its pale-red or yellow color. Tristram and other late authorities make it the bubale (Alcelaphus bubalis) or "wild cow" of the Arabs. This deer, from its heavy, calf-like build, was classed by Orientals among cattle. It was valued for its venison, is still found in northern Africa and Arabia, and probably once dwelt in Palestine.

Lieut. Conder has recently found a kind of deer in the vicinity of Mount Carmel which is called by the Arabs yachmur — precisely the Hebrew word translated "fallow-deer." Naturalists who have examined the skin which Lieut. Conder brought to England state that this animal does not differ perceptibly from the European roebuck, which is therefore seemingly the animal that furnished Solomon's table with choice venison. See Roe.

FAL'LOW GROUND, a field ploughed, but unsowed (figuratively, Jer 4:3; Hos 10:12; literally, "tillage." Prov 13:23). See Agriculture.

FAL'LOW YEAR. See Sabbatical Year.

FAMIL'IAR SPIR'ITS (from the Latin familiaris, "a household servant"). The phrase expressed the idea that necromancers had spirits at their command to wait upon them as servants. See Divination.

FAM'INE. We have an account of at least 8 famines in Palestine and the neighboring countries. They were among the judgments of God for national sins, and were often prophetically announced. Two famines occurred in the lifetimes of Abraham and Isaac, Gen 12:10; Ex 26:1; another in Jacob's time, Gen 41:56; and the most remarkable one was that of 7 years while Joseph was governor in Egypt. But in severity it was surpassed by the famine of 2 Kgs 7, when people resorted to the dunghills for food.

Two very severe and prolonged seasons of famine in Egypt have been noted by Arabian historians — one in a.d. 1200, the other lasting from a.d. 1064-1071.

Famine was produced by a variety of causes, as when the Nile did not overflow in Egypt, or rains did not fall in Judaea, at the customary season, or when caterpillars, locusts, or other insects destroyed the fruits.

FAN. This was probably a broad shovel used to toss the threshed grain against the breeze for the purpose of separating the chaff from the grain. Isa 30:24. The "shovel" mentioned in the same passage seems to have been a


narrower implement, or, as some think, a fork or bread-basket used in a similar way. Jer 15:7; Matt 3:12. See Thresh, Winnow.

FAR'THING. Two Greek words are translated " farthing" in the N.T.:(1) the kodrantes, worth about three eighths of a cent; (2) the assarion,


A Farthing

worth about a cent and a half. See Money.

FASTS, There was only one day appointed as a fast by the Mosaic code, the day of atonement, Lev 16:29, sq., where the expression "Ye shall afflict your souls" probably refers to fasting. During and after the Babylonian captivity four special fast-days were observed. Zech 7:5. Subsequent tradition relates that fasts commemorated the breaking of the tables of the Law by Moses, Ex 32, and the siege of Jerusalem, Jer 52:4, sq.; the return of the spies. Num 13:25; the burning of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar; the sack of Jerusalem and the death of Gedaliah, 2 Kgs 25:13, sq.; and the reception by Ezekiel and others in Babylon of the intelligence of the destruction of Jerusalem.

Public fasts were proclaimed at special seasons by Nehemiah, Neh 9:1, Jehoshaphat, 2 Chr 20:3, the Jews at Shushan, Esth 4:16, and others. The appointment of fasts by individuals for themselves was not uncommon, Neh 1:4; 2 Sam 1:12, and also, in the N.T., Luke 2:37, etc.

Fasts indicate humility and a sense of dependence on the Almighty, and were observed on solemn occasions, such as the death of a prominent personage (Saul, 1 Sam 31:13; 2 Sam 1:12), an impending calamity, Jon 3:5; Esth 4:3, before a war, 2 Chr 20:3; Jud 20:26, and before a journey. Ezr 8:21.

The Jewish fasts were kept with great strictness, and generally from evening to evening. The body was clothed with sackcloth, ashes were sprinkled on the head, the hands were left unwashed, the head was unanointed, and the air was filled with the voice of supplication and the sobs of grief and penitence. Isa 22:12; Joel 2:15-17.

At the time of our Lord fasting was a very prominent religious observance and the occasion of much hypocrisy and parade. Matt 6:16. The fast spoken of in Acts 27:9 was the day of atonement. The weekly fasts were upon the second and fifth days of the week. Fasts were not observed upon the Sabbath, the new moons, the great festivals, or the feasts of Purim and dedication. John the Baptist and his disciples fasted, but we have no account that our Lord observed periodic fasts, although that he fasted is proved by Matt 4:2; cf. Matt 9:14. After the Lord's ascension Christians fasted, 2 Cor 6:5, and the N.T. recommends fasting as a means of Christian growth. Mark 9:29; 1 Cor 7:5, etc.

The N.T. leaves the times of fasting to the full choice and appointment of the individual. In Matt 9:15 our Saviour teaches that fasting follows and springs from affliction, rather as a consequence than a cause, and then may be a means of grace.

FAT. The Hebrews distinguished between the suet or pure fat of an animal and the fat which was intermixed with the lean. Neh 8:10. Some parts of the former were forbidden to be eaten in the case of animals sacrificed, Lev 3:3, Lev 3:9, Lev 3:17; 1 Kgs 7:3, Lev 7:23, on the ground that the richest part of the animal belonged to Jehovah. Lev 3:16. The Hebrews had, however, their stalled oxen, appreciating the luxury of fat meat. 1 Kgs 4:23; Luke 16:23.

FAT (i.e. "vat"). See wine-press. The word is used in the A.V. only in Joel 2:24; Joel 3:13.

FA'THER. This word is used in the Bible in several senses besides its usual one.

  1. It is applied to any ancestor, and in the plural to ancestors in general. Dan 5:2; Deut 1:11; Matt 23:30.

  2. As a title of respect, especially to kings, prophets, and priests. Jud 17:10; 1 Sam 10:12; 2 Kgs 2:12; Acts 7:2; 1 Cor 4:15. Also of protector or guardian. Ps 68:5.

  3. The author, source, or beginning of anything. Gen 4:21; Rom 4:12.

  4. God is called "Father." Deut 32:6; Ps 89:26; Matt 6:4,Matt 6:9; Rom 1:7.

The position of father was one of great dignity and authority. Laws were enacted to secure this. Ex 22:17; Lev 20:9. The father had, however, no power over the life of his child. Deut 21:18-21. Both his blessing and his 302 curse were especially efficacious. Gen 9:25-26; Gen 27:27-40. The fifth commandment was the only one to whose obedience a blessing was especially promised. Ex 20:12; Eph 6:2. Disrespect toward parents was one of the worst of crimes. Ex 21:15-17;1 Tim 1:9. The father, as the head of the family, was, in patriarchal times, the priest. Gen 8:20; Job 1:5. "It is a beautiful circumstance in the law of Moses that this filial respect is exacted for the mother as well as for the father." See Children.

FATH'OM. See Measures.

FEAR. "The fear of the Lord" is a common expression in the O.T. Job 28:28; comp. Acts 9:31. It refers to awe and reverence for piety rather than to dread of God. The love of God is not so plainly revealed in the O.T. as in the New. The attributes of God's holiness and power are most strongly emphasized. Hence the frequent exhortation to fear God.

Fear has its fit place also under the gospel dispensation. Paul exhorts Christians, Phil 2:12, "work out your own salvation with fear and trembling." If it is a "fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God," Heb 10:31, and "if the righteous scarcely be saved," 1 Pet 4:18, we ought ever to remember the punishment due to us for sin and God's abhorrence of it, and in view of the punishment pass our time in a proper state of godly fear, which, however, is not slavish, but consistent with assurance of faith and with love for God as our Father. Comp. Rom 8:15; 1 John 4:18.

FEAST, Luke 14:13, FEASTS. Lev 23:2. We often read in the Bible of feasts or sumptuous entertainments, and of the customs pertaining to them. They were generally given to celebrate or commemorate some important or joyful event. Gen 21:8; Gen 29:22;Gen 40:20; Eccl 10:19. On such occasions the guests amused themselves with stories or sallies of humor, and sometimes with enigmatical questions, Jud 14:12, or dancing, Mark 6:22, and music, Isa 5:12; Isa 24:7-9.

As among the Romans, so among the Jews at the time of our Lord, the guests at feasts reclined upon couches, and did not sit upright, as we do.

The most honorable place or seat, or "uppermost room," as it is called,Matt 23:6, or "highest" or "chief room," Luke 14:7-8, was the middle couch, and the middle of that; and lying below one at table is to lie as it were in or upon his bosom. John 13:23. See Eating.

The "ruler" or "governor of the feast," John 2:8, was the superintendent of the servants, and at the same time the one who controlled all the arrangements for the festivity. It was his office to test the meats and drinks that were offered to the guests. John 2:9.

Feasts, Religious. The stated religious festivals among the Jews may be divided into the following classes:(1) The Sabbath, the feast of new moons, the sabbatical year, and the year of jubilee. (2) The Passover, Pentecost, and the feast of tabernacles. (3) The feasts of Purim and of the dedication. The first two classes of feasts were established by the Law of Moses; the last did not come into existence till after the Babylonish captivity. At each of the feasts of the first two classes the males were to "appear before the Lord" and to make their offerings with rejoicing. Deut 27:7.

There was a suspension of labor on the principal feast-days. Ex 12:16; Lev 23:21,Lev 23:24, etc. But inasmuch as the festival of the Passover lasted through a whole week, only the first and the seventh days were included under this restriction. Ex 12:16. A particular description of each feast is given in its proper place.

Feasts of Charity or Love. These are mentioned in Jude 12, and are supposed to refer to the social interviews established among the early Christians, in imitation, perhaps, of the Jewish, Deut 12:18; Deut 26:12, or Gentile observances of like character. They were held in the assembly or church, either after or before the celebration of the Lord's Supper. Similar observances are customary at the present day among some Christian denominations.

FEET. To remove the shoes from the feet was regarded as a token of reverence, and also of mourning. Ex 3:5; Eze 24:17. It is supposed that the priests officiated with naked feet, 303 and in modern times, among heathen nations and some nominal Christians, it is customary to enter the place of worship with the shoes off and the feet washed. To wash the feet was a common mark of hospitality, Gen 18:4, and was usually done by a servant, 1 Sam 25:41; John 13:5-6. This custom still prevails in the East. At Smyrna the washing of the priests' feet by the bishop is a distinct and very imposing ceremony, and is designed to be an exact imitation of Christ's example. See Clothes, Dust, Foot.

Foot-chains are supposed to be meant by the word "chains" in Num 31:50 and Isa 3:19. They were worn around the ankles, and caused the wearer to observe a certain measured pace. The same ornaments are now worn by the women of Syria and Arabia. Little rings are hung upon them, which tinkle when the foot is in motion, and they are often richly ornamented.

FE'LIX (happy), the Roman governor of Judaea, a.d. 52-60, was a profligate and cruel man. Acts 23:26. He was married three times. His third wife was Drusilla, whom he persuaded to leave her husband and marry him, and they were residing at Caesarea when Paul was brought there in custody.

He is specially known for the manner in which he treated the exhortations and warnings of Paul, Acts 24:26, who preached before him a most practical sermon, arraigning his crimes and urging upon him the duty of repentance in view of future judgment.

The sermon made an impression, for "Felix trembled," but it was transient. He kept the apostle imprisoned for 2 years, and postponed the inquiry respecting his own salvation until a "convenient season," which, so far as we know, never came. Felix was superseded by Porcius Festus 2 years after this event, and tried at Rome before Nero for malversation of office, but escaped punishment through the intervention of Pallas, the freedman of Claudius and his successor, Nero.

FENCED CIT'Y. See Cities.

FER'RET, an animal of the weasel family tamed in Europe and used for catching rats. It has long been agreed that "the creature which sighs or groans" (Heb. anokah, "to groan") is not the ferret. Lev 11:30. Older writers considered it the shrew-mouse or the hedgehog, both of which abound in Palestine. The belief is now almost universal that it is some animal of the lizard

The Gecko, or Ferret.

tribe. Several of these reptiles make a mournful cry or wail, especially the gecko, which is very common in Palestine and Egypt among ruins, and is remarkable not only for the clucking note which its name imitates, but for its fan-like toes, whereby it is able to run up the smoothest wall, and even on ceilings. Of these small lizards there are several species.


FES'TUS, POR'CIUS, succeeded Felix, a.d. 60, in the government of Judaea, and died in 62. Acts 24:27. Paul had a hearing before him on sundry charges, and Festus would have released him if Paul had not appealed to the emperor. Acts 26:32. Josephus gives him a good character as an efficient ruler, especially because he did his best to rid the country of robbers.

FET'TERS. See Chains.

FIELD. The Hebrew word translated "field" conveys a contrary idea to ours, inasmuch as it implies the absence of enclosure. Thus the "field" is often contrasted with portions of land that are enclosed, such as a vineyard, Ex 22:5; Lev 25:3-4; a garden or a walled town, Deut 28:3,Deut 28:16; "unwalled villages or scattered houses ranked in the eye of the law as fields." Lev 25:31. "Field "means the open country apart from habitations, in Gen 25:27; Gen 37:15. Stones were used to separate one plot of ground from another; curses were threatened for removing these landmarks. Deut 19:14; Deut 27:1;Job 24:2; Prov 22:28. 304 If such unfenced fields were pasture grounds, the herd or flock would require constant watching. Ex 22:5. A piece of ground of any size, from the mere land around a cave, Gen 23:13,Gen 23:17, to an entire inheritance, Ruth 4:5, was called a "field." In the N.T. the Greek for "fields" occasionally means farm-houses or hamlets, in distinction from villages and towns, but in the A.V. it is rendered "country." Mark 5:14; Mark 6:36,Mark 6:56. The knowledge of these unenclosed fields throws light upon the parable of the Sower. Some of the seed scattered as he draws near the end of his lot is certain to fall beyond the ploughed portion, and the birds will devour it. Again, the custom of running footpaths between, and not over, fields explains the Sabbath-walk of our Lord and his disciples. Luke 6:1. The little band did not trample down the ripened grain. They merely walked between the fields and plucked the wheat on either hand. The complaint was not brought against them because they took the wheat, but because they broke the Sabbath.

FI'ERY SER'PENTS. See Serpents.

FIG, FIG' TREE. The fig tree (Ficus carica) has been cultivated in Palestine from remote times, Deut 8:8; Isa 34:4, and is also found in a wild state. It does not grow to a great height, but throws out a profusion of very spreading branches, and the trunk is often 3 feet in diameter. Five-lobed leaves luxuriantly clothe these limbs, and often convert this tree into a beautiful natural arbor. 1 Kgs 4:25; 2 Kgs 18:31; Isa 36:16; Mic 4:4; Zech 3:10; John 1:48.

The fruit is pear-shaped, and the small green figs appear before the leaves. When these figs have attained some size, their interior will be found filled with minute white flowers. This curious provision leads to the common impression that this tree never blossoms. When the leaves have appeared, if there be no fruit among them, the fig tree will be barren for the present season. Matt 21:19.

Figs are much used as food in all Eastern lands. Two kinds of this fruit are mentioned in the Bible. 1. The early fig, or boccore, of which a few ripen and are gathered in June, Isa 28:4; Hos 9:10; Mic 7:1, while the most of this early fruit falls off before it is perfected. Rev 6:13. 2. The main crop, or kermouse, ordinarily does

Figs and Fig-Leaves.

not ripen till August. These are the "green figs" of Song 2:13. "Bethphage" means "house of green figs." A long dark-colored kermouse sometimes hangs upon the trees all winter.

These various kinds of figs are eaten as they come from the tree, and are also dried in masses or cakes. 1 Sam 25:18. They seem to have been an ordinary article of food, and to have possessed medicinal properties. 2 Kgs 20:7; 1 Chr 12:40.

The putting forth of the fig tree was one of the earliest indications of summer. Song 2:13; Matt 24:32; Luke 21:29; and a failure of its fruit was a great calamity. Jer 5:17; Ezr 8:13; Joel 1:7, Joel 1:12; Hab 3:17-18.

The cursing of the fig tree by our Saviour, Mark 11:13, Jer 11:21, has occasioned great perplexity. This incident occurred about the beginning of April, when, as the evangelist states, the time for figs had not come. Why, then, should Christ seek figs upon the tree and, as it were, blame its barrenness? The best reply seems to be, Because the tree was in leaf; and when the tree was in this state, abnormal though it were, fruit might be expected. Dr. Thomson, as the result of his observation, considers it not at all impossible that the early 305 variety of this tree might have ripe fruit in the warm, sheltered ravines of Olivet at Easter: "If there was no fruit on this leafy tree, it might justly be condemned as barren; and hence the propriety of the lesson it was made to teach-that those who put forth in profusion only the leaves of empty profession are nigh unto cursing."

FILE. The word occurs only once in the A.V. 1 Sam 13:21. The preceding verse is connected with it, and they are best rendered: "But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen [their tools] whenever there was bluntness of edge to their shares and coulters and prong-forks and axes, and to point their goads."

FIRE was of course used for cooking and for warmth. We find reference to the latter use in Jer 36:22; Luke 22:55; John 18:18. See Fuel. A hearth with lighted wood or a pan with burning charcoal is mentioned in the passages specified as the sources of the heat. Fire was used in the service of God to consume the sacrifices partially or entirely. There may be a question whether Abel offered a burnt-sacrifice. Gen 4:4, but surely, from the time of Noah, fire was used with the sacrifices. The Mosaic law prescribes its use. Lev 1:7, and this burnt-altar fire was to be kept ever burning. Lev 6:9, Lev 6:13.

Fire was the sign of the divine presence and acceptance. Thus, the heavenly fire which came down upon the altar of burnt-offering on the occasion of the first sacrifice after the giving of the Law, Lev 9:24, indicated Jehovah's gracious pleasure in the service. To the same end fire was sent in other instances, Jud 6:21; 1 Kgs 18:38; 1 Chr 21:26. Fire was used as a purifier. Num 31:22-23; cf. Zech 13:8-9. The victims slain for sin-offerings were afterward consumed by fire. Lev 4:12, Lev 4:21; Lev 6:30; Lev 16:27. The Nazarite marked the conclusion of his vow by shaving his head and casting the hair into the fire on the altar of burnt-offering. Num 6:18. It was forbidden by the Law to kindle a fire on the Sabbath, Ex 35:3; Num 15:32; but some maintain that the prohibition applies to the preparation, and not to the heating, of food. Consequently, by having the principal meal, which was always eaten in the evening, a little earlier on Friday and a little later on Saturday, the Jew could have a hot meal every day in the week.

The law held him who wilfully or carelessly set fire to ripe or harvested fields on which the grain yet stood pecuniarily liable for damages. Ex 22:6. The punishment of death by fire was inflicted in early times. Jer 29:22; Dan 3:20-21. See Furnace. It is enjoined by the Law in the case of incest with a mother-in-law, and of unchastity on the part of the daughter of a priest. Lev 20:14; John 21:9. But it is reasonable to suppose that in both these cases the condemned were first killed by stoning or strangling, and then their bodies burnt. To fire the gates was one way of ending a siege. Jud 9:49, Jud 9:52.

Fire is the comparison of intense love, Song 8:6; of the injuring tongue, Ps 120:4; Prov 16:27; Jas 3:5, and of godlessness, Isa 9:18. The anger of God burns as fire, Ps 79:5; Ps 89:46; Nah 1:6. His word is like fire, Jer 23:29. Yea, he himself is a consuming fire, Deut 4:24; Heb 12:29. The word is frequently used metaphorically. The "strange fire," Lev 10:1, is generally explained as common fire, not taken from the holy fire of the altar. But inasmuch as no express law forbade the burning of incense by ordinary fire, it is very probable that the offence consisted in presenting an incense-offering not commanded in the law in an improper, merely vainglorious spirit. The time and manner of the ofiering were "strange," not the fire.

FIRE'-PAN, one of the vessels of the temple-service. Ex 27:3; Ex 38:3; 2 Kgs 25:15; Jer 52:19. The same word is elsewhere rendered "snuff-dish," Ex 25:38; Ex 37:23; Num 4:9, and "censer." Lev 10:1; Num 16:12; Num 16:6 ff. These utensils were probably shallow metal vessels which served either to catch the snuff of the lamps when they were trimmed or to burn small quantities of incense.

FIR'KIN. See Measures.

FIR'MAMENT. The word "expansion" would more perfectly convey the meaning of the original word. Gen 1:17. A similar idea is suggested Ps 104:2; Isa 40:22, and the same word is used to denote a "covering," Num 16:38-39, or a "spreading over," 306 Isa 40:19, or "spread forth." Isa 42:5. The Jews probably understood the word "firmament" to denote an immense arch or canopy sprung from one side of the horizon to the other, studded with stars and forming a sort of separating wall between the upper and lower waters. See Ps 19:1; Dan 12:3. The stars are represented as dropping from their settings in it. Isa 34:4; Matt 24:29.

FIRST'-BORN. The first-born male of every Jewish family and of all beasts was consecrated to God in commemoration of the judgment which God brought upon the first-born of Egypt. Ex 13:2. Several provisions of the Jewish law relate to the first-born. He received a double portion of the estate, Deut 21:17, and officiated as priest of the family in the father's absence or death. The privileges of the first-born were obviously great in the cases of Esau and Reuben, Gen 27:29, Gen 27:36; 1 Chr 5:1-2, but might be forfeited, as these two cases show. The religious pre-eminence of the first-born ceased when the priesthood was committed exclusively to the tribe of Levi. Num 3:12-13. It was then required that a certain piece of money (5 shekels, about $2.50) should be paid for the redemption of all the first-born of succeeding generations; and this redemption-money became part of the sacred revenue. Num 8:17; Josh 18:16. The first-born of all beasts used in sacrifice were devoted to the Lord, Ex 13:2, but the first-born of unclean animals might be redeemed with the addition of one-fifth of the value, Lev 27:13; otherwise, they were sold, exchanged, or destroyed. Ex 13:13; Lev 27:27. It is supposed that dogs were never redeemed, Deut 23:18.

The titles "the first-born of every creature," Col 1:15, and "the first-begotten" of God, Heb 1:6, belong exclusively to Christ. The first of the two might be translated the "firstborn" or begotten (not created) "before every creature," and both expressions denote a dignity superior to men and angels and the whole creation.

FIRST'-FRUITS. The first-fruits of harvest, of the vintage, the threshing-floor, the wine-press, the oil-press, the first baked bread of the new crop, and the first fleeces of the flock, were required by God to be given for the use of his ministers, the priests. Ex 23:19; Num 15:19-21; Ex 18:12-13. These offerings were brought to the temple. By making this consecration of the first-fruits the entire produce was consecrated, as the nation had been by the consecration of the first-born. No particular quantity was designated, but it is supposed a sixtieth part of the whole was the least measure.

The manner of offering the first-fruits is prescribed Lev 23:10-14. A sheaf of the first ripe barley was brought on the morrow after the Passover Sabbath, and waved by the priest before the Lord; and after being threshed in a court of the temple, a handful of it was cleansed and roasted and pounded in a mortar. Oil was mingled with it, and it was then waved before the Lord in the name and behalf of the nation, as an acknowledgment of dependence and gratitude. Until this was done the harvest remained untouched.

During the times of apostasy after Solomon this ordinance was neglected, but Hezekiah awakened the national conscience on this subject, 2 Chr 31:5-12. After the Captivity, Nehemiah appointed places for the reception of the first-fruits of both kinds (raw produce and prepared produce). Neh 10:35, Neh 10:37; Neh 12:44. The prophets insist on the duty of offering them. Eze 20:40; Jer 44:30; Eze 48:14; comp. Rev 14:4. Fruit trees were unplucked for three years. The fourth year's yield was given to God as the first-fruits, but from the fifth year the fruit was the owner's, Lev 19:23-25.

The first-fruits were emblematical of abundance and excellence, Rom 8:23, and also the earnest or sample of a full harvest at hand, 1 Cor 15:20.

FIR' TREE, probably the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), which is almost as large as the cedar, is now found on Lebanon, and was formerly doubtless abundant through Palestine, Hos 14:8. Sometimes the cypress and juniper may have been included under this name, as well as other pines found here.

The fir was used for shipbuilding, Eze 27:5, musical instruments, 2 Sam 6:5, and in the frame-, and ornamental, work of costly edifices, 1 Kgs 5:8, scripture]1 Kgs. 5:10[/scripture];1 Kgs 6:15, 1 Kgs 6:34; 1 Kgs 9:11; 2 Chr 2:8; 2 Chr 3:5; Song 1:17. The fir is still 307 used in the manufacture of harps, lutes, guitars, etc. It was a tall, straight tree, of fine appearance, in the tops of which the storks built their nests, Ps 104:17. Hence it is used to illustrate power or grandeur, 2 Kgs 19:23; Isa 14:8; Isa 37:24; and in Nah 2:3 the brandishing of weapons of war is compared to the shaking of the tops of fir trees by a violent wind. The springing up of the fir is emblematical of verdure and plenty, Isa 41:19;Isa 55:12;Isa 60:13.

FISH. The rapid multiplication of fish finds recognition in the root-meaning of their Hebrew name, "to increase." See also Gen 48:16, margin. They are mentioned in the first chapter of Genesis (Gen 1:20,Gen 1:26,Gen 1:28) and in Ps 8:8 as one of the chief classes of living creatures, and as placed under the dominion of man. In the Law, Lev 11:9-12, distinction of them is made into clean and unclean, according as they have fins and scales or are without them. Of the numerous species of fish which inhabit the lakes and rivers of Palestine and the adjacent sea, Solomon possessed some knowledge, 1 Kgs 4:33, but not a single variety has its name recorded in the Bible. (The whale is not a fish!)

An aggravation of the first plague of Egypt was the destruction of fish -an important part of the food of the people. In the wilderness the Israelites murmured for the fish of their old home. Num 11:5. It was a sad prophecy for Egypt that by the failing of her waters the fishermen should mourn, and that they should be disappointed who make ponds and sluices for fish. Isa 19:5-10; comp. Eze 29:4-10.

Most of the still and running waters of Palestine swarm with fish. Josephus first called attention to the similarity of the fish of the Sea of Galilee and those of the Nile. Of those in the former water Tristram says: the density of the shoals "can scarcely be conceived by those who have not witnessed them. Frequently these shoals cover an acre or more of the surface, and the fish, as they slowly move along in masses, are so crowded, with their back-fins, just appearing on the level of the water, that the appearance at a little distance is that of a violent shower of rain pattering on the surface. We obtained 14 species of fishes in the lake, and probably the number inhabiting it is at least three times as great."

But not all of these fish of Galilee are savory eating. Matt 13:47-48. On

  • Fishes of the Sea of Galilee. (After Tristram.)

    1. Chromis Nilotica. 2. Clarias Macracanthus. 3. Labeobarbus Canis.

this lake four of the disciples toiled as fishermen. Matt 4:18-21, References to the "fish-gate," 2 Chr 33:14, etc., of Jerusalem show that the city was probably supplied with a market for this kind of food. The product of the Mediterranean was doubtless then, as now, brought from Joppa, the port of Jerusalem. The Phoenicians were especially engaged in the capture and sale of fish, Eze 26:5,Eze 26:14; Neh 13:16, and the Hebrew name, Zidon, signifies "fishing." 308 The fish was frequently worshipped from Egypt to Assyria and India. Deut 4:18. Dagon, the Philistine idol, 1 Sam 5:4, was half fish, half man. On early Christian monuments, especially in the Catacombs of Rome, the fish itself or its Greek name was often carved, because that name, ichthus, is formed of the first letters of the confession: "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour."

Fish are often carried by the Jordan and smaller streams into the Dead Sea, but soon perish in its acrid element. In the mystical vision of Ezekiel waters were seen issuing from under the house of God, carrying fertility along the Kedron valley, and pouring into this sea of death, whose waters were healed: "and it shall come to pass, that the fishers shall stand upon it from En-gedi even unto En-eglaim; they shall be a place to spread forth nets; their fish shall be according to their kinds as the fish of the great sea, exceeding many." Eze 47:1-10.

"Fish is an article of diet of which the Orientals are passionately fond. It brings a high price, unless some extraordinary haul has exceptionally cheapened the market. The government derives a considerable revenue from the tax on fish sold in the market. Every beach on the sea-coast of Syria is enlivened with trawling-nets and cast-nets and fishing-boats, and fishermen, standing often knee-deep or waist-deep, casting their pole-lines into the surf. Fish swarm in the warm water of this latitude, and every variety, even to dog-fish and octopods, are greedily eaten. The word 'smack' or 'boat' would better express the kind of craft in which the great draught of fishes was caught, Luke 6:2." — Dr. Post, of Beirut.

FISH'-GATE, agate in Jerusalem. 2 Chr 33:14, etc. Dr. Barclay thinks it was near the "Fish-Pool." See Jerusalem.

FISH'-HOOKS. Am 4:2; comp. Jer 16:16. The method of taking fish with hooks was doubtless known in the early ages of the world. Job 41:1. The spear was also used. Job 41:7.

The usual way, however, was by a net — either a casting-net, Eze 26:5; Eze 47:10; Hab 1:15; Matt 4:20-21; Mark 1:18-19; Luke 5:2; John 21:6 ff., or a drag-net. Isa 19:8; Hab 1:15; Matt 13:47. In the latter case a boat was necessarily used. Such fishing was done, by preference, at night. Luke 5:5. Angling was a favorite recreation in ancient Egypt. The reference in Job 41:2 is to the custom of putting a ring through the gill of a fish, and then by a line attaching it to a stake, the object being to keep it alive in the water until required for use. Besides amateur there were professional fishermen. Such were many of the apostles.

FISH-POOLS OF HESH'BON, a mistranslation for "pools" simply. Song 7:4. There is no reference to fish. See Heshbon.

FITCH'ES, a plant (Nigella sativa) of the buttercup family. Isa 28:25. Some species are cultivated in our Fennel Flower, or Fitches.

(Nigella Sativa. After Carruthers.) flower-gardens under such names as "love-in-a-mist." Fitches are grown for their small black, hot-tasting seeds, which are sprinkled over the flat cakes of the Syrians before they are baked 309 These tender seeds are still beaten out with a stout staff, as described in Isa 28:27. "Fitches," in Eze 4:9, should read, as in the margin, "spelt." See Rye.

FLAG. Probably used, as by us, somewhat indefinitely. Ex 2:3. If any special plant was intended, it may have been the edible rush or the flowering rush, both of which abound in Egypt, and the latter in Palestine.

FLAG'ON. The Hebrew word so translated in 2 Sam 6:19; 1 Chr 16:3; Song 2:5; Hos 3:1 (cf. margin) means a "cake," ordinarily of compressed raisins. The last-quoted text shows that such cakes were offered to idols. But in Isa 22:24 the word "flagon" is the correct translation of the Hebrew.

FLAX, a well-known plant, which furnishes the material of linen stuffs of every variety, Ex 9:31. It was produced of the best quality in Egypt, Isa 19:9, and was an article of extensive commerce.

At the present day, as in ancient times, flax is laid upon the housetop in the heat of the sun to dry, Josh 2:6.

[image 152, 40, 277, 217, 19216,19216]

Flax. (After Tristram.)

Lamp-wicks were made of this material, Isa 42:3. The spinning of flax was

[image 18, 242, 280, 361, 19216,19216]

Preparation of Flax. (From the Egyptian Monuments. After Wilkinson.)

anciently the labor of the most noble ladies. Prov 31:13, Num 31:19, Prov 31:24. See Linen and Distaff.

FLEA, a small insect mentioned as the most insignificant of creatures. 1 Sam 24:14; 1 Sam 26:20. Residents and travellers in warm climates are too well acquainted with it.

FLESH is used figuratively for everything living, Gen 6:13, Gen 6:17, Gen 6:19; sometimes mankind, Zech 6:12; sometimes the body as distinguished from the soul or spirit. Col 2:5; 1 Pet 4:6. In a theological sense, "the flesh" is the natural man. including the unrenewed will and mind, moving in the world of self and sense only. Rom 7:6; Neh 8:1, Song of Solomon 8:5, Rom 8:9; Gal 5:17, Gal 5:19; Eph 2:3. Self-imposed ordinances gratify the flesh — i.e, self — whilst seemingly mortifying it.

FLINT, a hard and well-known stone very abundant in Palestine and adjacent districts, Ps 114:8. The figurative use of the word in Deut 32:13 310 represents the great abundance of oil, and in Isa 50:7 and Eze 3:9 it is used to denote firmness and constancy.

FLOATS, rafts by which the timbers already fitted for the building might be floated to Joppa, and then carried overland to Jerusalem. 1 Kgs 5:9; 2 Chr 2:16.

FLOCK. See Sheep.

FLOOD, one of the most remarkable events in the history of our world. It occurred 2500 years before the birth of Christ, and was a judgment upon the world for the great wickedness of its inhabitants, only 8 of whom were saved — Noah and his family. Gen 6:17 ff. Noah obeyed the divine injunction to build the ark and put into it pairs of all the land-animals. The waters of the flood increased for 150 days, until the mountains were covered and the waters attained the depth of 15 cubits, or 22 1/2 feet. In consequence, "all flesh died that moved upon the earth," and only those animals were saved which were confined in the ark. At the end of this period the waters began to assuage, and the ark rested on Mount Ararat. Noah sent out in turn a raven and, on two occasions, a dove. The second time the dove returned with an olive-leaf. Gen 8:11, which was the best evidence of the abatement of the waters. The biblical narrative is given in Gen 6-8.

The description of a vast flood is not confined to the Old Testament. Many peoples have preserved a tradition of the event. And not only do we find traditions to this effect on the tablets of Assyria and in the literature of Greece, but also among the Chinese and among the aborigines of North and South America and Mexico. The prevalence of a belief in the occurrence of a great deluge confirms the account of Genesis.

It is not necessary to assume that the Flood extended over all the earth, although it did most likely destroy all human life except the family of Noah. Such expressions as "all the high hills . . . were covered," Gen 7:19, do not oblige us to go beyond those portions of the earth which were then inhabited by men. Similar expressions are used where the event referred to was only partial in extent. See, for example, Gen 41:57; Luke 2:1. Opinions still differ as to whether the Flood was universal or only partial.

The Deluge is referred to in the N.T. Matt 24:37; 2 Pet 2:5; 2 Pet 3:6.

The account of the Flood upon the Assyrian tablets has been deciphered by Mr. George Smith and published in his work, The Chaldsean Account of Genesis (London and New York, 1876). We quote a portion of the interesting story, pp. 270, 271:

"On the seventh day in the course of it

I sent forth a dove and it left. The

dove went and turned, and

a resting-place it did not find, and it


I sent forth a swallow and it left. The

swallow went and turned, and

a resting-place it did not find, and it


I sent forth a raven and it left.

The raven went, and the decrease of the

water it saw, and

it did eat, it swam, and wandered away,

and did not return.

I sent the animals forth to the four

winds, I poured out a libation,

I built an altar on the peak of the


by seven herbs I cut,

at the bottom of them I placed reeds,

pines, and simgar.

The gods collected at its savor, the

gods collected at its good savor;

the gods like flies over the sacrifice


From of old also Rubat in her course

The great brightness of Anu had created.

When the glory of those gods on the charm round my

neck I would not leave."

FLOOR. See Threshing.

FLUTE. See Pipe.

FLUX, BLOODY, or dysentery, Acts 28:8.

FLY, the name of a large tribe of insects, some of which are exceedingly annoying and destructive, Isa 7:18. They abound in Egypt and Palestine. One species, which is found by modern travellers in the vicinity of the Nile, and called the Abyssinian fly, is as large as a bee, and is such an annoyance to cattle and other large animals as to oblige them to forsake their pastures and ranges, and to flee to some place where they can roll themselves in the mud or sand. Hence we may judge of the 311 terrible nature of the judgments mentioned in Ex 8:24; Isa 7:18; in which last passage we are informed that the fly shall be found in the very places to which the cattle resort to rid themselves of its presence.

FOLD. See Sheep.

FOL'LY, Gen 34:7, FOOL, Prov 15:5. These terms are used by the sacred writers sometimes to denote weakness of understanding, Ps 14:1; 1 Cor 1:27; 1 Cor 4:10 and sometimes sin or wickedness. Ps 38:5; Josh 7:15. The transgression and disobedience of Adam were the height of folly, as is the sin of humanity generally. Foolish talking, jesting, foolish and unlearned questions, etc., 2 Tim 2:23, are such as are vain, frivolous, or have no useful tendency.

The phrase "Thou fool," Matt 5:22, implies not only an angry temper, but probably also impiety and wickedness, in allusion to Ps 14:1, where the atheist is called a fool.

FOOD. Gen 3:6. We may form some judgment of the ancient diet from what we know of that of the modern Orientals. Vegetable food is much more common than animal. Instead of butter, lard, and suet, they use olive oil. A soup, or rather pottage, of beans and lentiles, seasoned with garlic and oil, is still, as it was of old, a favorite dish. The "red pottage of lentiles" for which Esau sold his birthright was something of this kind. Eggs, honey, milk (especially sour milk), and garden productions of every kind afford the principal materials of Eastern diet. The most common dish at this day in the East is the pilan, which consists of rice cooked with meat so as to make a sort of broth, seasoned variously and colored blue, red, or yellow.

We do not find the use of animal food often occurring, except upon the occasion of entertainments, or the exhibition of hospitality to a friend, Gen 18:7; Luke 15:23, or upon the tables of the rich. The animals used for this purpose, especially neat cattle, were often "stalled" and "fattened." 1 Sam 16:20; 1 Sam 28:24; 1 Kgs 4:23; Neh 5:18; Isa 1:11; Isa 11:6; Jer 46:21; Eze 39:18; Am 6:4; Mal 4:2.

Wild game, lambs, and kids constituted the favorite viands in the East. At this day beef is not much used, though from some texts above and other similar authorities we learn that the flesh of young bullocks and stall-fed oxen was highly prized. Prov 15:17; Matt 22:4.

In very ancient times it was always the master of the house, whether he were rich or poor, who slew the animal. Jud 6:19. Grecian and Roman writers mention a like custom of later times. The preparation of the food by cooking was the business of the mistress. The shoulder was probably the choicest part. 1 Sam 9:24.

It is customary for the Arabs to serve up at one meal the whole of any animal which they have killed. This is occasioned in some measure by the difficulty of preserving fresh meat in the Eastern climate. Gen 18:7:Luke 15:23.

The people of the East are particularly fond of fish, and in Egypt this constitutes a very important part of their subsistence. Num 11:5. See Fish.

FOOT'MAN. The term sometimes means soldiers on foot or infantry. At other times it has special reference to the king's guard. 1 Sam 22:17. The word there translated "footman " is rendered "guard" in other passages. 1 Kgs 14:28; 2 Kgs 11:4, etc.

FOOT'STOOL. 2 Chr 9:18. Kings and other rulers sitting in state required a stool upon which to rest their feet. The divine glory, which resided symbolically in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark, is supposed to use the ark as a footstool. 1 Chr 28:2; Ps 99:5. So the earth is called God's footstool by the same expressive figure which represents heaven as his throne.

FOOT, WA'TERING WITH THE, a phrase used of Egypt in Deut 11:10, because the "Egyptians watered with the foot in two ways — by the tread-wheel working sets of pumps, and by means of artificial channels connected with reservoirs, and opened, turned, or closed by the feet." — Bible Commentary.

FORD, a word frequently used to designate the crossing of any stream, but especially of the Jordan, as Josh 2:7; Jud 3:28; Jud 12:5-6; of the Jabbok, Gen 32:22; of the Arnon, Isa 16:2; of the Euphrates. Jer 51:32. Until recently 312 the fords of the Jordan were supposed to be only 8 or 10 in number, but the British Palestine Survey has noted about 50.

FORE'HEAD. Inasmuch as modest women kept the forehead covered with a veil, not to do so was indicative of shamelessness. Jer 3:3. Jewels for the forehead, Eze 16:12, were nose jewels, although at the present day in the East women wear jewels and strings of coins across their foreheads. To mark the forehead with the device of a god denoted the consecration of the intellect unto it. Thus, the mark of the beast was upon the forehead. Rev 13:16. So God's name is upon the saint's forehead. Rev 22:4.

FOR'EIGNER, any one not of the genuine Hebrew stock. Ex 12:45; comp. Eph 2:12.

FOREKNOWL'EDGE, a peculiar and essential attribute of God, referring to his knowledge of the future and of future events. Acts 2:23; Acts 15:18. Believers are said to be "elect according to the foreknowledge of God." 1 Pet 1:2.

FORERUN'NER. Heb 6:20. The term, as used of the entrance of our Saviour within the veil, refers to one who not only goes before to a particular place to make arrangements for his successors, but who leads or prepares the way.

FOR'EST. 1 Sam 22:5. Several tracts of country were designated in this way; as, "the forest of Hareth," that of "Ephraim," "the wood of Ziph," etc. It is known that in the tenth century a.d. there was a fir-wood between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Not a trace of these forests remains. One of the chief causes of the present desolation of the Holy Land is the disappearance of forests. The "house of the forest of Lebanon," which was built by Solomon, and which was magnificent in size and style, 1 Kgs 7:2, was so called probably from the great quantity of cedar which was used in the construction of it.

FORGIVE'NESS is an act of God toward man, and of man toward his fellow. To forgive sin is the exclusive prerogative of God, of whose law sin is the transgression. Ps 130:4. Our Lord, by virtue of his divine nature, assumed the prerogative and exercised the power of forgiving sins, which the scribes and Pharisees, viewing him merely as a man, made the occasion of a charge of blasphemy, Mark 2:5. The gospel makes known not only that there is forgiveness with God, but also how such forgiveness is made compatible with the divine justice.

Forgiveness, full, free, and everlasting, is offered to all who will believe and obey the gospel. Acts 13:38-39; 1 John 2:12. The duty of mutual forgiveness is urged upon man with the most solemn sanctions. Matt 6:14-15; Josh 18:22; Luke 17:3-4.

FORKS, mentioned in 1 Sam 13:21, were used, not in eating (for the Orientals eat without forks), but in taking the meat out of the vessels in which it was cooked, or else in husbandry. See Eat, Eating.

FORNICA'TION. This word, as used by the sacred writers, denotes various acts of lewdness and incontinency; and it is also figuratively applied to idolatry, or the mingling of the pure worship of God with the impure rites of heathenism. Matt 5:32, etc.

FORSWEAR'. See Oath.

FORTUNA'TUS, one of the three Corinthians, the others being Stephanus and Achaieus, who were at Ephesus when Paul wrote his first Epistle to the Corinthians, and who are mentioned in the postscript as the bearers of the Epistles. 1 Cor 16:17.

FOUNT'AIN. Springs of water are often mentioned in the Bible. Palestine, in contrast with Egypt, was a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, Deut 8:7. Hundreds of fountains may be counted with ease on either side of the Jordan. Some have peculiar properties. There are intermittent, thermal, brackish, sulphur, and hot springs. Perpetual fountains or springs of living water were greatly valued. Ps 36:8-9; Isa 49:10; Jer 2:13; Joel 3:18; Zech 13:1; John 4:10; Rev 7:17.

In the expressive language of the Hebrews and the modern Arabs, a fountain is the "eye" of the locality. The importance of water is attested by the numerous names of localities into which enters the Hebrew en or the Arabic ain, "fountain," such as "En-rogel," "Engedi" (Arabic 'Ain-jidy), "En-had-dah." 313 Damascus is the best supplied with water of all the Eastern cities; Jerusalem also had so abundant a supply that during its numerous sieges there was never a complaint on this score. Public fountains are frequent in the towns. The "fountain sealed" of Song 4:12 is a well-spring covered with a stone and sealed with the king's own signet. The word "fountain " was used figuratively; thus, Deut 33:28 and Ps 68:26, it is applied to Israel as the ancestor of the chosen people of God, and in Prov 5:18 to a beloved wife.

FOWL. See Bird.

FOX. Neh 4:3. Under this term the jackal is included — indeed, most of the references seem to be to that animal. The Orientals at the present time do not distinguish in common language between the two creatures. Both are common in Palestine. The fox (Vulpes vulgaris) is smaller than the jackal (Cam's aureus), and is of a reddish hue, while the latter is yellowish; hence its scientific name, meaning "the golden dog." It is the latter also, and not the fox, which devours the dead and follows armies that he may feed on human bodies left behind. Ps 63:10. Both animals are omnivorous, but the jackal, which goes in packs, is even more destructive to the vineyards than the other. Song 2:15. The crafty, artful nature of the fox is proverbial. Eze 13:4; Luke 13:32. He prowls singly for his prey of birds or small quadrupeds, which he takes by stratagem. Jackals are concealed by hundreds among the ruins, caves, and gardens of Syria. Lam 5:18. At sunset they come forth, and both then and at intervals through the night the traveller hears their cry, resembling the confused wailing of many infants.

Evidently, the "foxes" which Samson

The Syrian Fox.

caught (Jud 15:4) were jackals. On this Tristram judiciously remarks: while Samson could not have caught so many foxes, "he might easily have 'snared,' as the Hebrew expresses it, 300 jackals, which hunt in large packs, and which are still most numerous in southern Palestine. It is not necessary to assume that the whole 300 were caught at once or turned loose in the same place, but rather that Samson, having taken them, turned them loose in many different places, so as to make 150 incendiary fires, and to cause the widest possible injury to the standing crops of the Philistines. The brands would be attached at some distance from the tails of the animals, and jackals, accustomed to run together, would not, unless very tightly fastened, pull in opposite directions, as foxes or dogs would; but the terrified animals would, so soon as ever they were let go, rush as fast as possible from their captor, and carry the devastation far and wide before the brand was extinguished." 314 FRANKIN'CENSE (white), a dry, resinous, aromatic substance of a white or yellowish color, bitter and acrid to the taste, burning for a long time with a clear, steady, and very odoriferous flame. Several trees (of the genus Boswellia) which grow in India, Arabia, and Africa yield this gum from incisions in the bark. Along the coast of Hadramaut, a district of Arabia, as Carter has shown, frankincense (the olibanum of commerce) is produced, as was affirmed by Herodotus, Celsius, other ancient writers, and the Bible. Isa 60:6; Jer 6:20, The Arabian species (B. Carterii) somewhat resembles, especially in its

Boswellia Thurifera. (Colehrooke. Supposed Frankincense. After Dr. Birdwood.)

pinnate leaves when young, the mountain-ash. This gum, in the above and other passages, is mentioned simply as "incense." It is called frank because of the freeness with which it burns and gives forth its odors; and the pure incense is that which is first obtained, and is freest from foreign admixture. "Sweet incense," Ex 30:7, might as well be rendered "incense of spices," and is the composition mentioned in Ex 30:34.

The use of incense in the Jewish worship may be learned from Ex 30:7 and Lev 16:12-13, and it is figuratively employed to represent lovely and agreeable qualities. Song 3:6; Song 4:6, Song 4:14, and devotional fervor. Ps 141:2; Mal 1:11;Rev 8:3.

FRANK'LY is used in Luke 7:42 in the sense of "freely."

FRIEND. Abraham is called "the friend of God." Isa 41:8; Jas 2:23. Jesus called his disciples his friends. John 15:15. He used a different word in the Greek to Judas, Matt 26:50, and one used more like our conventional "my good friend," implying kindly feeling, though no especial regard.

FRIN'GES, a part of the outer garment, and the same as the hem or border of the garment. Deut 22:12; Matt 9:20; Matt 14:36. See Clothes.

The children of Israel were enjoined to wear them by Moses, Num 15:38, and to place them on the four borders or edges of their outer garment, which was usually rectangular in shape. They were of a blue color.

The object of the fringes was to remind the children of Israel of the commandments of God. Num 15:39. In the time of our Lord they had become objects of parade and show, so that he finds an evidence of the hypocrisy of the Pharisees in their practice of "enlarging the borders of their garments." The "hem of the garment" which the woman with the issue of blood touched. Matt 9:20, was the ancient fringe enjoined by Moses.

They became with time, as did the rolls containing the Scriptures, phylacteries, and other things, objects of superstitious regard, and a Jewish commentator on Num. 15 says that any man clothed with this fringe is safe, and shall be delivered from all hurt and destruction.

FROG, a well-known amphibious reptile which lives on insects, worms, etc. 315 Ex 8:2. But one species is found in the waters of Egypt (Rana caculenia). In Rev 16:13 this creature is the symbol of uncleanness. Ex 8:2 records the miraculous multiplication of frogs among the Egyptians in such numbers as to fill their beds, ovens, and kneading-troughs; and when they died, as they did in immense masses, they filled the land with an offensive and pestilential effluvium.

FRONT'LETS. See Phylacteries.

FRUIT. The word is used in both a literal and figurative sense. "The fruit of the ground" is the product of the ground; "the fruit of the body" signifies children. By "fruit" is sometimes meant reward or consequences. Prov 1:31. "The fruit of the lips" is service or thanksgiving. But used literally it is a comprehensive term. For the regulation in regard to fruit trees, see Tree.

FU'EL was so scarce in the East that the people resorted to almost every kind of combustible matter, such as the withered stalks of herbs and flowers, Matt 6:28-30, thorns, Ps 58:9; Eccl 7:6, and even excrements. Eze 4:12-16. See Dung.

FULFIL'LED. Matt 2:17. This word is frequently used in reference to the accomplishment of prophecy. The expression, "that it might be fulfilled," Matt 2:15, 1 Chr 2:23; Lev 8:17; Heb 12:17, etc., etc., signifies that the events have fallen out in accordance with the prophecies of the O.T. The word in this connection is almost synonymous with "verified."

In other connections. Gen 25:24; Rev 15:8, etc., the word means "completed" or "accomplished," as when Christ said, "The time is fulfilled," Mark 1:15.

FUL'LER. The Hebrew word comes from the verb "to tread," because originally the clothing was trodden upon in tubs of water until the soap which had been dissolved had cleansed it. The fuller did not simply full new cloth, but washed clothing that had been worn. Among the primitive Hebrews washing was done at home by the women. Ex 19:10; Num 19:7. It was obligatory in the case of the leper's clothing. Lev 13:54. But in later times among the Hebrews, as among the Egyptians, as the monuments testify, washing was an especial and important business of the men. 2 Kgs 18:17; Isa 7:3; Isa 36:2; Mark 9:3. Mention is made in the Bible of the various substances used in this business, such as nitre, Prov 26:20; Jer 2:22; soap, probably the juice of some saponaceous plant, Mal 3:2. Chalk was rubbed into clothes for the same purpose. Since the fullers occasioned offensive smells, they carried on their work outside the cities. West of Jerusalem was their field; its removed position and the supply of water from the upper Pool of Gihon rendered the place very fit. See Fullers' Field. En-rogel was the fullers' fountain.

FUL'LERS' FIELD, a spot close to the walls of Jerusalem, 2 Kgs 18:17, 2 Kgs 18:26; Isa 36:2; 1 Kgs 7:3. One resort of the fullers appears to have been En-rogel, below and south-east of Jerusalem, but the place where Rabshakeh stood was probably on the north of the city, or perhaps near the Jaffa gate, at the upper Gihon pool, where fullers now whiten their garments.

FULLNESS. Gal 4:4. This expression has a peculiar meaning in some passages of the sacred writings. The "fulness of time," in relation to the Messiah, has the same meaning as the expression "when the measure of time was full" -that is, when the time had elapsed as appointed by God, and all the preparations for his coming were completed. So when the day of Pentecost was fully come. Acts 2:1. The same word is used, John 1:16 and Col 1:19, to signify the perfect and complete sufficiency of spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus.

"Fulness of the Godhead," Col 2:9, denotes all the attributes of the divine nature in their entire and complete perfection. The "fulness of Deity" was in Christ.

FU'NERAL. See Bury.

FUR'LONG. See Measures.

FUR'NACE. Furnaces were used for melting the precious metals. Prov 17:3. They were also used to punish criminals. The furnace into which Nebuchadnezzar cast the young Hebrews who refused to worship his image, Dan 3:22-23; cf. Jer 29:22, was probably a large furnace, like a brick 316 kiln, with an opening at the top to cast in the materials; a second, for the removal of slag, cinders, etc., or molten

Egyptian Furnace. (Ayre.)

metal, was arranged below, in one of the sides, so that the material in the interior could be observed.

FUR'NITURE. To a European eye the best-furnished houses in the East appear empty. On the marble floors are rugs, on the divan are cushions of rich materials. But the great variety of furniture to which we are accustomed is unknown. The poor of course had correspondingly less. A mat or a skin to recline on during the day, a mattress to sleep on at night, a stool, a little low table, and a brazier, — this would be the extent of the furniture. It is interesting to observe that the rich Shunammite furnished the room of Elisha with simply a bed — perhaps merely a mattress — a table, a stool (chair), and a candlestick. 2 Kgs 4:10-13. The word "furniture" is used in Gen 31:34 of the camel-trappings.

FURROW is the translation of different words in the Hebrew. In Hos 10:10 the word is properly "transgressions." The complaining of the furrows. Job 31:38, is mentioned in Hindoo proverbs.

FU'RY. Jer 10:25. As the word is generally used, the prophet here attributes to God what is true only of man. We associate haste, impulse, thoughtlessness, and unkindness with fury. But in this sense God cannot have the emotion of fury. He has anger for sin, but this is a righteous and holy feeling, devoid of the bitterness by which men are most often actuated in their fury; and when he is said to pour out his fury on a person or on a people, it is a figurative expression for dispensing afflictive judgments.

Modern Eastern Furniture. 1. A Village Table. 2. A Brazier, Tongs, etc. 3. Chairs, Persian Canopy Bed, a Couch and Wooden Pillow.

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