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DAB'AREH. Josh 21:28. An incorrect form for Daberath.

DAB'BASHETH (hump of a camel), a town of Zebulon. Josh 19:11.

DAB'ERATH (pasture), a town of Zebulon and Issachar, Josh 19:12; Josh 21:28: now Deburieh, west of Mount Tabor.

DAG'GER, a short sword, usually made with a double edge, and suspended from the girdle. Jud 3:16, Jud 3:21-22. See Arms.

DA'GON (diminutive, to express endearment, of fish), the national god of the Philistines. His corresponding goddess was Atargatis or Derceto, and they were at times worshipped in a common temple. Atargatis is manifestly related to Astarte. There were temples of Dagon at Gaza, where Samson performed his final feat of strength in pulling down the pillars, Jud 16:23; at Ashdod, where the idol miraculously fell down before the ark of the covenant, 1 Sam 5:1-4 (this temple was destroyed by Jonathan in the Maccabaean war, 1 Maec 10:83-84; 1 Maec 11:4; Joseph., Ant., 13,4,& 5); at Beth-dagon, in Judah, Josh 15:41, and in Asher, Josh 19:27; and elsewhere. Dagon was represented with the face and hands of a man and the body of a fish, the fish part signifying fecundity.

The worship of a fish-god was not original with the Philistines or the

The Fish-God. (From a bas-relief from Khorsabad. Botia.)

Phoenicians, who also were Dagon's worshippers, but with the Assyrian Babylonians, upon whose monuments are representations of such a god, under the name Odakon, sporting in the sea surrounded by fishes and marine animals. He was said to have emerged from the sea and to have been "one of the great benefactors of men," because he taught them the use of letters, the arts, religion, and agriculture.

DALAI'AH (whom Jehovah hath freed), a man of David's posterity. 1 Chr 3:24.

DALE, THE KING'S. Gen 14:17; 2 Sam 18:18. Probably in the valley of Jehoshaphat, near Jerusalem.

DALMANU'THA, a town on the Sea of Galilee, near Magdala, Mark 8:10; Matt 15:39; probably at 'Ain-el-Barideh, on the west side of the sea, 2 miles from Tiberias, where are ruins.

DALMA'TIA, a mountainous district on the east of the Adriatic Sea; visited by Titus. 2 Tim 4:10.

DAL'PHON (swift?), the second of the ten sons of Haman. Esth 9:7.

DAM'ARIS (a heifer), a woman, probably of distinction, who was converted under Paul's preaching in Athens. Because she is mentioned, Acts 17:34, immediately after Dionysius the Areopagite, Chrysostom and others maintained she was the latter's wife. But the very mode of mentioning -"a woman named"-is against the conjecture.

DAMAS'CUS, the most ancient and famous city of Syria, 133 miles north-east of Jerusalem, at the base of Anti-Lebanon mountains. It is on a fertile plain 30 miles in diameter, with mountains on three sides. The plain is well watered by the Barada, the Chrysorrhoas (or "Golden Stream") of the Greeks, the Abana of Scripture; and El A'waj ("the crooked"), the Pharpar of Scripture. 2 Kgs 5:12. These streams flow into meadow-lakes 18 miles east of the city. Damascus lies 2260 feet above the sealevel. The climate is delightful; frost is not uncommon in winter, but fireplaces are unknown; in summer the thermometer marks 100 F to 104 F but the nights are cool and the dews heavy; yet the people sleep on the flat roofs of their houses. Damascus is called by the Arabs "the Eye of the Desert" and the "Pearl


of the East." It is to the Mohammedan the earthly reflection of paradise. The chief cause of its beauty and fertility is the abundance of water, which calls forth a most luxuriant vegetation round about the city, and makes it a blooming oasis in the midst of a vast desert.

History. -Damascus is called the oldest city in the world; said by Josephus to have been founded by Uz, a grandson of Shem; Abraham visited it, Gen 14:15; Gen 15:2; it was conquered by David, 2 Sam 8:5-6; was allied with Israel and against Israel, 1 Kgs 15:18, Ruth 4:20; 2 Chr 16:3; was taken by Tiglath-pileser;

Wall of Damascus.(From, Conybeare and Howson's "St. Paul.")

denounced by Jeremiah. Jer 49:27; and afterward seldom noticed in O.T. history. It was surrendered to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus, b.c. 333. In the N.T. it is noticed as the place of the scene of Paul's conversion, Acts 9:1-25; later it became the residence of a Christian bishop; was conquered by the Arabs, a.d. 635; attacked by the Crusaders, A.D. 1126: several times besieged; was taken by the Mongols, 1260; plundered by the Tartars, 1300; attacked by Timour, 1399, to whom it paid a million pieces of gold; became A provincial capital of the Turkish empire, 1516; and is now the residence of a Turkish governor. It is the hot-bed of Mohammedan fanaticism. In 1860, 6000 Christians were massacred by the Moslems in cold blood, in the city and adjoining districts.

Present Condition. -Though twelve times pillaged and burned, it now extends on both sides of the Barada, and has a population of from 110,000 to 150,000. The most remarkable building is the Great Mosque, which was once a Byzantine church dedicated to John the Baptist. The principal street, known as Sultany, or Queen's street, runs in nearly a straight line from east to west, and is supposed to be the same as the street called "Straight" in Acts 9:11. The traditional sites of the houses of Naaman and Ananias and the place in the wall where Paul was let down in a basket are still pointed out. No less than four places near the city have been claimed as the scene of Paul's conversion.

The Presbyterian Church of Ireland maintains a Protestant mission there, which has several substantial buildings and labors among the Greeks and the Jews. There is also an Episcopal mission and chapel in Damascus.

DAMNA'TION. This term, in common use, denotes the endless perdition of the ungodly. Matt 23:3; Mark 3:29; John 5:28-29; 2 Pet 2:3. But when the Bible was translated the word was used where "condemnation" or "judgment" would more properly express the sense, so that, while generally applying to the eternal state of the soul, it is sometimes to be taken in its milder meaning. Ignorance of this fact has led to deplorable consequences. Saints have been made despondent and sinners driven to despair. 1 Cor 11:29 ought to be translated "eateth and drinketh judgment to himself." So in Rom 13:2 and 1 Sam 14:23.

DAN (judge), the fifth son of Jacob, and the first of Bilhah, Rachel's maid. Gen 30:6. Nothing is known personally of the patriarch. The prediction uttered by Jacob respecting him, Gen 49:16-17, is variously interpreted. It is probable that the elevation of his 217 tribe to an equal rank with the others, notwithstanding that he was born of a concubine, was foretold in v. Ex 17:16, and the residue of the prediction may allude to the subtle and crafty disposition of his descendants. Indeed, we know that Samson, who was among the most noted of them, was remarkably successful in stratagem, Jud 14-15; and perhaps the same trait was characteristic of their tribe. Jud 18:26-27.

It is noticeable that the tribe of Dan is omitted from the numbering in Rev 7. Because of this, and because Dan first introduced idolatry into Israel, Jud 18, many of the fathers maintained that Antichrist would come from Dan.


  1. The territory in Canaan allotted to Dan was on the sea-coast, west of Benjamin and between Ephraim and Judah. It embraced a broad plain, 14 miles long, near the sea. The Amorites kept them from the plain and forced them into the mountains. Hence they had another portion granted them, near Mount Hermon, Jud 18, where they set up a graven image stolen from Micah.

  2. Dan, City of, the chief city of the northern district held by this tribe. Jud 20:1. It was originally called Laish, Jud 18:29; noted for idolatry, Jud 18:30; now called Tel-el-Kady, or "mound of the judge," 3 miles from Banias, north of the waters of Merom.

  3. The Dan of Eze 27:19 is possibly the same as No. 2, but some identify it with Dedar, others with Aden, in Arabia.

DANCE. The Jewish dances were generally expressions of joy and gratitude, sometimes in honor of a conqueror, Jud 11:34; 1 Sam 18:6-7, and sometimes on domestic occasions. Jer 31:4, 2 Kgs 11:13; Luke 15:25. The dance was also introduced into the religious service, and the timbrel (tambourine) was employed to direct it. Some individual led, and the rest followed with measured steps and devotional songs. Thus, David and Miriam led such a band. 2 Sam 6:14; Ex 15:20. Individuals often expressed feelings of joy in the same way. Luke 6:23; Acts 3:8.

Dancing was practised from a very early period as a natural exercise and amusement. Job 21:11; Mark 6:22. But the mingling of males and females which is so common in modern dances was unknown to the Jews. Indeed, the dancing was mostly done by the women alone, as is still the case in Egypt.

A Hebrew word, mahhol, which occurs in some passages -e.g. Ps 150:4-and is rendered "dance" in our version, is supposed by some scholars to mean a musical instrument.

DANIEL (God is my judge). 1. One of the four greater prophets. He was of noble, perhaps of royal, descent, and probably born at Jerusalem. Dan 1:3; Dan 9:24; comp. Josephus's Antiq. In his early youth he was carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, together with three other Hebrew youths of rank, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, b.c. 604. He was there instructed in the language and arts of the Chaldaeans, and, with his three companions, trained for the royal service in the palace. Dan 1:1-4. The prince of the eunuchs changed all their names, calling them respectively Belteshazzar (i.e. "prince of Bel"), Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. These four refused to eat of the king's meat and to drink his wine, but chose "pulse and water." Notwithstanding this diet, they were in better condition than the heathen courtiers.

After three years' training, God gave Daniel an opportunity to display his learning and wisdom. He interpreted a dream which Nebuchadnezzar had forgotten. Dan 2. In reward, he was made "ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon," and in this position so distinguished himself that he won great fame and was mentioned as a model man even by his contemporaries. Eze 14:14, Ruth 4:20; 1 Sam 28:3. On another occasion he faithfully explained to his monarch the intention of God to punish him for his pride. Dan 4. For Belshazzar, a grandson and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, he performed a similar service, reading the handwriting upon the wall, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. Dan 5.

Under Darius the Mede, Daniel was made the first of the "three presidents " of the empire. His enemies obtained a command from Darius forbidding all prayer save unto the king for 30 days. But Daniel did not stop praying; and this fact being discovered, he was cast 218 into the den of lions, which was the punishment for a violation of the king's order. But God delivered him, and he was kept in his office. In the reign of Cyrus he likewise prospered, but seems to have left Babylon, as his latest recorded vision, Dan 10:1,Ex 6:4, was by the Hiddekel, in the third year of Cyrus, b.c. 534. When he died, and where, are uncertain. His reputed tomb is shown at Susa, on the Tigris.

Daniel at the court of Babylon resembles Joseph at the court of Pharaoh. Both were involuntary exiles from their country and people; both were great statesmen; both maintained the purity of their religion and their personal character, though surrounded by idolatry and corruption; both rose by their wisdom and integrity from slavery to the highest dignity in a heathen empire; both are shining examples of loyalty to God and to virtue.

  1. Daniel is the name of two. or perhaps three, other persons mentioned in the Bible.

(a) The second son of David by Abigail the Carmelitess. 1 Chr 3:1. He is, however, called Chileab in 2 Sam 3:3.

(b) A priest of the family of Ithamar, mentioned, Ezr 8:2, as having returned with Ezra. He is probably again spoken of in Neh 10:6 among those who sealed the covenant drawn up by Nehemiah, b.c. 445.

DANIEL, BOOK OF. It consists of two distinct parts.

  1. Historical, chs. Dan 1-6, containing the interesting narrative given in the preceding section, and with it an account of the attempted burning of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego in a fiery furnace because they would not worship the golden image which Nebuchadnezzar set up on the plain of Dura.

  2. Apocalyptic, chs. Dan 1:7-12, or the record of Daniel's visions. Ch.Dan 1:1 contains the introduction,- chs. Dan 1:2-6 present a general view of the progressive history of the powers of the world, and of the principles of the divine government, as seen in events in the life of Daniel; and chs. Dan 1:7-12, the prophecy of the future of the people of God. The book is written in prose, but not in the same language throughout. The introduction, chs. Dan 1:1-2:4, first clause, is written in Hebrew, but from the second clause of the fourth verse of the second chapter to the end of ch. 7 it is in Aramaic, called Syriac in that verse. From the beginning of ch. 8 to the end, in which part the visions are related in the first person, the language is Hebrew.

The interpretation of Daniel requires profound knowledge of ancient history. The book is, in fact, a sort of religious philosophy of history. Its fundamental idea is that all the kingdoms of the world, which pass away, are ruled and overruled by divine Providence for the kingdom of Christ, which will last for ever. The book of Daniel occupies in the O.T. the same position which the Revelation of John occupies in the New. It views the kingdom of God in its contact and conflicts with the empires of the world, and looks forward to the universal reign of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and the final judgment. The empires of the world appear first in Nebuchadnezzar's dream, ch. Lev 10:2, under the figure of a colossal image with a head of gold, a breast and arms of silver, a belly of brass, and legs and feet of iron and clay. These represent respectively (according to the usual orthodox interpretation) the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, the Macedo-Greek, and the Roman empires; they are overthrown at last by a stone cut out of the mountain without hands and becoming a great mountain, which represents the reign of the Messiah. The indestructible rock of God's own workmanship breaks to pieces the metal colossus of man's hand. The same succession of monarchies is presented in the seventh chapter, under the form of a vision of four beasts seen by the prophet himself. The fourth beast has ten horns, denoting ten kingdoms, growing out of it, and a little horn (Song of Solomon 7:8, Jud 6:24) springing up among the four fractured horns of the Greek empire. Interpreters agree as to the first empire, which must be Babylonia, but differ as to the other three. Some combine the Medes and Persians in one empire; others divide them, and regard the Greeks (Alexander the Great and his successors) as representing the fourth empire, and refer the "little horn" to Antiochus Epiphanes. Still others give the prophecy of Daniel a more comprehensive sweep over all the world-empires before 219 and after Christ, as preparing the way for the ultimate and everlasting reign of Christ. This prophecy of Christ, the most important in the book, is constantly fulfilling before our eyes, and cannot be set aside by any negative criticism.

The book of Daniel has been much attacked, but also successfully vindicated by biblical scholars. In the second part Daniel speaks in the first person as the receiver of the divine revelations recorded therein, so that the only alternative here is between truth and fraud. The very fact that two languages are used renders it extremely unlikely that it should have been forged or written in any later period, but to Daniel, familiar as he was with both Hebrew and Aramaic, it was natural. The book displays familiar acquaintance with Babylonian life and royal manners, and suits throughout the period of the Babylonian exile and the peculiar position of Daniel at the Babylonian court. The genuineness is sanctioned by the highest authority -that of Christ, Matt 24:15, from which there is no appeal for believers.

The attacks upon the book have been in three lines: (1) Its extraordinary events -the golden image, the burning fiery furnace, the dreams, the lions' den, etc.; (2) its minute prophecies; (3) its foreign (Greek) words; (4) its narrative. To these objections it is sufficient to reply:(1) The characteristics of Babylon, the manners and customs of the East, amply justify the language and prove that the book is genuinely Oriental and Babylonian. (2) The peculiar position of Daniel required an exceptional and startling character for his revelations; his prophecies have been in great part fulfilled. (3) The Greek words are only four in number, and are the names of musical instruments which may have been imported from Greece as early as b.c. 600. (4) Its historical difficulties. Belshazzar is represented as the last king of Babylon, while the authority there known gave Nabonnedus as the last king. This difficulty was solved by Sir Henry Rawlinson's decipherment of a cylinder among the ruins of Ur in Chaldaea in 1854. Nabonnedus had his eldest son, Belshazzar, as co-regent, and therefore it might well be that while he met the Persians in the field his son ruled in the capital. Thus is explained how Daniel was made the third ruler in the kingdom. Dan 5:16, 1 Chr 2:29.

Apocryphal Additions to Daniel. -These exist in the Greek version, and are: The Song of the Three Holy Children, the History of Susanna, and the Story of Bel and the Dragon. They passed into the Vulgate, and so into modern translations. They embody popular traditions, but never formed part of the Hebrew Bible.

  1. The Song of the Three Holy Children purports to be the triumphal song of the three confessors in the furnace, Dan 3:23, in praise of their miraculous deliverance. The chief part has been used as a hymn (Benedicite) in the Christian Church since the fourth century.

  2. The History of Susanna, who was cleared from a charge of adultery by the shrewdness of Daniel. Probably based upon a fact.

  3. The History of Bel and the Dragon, a strange exaggeration of the record of the divine deliverance of Daniel, ch. 1 Chr 24:6.

DAN-JA'AN. 2 Sam 24:6. Probably Danian, a ruin north of Achzib.

DAN'NAH, a city in the mountains of Judah. Josh 15:49. Conder identifies it with modern Jahud, about 8 miles north-west of Hebron.

DA'RA, contr. form of DAR'DA (pearl of wisdom), one whom Solomon outrivalled in wisdom. 1 Kgs 4:31; 1 Chr 2:6.

DAR'IC, the name of a Persian gold coin, which is translated "dram" in 1 Chr 29:7; Ezr 2:69; Ezr 8:27; Neh 7:70-72. The name comes from the Persian word dara, "a king." like the English sovereign. It was the common gold-piece of the Persian empire. It was current in Palestine under Cyrus, and Artaxerxes Longimanus. It weighed about 128 grains Troy, and was worth about five dollars. Besides the gold there was a silver daric, worth about fifty cents. There is no mention of this latter coin in the Bible. See Measures.

DARI'US (restrainer), the name of several kings of Media and Persia mentioned in the Bible. 1. Darius the Median, Dan 5:31, was the son of Ahasuerus; he took Babylon from Belshazzar the Chaldaean, being at 220 that time about 62 years old. The best identification is that which makes him Astyages, the last king of the Medes. "Only one year of the reign of Darius is mentioned, Dan 9:1; Dan 11:1; and if, as seems probable, Darius (Astyages) occupied the throne of Babylon as supreme sovereign, with Nerigalsarasser as vassal-prince, after the murder of Evil-merodaeh (Belshazzar), b.c. 559, one year only remains for this Median supremacy before its overthrow by Cyrus, b.c. 558, in exact accordance with the notices in Daniel." Under him Daniel was advanced to the highest dignity, which exposed him to the malice of enemies and led to his being cast into the den of lions, but by a miracle he escaped injury. See Daniel.

  1. Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the founder of the Perso-Aryan dynasty, and ruler, b.c. 521-486. Ezr 4:5, Jud 6:24; Hag 1:1, 2 Sam 20:15; Zech 1:1, 1 Kgs 15:7; Zech 7:1. He found in the palace at Achmetha or Ecbatana, the capital of Cyrus, a decree of that king concerning the temple in Jerusalem. This he confirmed, and the temple was finished in 4 years, b.c. 516. Ezr 6:15. It may, however, have been used before it was entirely completed, as is inferred from Zech 7:2-3.

  2. Darius the Persian, mentioned in Neh 12:22, is generally identified with Darius Codomannus, the antagonist of Alexander the Great, who ascended the throne b.c. 336, and reigned until b.c. 330. He was the last Persian monarch, and was killed by his own generals. Alexander defeated him, and thus the prophecy of Daniel, ch. Dan 8, was fulfilled.

DARK'NESS. The darkness which constituted one of the plagues of Egypt might "be felt." Ex 10:21. This may have been occasioned by a thick, heavy vapor, or other sensible change in the atmosphere, which caused an entire interception of the sun's rays. It was evidently miraculous, and the dread and terror it inspired are vividly described. Ex 10:22-23. So of the darkness that shrouded the earth when our Saviour was put to death, Luke 23:44-45; it was manifestly miraculous, as no natural eclipse of the sun could take place at that period of the moon. "Darkness" is used in a metaphorical sense for ignorance or sin, John 1:5; Rom 13:12; Eph 5:11; for misery, Isa 5:30; Isa 59:9-10; for the final doom, Matt 8:12, God is said to dwell in the thick darkness. Ex 20:21; 1 Kgs 8:12.

DAR'KON (scatterer), one whose posterity returned from Babylon. Ezr 2:56; Neh 7:58.

DARL'ING. The word occurs in Ps 22:20 and Ps 35:17 as the translation of a Hebrew word which correctly means "my only one," as it is applied to "something which exists singly and cannot be replaced if lost, as an only son. Gen 22:2, or daughter." Jud 11:34.

DA'THAN (belonging to a fountain), a Reubenite chieftain who joined in Korah's rebellion. Num 16; Num 26:9; Deut 11:6; Ps 106:17.

DAUGH'TER is used in the Bible in several other senses than the literal one. It describes a female descendant. Gen 27:46, the women of a city or country. Gen 36:2, or women in general, Prov 31:29; the female worshippers of an idol, Mal 2:11; cities and their dependent towns. In Eccl 12:4 "daughters of music" are singing-women.

DA'VID (beloved), the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, was born in Bethlehem, b.c. 1085, and was both in his prophetical and regal character an eminent type of the Messiah. 1 Sam 16:13. While he was employed as a shepherd in his father's fields God sent Samuel to Bethlehem, on the occasion of the annual sacrificial feast, with instructions to anoint David as king of Israel in the place of Saul, who had incurred the divine displeasure, and was therefore to be deposed. Dean Stanley thus describes David's appearance and physique as he stood before Samuel: "He was short of stature, had red hair and bright eyes. He was remarkable for the grace of his figure and countenance, well made, and of immense strength and agility. In swiftness and activity he could only be compared to a wild gazelle, with feet like harts' feet, with arms strong enough to break a bow of steel. Ps 18:33-34, "-History of the Jewish Church, 2d series, Lect. 22. Probably neither David nor any one else understood the real meaning of this anointing. At all events, David went 221 back to the shepherd-life. We next hear of him as chosen by Saul, upon the suggestion of one of the bodyguard, to play upon a harp, and thus soothe the troubled spirit of the king. In this he was eminently successful. Saul made him one of his armor-bearers, and requested permission of Jesse to allow him to remain at his court. 1 Sam 16:21-23. But it seems that David after a time returned home. It was then perhaps that his adventure with the lion and the bear took place. After an interval of uncertain length -Josephus says "after a few years"-David had his famous fight with Goliath. But he had so altered that Saul did not recognize in the grown man flushed by triumph the lad who had played the harp in his hours of mental distress; hence his question of Abner -"Whose son is this youth?"-was natural. 1 Sam 17:55. The superiority in military glory which the women gave David excited the jealousy of the king, and so, although David was made a chieftain, lived at court, and enjoyed the friendship of the king's son, yet he was constantly exposed to the wrath of Saul.

Agreeably to the terms of the king's promise to him who slew the giant, David became the king's son-in-law, marrying Michal, whom he loved, but only on condition that he slew a hundred Philistines-an exaction made in hope that the attempt would end fatally. But David and his men slew two hundred. David found his position full of danger. His very presence seemed to arouse the envy of Saul, so that the latter determined to kill him, and several times cast his javelin at him as he stood playing before him. By a stratagem Michal saved David's life and enabled him to flee to Samuel at Ramah. 1 Sam 19:13, 1 Sam 30:18. David then became convinced that a further residence at court was impossible, and accordingly an affecting parting with Jonathan took place, 1 Sam 20, and David became a fugitive from the hand of Saul. Armed with the sword of Goliath and anointed with the sacred oil, the future king sought a home among the Philistines. But his fame had preceded him, and his assumed madness scarcely saved him. 1 Sam 21. Therefore he went to the cave of Adullam and gathered gradually a motley crowd, composed of insolvent debtors and malcontents. 1 Sam 22:1-2. But David proved his fitness to rule a kingdom by controlling these men and bringing them to accede to his wishes.

The history of David's life for the next few years is filled with the details of alternate defeats and victories, of his flight, of his magnanimous refusal to lay hands on the Lord's anointed, 1 Sam 24:16, of his residence among neighboring tribes, of the episode of Abigail, 1 Sam 25, and finally of the battle of Gilboa, in which Jonathan fell and Saul slew himself, unable to bear defeat. 1 Sam 31. The lament which he then composed is one of the noblest odes of friendship, and a monument of his generosity to a fallen foe and of devotion to a fallen friend. 2 Sam 1:19-27.

Then David, by divine direction, removed to Hebron, where the chief men of Judah met him and offered him the government of their tribe, which he accepted. Accordingly, he was anointed for the second time. 2 Sam 2:4. In Hebron, as king of Judah, he reigned seven years and a half. During this time Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, by means of the skilful general Abner, maintained a decreasing semblance of authority over Israel. But at length he and Abner were killed, and thus the way prepared for the execution of God's plan to set David on the throne of united Israel.

David was solemnly anointed for the third time. 2 Sam 5:3. Soon after he assumed the government he obtained possession of Jerusalem, reduced the fortress which the Jebusites had maintained, and established the seat of his government there. Under his wise and liberal policy the place was greatly enlarged; magnificent edifices rose up on every side, fortifications were erected, and the ark, which had been before without a fixed abode, was brought into the new city with religious ceremonies peculiarly joyful and solemn. 2 Sam 6:12-19. Thenceforward, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom, the residence of the royal family, and, more than all, the city of God. Ps 48:2; Matt 6:35. To it the tribes repaired from every quarter of the land to celebrate their annual festivals, and its 222 growth in population, wealth, and splendor was very rapid.

David now formed the design of building a magnificent temple for the worship of Jehovah, to take the place of the tabernacle, which was but a temporary and movable structure. He was informed, however, by God's direction, that this service would be reserved for his son Solomon. 2 Sam 7.

After several contests with the nations that bordered on Israel, in which David was uniformly victorious, there broke out a war with the Ammonites (see Ammonites), during the progress of which David fell into those most aggravated sins of murder and adultery which brought disgrace and distress on his family and government and involved him in trouble during the remnant of his days. 2 Sam 12:9. His domestic peace was destroyed by the outrage committed upon Tamar by Amnon, revenged, "after two full years," by Absalom, who slew Amnon at a feast. 2 Sam 13:14, 1 Chr 2:29. This murder occasioned Absalom's flight to his father-in-law's court at Geshur. Being recalled, he started a rebellion which compelled the king to flee from his capital and exile himself to avoid being cut off by a parricidal hand. 2 Sam 15-18. The

Tomb of David. (After a Photograph by Good.)

death of Absalom, though it brought relief to the kingdom, inflicted a deep wound on the father's heart. The insurrection under Sheba and the murder of Amasa by Joab followed in quick succession. And to close the melancholy catalogue was the terrible judgment which he brought upon himself and the nation by numbering the people for some purpose which was sinful in the sight of God, though not explained to us. 2 Sam 24.

David was now 70 years old, and had reigned seven and a half years over the tribe of Judah and thirty three over the whole kingdom of Israel. Just before his death his son Adonijah made a bold attempt to usurp the throne,- and to secure the kingdom against any pretender, David resigned the crown to Solomon, put into his hands the plan and model of the temple and the treasure accumulated for it, summoned the influential men of the nation, and delivered his farewell address. He died b.c. 1015, and was buried in the "city of David." 1 Kgs 2:10. His tomb became the sepulchre of subsequent kings, and one of the sacred places of the kingdom. It is pointed out on Mount Zion, at Jerusalem, outside the city wall. See cut, above. David was a type of Christ. They both inherited their kingdoms after 223 suffering. And David, as the ruler over temporal Israel, was a forerunner of the Son of David, who was to reign over the spiritual Israel for ever. Matt 1:1; Matt 9:27; Matt 12:23, etc.

When David is spoken of as a man after God's "own heart," 1 Sam 13:14; Acts 13:22, reference is obviously intended to his general character and conduct, and not to every particular instance of it. As he was human, he was imperfect; and when he sinned, God punished him, and that with great severity. But he was remarkable for his devotion to God's service, and he kept himself from idols. He established the government of Israel, and extended its dominions to the full extent of the promise to Abraham, and left a compact and united empire, stretching from Egypt to Lebanon, and from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean.

The life and character of David shine in his poetry- the life of action, adventure, war; the character of manly strength and womanly tenderness. Thus his Psalms supply biographical material. By means of them his heart is read. The man who could kill a giant is found to have a delicate appreciation of friendship. He whose passion led him into sin, whose hate into words of cursing, was able to mourn with deepest humility and bless with heartiest assent. It is to the Psalms of David, albeit he did not write the entire collection, that the Church of God has appealed for comfort in adversity and sanctification in prosperity. In regard to them Canon Perowne truthfully and eloquently says: "The very excellence of these Psalms is their universality. They spring from the deep fountains of the human heart, and God, in his providence and by his Spirit, has so ordered it that they should be for his Church an everlasting heritage. Hence they express the sorrows, the joys, the aspirations, the struggles, the victories, not of one man, but of all. And if we ask. How comes this to pass? the answer is not far to seek. One object is ever before the eyes and the heart of the Psalmist. All enemies, all distresses, all persecutions, all sins, are seen in the light of God. It is to him that the cry goes up; it is to him that the heart is laid bare; it is to him that the thanksgiving is uttered. This it is which makes them so true, so precious, so universal. No surer proof of their inspiration can be given than this-that they are not of an age, but for all time; that the ripest Christian can use them in the fulness of his Christian manhood, though the words are the words of one who lived centuries before the coming of Christ in the flesh."-The Psalms, 3d ed., vol. i. p. 21.

Genealogical Table.

David, City of, applied to Zion, 2 Sam 5:7; to Jerusalem, 1 Kgs 2:10; Dan 3:1; to Bethlehem, Luke 2:4, Rev 1:11.

DAY. The natural day consists of 24 hours, or one revolution of the earth upon its axis. The artificial day is the 224 time during which the sun is above the horizon. The civil day is reckoned differently by different nations-some from sunrise to sunrise; others from sunset to sunset; others still from noon to noon, or from midnight to midnight. The Jewish day was reckoned from evening to evening, adopted, as some think, from Gen 1:5, or, as others with more probability hold, from the "use of the lunar calendar in regulating days of religious observance." Lev 23:32. Their Sabbath, or seventh day, which was the only day named-the others were numbered merely-began on what we call Friday, at sunset, and ended on what we call Saturday, at sunset. Ex 12:18. This mode of reckoning days was not uncommon in other Eastern nations. The day was originally divided into morning, noon, and night. Ps 55:17. But besides, the Jews distinguished six unequal parts, which were again subdivided. 1. Dawn, subdivided into gray dawn and rosy dawn. 2. Sunrise. Some supposed that the Hebrews, prior to leaving Egypt, began the day at that time, but discontinued it by divine command, and began at even in order to be different from those nations which worshipped the rising sun. 3. The heat of the day, about nine o'clock. 1 Sam 11:11; Neh 7:3, etc. 4. The two noons. Gen 43:16; Deut 28:29. 5. The cool (lit. wind) of the day, before sunset. Gen 3:8. 6. Evening. In Ex 12:6; Ex 30:8, margins, occurs the phrase "between the two evenings," which probably is correctly taken to mean "between the beginning and end of sunset."

The mention of hours in the Bible dates from the Captivity, Dan 3:6, and it is therefore reasonably presumed that this division of time is of Babylonish origin. Before the Captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches-from sunset to midnight, from midnight to cock-crow, Jud 7:19; from cock-crow to sunrise. Ex 14:24. In the N.T. mention is made of four watches, because the Greek and Roman division was then adopted. In our Lord's time the division of the day into 12 hours was common. John 11:9. The word "day" is used of a festal day, Hos 7:5; a birthday. Job 3:1; a day of ruin, Hos 1:11; Job 18:20; the judgment-day, Joel 1:15; 1 Thess 5:2; Acts 17:31; and the kingdom of Christ. John 8:56; Rom 13:12. It is also often used to denote an indefinite time. Gen 2:4; Isa 22:5. The term "three days and three nights," in Matt 12:40, denotes the same space of time as "three days." Matt 27:63-64.

Day's Journey, a distance mentioned Gen 31:23; Ex 3:18, etc. It is quite evident that this phrase does not mean any particular distance, but rather the space travelled during one day, and this would of course vary with the circumstances of the traveller. But unless there is special reason for believing the contrary, we may interpret it as meaning a stretch of 25 to 30 miles, since this is the usual length of a day's journey in the East, on camel or horseback, performed in 6 to 8 hours. See also Sabbath Day's Journey.

Day, Lord's. See Sabbath.

Daysman. Job 9:33. The word is derived by Webster from "him who fixes the day upon which he will decide as judge or arbitrator." It was in common use, when the Bible was translated, in the sense of "umpire."

Dayspring. Job 38:12; Luke 1:78. The first dawning of light. Comp. Isa 60:1-2 and Rev 22:16.

Day-star, or Morning-star, 2 Pet 1:19, in the figurative language of the apostle, is supposed to mean the light which shines on the soul of the believer, and cheers him with the expectation of a perfect day of holiness and joy.

DEA'CON (servant). This name, as a title of office, has been applied to the "seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom," who were appointed over the business of serving tables, in order that the apostles might be at liberty to give themselves continually to prayer and the ministry of the word. They were set apart by prayer and the laying on of the apostles' hands. Acts 6:1-6. Very likely these seven men held a higher position than those afterward appointed, as, in addition to routine and more or less servile duties, they preached and did the work of evangelists; e.g. Stephen and Philip. The idea that a man must be a deacon before he can be an elder or bishop is not found in the N.T. The qualifications 225 and duties of deacons are particularly set forth in Acts 6:1-6 and 1 Tim 3:8-12

DEA'CONESS. Such was Phoebe, and in all probability Tryphena, Tryphosa, and Persis occupied the same office in the church in Rome. Rom 16:1, Jud 4:12. It is therefore probable that there was in the different churches an order of pious women employed in attending upon those of their own sex in some of the same offices and duties which the deacons performed for their brethren. Among these we reckon the care of the sick, of the poor and the widows, the education of orphans, attention to strangers, the practice of hospitality, comp. 1 Tim 5:10, and the assistance needed at the baptism of females. The question whether the "widows" in 1 Tim 5:9-16 are proper deaconesses may be answered in the affirmative, because the word translated "to take into the number" or "to enroll" applies not to widows in general, but to the deaconesses, for the following reasons:

  1. If understood of any insertion merely in the list of those supported from the congregational fund, it implies an injustice to widows under 60 years old or to those twice married, who might easily be even more destitute.

  2. The opposite interpretation conflicts with the context, for Paul advises, in V. 2 Kgs 22:14, the younger widows to remarry; but this would be to cut them off from all help in case they were widows again.

  3. This interpretation leaves it inexplicable why a special vow was required of these widows, v. Jud 4:12.

  4. But by understanding the word to apply, not to widows in general, but to those who were specially elected and ordained to the particular office of deaconess, all these objections vanish.

DEAD, DEATH. Death is the destruction or extinction of life. By the transgression of God's commandment our first parents became liable to death. The threatening was, "In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die." Gen 2:17 (comp. Rom 5:12-14; 1 Cor 15:21-22; Heb 9:27). This expression does not mean to define the time of actual dissolution, but rather to denote an inevitable liability or exposure to death, which, in that day and by that act, they should surely incur.

The sacred writers speak of a death which affects the body only. Gen 25:11; of another, which describes the condition of the soul under the power of sin, Eph 2:1; and a third, which denotes the everlasting perdition of the wicked. James 5:20. In each of these senses our divine Redeemer may be regarded as having virtually destroyed death and delivered them who, through fear of death, were all their lifetime subject to bondage. Heb 2:14-15. To avail ourselves, however, of the benefits of his perfect triumph, we must believe, trust, love, and obey him. See Buby, Resurrection, Christ.

DEAD SEA, a name not found in Scripture. See Salt Sea.

DE'BIR (sanctuary), the name of three places. 1. In the highlands of Judah, near Hebron; captured by Joshua, Josh 10:38-39; was first called Kirjath-sepher, Josh 15:15, and Kirjath-sannah, Josh 15:49; was allotted to the priests. Josh 21:15. It has been placed at Dewir-ban, 3 miles west of Hebron, and at Dilbeh, 6 miles south-west. Conder, however, rejects these, and suggests Dedheriyeh, north of which are copious springs, which he identifies with "the upper springs and the nether springs" of Jud 1:15.

  1. A place near the valley of Achor, Josh 15:7; perhaps Wady Dabir, between Jericho and Jerusalem.

  2. A place on the boundary of Gad, east of the Jordan, Josh 13:26; possibly the same as Lo-bebar, which see.

DE'BIR, king of Eglon, one of the five kings who warred against Gibeon. He, with his companions, was slain by Joshua and hanged on a tree. Josh 10:3, Heb 12:23, Acts 11:26.

DEB'ORAH (a bee). 1. The nurse of Rebekah, and her companion into Canaan. Gen 24:59. She was buried at Bethel, under the "oak of weeping." Gen 35:8. "Nurses held a high and honorable place in ancient times, and especially in the East, where they were often the principal members of the family. 2 Kgs 11:2; 2 Kgs 2 Chr. 22:11."

  1. A woman of eminent wisdom and holiness (called a prophetess), and a judge of the people of Israel. Jud 4:4

She was the wife of Lapidoth (although some think the passage should read "a woman of Lapidoth"), and had her judgment-seat under a palm tree, which from this circumstance, and from the rarity of the tree, is spoken of as "the [well-known] palm tree of Deborah." Jud 4:5. Israel was suffering at that time a most oppressive bondage under Jabin, a Canaanitish king, to which it was doomed in consequence of its sin. Deborah, by divine direction, called upon Barak, who had probably signalized himself in some way, and commanded him to station himself upon Mount Tabor with a prescribed number of men, and she would see to it that Sisera, the commander of the tyrant's army, should be there, and should fall into Barak's hands. Barak engaged to undertake the enterprise if Deborah would accompany him. To this she consented, prophesying, however, that if she went the honor of the victory would be hers and not his, and that Sisera would be regarded as having fallen by the hands of a woman. Jud 4:9. The two armies met, and the event was as Deborah predicted. Sisera fled, and died by the hand of Jael; his army was cut off and every man slain. Jud 4:21.

The triumphal song composed or dictated by Deborah on that occasion is regarded as one of the finest specimens of Oriental poetry. Jud 5. We give a few verses from a revised version:

"Lord, when thou wentest forth out of


When thou marchedst out of the field of


The earth trembled, the heavens also


Yea, the clouds dropped water.

The mountains flowed down at the presence

of the Lord,

Even that Sinai at the presence of the Lord

the God of Israel.

* * * * * * * *

The kings came, they fought;

Then fought the kings of Canaan

In Taanach by the waters of Megiddo;

They took no gain of silver.

They fought from heaven;

The stars from their courses fought against


The river Kishon swept them away.

That ancient river, the river Kishon.

March on, my soul, with strength."

See Barak. Jael.

DEBTOR. See Loan.

DECAP'OLIS (ten cities), a region noticed three times in the Bible. Matt 4:25;

Map of Decapolis. (From Schaff's "New Testament Commentary.")

Mark 5:20; Mark 7:31 It lay near the Sea of Galilee probably on both sides of the Jordan. The cities were rebuilt by the Romans about b.c. 65; 227 but as other cities grew up, writers are not agreed as to the names of the ten cities. Pliny gives them as follows: Scythopolis, Hippos, Gadara, Pella, Philadelphia, Gerasa, Dion, Canatha, Raphana, Damascus. Six are deserted, and none have many inhabitants except Damascus.

DECISION, VALLEY OF. Joel 3:14. See Jehoshaphat.

DE'DAN (low ground). 1. The name of a descendant of Ham. Gen 10:7; 1 Chr 1:9.

  1. A son of Jokshan, son of Abraham by Keturah. Gen 25:3; 1 Chr 1:32.

DED'ICATE,DEDICA'TION, a religious ceremony by which any person, place, or thing is set apart for the service of God or to some sacred use. Num 7; 2 Sam 8:11; 1 Kgs 8. Cities, walls, gates, and private houses were thus dedicated. Neh 12:27. The practice of consecration was very common among the Jews, and was suited to the peculiar dispensation under which they lived.

Dedication, Feast of the, mentioned only once in the canonical Scriptures, John 10:22, was instituted to commemorate the purging of the temple and the rebuilding of the altar after Judas Maccabaeus had driven out the Syrians, 1 Macc 4:52-59, b.c. 164. Like the other Jewish feasts, it lasted eight days, but, unlike them, attendance at Jerusalem was not obligatory. In general, it was kept like the feast of tabernacles. The Hallel was sung every day. It was a time of rejoicing. It began upon the 25th day of Chisleu (December), the anniversary of the pollution of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, b.c. 167.

DEEP, THE, in Luke 8:31 and Rom 10:7, does not refer to the sea, but to the abyss, the place where lost spirits await their final doom. The same word is rendered the "bottomless pit" in Rev 9:1-2, Rev 1:11; Rev 11:7; Rev 20:13.

DEFILE'. Under the Jewish law, many blemishes of person and conduct were regarded as defilements or pollutions, rendering those upon whom they were found unclean, and subjecting them, for the time being, to many civil and religious disabilities. Mark 7:2. The term is most frequently used by the sacred writers in a figurative sense.

DEGREE'. This word is used to signify rank or station. Ps 62:9; 1 Tim 3:13. The phrase "song, or psalm of degrees," which forms the title to Psalms 120-134 inclusive, has been variously interpreted; some suppose it has reference to the elevated voice in which they were sung, others to the time when they were sung-viz. at the annual festivals, when the Jews went up to Jerusalem, and that in this sense they were called "odes of ascension." The Rabbins suppose they were sung by the Levites as they ascended the 15 steps which separated the men's court from the women's in the temple; and others again suppose that the word "degree" denotes the peculiarly climacteric style of these Psalms-viz. that the thought or expression of one verse is resumed and carried forward in the next succeeding verse, as in Psalm 121; but this is improbable.

DEHA'VITES, supposed by Herodotus to be a Persian tribe, and, as some think, the same who are mentioned as from Ava. Ezr 4:9; 2 Kgs 17:24.

DE'KAR (a lancer), the father of one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kgs 4:9.

DELAI'AH (whom Jehovah hath freed).

  1. The head of the twenty third temple-course of priests. 1 Chr 24:18.

  2. " Children of Delaiah "are spoken of in Ezr 2:60;Neh 7:62.

  3. The father of a man who tried to terrify Nehemiah. Neh 6:10.

  4. A prince in the time of Jeremiah. Jer 36:12, Gal 4:25.

DEL'ILAH (pining with desire), a harlot of the valley of Sorek, in the tribe of Judah, and near the borders of the Philistines, with whom Samson associated, and who was the instrument of betraying him to his enemies. Jud 16:4-18. See Samson.

DE'MAS, a zealous disciple and fellow-laborer of Paul, Phile 24; Col 4:14, who afterward left him through inordinate love of the world, 2 Tim 4:10. The name is most probably a contraction from "Demetrius" or from "Demarchus."

DEME'TRIUS. 1. A silversmith who resided at Ephesus and manufactured silver shrines or small portable temples and images of Diana. See Diana. 228 Acts 19:24. These were purchased by foreigners, who either could not come to Ephesus, or else desired a memento of the city and a model of its famous temple. This was a very lucrative business in that city, where the worship of Diana was chiefly maintained; and hence, when the gospel began to make an impression, and the people to forsake their vain idols for the service of the living God. Demetrius saw that he should lose his business unless he could still keep the people in sin. So he called a meeting of those who worked at that trade, and made a speech to them. By this harangue he inflamed the passions of his fellow-craftsmen, and they excited the multitude, until the whole city of Ephesus was thrown into an uproar, which was finally quelled by the politic and seasonable advice of the town-clerk. Acts 19.

  1. A disciple of high reputation, and, as some suppose (though without warrant), the Demetrius of Ephesus converted to the faith of the gospel. 3 John 12.

DENA'RIUS, a Roman silver coin nearly equivalent to the Greek drachma, and worth about 15 cents; translated in

Roman Denarius. (From Eielwi.)

the A.V. "penny," which makes the impression of a very small sum; it was really the amount of a day's wages. Matt 20:2; comp. Luke 10:35. "Shilling" would be a much nearer equivalent; but the better way would have been to transfer the Greek term into English (denar), as the evangelists retained the Latin term in the Greek. See Penny.

DEP'UTY. The ofiice was that of proconsul, or governor of a senatorial province. Acts 13:7-8, Jud 4:12; Acts 19:38.

DER'BE, a city of Lyeaonia, Acts 14:16, Ruth 4:20; Mark 16:1, about 20 miles from Lystra. Kiepert places it near Lake Ak-Ghieul, but Hamilton at Diele, several miles farther south.

DES'ERT. The popular conception of the term must not be applied to all passages in the English Bible, in which the word is the translation of four Hebrew words denoting definite localities.

  1. It is applied to the Arabah, Eze 47:8, the name of the remarkable depression which runs through the land of Palestine; but this is a waste merely because of the depopulated and neglected state of the country. It is capable of cultivation. See Arabah.

  2. It is used to translate midhar, "pasture-ground," in Ex 3:1; Ex 5:3; Josh 19:2; Num 33:15-16.

  3. Horbah. Ps 102:6; Isa 48:21; Eze 13:4. But the term commonly employed is "waste places" or "desolation."

  4. Jeshimon. With the definite article, it is treated as a proper name. See Jeshimon. Without the article, it occurs in a few passages of poetry. In the following verses it is translated "desert:" Ps 78:40; Ps 106:14; Isa 43:19-20.

The "desert," as an illimitable stretch of heavy sand, does not exist in Bible lands. The "desert of Sinai" is a wild and desolate region of country, but in many parts, especially from Elim (Wadi Ghurundel) to Mount Sinai, and the region toward the southern border of Palestine, are traces of previous fertility; and when the Israelites guided their flocks through it, they found pasture in many of the little valleys, and perhaps upon some of its plains. The different tracts mentioned under this name in the Bible, as Shur, Sin, Paran, etc., will be found particularly noticed in their proper places.


DEU'EL (imitation of God), the father of the prince of Gad in the wilderness. Num 1:14; Num 7:42; Num 10:20. But in Num 2:14 he is called Reuel.

DEU'TER-ON'OMY, or THE SECOND LAW (so called from its repeating the Law), is the fifth book of the Bible, and (except the last chapter) was evidently written by Moses. Deut 1:5, comp. with Deut 34:1; 2 Chr 25:4; Dan 9:13; Mark 12:19; Acts 3:22. This book contains three addresses of Moses to the Israelites in the plain of Moab in the eleventh month of the fortieth year of their journeyings, , expounding, supplementing, and 229 enforcing the Law, the delivery of the book of the Law to the Levites, and the song of Moses. The first address, Deut 1:1-4; 1 Sam 15:40, is a brief rehearsal of the history of the "Wandering," particularly of those events which conditioned their entry into the Promised Land. Upon this resume Moses grounds an exhortation to obedience. The second address, Deut 5:1-26; Acts 1:19, follows almost immediately after the first, being separated from it only by three verses, giving a brief notice of the three cities of refuge which Moses severed on the east side of the Jordan. This address, like the first, has a formal historical setting, Deut 4:44-49, by way of introduction. It contains a recapitulation, with a few additions and alterations, of the Law given on Sinai. Particularly noticeable is the slightly different version of the ten commandments. But this long address is not the least like a dry legal recital. Throughout, the spiritual earnestness of Moses is shown, and, as has been well said, "It is the father no less than the legislator who speaks. And whilst obedience and life are bound up together, it is the obedience of a loving heart, not a service of formal constraint, which is the burden of his exhortations." The third part of Deuteronomy, Deut 27:1-30; Ruth 4:20, opens with the joint command of Moses and the elders to keep all the commandments, and, when they had crossed the Jordan, to write them upon the great plastered stones they were ordered to set up with appropriate ceremonies. Then follows the third address, Deut 27:11-30; Deut 1:20, whose topic is "The blessing and the curse."

After these three addresses, in Deut 31 there follows the delivery of the Law to Joshua and Moses's speech on the occasion, containing a command to read the Law every seven years. In Deut 32 we have the song of Moses; in Deut 33, Moses's blessing of the twelve tribes. These were the last written words of Moses, and most beautifully do they set forth the majesty of God and the excellency of Israel. The final verses of the book give an account of the death of Moses, and were, of course, written by another hand. The date of the book may be set down as about b.c. 1277. See also Pentateuch.

DEV'IL (slanderer). This word (from the Greek diabolos) is sometimes applied to very wicked men or women, John 6:70 (Judas Iscariot); Acts 13:10; 2 Tim 3:3; Tit 2:3, and translated "devil" or "false accusers," but usually it denotes the one most subtle and malignant of the evil spirits, and the great enemy of God and man. It corresponds to the Hebrew Satan ("adversary"), which is also used in the N.T. Matt 16:23; Mark 8:33; Luke 22:3. Satan can assume a character quite opposite to his real one, and hence he is said by Paul to transform himself into an "angel of light," 2 Cor 11:14. Although there is only one devil, our English version often speaks of "casting out devils" and of persons "possessed with devils" —e.g. Matt 4:24. The word is not the same as that applied to Satan, but means "demons" or "evil spirits." It is common to call these afflicted people demoniacs. Three views are held upon the demoniacal possessions:

  1. That the possession of the devil symbolizes the prevalence of evil in the world, the casting out of the devils by our Lord, his conquest over that evil power by his doctrine and his life. This theory of course gives up the historic character of the narratives.

  2. That the demoniacs were not really under the power of demons; but inasmuch as it was commonly believed they were, our Lord and the evangelists spoke to them and of them in this fashion. They were merely persons suffering unusual diseases of body and mind, especially epilepsy, melancholy, insanity. The advocates of this view present three arguments:(1) The symptoms of the "possessed" were frequently those of bodily disease — dumbness. Matt 9:32; blindness. Matt 12:22; epilepsy, Mark 9:17-27 — or those seen in cases of ordinary insanity. Matt 8:28. (2) "To have a devil" seems to be equivalent to to be "mad," John 7:20; John 8:48; Num 10:20. (3) There is no such thing to-day as "demoniacal possession," but there are frequent cases similar to those recorded. Hence the language is popular, and not exact.

  3. That there were persons actually possessed by demons — such possession manifesting itself in the forms of bodily and mental disease. Our Lord really cast out demons. This theory has in its


support:(1) The plain meaning of the text. It is the most natural interpretation. The demons are plainly distinguished from the persons whom they possess; they have a separate consciousness; they know Jesus, and look forward with trembling to the judgment-day; they pass from one person to another, or even into a herd of swine. (2) It accords with the Scripture notion of the malignity of Satan that he should make a special exhibition of his power against Jesus. (3) It explains the confessions of our Lord's divinity which imply superhuman knowledge. (4) It renders intelligible the crucial narrative of the man among the tombs, Mark 5:1-20. The other theories either deny the fact or give a forced interpretation. (5) It vindicates the truthfulness of Jesus, which the other theories impugn. He not only addressed the patients as "possessed," Luke 4:35, but distinctly linked demoniacal possession with the evil one. Matt 12:25-30; Luke 10:18.

DEVO'TIONS. In Acts 17:23 we should read "your objects of devotion" instead of "your devotions," because in King James's day the word denoted the objects, and not the acts, of worship.

DEW, a dense vapor which falls on the earth during the night, and which in Judaea was so copious as in a great measure to supply the absence of showers. It thus became a beautiful emblem of spiritual blessings, Deut 32:2; Hos 14:5-7, as well as of temporal prosperity, because without the apparent effort of rain it gently accomplished the same result. But then it vanished so quickly on exposure to the sun that it was likewise an emblem of transient desires and relinquished efforts in God's service. Job 29:19. The heat and dryness of the air in the Holy Land are such that if it were not for the dews the earth would be parched and all its fruits withered. The same fact may be inferred from Jud 6:37-40; 2 Sam 17:12; Job 29:19; Song of Solomon 5:2. The Psalmist, Ps 133:3, mentions particularly the dew of Hermon as emblematical of the rich and abundant blessings of spiritual communion. So Hos 14:5-7.

DI'ADEM. See Crown.

DI'AL, an instrument employed to measure time, or to determine the apparent progress of the sun by the shadow which the gnomon, or point in the centre of a graduated arc, casts.

The "dial of Ahaz" is the only one mentioned in the Bible. 2 Kgs 20:11; Isa 38:8. The sign of Hezekiah's recovery was that the shadow of the sun went ten degrees backward upon it. The best interpretation of the passage is to suppose that the dial, like those discovered in Babylonia, "was a series of Steps or terraces on which an upright pole cast its shadow." It was therefore probably modelled after those in familiar use with the ally of Ahaz, Tiglath-pileser. The fact that ambassadors came from Babylon to inquire of the wonder proves that the fame thereof had reached that city. It is a question of considerable importance whether this miracle was wrought upon the rays of the sun, by which they were deflected in an extraordinary manner, so as to produce this retrograde motion of the shadow, while the sun itself seemed to go on its way, or whether the motion of the earth or the position of the sun was so changed as to produce this result. It was this miracle to which reference is made in 2 Chr 32:31.

DI'AMOND. Ex 28:18; Eze 28:13. "There is no trace of evidence that the ancients ever acquired the skill to engrave on the diamond, or even that they were acquainted with the stone." — Canon Cook. The claims of jasper, onyx, chalcedony, emerald, and rock-crystal to be the diamond of the Bible have all been urged. Its diversity from any other stone in the high priest's breast-plate will incline some minds to advocate rock-crystal. For Jer 17:1, see Adamant.

DIA'NA, a heathen goddess of great celebrity, whose worship was attended with peculiar splendor and magnificence at Ephesus, her guardian city. Acts 19:28. Her magnificent temple in that city was ranked among the Seven Wonders of the world. It was 220 years in building. Pliny tells us that it was 425 feet long and 220 in breadth, and that it was adorned with 127 columns, each 60 feet high, 27 of which were curiously carved and the rest polished. Little silver models of the temple, with the image of the goddess enshrined in 231 them (see the opposite cut), were made for sale, and were disposed of in such quantities as to afford profitable work for many hands. Acts 19:24-25. See Demetrius.

In this temple there was "the image

Diana of Ephesus. (From Lewin's "St. Paul.") (This figure was taken from an alabaster image in the museum of Naples, but it is in great measure ideal. A more accurate representation is on the coin, following.)

which fell down from Jupiter," a rude wooden image having a head decorated with a mural crown; "each hand held a bar of metal, and the lower part ended in a rude block carved with figures of

Temple of Diana. (From a Coin in the Pembroke Collection.)

animals and mystic inscriptions." Later figures had many breasts, evidently symbolical of the reproductive powers of Nature, and therefore it was a sort of companion-idol to Ashtoreth. No bloody sacrifices were offered in her worship. Her temple in Ephesus was the treasury in which immense quantities of wealth were stored up, and was also a place of safety. It was beloved with singular passion, and hence the insinuation that Paul's preaching tended to lower the regard for it led to the uproar so graphically described in Acts 19. See Ephesus, Paul.

DIB'LAIM (double cake), one whose daughter the prophet Hosea married. Hos 1:3.

DIB'LATH. Eze 6:14. It has been identified with the modern ruin Dibl. See Riblah.


DI'BON (wasting), the name of two towns. 1. Dibon in Moab. Num 21:30; Gen 15:2. It was built by Gad, Num 34, and hence called Dibon-gad; was assigned to Reuben, Josh 13:9 was also called Dimon. Isa 15:9 afterward returned to Moab, Isa 15:9; Jer 48:18, Josh 11:22; now called Dhiban, about 12 miles east of the Dead Sea and 3 miles north of the Amon. Its ruins are extensive, covering the tops of two adjacent hills.

The famous Moabite Stone, bearing an inscription of Mesha, a king of Moab, about 900 b.c, was found here within the gateway by Rev. F. A. Klein (a German missionary at Jerusalem) in 1868. The stone is of black 232 basalt, 3 feet 8 1/2 inches high, 2 feet 3 1/2 inches wide, and 1 foot 1.78 inches thick. It has 34 lines of Hebrew-Phoenician writing, and contains a most remarkable corroboration of the Scripture history in 2 Kgs 3. Translations have

The Moabite Stone.

been made by Dr. Ginsburg, M. Ganneau, and Prof, Schlottmann. The latter's translation is as follows: I Mesa, son of Chamos-nadab, the king of Moab [son of] Yabni. My father ruled over Moab [ . . years], and I ruled after my father. And I made this high place of sacrifice to Chamos in Korcha, a high place of deliverance, for he saved me from all [who fought against Moab].

Omri, king of Israel, allied himself with all his (Moab's) haters, and they oppressed Moab [many days]; then Chamos was irritated [against him and against] his land, and let it go over [into the hand of his haters], and they oppressed Moab very sore.

In my days spoke Ch[amos], I will therefore look upon him and his house, and Israel shall perish in eternal ruin. And Omri took possession of the town of Medeba, and sat therein [and they oppressed Moab, he and] his son, forty years. [Then] Chamos looked upon Moab in my days.

And I built Baal Meon, and made therein walls and mounds. And I went to take the town of Kirjathaim, and the men of Gad [lived] in the district [of Kirjathaim] from days of their grandfathers, and the king of Israel built Kirjathaim. And I fought against the town and took it, and I strangled all the people that were in the city [as a sacrifice] to Chamos, the god of Moab.

(Here follows a lacuna: at the end of it the words 'before the face of Chamos in Kirjathaim.' Probably stood here, just as in lines 17, 18, a notice of the change of an Israelitish to a Moabite sanctuary.)

And I destroyed the High Place of Jehovah, and dedicated it before the face of Chamos in Kirjathaim. And I allowed to dwell therein the men of .... and the men of ... .

And Chamos said to me, 'Go up. Take [the town of] Nebo against Israel . . .' and I went up during the night, and fought against it from the dawn to midday, and I took it . . . and I saw it quite . . .

(In the rest of this part-more than two lines-there are, besides isolated letters, only legible through the gaps the names of God separated from each other.)

to Astar Chamos . . . Jehovah .... before the face of Chamos.

(It may safely be presumed that mention was made here of the restoration of heathen in the room of the Israelitish worship.)

And the king of Israel built Jahaz, and sat therein, while he fought against me, and Chamos drove him before my sight. And I took from Moab two hundred men, fully told. And I beleaguered Jahaz and took it, in addition to Dibon.

I built Korcha, the wall toward the forest, and the wall . . . and I built her gates, and I built her towers, and I built the king's house; and I made store-places for the mountain water in the midst of the town. And there were 233 no cisterns within the town, in Korcha. and I said to all the people, 'Make (you) every man a cistern in his house.'

(Here follows a sentence with difficult expressions at the beginning and a gap in the middle. The following is conjectural :)

And I hung up the prohibition for Korcha [against association with the] people of Israel. I built Aroer, and I made the streets in Arnon. I built Beth Bamoth, for [it was destroyed]. I built Bezer, for men of Dibon compelled it, fifty of them, for all Dibon was subject; and I filled [with inhabitants] Bikran, which I added to the land. And I built . . . the temple of Diblathaim, and the temple of Baal Meon, and brought thither Ch[amos]. (After a hiatus are the words :)

. . the land . . . And Horonaim . . dwelt therein . . . (Probably there followed the name of an Edomite parent tribe or clan. Then again after a gap:)

Chamos said to me, 'Come. Fight against Horonaim and [take it].'

In the last gap, out of more than two lines, it is only possible, besides separated letters, to read the word of Chamos. Without doubt it was here related how the king, by the help of Cheniosh, took the town.

Prof. Schlottmann divides the inscription into three parts: the first to the sixth section, inclusive, of the victories of Mesa over Israel; the second, sections seven and eight, of the buildings and erections of the king; and the third, of a battle in the south, toward Edom. (See The Recovery of Jerusalem, pp. 396-399.)

  1. A town in the south of Judah, Neh 11:25; the same as Dimonah, Josh 16:22, and probably modern eh-Dheib.

DI'BON-GAD. Num 33:45, 1 Chr 2:46. See Dibon, 1.

DIB'RI (eloquent), a Danite, father of Shelomith, wife of an Egyptian. Lev 24:11.

DID'YMUS. See Thomas.

DIK'LAH (palm tree), a son of Joktan, Gen 10:27; 1 Chr 1:21, who settled a district in Arabia abounding in palm trees; probably Yemen, in southern Arabia.

DIL'EAN (gourd, or cucumber), a city in the lowlands of Judah, near Mizpeh. Josh 15:38. Van de Velde places it at Tina, south of Ekron (Robinson's Beit-Tima), Warren at li'abin.

DIM'NAH, a Levitical city in Zebulon, Josh 21:35; same as Rimmon. 1 Chr 6:77; now Rummdach.

DIMO'NAH. Josh 15:22. See Dibon, 2.

DI'MON, WA'TERS OF. Isa 15:9. See Dibon, 1.

DI'NAH (judged, or avenged), the only daughter of Jacob and Leah, Gen 30:21, mentioned in Scripture, although there were probably others. The daughters were less likely to be spoken of than the sons. Jacob, on his return from Padan-aram to Canaan, halted at Shechem; here Dinah was wronged by Shechem, son of the prince Hainor. His offer of marriage was accepted on condition that he and all the other men in the town were circumcised. But while they were recovering, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's own brothers, led an attack upon them and killed them all, completely pillaged the place, and made prisoners of the women and children. Jacob's words to his sons after the act betray more fear of the anger aroused among their neighbors and its bad consequences than offence at their treachery. Gen 34:30. Dinah is mentioned with the rest of the family who went into Egypt. Gen 46:8, 2 Sam 20:15.

DI'NAITES, the name of some of the Cuthaean colonists placed in Samaria by the Assyrians after the conquest of the ten tribes. Ezr 4:9.

DIN'HABAH. Gen 36:32; 1 Chr 1:43. A capital city of Edom; site unknown.

DIN'NER. See Meals.

DIONY'SIUS (votary of Dionysus; i.e. Bacchus), a member of the court of the Areopagus; converted under the preaching of Paul at Athens. Acts 17:34. Tradition says he became the bishop of Athens, where he suffered martyrdom, a.d. 95. The writings which bear his name are of much later date.

DIOT'REPHES (Jove-nourished), the head of the church, situation unknown, in Asia Minor to which Gaius belonged. 3 John 9. John rebukes him for his arbitrary use of authority and resistance to the higher powers. See John. Epistles of.

DISCERNING OF SPIRITS was one of the miraculous gifts of the 234 Holy Ghost, by virtue of which the spirits of men were tried whether they were of God. 1 Cor 12:10; 1 John 4:1. It was a most desirable gift in the first ages of the Church, when false prophets and wicked spirits abounded on every side. Comp. Acts 5:1-10; Acts 13:6-12.

DISCI'PLE, one who receives, or professes to receive, instruction from another. In the N.T., it denotes the professed followers of our Saviour, but not always his true followers. Matt 10:24; Matt 11:2; Luke 14:26-27, 1 Sam 15:33; John 6:66; John 9:28. See School.

DISCOVER (from dis, negative, and cover) is used in the English Version for "uncover," "lay bare." Ps 29:9; Isa 22:8; Mic 1:6. "The voice of the Lord . . . discovereth the forests" — i.e. strippeth off the leaves.

DISEAS'ES. The multiplied forms in which sickness and suffering appear among men are so many signs of the evil of sin. Reference is made to the interposition of God in sending and removing diseases. Ps 39:9-11; Ps 90:3-12.

The plagues, pestilences, and other instrumentalities by which, in former ages, a multitude of lives were destroyed at once were often miraculous — that is, the natural causes and progress of disease were not employed, or were not visible. Ex 12:23, 1 Chr 2:29; 2 Kgs 19:35; 1 Chr 21:12-15; Acts 12:23.

The simple diets and habits of the Jews would keep them from many diseases, but the Bible proves that they enjoyed no miraculous protection. The diseases of the East of to-day were known to them; such are ophthalmia, leprosy, brain-fever, pestilential fevers, lung-disorders. There was also a special form of disease, known as "having an evil spirit," very common in our Lord's day. See Devil, Medicine.

DISH. See Table.

DI'SHAN (antelope), a son of Seir the Horite. Gen 36:21, Acts 20:28, 1 Kgs 20:30; 1 Chr 1:38,1 Chr 2:42.

DI'SHON (antelope). 1. Another son of the same. Gen 36:21, Acts 11:26, 1 Kgs 20:30; 1 Chr 1:38, 1 Chr 4:41.

  1. A son of Anah, and a grandchild of Seir. Gen 36:25; 1 Chr 1:40.

DISPENSA'TION. This word, in its scriptural use, generally denotes a plan or scheme, or a system of precepts and principles prescribed and revealed by God for his own glory, and for the advantage and happiness of his creatures. 1 Cor 9:17; Eph 1:10; 2 Sam 3:2; Col 1:25. In the passages above cited it is supposed to mean an authority or commission to preach the gospel. The dispensation of the Law by Moses and of the gospel by Jesus Christ are examples of the use of the word in its former meaning.

DISPERSED', DISPER'SION. These terms are usually applied to the Jews who after their captivity, and during the time of the second temple,were scattered abroad through the earth. Jas 1:1; 1 Pet 1:1. In the time of Christ they were divided into three great sections — the Babylonian, the Syrian, and the Egyptian. The Epistles of James and Peter were addressed to them. Apostolic preaching followed the line of these Jewish settlements.

The settlement of the Jews in Rome dates from the conquest of Palestine by Pompey, b.c. 63. But long ere this Jews became residents in other lands. Naturally, they gave up some of their distinctive customs. The thrice-a-year visitation of the temple was impossible. The temple in Jerusalem, although their national centre, was no longer their religious home. The synagogue became their usual place of meeting. Thus the loosening of the stiff hold of original Judaism prepared them for the change to the freedom of Christianity.

DIS'TAFF, a staff around which the tow is wound for spinning. Prov 31:19. The spindle is mentioned in connection with the distaff as an instrument of employment on the part of the virtuous woman. In early ages, spinning (hence, the law-term "spinster" for an unmarried female) was a part of the household duties of women, even in rich and distinguished families; and it was a maxim that a young woman should never be married until she had spun herself a set of body-, bed-, and table-linen. At the present day the Egyptian women spend their leisure hours in working with the needle, particularly in embroidering veils, handkerchiefs, etc., with colored silk and gold, in which they carry on a sort of traffic through the channel of a female broker. In ancient Egypt the yarn seems all to have been spun with the 235 hand, and the spindle is seen in all the pictures representing the manufacture of cloth, as well as both men and women employed in the manufacture. See Spindle.

DI'VES. See Lazarus.

DIVINA'TION is the practice of divining or foretelling future events. Deut 18:10. In the passage cited it is put in connection with witchcraft, necromancy, and other abominations of the heathen which the Jews were to avoid. Divination prevailed among the Israelites and many of the Eastern nations. The modes or means of divining were by consulting or being familiar with spirits, by the motions of the stars, clouds, etc., and by lots, rods or wands, dreams, the flight of birds, the entrails of animals, etc., etc. It is said of Joseph's cup. Gen 44:5, that he divined by it. It is not to be inferred, however, that he practised divination, but rather that he uses the words in his supposed character of a native Egyptian. His brethren would therefore believe that by the cup he did actually divine, as was the custom of the land. In so speaking, Joseph practised deception; we are not, however, called upon to believe he was perfect. The Egyptian magicians were diviners, so were the wise men, the Chaldaeans of Babylon. There are many words used in Scripture to denote them. Some diviners were learned, others very ignorant. Ventriloquism and illusion formed part of their business, although many believed in the reality of their revelations. In divining with the cup, a small piece of gold or silver, or a jewel, was thrown into a spherical goblet, an incantation was pronounced, the number of waves were counted and the appearance of the object studied. Or else the goblet was simply filled with pure water and exposed to the sunlight; whatever it reflected was suppose to give an answer. In the case of the witch of Endor, she began to practise her art, but, to her amazement, no less than to Saul's, the vision or spirit of Samuel actually arose, and announced the imminent defeat and death of the king. The root of the Hebrew word translated "witch" means "a bottle." The term arose from the supposed inflation of these persons by the spirit.

The Jews were familar with four genuine ways adopted by God to make known the future. These were (1) by visions, as in the case of the patriarchs; (2) dreams interpreted, as by Joseph and Daniel; (3) by the Urim and Thummim; (4) and by the prophets, 1 Sam 28:6. The practice of divination in all its forms is severely reprobated by Moses and other sacred writers, Lev 20:27; Deut 18:9-14; Jer 14:14; Eze 13:8-9, because "a prying into the future clouds the mind with superstition and is an incentive to idolatry," as is the case with the pagans. In whatever form it is practised or regarded, it is reproachful to Christianity, and argues great folly, ignorance, and sin. 2 Pet 1:19.

DIVORCE', the dissolution of the marriage relation. This was permitted by the law of Moses because already existent, but so regulated as to mitigate its injustice and cruelty to the wife, Deut 24:1-4, and in certain cases forbidden, Deut 22:19, 1 Chr 2:29. Although divorce was common in the later days of the Hebrew nation, Mal 2:16, and men put away their wives for trivial causes, Matt 19:3 — and many of the Jewish doctors contended that this was the spirit of the Law — there is no distinct case of divorce mentioned in the O.T. Our Saviour was questioned upon this matter, but he defeated the purpose of his inquisitors to entangle him in his talk, and took the opportunity to rebuke the lax morals of the day and set forth adultery as the only proper ground of divorce. Matt 5:32; 1 Kgs 19:9; Mark 10:11; Luke 16:18.

According to Jewish customs, the husband was required to give his wife a writing or bill of divorcement, in which was set forth the date, place, and cause of her repudiation, and a permission was given by it to marry whom she pleased. It was provided, however, that she might be restored to the relation at any future time if she did not meanwhile marry any other man. The woman also seems to have had power — at least in a later period of the Jewish state — to put away her husband — i.e. without a formal divorce to forsake him. Mark 10:12.

DIZ'AHAB (region of gold), a place in the Arabian desert, near which 236 Moses rehearsed to Israel God's dealings with them, Deut 1:1; possibly Dehab.

DOCTOR. Doctors or teachers of the law were those who made it their business or profession to teach the Law of Moses, and they were in great repute among the Jews. Luke 2:46. Some have distinguished the scribes from the doctors by supposing that the former wrote their opinions, while the latter taught extemporaneously. The doctors were generally of the sect of the Pharisees, perhaps always. Luke 5:17. The word "teachers" came into early use among Christians as a title to those who taught the doctrines of the faith, 1 Cor 12:28, and hence was afterward applied to those who became eminent for their learning and aptness in teaching.

DOD'AI (loving), one of David's captains. 1 Chr 27:4.

DOD'ANIM (leaders?), a family or race descended from Javan, son of Japheth. Gen 10:4; 1 Chr 1:7.

DOD'AVAH (love of Jehovah), a man of Mareshah, father of the Eliezer who prophesied against Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 20:37.

DO'DO (amatory).

  1. The father of Eleazar, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam 23:9; 1 Chr 11:12.

  2. The father of Elhanan. another mighty man, 2 Sam 23:24; 1 Chr 11:26.

DO'EG (fearful). See Ahimelech.

DOG. Ex 11:7. The dog was not only an unclean animal by the Jewish Law, but was regarded with peculiar contempt, Ex 22:31; Deut 23:18; 1 Sam 17:43; Lev 24:14; 2 Sam 9:8; 2 Kgs 8:13; Phil 3:2; Rev 22:15; and he is so regarded at the present day by the Turks, who can find no more abusive and contemptuous language to apply to a Christian than to call him a dog. In Eastern countries dogs are more like wolves than our dogs, and live wild in the open air.

Solomon puts a living dog in contrast with a dead lion to show that the meanest thing alive is of more importance than the noblest that is dead. Eccl 9:4. Abner's exclamation, "Am I a dog's head?" 2 Sam 3:8, has a signification of the same kind. Isaiah expresses the necessity of repentance and sincerity to make a sacrifice acceptable to God by declaring that without them "he that sacrifices a lamb" does nothing better than "as if he cut off a dog's neck." Isa 66:3. The only useful purpose to which dogs appear to have been put was to guard the flocks. Job 30:1, and even in that passage they are spoken of with contempt. Isaiah may be understood to allude to this manner of employing them in his description of the spiritual watchmen of Israel. Isa 56:10-11.

Although dogs were numerous in the Jewish cities, they were not kept in the houses, but wandered through the streets (as they do to this day in Constantinople), picking up whatever was

Dog modelled in Clay. ???(From Kouywijik. After liawUnson.)???

thrown out of the remains of the table after the family had eaten. So David speaks of his wicked enemies. Ps 59:6, Ps 59:14-15. The Mosaic law directed the people to throw to the dogs the flesh that was torn by beasts. Ex 22:31.

This manner of living accounts for the savageness of dogs in the East. They preyed upon human flesh, licked the blood of the slain, and sometimes were wild enough to attack men as bloodhounds do. 1 Kgs 14:11; Lev 16:4; 1 Kgs 21:19, Heb 12:23; 1 Kgs 22:38; 2 Kgs 9:10, Eze 23:36; Ps 22:16, Ruth 4:20; Ps 68:23; Jer 15:3. Their habits made them dangerous to touch. Prov 26:17.

The Eastern people were in the practice of applying the names of animals to men who resemble them in their disposition, as we call a cunning man a fox, a brave man a lion, etc. So our Saviour told his disciples, "Give not that which is holy unto the dogs," lest they turn upon you and tear you after they have eaten it. Matt 7:6, meaning that they should not offer the sacred truths of the gospel to those insolent 237 and abominable men who would only heap abuse on them for it, having reference, also, to the practice of the priests at the altar, who would not throw to the dogs any of the meat used in sacrifice. He told also the Syro-Phoenician woman that it was not proper to give the children's meat to dogs. Matt 15:20-that is, the gospel was sent first to the Jews, who are called the children, and was not yet to be given to one of the Gentiles, as she was, whom the Jews called dogs-for the children must first be fed before the meat was thrown into the street. Those who are shut out of the kingdom of heaven are dogs, sorcerers, etc.. Rev 22:15, where the word is applied to all kinds of vile persons, as it is to a particular class in Deut 23:18. The comparison of Solomon illustrating the return of a fool to his folly, Prov 26:11, cited in 2 Pet 2:22, is taken from a natural fact. Persecutors are called dog. Ps 22:16.

DOOR. See Dwellings.

DOPH'KAH (cattle-driving), an encampment of Israel in the wilderness. Num 33:12-13; somewhere in Wady Feiran.

DOR (dwelling), a royal city of the Canaanites, Josh 11:2; Matt 12:23, within the territory of Asshur, but allotted to Manasseh, Josh 17:11; Jud 1:27; 1 Chr 7:29, and was one of Solomon's provision-districts, 1 Kgs 4:11; now Tantura, 8 miles north of Cassarea, where there are considerable ruins.

DOR'CAS (gazelle). See Tabitha.

DO'THAN (two cisterns), where Joseph found his brethren, Gen 37:17, and Elisha resided. 2 Kgs 6:13. It was on the south side of the plain of Jezreel, 12 miles north of Samaria; now called Tell-Dothda, 5 miles south-west of Jenin. Numerous bottle-shaped cisterns hewn in the rock are still found, which are supposed to resemble the "pit" of Gen 37:24. Caravans still pass this place, as of old, on their way from Damascus to Egypt.

DO TO WIT means to make known. 2 Cor 8:1.

DOUGH. See Bread.

DOVE. Gen 8:9. A bird clean by the Mosaic law, and often mentioned by the sacred writers. In their wild state doves dwell principally in holes in the rocks. Song of Solomon 2:14; Jer 48:28. They are innocent in their dispositions, and make no resistance to their enemies. Matt 10:16. They are very much attached to their mates; and when one is absent or dies, the other, or survivor, laments its loneliness. Isa 38:14; Isa 59:11; Eze 7:16 Nah 2:7.

There are various allusions to the mildness, peacefulness, and affection of doves. The Church is called a "turtledove" and a "dove," or compared to it. Ps 74:19; Song of Solomon 1:15; Num 2:14; Song of Solomon 4:1; Song of Solomon 5:2; Acts 6:9. Where "doves' eyes" are spoken of in these passages, allusion is made to the meekness of their expression. Lange's Commentary translates Song of Solomon 5:12 thus: "His eyes [are] like doves by brooks of water, bathing in milk, sitting on fulness." Thus understood, the passage compares the iris nestling in the white of the eye to a blue pigeon bathing in a brook of milk. It was in the manner of a dove that the Holy Spirit descended upon our Saviour at his baptism. Matt 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32. Hosea compares timid Ephraim to "a silly dove without heart," Hosea 7:11, and says that when the Jews shall be called to their own land they shall "tremble," or fly, "as a dove out of the land of Assyria." Hosea 11:11. David in his distress wished that he could fly from his troubles as the doves do to warmer climates on the approach of winter. Ps 55:6-8. The appearance of the dove is spoken of as an emblem of spring. Song of Solomon 2:12.

The dove is mentioned in an interesting part of the early history of the world as being sent out by Noah from the ark to discover whether the dry land had appeared. Gen 8:6-12. The dove was used in sacrifices. It was, among other animals, prepared by Abram when God manifested his intention to bless him, as narrated in Gen 15:9. When a child was born the mother was required within a certain time to bring a lamb and a young pigeon, or turtle-dove, for offering; but if she were too poor to afford a lamb, she might bring two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons. Lev 12:6-8. Thus we may judge of the poverty of Mary, the mother of .Jesus, when upon his birth she brought to the temple at Jerusalem the two birds instead of a lamb. 238 Luke 2:24. It was to supply applicants with animals for sacrifice that certain persons sat in the temple with doves to sell, whom our Lord forced to leave it because "the house of prayer" was not a fit place for buying and selling. Mark 11:15; John 2:14-16.

David, Ps 68:13, "refers to a kind" of dove "found at Damascus, whose leathers, all except the wings, are literally as yellow as gold; they are very small and kept in cages. I have often had them in my house, but their note is so very sad that I could not endure it." — Thomson.

In all Eastern towns homes are provided for the pigeons; sometimes special towers are erected for them; sometimes the upper stories of the houses are fitted with openings or "windows,"

Turtle Dove. (After Houghton.)

and are sacred to their use. The immense compact masses of these birds as they are seen flying to their houses or places of resort "can never be forgotten by Eastern travellers. They sometimes resemble a distant cloud, and are so dense as to obscure the rays of the sun. Hence the allusion in Isa 60:8. Tristram says that the pigeon tribe abound in Palestine to a degree unknown in other countries. The great abundance of plants of the clover and vetch family accounts for their numbers. Rock-doves, in myriads beyond computation, inhabit the caves and fissures which honeycomb the limestone cliffs of Palestine. The wild rock-pigeon (Columba livia), the ancestor of the domestic races, is found here, as well as other species. See Turtledove.

Dove's Dung. There are two views 239 concerning the material to which there is reference in 2 Kgs 6:25. Some suppose that this substance was in great demand as a quick manure for those vegetables which might be soonest raised for the famishing Samaritans; others believe that so terrible was the extremity that the people were glad to get even so disgusting a substance as this for food. The great price at which it was held — about a dollar and a half a pint — militates against either form of this view. The other view is that the produce of some plant not commonly used for food is intended. The seeds of a kind of millet formerly called by the Hebrews "doves' seed," and of other plants, have been proposed. The root of the star of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum — i.e. bird-milk) meets with much favor. The bulb of this plant has often been eaten, and it is abundant in Palestine.

DOWRY, in the Eastern acceptation of the word, means that which the husband pays for his wife, instead of that which the wife receives from her father and brings to her husband. Gen 29:18; Gen 34:12; 1 Sam 18:25. So, Ex 22:16-17; Josh 15:18, a man was required to pay a certain sum as dowry or a nuptial-present, and this was to be according to the rank the woman sustained, and such as the fathers of virgins of the same rank were accustomed to receive for their daughters. Hos 3:2. See Marriage.

DRACH'MA, a Greek silver coin, translated "a piece of silver" in Luke 15:8-9, equal in value to a Roman denarius, or about fifteen and a half cents (wrongly translated "penny"). See Denarius.

DRAG'ON. This word, in the Bible, has at least three meanings. Very commonly, where it occurs in connection with ostriches, owls, deserts, and ruins, it denotes the jackal, whose characteristics are unmistakably indicated, such as his "wailing" and "snuffing up the wind." So in Job 30:29; Ps 44:19; Jer 9:11, in all which passages solitude and desolation are illustrated. Mic 1:8. In some passages it denotes monsters of the deep or huge land-reptiles, as in Deut 32:33; Ps 91:13. The figurative use of this term, as in Ps 74:13; Eze 29:3; Rev 12:3 and Rev 20:2, is sufficiently obvious.

DRAMS. See Measures.

DRAUGHT. Matt 15:17. A vault or drain for the reception of filth. In this sense it is probably used in 2 Kgs 10:27. When applied to fishes it means those which are caught by one sweep or drawing of the net.

DREAM. From a very early period dreams have been observed with superstitious regard. God was pleased to make use of them to reveal his purposes or requirements to individuals, and he also gave power to interpret them. Gen 20:3-6; Gen 28:12-14; 1 Sam 28:6; Dan 2; Joel 2:28. And if any person dreamed a dream which was peculiarly striking and significant, he was permitted to go to the high priest in a particular way and see if it had any special import. But the observance of ordinary dreams and the consulting of those who pretend to skill in their interpretation are repeatedly forbidden. Deut 13:15; Deut 18:9-14.

The words dreams and visions are sometimes used indiscriminately. Gen 46:2; Num 12:6; Job 20:8; Job 33:14-15; Dan 2:28; Zech 7:1, though elsewhere they would seem to be distinguished. Joel 2:28. In the vision the subject may be awake even though it take place at night. 2 Kgs 6:17; Acts 18:9; Acts 23:11; Acts 27:23. Paul's vision, 2 Cor 12:1-2, Ex 6:4, was an ecstasy. To his mind heaven was open, yet so real was the vision that he could not tell whether he were in the body or out of it. Some commentators place this vision while Paul lay on the ground at Lystra as if dead from the stoning.

Sometimes miraculous revelations of God's will are called visions. Luke 1:22; 1 Sam 3:15. See Vision, Trance.

The power of interpreting dreams was, of course, a supernatural gift, so far as the dreams had reference to future events; for these are necessarily unknown, except to the supreme Disposer of them. Gen 40:5, 1 Kgs 15:8; Gen 41:16. Since the fuller revelation of God's will has been made to us in the gospel, all confidence in dreams as indicative of future events is presumptuous and delusive, and all pretension to the power of interpreting them must be regarded as in the highest degree impious and absurd.

DRESS. See Clothes.



DRINK, STRONG. The use of strong drink, even to excess, was not uncommon among the Israelites. This is inferred from the striking figures by which the use and effects of it are described, Ps 107:27; Isa 24:20; Isa 49:26; Isa 51:17-22, and also from various express prohibitions and penalties. Prov 20:1; Isa 5:11. A variety of intoxicating drinks are comprised under the term. Isa 28:7. Although the Bible sheds little light upon the nature of the mixtures described, it doubtless alludes to drink brewed from grain or made of honeycombs, dates, or boiled fruits, and the beer of Egypt. Date-wine was in great request among the Parthians, Indians, and other Orientals, and is said by Xenophon to have produced severe headaches.

The Jews carefully strained their wine and other beverages, from fear of violating Lev 11:20, Heb 12:23, Lev 11:41-42, as do now the Buddhists in Ceylon and Hindostan. This fact explains our Lord's remark to the Pharisees in Matt 23:24: "Ye blind guides, who strain out " (not at)" a gnat and swallow a camel." See Wine, Vinegar.

DROM'EDARY. Isa 60:6. A breed of the camel remarkable for its speed. Jer 2:20. It can travel from 60 to 90 miles or more in a day. The dromedary is taller and has longer limbs than other varieties of camel, and cannot as well bear heat or cold. See Camel.

DROPPING, A CONTIN'UAL The force of the comparison used in Prov 27:15 will be understood when it is borne in mind that Oriental houses have flat roofs made of mud. These naturally crack under the heat, and so in a shower the water often comes through the large crack.

DROUGHT. From the end of April to September in the land of Judaea is "the drought of summer." The grass is sometimes completely withered, Ps 102:4, and all the land and the creatures upon it suffer, and nothing but the copious dew of the night preserves the life of any living thing. Hag 1:11. The heat is at times excessive. Near Cana, in Galilee, in July, the thermometer, in a gloomy recess under ground, perfectly shaded, stood at 100° Fahrenheit at noon. For a more full account of the climate, see Palestine.

DRUNK'ENNESS. See Drunk, Wine.

DRUSIL'LA, third daughter of the Herod who is mentioned in Acts 12:14, Acts 12:20-23. She first married Azizus, king of Emesa, who professed Judaism for her sake. But by means of a sorcerer, Simon of Cyprus, she was induced to forsake her husband and marry Felix, the Roman governor, and was present at the hearing of the apostle Paul before her husband at Cassarea. She was noted for great personal beauty. Acts 24:24.

DUKE, in the English Bible, means only a chief or leader (an Oriental Sheikh), and must not be understood, in the modern sense, as a title of hereditary nobility. Gen 36:15-19.

DUL'CIMER. The instrument denoted by this word was, in the opinion of the best Bible scholars, as well as of the Rabbins, a bag-pipe like that in use at the present day among the peasants of north-western Asia and southern Europe, and called by them zampagna, which is a word of similar sound to the word here used, symphoniah. Dan 3:5, 1 Kgs 16:10, 2 Sam 20:15. It was composed of two pipes with a leathern sack, and produced a harsh, screaming sound. It has no resemblance at all to the modern dulcimer.

DU'MAH (silence), a son of Ishmael. Gen 25:14; 1 Chr 1:30.

DU'MAH (silence). l.A town in Judah, near Hebron, Josh 15:52; now ed-daumeh, 10 miles south-west of Hebron.

  1. A region, perhaps near Mount Seir. Isa 21:11.

DUNG. In many countries of the East wood is so scarce and dear as to be sold by weight. Hence animal excrements are used as fuel. Eze 4:12. It is a very common material for heating ovens, even among people of comfortable circumstances. In Arabia the excrements of asses and camels are collected in the streets by children, mixed with cut straw, put in the sun to dry, and thus fitted for use as fuel. The effluvia arising from the use of it are very offensive, and penetrate the food.

Dove's Dung, See Dove,

DUNG GATE. See Jerusalem (Gates of).

DU'RA, the plain near Babylon where Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image. Dan 3:1. Oppert identifies it with Duair, a little south-east of Babylon 241 where the pedestal of a huge statue was discovered.

DURE, Matt 13:21, for "endure," "last." "During," which is still common, is the participle of the same verb.

DUST. "To shake off the dust of one's feet" against another, Matt 10:14; Mark 6:11; Acts 13:51, was expressive of entire renunciation, because it conveyed the idea that "those against whom it was directed were so unworthy that it was defiling to one to allow so much as a particle of the soil to cleave to his garments." The custom is supposed to have been common among the Jews, when they had set a foot on heathen ground, to shake otf the dust, so as to carry nothing unclean or polluting into their own land. Dust thrown into the air, 2 Sam 16:13; Acts 22:23, was an expression of rage and threatening, while the very act probably increased the passionate hatred. "Dust and ashes" are coupled together as a phrase describing man's feebleness as contrasted with divine strength. Gen 18:27; Job 30:19.

Dust, Rain of. Deut 28:24. In Judaea or its immediate vicinity are plains or deserts of fine sand, which when agitated by a violent wind makes most terrific and desolating storms. Eastern travellers describe them particularly, and think them much more dreadful than storms at sea. This fact affords us a striking illustration of the nature and horrors of the plague mentioned in Ex 8:16.

DWELL'INGS. The most common dwellings in the earlier ages of the world were tents, formed by setting poles in the ground and stretching over them a covering of cloth or skin, which was fastened to stakes by means of cords. Isa 54:2. Sometimes they were divided into apartments by means of curtains, and the ground was covered with mats or carpets. The door was formed of a fold of cloth, which was dropped or raised. The fire was kindled in an excavation in the middle of the tent-ground, and the cooking-utensils, which were very few and simple, were easily moved from place to place. Isa 38:12. When the habits of mankind changed and their pursuits fixed them to one spot, their dwellings were built with a view to permanency, and we may suppose that the science of building was well understood at a very early period. But while the Canaanites and Assyrians built cities, the Hebrews dwelt in tents; and it was not until they went down to Egypt, or more likely not until the conquest of the Promised Land, that they abandoned their simple habits; then they entered the houses the Canaanites left. It thus appears that the science of architecture first developed itself among the idolatrous peoples.

That large and costly houses were often built in Judaea we have scriptural evidence, Jer 22:14; Am 3:15; Hag 1:4, though doubtless those which were occupied by the mass of the people were rude and inconvenient.

Plan of an Eastern House.

c. Entrance. A. Family-room. E. Walls, or galleries, between the open court and the rooms. G. Stairs to the upper stories and roof. A. Private staircase.

The above cut represents the groundplan of an Eastern house of the better class. The house is built in the form of a cloister, surrounding the area or open court. The entrance is by a door, which was commonly locked, and attended by some one who acted as porter. Acts 12:13. This door opens into a porch, which is furnished with the conveniences of sitting, and through which we pass, both to the flight of stairs which leads up to the chambers and also to the open quadrangular court.

We will first examine the court and its uses. It is called the middle of the house, or "midst," Luke 5:19, and is 242 designed to admit light and air to the apartments around it. It is covered with a pavement more or less costly, which receives and sheds rain, and is often supplied with fountains or wells of water. 2 Sam 17:18. In Damascus every house has a court of this kind, and often several, and the wealthier citizens spare no expense in making them places of delightful resort in the hot season. A veranda or colonnade such as is often seen in modern houses surrounds the court and supports a gallery or piazza above. In this court large companies assemble on festive and other occasions, Esth 1:5; and it is then furnished with carpets, mats, and settees or sofas, and an awning or roof of some suitable material is stretched over the whole area. It is alluded to in the beautiful figure of the Psalmist. Ps 104:2. Around the court, over the doors and windows of the house, each apartment has a door opening into the court or gallery, and the communication with each is only on the outside, so that to go from room to room it is necessary to come out into the court or gallery. These galleries are guarded by a balustrade or latticework in front, to prevent accidents.

"The stairs are frequently placed in the corner of the court, and sometimes at the entrance. In large houses there are often two or more sets of steps from the court, but there is seldom more than one from the gallery to the roof. They are usually of simple structure, and of stone or wood." The kind of stairs mentioned in 1 Kgs 6:8 was more complicated.

On the side of the court which faces the entrance is the reception-room of the master of the house. It is generally fitted up handsomely, has a raised platform and a divan on three sides, which is a bed by night and a seat by day. The guests on entering take off their sandals before stepping upon the raised portion. The rooms assigned to the women are up stairs if the house has only one court, but if there are two they are around the inner one. These apartments, known as "the harem," are never entered by any man save the master. The rooms of the ground floor often include a whole side of the court, and are entered by spacious doors from the piazza. The rooms on the farther side of the court, both above and below, are assigned to the females of the family, and upon them is bestowed the greatest expense. Hence, as some suppose, these rooms are sometimes called "palaces," 1 Kgs 16:18; 2 Kgs 15:25; Isa 32:14. The "house of the women," Esth 2:3, was what is now so well known as the "harem," a part of the royal residence, and like that referred to in 1 Kgs 7:8-12. It is supposed that in the houses of Judaea, as in those of the East at the present day, the ground floor was appropriated principally to domestic uses, such as storing provisions, oil, baggage, lodgings for servants, etc., etc.

Upper Room or Guest-Chamber. (From Schaff's "Popular Commentary.")

If we ascend to the second story by the stairs before mentioned, we find the chambers are large and airy, and often finished and furnished, with much expense and elegance, with mats, curtains, and divans, Mark 14:15. This room or story is higher and larger than those below, projecting over the lower part of the building, so that the window of the apartment, if there is one, considerably overhangs the street. Secluded, spacious, and commodious as such a room must have been, Paul would be likely to preach his farewell sermon there. And in a large company it is common to have two circles or ranks, the outer circle being next to the wall and elevated on cushions, so as to be on a level with the lower part of the window-casement. In this situation 243 we may suppose Eutychus fell asleep, and was thence precipitated to the street. Acts 20:9.

A structure called an alliyeh is sometimes built over the porch or gateway. It usually consists only of one or two rooms, and rises one story above the main house. It is used to entertain strangers, also for wardrobes and magazines, or for places of retirement, repose, and meditation. Matt 6:6. There is an entrance to it from the street without going into the house, but there is also a communication with the gallery of the house when it is needed. It is observed that its terrace afforded a much more retired place for devotional exercises than the roof of the main house, which was liable to be occupied at all times and for various purposes by the whole family. The "little chamber" for Elisha, 2 Kgs 4:10, the "summer chamber" of Eglon, from which Ehud escaped by a private stairway, Jud 3:20-23, the "chamber over the gate," 2 Sam 18:33, the "upper chamber," 2 Kgs 23:12, the "inner chamber," 1 Kgs 20:30 (see Chamber), may designate this part of the house. But the roof is one of the most important parts of an Eastern house. We

An Eastern Housetop.

ascend to it by a flight of steps, as already mentioned, which are entirely unconnected with the interior of the house. Matt 24:17. It is made in most cases flat, but sometimes with domes over some of the rooms, and is surrounded by a parapet, battlement, or balustrade, lest one should heedlessly or unwittingly fall from it. This was a matter of divine command. Deut 22:8. A wall on the roof designates the limits of contiguous houses, but it is so low that a whole range of buildings, and even a street, may be passed over without coming down. The roof is covered with a kind of cement, which hardens by exposure to the weather, and forms a clean, smooth, and very agreeable floor. If the cement be not put on at the proper season, it will crack under the sun, and hence must be rolled; and rollers are found on many roofs. On ill-packed roofs grass is often seen, and hence the frequent allusion to "-grass upon the housetops." 2 Kgs 19:26; Ps 129:6. Sometimes tiles or broad bricks were used. The roof was a place of repose, Neh 8:16, and of resort. 2 Sam 11:2; Isa 15:3; Rev 22:1; Jer 48:38; Luke 12:3. It was also used for drying linen and flax, corn and figs. Josh 2:6. Sometimes a tent was spread to protect the sleeper from the cold and damp of the night. 2 Sam 16:22. It was a place of conference, 1 Sam 9:25, and worship, also of public wailing, Isa 15:3; Jer 19:13; Jer 48:38; 2 Kgs 23:12; Zeph 1:5; Acts 10:9.

The windows of Eastern houses, as already intimated, open into the court. Hence the appearance of Eastern cities, in passing through the streets, is very gloomy and inhospitable. Sometimes latticed windows or balconies are open upon the streets, but they were used only on some public day. 2 Kgs 9:30. See Window.

The doors of Eastern houses are not hung with hinges. The jamb, or inner side-piece of the door, projects, in the form of a circular shaft, at the top and bottom. The upper projection is received into a socket in the lintel or head-piece, and 244 the lower projection falls into a socket in the threshold or sill.

Chimneys were unknown, though the word occurs in Hos 13:3. What we call chimneys were not invented till the fourteenth century. The smoke of ancient houses escaped through apertures in the wall.

The hearth, Jer 36:22, was a fire-place or portable furnace, such as is still used in Eastern countries.

The materials for building were abundant. Stone and brick and the best species of timber, for the strong and heavy as well as the light and ornamental work, were easily obtained. Hewn stone was often used, Am 5:11, and marble of the richest vein and polish. 1 Chr 29:2; Esth 1:6. Cedar was used for wainscots and ceilings, Jer 22:14; Hag 1:4, which were of carved panelwork, with mouldings of gold, silver, or ivory. Perhaps the profusion of ivory in them may account for the expressions 1 Kgs 22:39Ps 45:8; Am 3:15.

The houses of the class described are entirely different from those inhabited by the common people, which are mere hovels of only one room, built with mud walls, reeds, and rushes, and sometimes only stakes plastered with clay. Hence they were very insecure, Matt 6:19-20, and afforded place for serpents and vermin. Family and animals occupy the same room, although the former sometimes were raised over the latter by a platform. The windows were mere holes high in the wall, perhaps barred. Am 5:19.

In addition to what we have before said in treating of the alliyeh, it may be remarked that the winter and summerhouses or parlours, Am 3:15, were constructed with particular reference to the season. The summer-houses were built partly under ground and paved with marble. The fountains which gush out in the courts, and the various contrivances to exclude heat and secure a current of fresh air, render them exceedingly refreshing amid the torrid heats of summer. The winter-houses might have had accommodations corresponding to the season.

"We are told that it was customary among the Hebrews to dedicate the house when it was finished and ready to be inhabited. The event was celebrated with joy, and the divine blessing and protection implored. Deut 20:6.

The doors of Eastern houses are made low, especially when they are in an exposed situation, and one must stoop, or even creep, to enter them. This is done to keep out wild beasts or enemies, or as some say, to prevent the wandering Arabs from riding into them.

The Eastern mode of building is brought to our view in the case of the destruction of the temple of Dagon by Samson. It is probable that the place where Samson made sport for many thousand spectators, Jud 16:27, was a court or area consecrated to the worship of Dagon; that this was surrounded by a range of galleries, Eze 41:15-16, or cloisters, which were supported chiefly by one or two columns in front or at the centre. The palace of the dey of Algiers has such a structure. It is an advanced or projecting cloister over against the gate of the palace, Esth 5:1, where the officers of state assemble and transact public business, and where public entertainments are given. The removal of one or two contiguous pillars would involve the building and all that were upon it in one common destruction.

Leprosy in the House was probably a nitrous efflorescence on the walls which was injurious to the health of the household, and therefore it was imperatively ordered to be removed. Lev 14:34-58.

DYE'ING was a familiar art in Bible-times. The Phoenicians and Egyptians were skilful in it. From Ex 26:1, 2 Kgs 22:14; Gen 35:25 it is evident that at the Exodus the Israelites understood the art, and we are the better able to picture the process because we find so minute an account of it on the Egyptian monuments. There is, however, no precise mention of dyers in the O.T. In the N.T., Lydia is spoken of as "a seller of purple of the city of Thyatira." Acts 16:14. This city was famed for its dyers; inscriptions testify to the existence of a guild of them, and Lydia probably dealt in the cloth thus colored, or possibly in the dye itself, which is procured from a shell-fish.

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