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C.

CAB . See Measures.

CAB'BON, a place in Judah. Josh 15:40. Three places have been suggested as its site — el-Kufeir, 10 miles southeast of Ashkelon; el-Kaheibeh,near Beit Jibrin; and Abu Kabus.

CAB'INS, Jer 37:16, or CELLS, were probably niches or apartments within the dungeon, for the separate confinement of prisoners. The idea conveyed is, that the prophet suffered the most severe and loathsome imprisonment.

CA'BUL i. 1 . A place in Asher, Josh 19:27; now Kabul, 10 miles south-east of Accho. 2. A name of the land containing 20 cities given by Solomon to Hiram, 1 Kgs 9:10-13, in a region of Galilee east of Accho. The word has no special meaning in Hebrew.

CAE'SAR, the official title of the Roman emperors. It is borrowed from the famous Julius Caesar. It occurs about 30 times in the N. T., and is applied to Augustus, Luke 2:1; Tiberius, Luke 3:1; Claudius, Acts 11:28; and Nero, Acts 25:8. Such Jews as were Roman citizens had the right of appeal to Caesar, Acts 25:11, who was their ruler. See separate names.

CAE'SAR AUGUS'TUS. See Augustus.

CAESAR, CLAU'DIUS . See Claudius.

CAESARE'A, the chief Roman city of Palestine in New Testament times. It was on the Mediterranean, about 44 miles south of Acre, and 47 miles in a direct line north-west of Jerusalem. It had a harbor protected by an artificial wall or breakwater.

History — Originally it was called "Strato's Tower." Herod the Great built a city there, b.c. 10, and named it in honor of Augustus Caesar. Herod Agrippa I. died there. Acts 12:19-23. Philip the evangelist lived there, Acts 8:40; Acts 21:8, Ex 17:16, and Cornelius, Acts 10:1-24. Paul frequently visited it, Acts 9:30; Josh 18:22; Acts 21:8; Acts 23:33; was in bonds there two years, Acts 24:27; it was the official residence of Festus and of Felix. Vespasian was declared emperor there. It had a learned school and an episcopal see; was the birthplace of Procopius; the residence for a time of Origen; of Eusebius, the historian, who was bishop of Caesarea; was a noted city in the time of the Crusades; was twice rebuilt by the Christians; fell into decay; and is now in ruins. It is called Knisnrieh. Large quantities of the building stones have been carried to other towns and used for building. Stanley calls it the most desolate site in Palestine, with no signs of human life, and the nearest road passes at a distance from the extensive ruins.

CAESARE'A-PHILIPPI, the Greek Paneas, now called Banias by the Arabs, is a town at the base of Mount Hermon, about 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee and 45 miles south-west of Damascus. It was the northern limit of our Lord's journeys. Matt 16:13; Mark 8:27, and was probably Baal-gad of Old Testament history. It was here that Peter, in the name of all the other apostles, made that fundamental confession of faith in Christ as the Son of God and the Saviour, and that Christ uttered the prophecy concerning the indestructible character of his Church. Matt 16:16 ff. The gushing waters of the sources of the Jordan and the immovable rocks of Mount Hermon were in full view when our Lord spoke those words, and served to illustrate their meaning. The landscape is one of the most beautiful in Palestine, and has been called the Syrian Tivoli.

History. — The town is remarkable for its physical and historical associations. It was near two important sources of the Jordan; its ancient classical name was Paneion, in commemoration of the sanctuary of the god Pan; it was enlarged by Philip the Tetrarch, and named Caesarea-Philippi to distinguish it from the other Caesarea, on the Mediterranean; later on it was called Neronias by Herod Agrippa II.; it became the seat of a bishopric; it was repeatedly

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Caesarea. (From a Photograph. Palestine Exploration Fund.)

Csesarea-Philippi, or Banias. (After Photographs of Frith and Good.)

Sources of the Jordan near Banias. (After Photographs of Frith and Good.)

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taken during the Crusades, It is now called Banias, and has about 50 houses, many ruins of columns, towers, temples, a bridge, and of a remarkable castle. The place is now noted for one of the chief sources of the Jordan, which rushes in clear crystal springs from beneath the rocks of Mount Hermon, and flows rapidly towards Dan, uniting with another source below that town.

CAE'SAR'S HOUSE' HOLD, Phil 4:22, was Paul's phrase for the servants and dependents in the palace of the Roman emperor, some of whom were converts. It is unlikely that any members of the imperial family are meant, although the expression (as Lightfoot remarks) "might include equally the highest functionaries and the lowest menials."

CA'IAPHAS (depression) was the high priest of the Jews, a.d. 27-36, and therefore at the time of our Saviour's trial. John 11:49, Jer 25:51. The office was formerly held for life, but at this time it was filled and vacated at the pleasure of the Roman government. The raising of Lazarus roused the Sanhedrin to action, and Caiaphas turned their thoughts toward the execution of the hated and feared Prophet by deliberately advising his death on the score of expediency. His language was unconsciously prophetic. John 11:49-52.

After Christ's arrest he was arraigned before Caiaphas. A vain effort having been made to secure false testimony sufficient for his condemnation, Caiaphas at last adjured him to declare whether he was indeed the Christ, the Son of God. On Jesus's answering affirmatively, Caiaphas pretended to be so shocked at his supposed blasphemy that he declared all further witness was unnecessary to convict him, and the council unanimously condemned him to death. Matt 26:65-68.

As Caiaphas had no power to inflict the punishment of death, Christ was taken from him to Pilate, the Roman governor, John 18:28, that his execution might be duly ordered. See Annas. Before Caiaphas, Peter and John were brought for trial. Acts 4:6.

CAIN (possession), the first-born of Adam and Eve. Gen 4:1. Welcomed as the promised deliverer, he disappointed his paients' dearest hopes and proved to be of a bad heart, for out of envy because his brother's sacrifice had been accepted and his own rejected, he slew his brother. See Abel.

For this crime he was banished from his home. But God, remembering mercy in the midst of wrath, gave him some sign or mark whereby he would have protection from attacks likely to be made upon him as the accursed of God. He then went to the land of Nod, to the east of Eden; after the birth of his son Enoch (and perhaps other children), he began to build a city — i. e. a village of rude huts, as distinguished from the movable tents of the nomads. Gen 4:16-17. See Nod.

CAIN (lance), in the mountains of Judah, Josh 15:57; perhaps modern Yakin, south-east of Hebron.

CAI'NAN (possession, or a smith). 1. The son of Enos. Gen 6:9-14; Luke 3:37. He is called Kenan, which is the correct form, in 1 Chr 1:2. He lived 910 years. 2. A son of Arphaxad, Luke 3:36; but as the name is not found in the Hebrew, it is probably an unwarranted interpolation into the Septuagint, and thence copied by Luke into his Gospel.

CAKE . See Bread.

CA'LAH (old age), one of the oldest of Assyrian towns; founded by Nimrod, Gen 10:11, and probably for a time the capital of the Assyrian kingdom. Layard, Porter, and Kalisch locate it at ?Kileh-Shergbut?, on the Tigris, 40 miles below Nimroud, where there is a vast ruin 3 miles in circuit. The Rawlinsons, Geo. Smith, and others, place it at Nimroud, where are ruins covering about 1000 acres. They indicate a town in the form of an irregular quadrangle, surrounded by a wall, flanked with towers, and pierced with gates. The remains of palaces, temples, and a famous tower or pyramid form a mound of ruins, 600 yards long, with a cone 140 feet high. See Assyria and Armenia.

CAL'AMUS Song of Solomon 4:14; Eze 27:19, or SWEET CALAMUS, Ex 30:23, or SWEET CANE, Isa 43:24; Jer 6:20, All probably names for the same plant. It seems to have been an aromatic reed brought ''from afar country." Lemon-grass (Andropogon) is ''a plant of remarkable fragrance and a native of Central India, where it

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is used to mix with ointments, on account of the delicacy of its odor." Calamus may have been a species of this.

CAL'COL (sustenance), a Judite, 1 Chr 2:6; probably same with Chalcol. 1 Kgs 4:31. He was one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom.

CALDRON, a vessel for boiling flesh for any use, ceremonial or domestic. 1 Sam 2:14; 2 Chr 35:13; Job 41:20; Mic 3:3

Reeds. (Schaff's "Popular Commentary.")

CALEB (capable). 1. The son of Hezron, of the tribe of Judah, and father of Hur. 1 Chr 2:9 (where he is called Chelubai), 1 Chr 2:18-19, 1 Chr 2:42, 1 Chr 2:46, Gen 24:48.

  1. One of the twelve spies sent by Moses into Canaan. Num 13:6. He and Joshua were the only adults born in Egypt who entered the land as conquerors, because they brought a truthful report, while the other ten were frightened, told exaggerated stories of the native population, and spread discontent and despair. Caleb and Joshua assured the people that they might easily gain possession of Canaan. In return for these assurances, the people proposed to stone them. A plague from the Lord broke out, and the lying spies were all killed. Num 13:1-14:45. Forty-five years afterward, when the conquest was completed and the land apportioned among the tribes, Caleb, being then eighty-five years of age, applied to Joshua for his share, reminding him of the promise of God, by which he and Joshua were excepted from the general curse of the people, and proposed to take, as his share of the land, Kirjath-arha, the stronghold of the giants and the centre of their fortifications. His request was granted, and he accordingly attacked and subdued Kirjath-arha, and thence proceeded to Kirjath-sepher, another stronghold, afterward called Debir. Here he proposed to give his daughter Achsah in marriage to the man who should capture the city. His nephew, Othniel, undertook the enterprise and succeeded, and received the promised reward. Caleb's possessions were called by his name. Josh 14:1-15:63; 1 Sam 30:14.
  2. A Caleb, the son of Hur, is mentioned in 1 Chr 2:50. He may be identical with the spy.

CA'LEB (a dog), the district in Judah, between Hebron and Carmel, assigned to Caleb. 1 Sam 30:14.

CALF. Gen 18:7. A fatted calf was regarded by the Jews as the choicest animal food. 1 Sam 28:24; Am 6:4; Luke 15:23. The allusion in Jer 34:18 is to an ancient custom of ratifying a contract or covenant in the observance of which an animal was slain and divided, and the parties passed between the parts, signifying their willingness to be so divided themselves if they failed to perform their covenant. Gen 15:9-10, 2 Sam 21:17. Calf, Molten, Ex 32:4, was an idol god prepared by Aaron in compliance with the request of the children of Israel, who had become impatient at the absence of Moses and desired some visible image or representation of the Deity. See Aaron. It was probably made of wood and thickly overlaid with gold.

The golden calves of Jeroboam, 1 Kgs 12:28, were objects of worship set up by that king in the land of Israel to prevent the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusalem to worship, and so more effectually

Bronze Figure of Apis. ( Wilkinson.)

to separate them from the house of David. One of the idols was in Dan and

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the other in Bethel, the two extremes of his kingdom. It is supposed this wicked king had become acquainted with the forms and objects of idolatrous worship while he dwelt in Egypt. 1 Kgs 11:40. His sin is almost always mentioned whenever his name is used. See Jeroboam.

Calves of our Lips, Hos 14:2, is a figurative expression signifying the fruits of our lips, or our offerings of praise to God. Calves were used in sacrifices, and we are to render praises and thanksgivings to God as the offering of our lips. Heb 13:15.

CAL'NEH (fortified place?), a city of Chaldaea founded by Nimrod. Gen 10:10; Am 6:2; probably the same as Calno, Isa 10:9, and Canneh, Eze 27:23. Some have proposed to locate Calneh at Ctesiphon, or Kileh-Shenjhat, on the Tigris, 40 miles below Nimroud. Rawlinson and others, however, place ancient Asshur at Kileh-Sherghat, and identify Calneh with Niffer. The ruins at Niffer are 60 miles north-west of Warka, and on the east side of the Euphrates, but 30 miles from the present course of the river. They are conceded to be of very great antiquity, and are divided into nearly equal groups by a deep ravine or channel, 120 feet wide, apparently the dry bed of a river which once ran through the town. Inscriptions found in the mounds indicate that the ancient name of the city was Nijnir, probably the Nojiher of the Talmud, and hence the Calneh of Genesis.

CAL'VARY (skull), the place where our Lord was crucified, so called from its conical shape. There is no Scripture warrant for the popular phrase "Mount Calvary." It was simply an elevation. Tradition places the site at the modern church of the Holy Sepulchre, within the present walls of Jerusalem. This view is stoutly maintained by George Williams, Ritter, Krafft, Raumer, Rosen, De Saulcy, Sepp, Tischendorf, and several of the members of the British Palestine Survey. It is as stoutly disputed by Robinson, Tobler, John Wilson, Barclay, Thomson, Bonar, Meyer, Ewald, S. J. Andrews, and others.

The arguments turn chiefly on the course of the second wall of Josephus — whether it ran so as to include or to exclude the present church of the Holy Sepulchre. The evangelists place Calvary distinctly outside of the city in Matt 28:32; Heb 13:12;John 19:20, 1 Chr 4:41. The church of the Holy Sepulchre is inside the present city, which is much smaller now than in the time of Christ. To establish the traditional site it must be proved that the second wall excluded the church, which is quite improbable. Mr. Schick and Bishop Gobat of Jerusalem locate Calvary near the Grotto of Jeremiah, north-west of the Damascus gate; Fisher Howe and Conder, on the Grotto of Jeremiah; Barclay suggests a place near Gethsemane. As in the case of Moses, so in that of Jesus, it may be best that the exact place of his crucifixion and burial remain unknown and out of the reach of profanation and idolatry.

CAM'EL, a well-known and highly useful animal in Eastern countries, and justly called "the ship of the desert." It is by the law of Moses unclean. Lev 11:4. The camel is usually about 6 feet in height to the saddle. Though he makes loud complaints when caused to kneel or receive a load, he is still docile, and marches on as under a painful sense of duty. He varies in color from white to black, but is ordinarily tawny. In the Bible lands the Arabian or one-humped camel ( Camelits dromedcuius) is found. Two-humped camels (C. Bactrianus) are rarely used except in Central Asia. The feet of this animal are provided with a tough, elastic sole, which prevents them from sinking in the sand. His hump serves as a cushion for loads, Isa 30:6, and a store-house of food against times of scarcity. There is a large callus on his breast and three pairs of calluses on his legs, which protect him from laceration when kneeling upon sharp stones. His nostrils are adapted for breathing with safety in a sandstorm. A horny mouth with divided upper lip is fitted for the harsh and thorny shrubs of the desert, which he seems to prefer to more tender herbage. The second stomach of the camel, which is a ruminant animal, is divided into hexagonal cells, and receives and retains for gradual use the water which is drunk. On a full supply he can live even 20 or 30 days. As the camel never sensibly perspires, there is no loss in this direction. These qualities all combine to

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adapt the animal to the countries he inhabits and to the services required of him. He is, perhaps, more sure-footed than the ass, more easily supported, and capable of an incomparably greater burden. He can carry a load of 600 or 800 pounds

Camel

at the rate of 30 miles a day, and, on short journeys, 1000 to 1200 pounds. His usual speed is two and a half miles an hour, but the breed of fast camels called distinctively dromedaries, Jer 2:23, will travel 100 miles a day.

Like a docile colt, this animal is driven or led by a rude halter. Crescent-shaped ornaments of cloth and cowrie-shells, or even of silver, are often hung to the camel's neck Jud 8:21, Acts 11:26. The flesh and milk are used for food (except by Jews); the skin and hair are employed for garments; the bones are cut into various articles and sometimes the dung is needed for fuel.

The ordinary life of the camel is from 30 to 50 years. Camels were formerly, and are still, in the East, among the chief possessions of the wealthy. Gen 12:16; Gen 30:43; Gen 37:25; Jud 6:5 and Num 7:12; 1 Sam 30:17; 1 Kgs 10:2; 1 Chr 5:21;2 Chr 14:15; Job 1:3 and Job 42:12; Isa 30:6.

The expression in Matt 19:24 is usually considered figurative, denoting something beyond human power. The same form of expression is used among the Arabs and by the Rabbins in respect to the elephant. Some believe that the expression refers to the small door within the large and heavy door of the Oriental gate, for this is called in Arabic "the needle's eye." Rolla Floyd (a well-known Syrian dragoman) told the writer that till recently it was the custom to close the gates of Jerusalem from 12 till 2 on Fridays during Mohammedan worship, but this small door might then be used. On one such occasion, Mr. F. was waiting outside the Jaffa gate for some travellers, when a train of camels arrived. He saw them enter the city by unloading each animal and taking it separately through "the needle's eye."

Another figurative expression occurs Matt 23:24, in which the inconsistency of the scribes and Pharisees (who attended to the most unimportant ceremonies of their religion, while they were unjust, unmerciful, and faithless) is compared to one who should very carefully strain out (not at) a gnat or other small insect from the liquor he was about to drink, and yet swallow an animal as large as a camel. See Drink.

Travellers sometimes throw over the camel, upon the top of his burden, a pair of panniers, in which they ride, one on either side. Two boxes like small carriage-bodies are often hung upon the animal in the same manner, and in these females may ride and be sheltered from the heat. Gen 24:64. It is easy to see how Rachel might have concealed her father's idols. Gen 31:34. The camel is said to choose ruinous and desolate places for his habitations, and hence the force of the prophetic language respecting Rabbah, Eze 25:5; though the prophecy would be abundantly verified if the place should merely become a stopping-place for caravans.

Camel's Hair, Matt 3:4, was made into cloth. 2 Kgs 1:8; Zech 13:4. Sometimes the fabric was wrought of the finest and softest part of the hair, and was then a very rich and luxurious article of dress. A coarser kind was used for the covering of tents and for the upper garments of shepherds and camel-drivers. Travellers tell us that modern dervishes wear cloth of this kind, and also leathern girdles. The raiment of John the Baptist, Matt 11:8, was probably of this kind, for it is put in opposition to soft raiment; but some think it was of prepared camel's hide.

CAME'LEON . See Chameleon.

CA'MON (stalks, or grain?), where Jair was buried, Jud 10:5; east of Jordan, in Gilead.

CAMP . This term is frequently used in reference to the movements of the children of Israel, and many

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passages of the Levitical law relate to things that are to be done within or without the camp.

The form of encamping, Ex 16:13, is particularly prescribed in Num 2. The tabernacle occupied the centre, and nearest to this were the tents of the Levites, who were intrusted with the principal care of it. Num 3. The whole body of the people, embracing upward

of 600,000 fighting-men, besides women and children, were formed in four divisions, three tribes constituting a division, so that the tabernacle was enclosed in a hollow square. Each of these divisions had a standard, as well as each tribe and each of the large family associations of which the tribes were composed. Each tribe had its captain or commander assigned by God's direction. The view of such a mass of people, maintaining the most perfect order and subordination, might well excite the admiration of the beholder. Num 24:2-5. It is not difficult to imagine the emotions which such a view would awaken in one who, from the summit of Mount Peor, looked down upon the vast congregation of the Lord's people gathered around the sacred symbols of his presence.

"How beautiful are thy tents, Jacob!

And thy tabernacles, O Israel!

As the Valleys are they spread forth;

As gardens by the river's side;

As the_trees_of_lign_aloes which Jehovah hath planted,

As cedars beside the waters."

Num 24:5-6.

" Outside of the camp " must all defilement and all defiled persons be put. Consequently, lepers, those defiled by contact with the dead, captives taken in war, were kept out for a greater or less period, and the ashes of the sacrifice and all that was not burnt on the altar were carried out. The dead were there buried, and there executions and the burning of the young bullock for the sin-offering took place. See references in order:Lev 13:46; Lev 14:3; Num 12:14-15; Num 31:19; Josh 6:23; Deut 23:10,Jud 4:12; Lev 6:11;Lev 8:17 Lev 10:4-5; Lev 24:14; Lev 4:12. We are not to picture an enormous camp lying foursquare, containing regular streets, like

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a modern military camp, because in that case these regulations evidently could not be carried out without a great expenditure of time. But the Israelites traversed a country broken up into innumerable little valleys, and oftentimes the host must have stretched along for miles, but so closely hemmed in between mountain-sides that to go without the camp would be but a few steps. In later times, when Israel was settled in the Promised Land, we find scattered references to camps. They appear to have been generally pitched upon high ground. Jud 7:1, 1 Kgs 15:8; 1 Sam 17:4; 1 Sam 28:4. They were sometimes intrenched; at other times a barrier was formed of the baggage-wagons. Jehoshaphat established permanent camps. 2 Chr 17:2. CAM'PHIRE . Song of Solomon 4:13. A shrub, sometimes 10 feet high, growing in Egypt and other Eastern countries, and called henna (Lawsonia alba). The white-and-yellow flowers grow in clusters, like the lilac, and are very fragrant. From the leaves, when dried

Camphire. (Lawsonia alba.)

and pulverized, is made an orange or reddish dye, with which females stain their hands and feet. Sonnini says that Eastern women "are fond of decorating themselves with the flowers of the henna-plant; that they take them in their hands and perfume their bosoms with them." What we call camphor is an entirely different substance. It is remarkable that camphire is still found growing only at one place in Palestine, and that En-gedi. Song of Solomon 1:14.

CA'NAAN (low, humbled), the fourth son of Ham, Gen 10:6; 1 Chr 1:8, and the progenitor of those peoples who inhabited the country on the west of the Jordan. Noah, his grandfather, cursed him on awaking from his drunken sleep because of the conduct of Ham, his father. Gen 9:20-25. The difficulty is easiest solved if we trust a Jewish tradition that Canaan was the one who first saw his grandfather's shame, and that, instead of decorously concealing it, he told his father. His descendants bore the curse. The Israelites carried on a war of extermination against them, and they became, in great measure, servants or slaves.

CANAAN, LAND OF . Gen 12:5. The country inhabited by the posterity of Canaan, who were hence called Canaanites, and which was given by God to the children of Israel, the posterity of Abraham, as their possession. Ex 6:4; Lev 25:38. The original boundaries were Mount Lebanon on the north, the wilderness of Arabia on the south, and the Arabian desert on the east. On the west their possessions extended at some points to the margin of the Mediterranean. Their boundaries on this side were partially restricted by the Philistines, who held the low lands and strong cities along the shore. Gen 10:19. Besides the possessions of the Israelites, the land of Canaan embraced Phoenicia on the north and Philistia on the south-west. Zeph 2:5. The land of Canaan was called the land of Israel, 1 Sam 13:19, because it was occupied by the descendants of Jacob or Israel; the holy land, Zech 2:12; the land of promise, Heb 11:9, because it was promised to Abraham and his posterity as their possession; the land of Judah, Jer 39:10, because Judah was the leading tribe; the land of the Hebrews, Gen 40:15, or the descendants of Eber, an ancestor of Abraham. The modern name of Palestine, or the land of the Philistines, was originally applied to the region lying along the coast of the Mediterranean

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, south-west of the Land of Promise, but in its present usage denotes the whole country bounded by the Jordan on the east, the Mediterranean on the west, Arabia on the south, and Lebanon on the north. For physical features, see PALESTINE.

Sketch-Map of Canaan before the Conquest.

History.נ-Previous to its conquest by Joshua, Canaan was peopled by several tribes, as Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgasites, Hivites, Perizzites, and four others, all early known as Canaanites. Gen 10:15-19. Later, "Canaanites" appears to designate a separate tribe, and the land was inhabited by them and six other tribes. Canaan was the country for which Terah started, Gen 11:31; Abram dwelt in it; it was promised to him for a possession. Gen 12:5, 1 Kgs 15:8, etc.; Isaac, Jacob, and the patriarchs made their home there. Gen 26-35. It was left by Jacob because of the famine; searched by the twelve spies. Num 13:2; viewed by Moses, Deut 32:49; conquered by Joshua, Josh 11:23; divided by lot among the twelve tribes. Josh 13:7; a king of the country was slain by Deborah and Barak. Jud 4:24. See Map.

In the temple at Karnak, in Egypt, a triple list of 118 or 119 towns of Canaan has lately been discovered, which is believed to be a record of an Egyptian conquest of the land by Thuthmes III, previous to that by Joshua. See the list of these towns in Conder's Tent-Work in Palestine, vol. ii. 344-346. It is the oldest known record of Canaanite cities before the time of Joshua. For later history see Judah, Kingdom of; Israel, Kingdom of; and Palestine.

CA'NAANITES, THE . See preceding article.

CANA OF GALI'LEE, a town noted as the scene of Christ's first miracle, John 2:1-11, and of another miracle, Deut 4:46, and as the home of Nathanael. John 21:2. Tradition places it at Kefr-Kenna, about four English miles north-east of Nazareth, and the traveller is now shown an earthen jar, is claimed to be one of the water-jars used at the wedding. Robinson and others, with less probability, identify Cana with Kana-el-Jelil, about 9 miles north of Nazareth. It has a fine situation, and the ruins indicate the existence in former times of a

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considerable village. Conder suggests a new location, and proposes to place Cana at Reiach, north-east of Nazareth, and only one and a half miles distant. — CONDER: Tent-Work in Palestine, 1878, i. p. 154. This lacks confirmation.

CAN'DACE (sovereign of slaves?). The name is a title of Ethiopian queens. Acts 8:27. Her chamberlain or treasurer, a eunuch, was met by Philip the evangelist on the road between Jerusalem and Gaza, and converted. See Philip.

CAN'DLE . Job 18:6. Often used figuratively to denote light generally. See Lamp.

CANDLESTICK, GOLD'EN — a misnomer, as it held only lamps — Ex 25:31. It was a splendid article of the tabernacle furniture, made of fine gold, not moulded, but "of beaten work," and computed by some to have been worth, at the modern value of gold, $30,000. It consisted of a shaft or stem, supposed to have been 5 feet high, with six branches. The

Golden Candlestick. (From the Arch of Titus.)

branches came out from the shaft at three points, two at each point, as in the accompanying cut, and the width of the whole candlestick across the top was about three feet and a half. It was richly adorned with raised work representing flowers, and also knops or knobs, and little bowls resembling half an almond-shell. At the extremity of each branch there was a socket for the lamp and also at the top of the main shaft, making seven in all. Tongs to remove the snuff and dishes to receive it, as well as oil-vessels, were articles of furniture belonging to the candlestick, and were all made of gold. The lights were trimmed and supplied daily with the purest olive-oil. They were lighted at night and extinguished in the morning, though some suppose that a part of them at least were kept burning through the day. The candlestick was so situated as to throw the light on the altar of incense and on the table of shew-bread, occupying the same apartment, and from which the natural light was excluded.

In Solomon's temple there were 10 golden candlesticks. 1 Kgs 7:49; 2 Chr 4:7. They were taken to Babylon. Jer 52:19. In Zerubbabel's temple there was only one candlestick. This was removed from Herod's temple by Titus, and carried immediately before him in his triumphal entry into Rome. It is sculptured upon the Arch of Titus, in Rome. Its after-history is curious. Titus deposited it in the Temple of Peace; it was carried to Carthage by Genseric, a.d. 465; recovered by Belisarius; brought to Constantinople, and then "respectfully deposited in the Christian church of Jerusalem," a.d. 533. Nothing further is known of it.

CANE . See Calamus.

CANKER-WORM . Joel 1:4; Nah 3:15, Ex 17:16. This was one of the army of destroying insects by which the land of Judea was laid waste. It is thought that the original word means rather the locust in its larva or caterpillar state, when it is even more destructive than after it acquires wings and is about to fly away. Of this Nahum's words are very expressive:it "spoileth and fleeth away."

CAN'NEH . See Calneh.

CAN'ON (literally, a cane, then a rod of measurement) means the collection of books of the O. and N.T. which form the original and authoritative written rule of faith and practice in the Christian Church.

I. The O.T. Canon.—Our Bible is a growth of many generations. Moses put the "book of the law" in the side of the ark. Deut 31:26. This book, which 158 contained not alone direct precepts, Ex 24:7, but also general exhortations, Deut 28:61, and historical narratives, Ex 17:14, was further increased by the records of Joshua, Josh 24:26, and probably by other writings. 1 Sam 10:25. At a subsequent time collections of psalms and proverbs were made. The later prophets, especially Jeremiah, were familiar with the writings of their predecessors. But although book was added to book, there probably was no collection made containing them all until the Captivity. According to Jewish tradition, the formation of the canon of the O. T. in its present form was due to Ezra and the men of the "great synagogue." The division of the O. T. into three parts — the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa — i. e. the remaining sacred writings — (see Bible) was not arbitrary or accidental, but was a reflection of the true historical order of their composition. The Law is the foundation of the Jewish state; the Prophets relate the story of the struggles of the Jews against internal and external dangers, and likewise the revelation of the divine Mind toward them and their neighbors; the Hagiographa contain additional information, and, above all, the outpourings of the nation's heart and the expression of their wisdom. According to Josephus, there were only 22 books in the sacred canon, corresponding to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. But this short list was made by combining several books which we properly separate. Thus, the two books of Samuel, of Kings, of Chronicles, formed but one book respectively; Judges and Ruth, Ezra and Nehemiah, Jeremiah and Lamentations, were similarly combined; and finally, the twelve minor prophets were reckoned as one book. And although other lists, slightly different, are given, still the main fact is testified to that the Jews had a certain fixed and uniform amount of writing to which they gave a divine character and paid peculiar regard. This list does not include the Apocrypha of the Septuagint, which, accordingly, has been excluded from the Protestant O. T., though often printed between the Testaments. The Roman Catholic Church, however, receives them as authentic. The British and Foreign Bible Society ceased to print them after 1826. The American Bible Society likewise omits them. We may therefore say that the O. T., as we have it to-day, existed shortly after the Captivity, and that the present number and arrangement of the books do not affect its age, since nothing has been added or omitted which had any right to be in the canon or the individual books. The canon as we have it existed in our Lord's day, as is evident from the quotations in the N. T. by him and his disciples. There are in all 275 quotations from different books, but, with the exception of the words of Enoch in Jude, no book out of the canon is used for this purpose. We may therefore feel certain that we have a canon endorsed by the highest conceivable authority. It should, however, be borne in mind that the Septuagint version is generally quoted, even when it differs from the Hebrew. The apostles were no slaves of the letter, but used the Scriptures in the freedom of the Spirit.

II . The N. T. Canon.— The history of the collection and authoritative determination of the N. T. canon may be divided into three periods. 1. Down to a.d. 170. — Paul claimed for his Epistles ''a public use and an authoritative power." 1 Thess 5:27; 2 Thess 3:6; Col 4:16; 1 Tim 4:6. John solemnly warns against any additions to or deductions from the book of Revelation. Rev 22:18-19. Peter significantly puts Paul's Epistles side by side with "the other Scriptures." 2 Pet 3:16. Nothing is more striking than the great difference in contents and expression between the N. T. and the Christian writings of the following centuries. This difference is a subsidiary but convincing proof of the inspiration of the former. We see in the Apostolic Fathers (a.d. 70-120) evidence of acquaintance with at least the majority of our present N. T. The period from a.d. 120-170 has been termed the age of the apologists. These efforts to defend the Christian faith led to a new use of the facts of Christ's life, and it then became manifest how greatly superior the four Gospels were to all other accounts; and accordingly, they were separated and 159 assigned to a place of honor and absolute authority. At the close of the period was composed the Muratorian canon in the West, while about the same time appeared the Syriac translation of the N. T. called the Peshito, and the first Latin versions called Itala.

  1. From a.d. 170 to A.D. 303.— As the result of the investigations in the patristic writings of this period, Westcott declares that the four Gospels, the Acts, 1 Peter, 1 John, 13 Epistles of Paul, and the Apocalypse (the Revelation) were accepted by the Church, and, with the exception of the Apocalypse, have never been questioned since until modern times. Speaking generally, we may say that of the so-called "disputed" books of the N.T. the Apocalypse was universally received by all the Christian writers, while the Epistle to the Hebrews found acceptance in the Oriental, but not in the Occidental, Church. Judging from the writings, "the Epistles of James and Jude and the second and third of John were little used, and the second of Peter was barely known."

  2. From a.d. 302 to A.D. 307.— At the close of this period the third Council of Carthage, a.d. 397, took place, memorable as that by which the present canon of the N.T., with its 27 books, was ratified. Since that time it has remained unchanged. Luther revived doubts concerning some of the 7 books which Eusebius calls "disputed," especially the Epistle of James (which he could not harmonize with Paul's doctrine of justification by faith); but these were private opinions, and were not adopted by the Lutheran Church. All the Protestant Churches agree with the Greek and the Roman Churches as regards the extent of the canon of the N. T. And this little book contains the chief wisdom of the world, and will continue to guide mankind in the way of salvation to the end of time.

CAN'TICLES . See Song of Solomon.

CAPER'NAUM (town of Nahum), a city of great interest as the home of Jesus after he left Nazareth. Though it fills a large place in the gospel narrative, it is not once mentioned in O.T. history, nor in any portion of the Bible except the four Gospels. It is called Christ's "own city," Matt 9:1, and it was the scene of some of his most remarkable miracles, labors, and discourses. Matt 8:5-14; 2 Cor 9:2; Matt 17:24; John 6:17-59;Deut 4:46, etc. Much exploration, study, and discussion have been given to determine its true site, but the question is still unsettled.

The gospel narrative throws some general, though not very definite, light upon the location of this lost city. It was (1) a city of Galilee, Luke 4:31; (2) by the lake-coast. Matt 4:13; John 6:17, Jud 6:24; (3) with collectors of customs, and probably a custom-house, Matt 17:24; Mark 2:1, 2 Kgs 22:14; Luke 5:27 compared with Matt 9:1,Gal 1:9; (4) it had a noted synagogue, built by a Roman centurion, Matt 8:5; Mark 1:21; Luke 7:1,1 Chr 6:5; (5) it was joined with Chorazin and Bethsaida in the woes pronounced upon them by Christ, and its complete destruction was predicted. Matt 11:20-23; Luke 10:13-15; (6) it has been inferred also from the Scriptures that Capernaum was in the land of Gennesaret, but this is not certain. Comp. Matt 14:34 with John 6:16-17, John 6:24-25. These indicate that the city was on the west side of the Sea of Galilee, and near its northern end.

Two places have been mainly urged as marking the site of ancient Capernaum:(1) Khan Minyeh, supported by Robinson (1852), Macgregor (1864), Porter (1875), Kiepert, Sepp, and by members of the recent British and American Palestine Exploration Societies (Kitchener and Merrill); (2) Tell Hum, maintained by Dr. Wilson, Major Wilson, W. M. Thomson, Stanley, Hepworth Dixon, Ritter, Baedeker, Delitzsch, Plumptre, Schaff, and others.

Tell Hum is a ruin near the Sea of Galilee, about two miles south-west of where the river Jordan enters the sea. Khan Minyeh is a Saracen inn on the northern extremity of the plain of Gennesaret (el-Gkuweir), about 5 miles south-west of the mouth of the Jordan and 2 1/2 to 3 miles below Tell Hum, and situated near the lake.

Several other places have been suggested:as Ain Mudaumrah, once urged, but afterward abandoned, by Tristram, and ruins near Bethsaida Julias; but their claims are generally regarded as not well supported.

The argument from tradition is divided between Khan Minyeh, and Tell Hum, 160 but prevailingly in favor of Tell Hum. Conder (Tent Work in Palestine, ii. 182) claims Jewish and Arab tradition for Khan Minyeh, but Dr. Thomson and Furrer claim it decidedly for Tell Hum.

The arguments for Khan Minyeh, briefly stated, are: (1) It is near the

Gennesaret, from Khan Minyeh. (From a Photograph taken for the Palestine Exploration Fund.)

sea-shore, while Tell Hum is at some distance from the shore; (2) it is in the land of Gennesaret, if Gennesaret is identical with el-Ghuweir; (3) it is well located for a custom-house, on the highway from Jerusalem to Damascus.

The arguments in support of Tell Hum mainly are; (1) The extensive ruins, covering a space half a mile long by a quarter of a mile wide, indicate a large city like Capernaum; (2) the ruins of a large synagogue have been discovered there; (3) when Christ crossed the lake from Capernaum, Mark 6:33, the crowd ran around the end of the lake to meet him; and it is claimed that Tell Hum is more likely, therefore, to have been his starting-point than Khan Minyeh; (4:) Josephus, wounded on the plain of Batikha, at the north end of the lake, was carried to Capernaum, most likely the nearest place — not, therefore, at Khan Minyeh, but Tell Ham; (5) historical narratives of the sixth and seventh centuries and the Jewish and Arab tradition appear to favor Tell Hum as Capernaum; (6) the identity of name, for Capernaum means " the village" (Kefe or Kafr) "of Nahum," and Tell Hum means "the mound or ruins of Hum" — i. e. Nahum.

The strongest argument against Khan Minyeh is the absence of ruins of sufficient importance to indicate a city of the size of Capernaum. The English Survey party in 1866 dug up at Khan Minyeh chiefly fragments of pottery; Kitchener in 1877 examined the more extensive excavations, bringing to light what appeared to him to be a wall of squared stones. Robinson conjectures that the ruins of Capernaum were transported to Tiberias,but Tiberias was already built when Capernaum was in its prosperity. Those who place Capernaum at Khan Minyeh usually locate Chorazin at Tell Hum and Bethsaida at Et-Tabigkah. This theory leaves the important ruins at Kerazeh to be explained. As the latter cannot be ignored, they form a strong objection to Khan Minyeh. If, however, Capernaum was at Tell Hum, then Chorazin was doubtless at Kerazeh, and no important ruins remain unexplained.

At present, therefore, the arguments are strongly in favor of Tell Hum, but a final decision of the question must wait further excavations. The explorations of the English society organized in 1878-1879 for the purpose of determining the sites of the three cities may furnish information for the satisfactory settlement of this question.

Ruins at Tell Hum. — The most remarkable ruin at Tell Hum is that of a Jewish synagogue. Around this, and up the slope behind it, are the remains of an ancient town; the walls of many private houses can be traced, and the appearance of a main street leading toward ancient Chorazin. The synagogue was about 75 feet long by 58 feet wide; its walls were built of hard white limestone, almost marble, resting on 161 basaltic rock. Portions of columns, pedestals, capitals of the Corinthian order, and blocks of stone have been uncovered on its site, and on the lintel of a door a representation of the pot of manna was discovered, recalling the words of Jesus: "Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead." John 6:49. If Tell Hum is Capernaum, then this synagogue was doubtless the one which

Ruins at Tell Hum. (From a Photograph. Palestine Exploration Fund.)

the pious Roman centurion built, Luke 7:1-10, and in which Jesus taught.

North of the town are two tombs, one built under ground of limestone blocks after the hard basaltic rock had been cut away; the other above ground and whitewashed within and without, as in our Lord's day. Matt 23:27.

The road from Khan Minyeh to Tell Hum now leads over the rocks at some height above the lake. It is a narrow path, more like an ancient conduit than a road. From this height the view extends to Tiberias. A short distance from Khan Minyeh by the seashore is Ain et-Tin, or ''Fig Spring" (which Dr. Robinson erroneously identified with the spring "Kapharnaum," mentioned by Josephus). A mile farther north is the charming bay Et-Tabigkah, by which some locate western Bethsaida, but at which, more probably, was the suburb and harbor of Capernaum; here is a very copious fountain abounding in fish (probably the "Kapharnaum " of Josephus), and a large stream which turns a mill and once watered, through an aqueduct, the plain of Gennesaret. The road from Et-Tabigkah continues northward along the bank, on which several springs and the remains of buildings are to be seen, until it reaches Tell Hum. From thence northward to Kerazeh, probably Choraziri, is about 2 miles, and there are traces of a paved road which connected the city with the great caravan-road to Damascus. Following the shore of the lake to the north-west about 2 miles, where the Jordan empties into the Sea of Galilee, is Abu Zuny, which Dr. Thomson regards as Bethsaida, the birthplace of Peter and Andrew. The ruin of all these cities has been so complete as to render their very sites doubtful, and strikingly to remind us of the fearful prediction of our Lord concerning them. Matt 11:21-23.

CAPH'TOR (chaplet), the original home of the Caphtorim or Philistines. Deut 2:23; Jer 47:4; Am 9:7. Some have placed it in Cappadocia, others in Cyprus or in Crete. It is more probably identical with Caphtur, and the northern delta of Egypt.

CAPPADO'CIA, the largest and most easterly province of Asia Minor. On the north was Pontus, on the east the Euphrates, beyond which were Armenia and Mesopotamia, on the south Syria and Cilicia, and on the west Galatia. It was high table-land, intersected by ranges of mountains, sparsely wooded, but good for grain or grazing. Cappadocia was conquered by Cyrus, ruled by Alexander the Great, tributary to the Seleucidae, and became a Roman province, a.d. 17. Some of its people were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:9, and afterward Christians of the province were addressed by Peter. 1 Pet 1:1.

CAP'TAIN, an officer in the Jewish army whose rank or power was designated by the number of men under his command, as captain of fifty or captain of a thousand, and the commander or chief of the whole army was called the captain of the host. Deut 1:15 162 2 Sam 19:13, etc. The divisions of the army were regulated in some measure by the division of families, as the heads of families were usually officers. 2 Chr 25:5. Captains of hundreds,

A Roman Captain or Centurion.

or larger companies, were probably what would be called in modern phrase staff-officers, and formed the council of war. 1 Chr 13:1. The ''captain of the guard," Acts 28:16, was the commander of the Praetorian troops at Rome. See Centurion.

Captain of the Temple, Acts 4:1, was the chief of the priests and Levites who kept guard around and within that sacred edifice. In this non-military sense is Christ called ''Captain" in Heb 2:10.

CAP'TIVE . Gen 14:14. Usually denotes one taken in war. Among Eastern nations such persons were treated with great cruelty, and were subjects of merchandise. For instances of this merciless treatment see Jud 1:7;1 Sam 11:2; 2 Sam 8:2; 2 Kgs 26:7. It is a remarkable fact that though the Israelites dealt in many instances harshly with those they captured, yet their conduct stood out in such favorable contrast to that of heathen nations that the humanity of some even of their worst kings was reckoned upon by their conquered enemies. 1 Kgs 20:31-34. The passage Joel 3:3 brings out into melancholy prominence both the lot of prisoners of war and also the contempt manifested for the Jews. The Bible (Speaker's) Commentary thus expounds the verse: "The Jewish prisoners were held so cheap that a slave-girl was sold by her captor for a draught of wine, and a slave-boy was given in place of the small coin thrown to a prostitute. During the Jewish war Titus took 97,000 prisoners, of whom he publicly sold all that were under 17 years of age. After Hadrian's Jewish war four Jews were sold for a measure of barley at Hebron." The Romans sometimes compelled a captive to be joined with a dead body, and to bear it about until the horrible effluvia destroyed the life of the living. The capture of Judea by the Romans, a.d. 70, was commemorated by coins which are shown in the following cut:

Coins to Commemoration the Capture of Judea. (Farrar's "Life of Christ.") On the left-hand coin Is seen the emperor Titus; Judea is weeping at the foot of a palm tree. On the right hand, a Jewish captive with hands tied behind his back looks upon a Jewess seated at the foot of a palm tree.

CAPTIV'ITY. Num 21:29. A term usually employed to denote an important era in the history of the Jewish people. To punish their rebellions and idolatries, God suffered them to come into frequent bondage to surrounding nations. Six of their partial and transient captivities took place at an early period of their history, of which a particular account is given in Judges. Soon after the close of Solomon's reign the kingdom was divided. Ten of the tribes took the name of "the kingdom of Israel," leaving the tribes of Judah and Benjamin to constitute the kingdom of Judah. Each of these two kingdoms suffered a distinct captivity. The Jews reckon four national captivities נthe Babylonian, the Median, the Grecian, and the Roman.

Pul, b.c. 762, and then Tiglath-pileser, b.c. 740, kings of Assyria, made war upon 163 the kingdom of Israel and carried a large number of the people (chiefly those of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh) into captivity, 2 Kgs 15:29; 1 Chr 5:26, and the residue remained under their own king, but paid tribute to the

Prisoners before Sargon. (Nineveh Marbles.)

Assyrian government. After the lapse of 20 years this tribute was refused, and therefore Shalmaneser besieged and (after three years) Sargon captured Samaria, the capital of the kingdom, and the great mass of the people were transported to provinces beyond the Euphrates, b.c. 721. Their fate is a frequent subject of speculation, but nothing definite can be determined. Nor was the kingdom of Judah long left unmolested.

Jewish Captives before Darius. (From Ancient Bas-relief at Fersepolis. )

In Hezekiah's reign Sennacherib, king of Assyria, took the fenced cities of Judah, b.c. 713, and would have taken Jerusalem had Hezekiah not sent him a heavy tribute. 2 Kgs 18:13. His next attempt on the city, which occurred some little time after, was defeated by a miracle. 2 Kgs 19:35.

Nebuchadnezzar repeatedly overran the kingdom of Judah, the first time in the third year of Jehoiakim. He carried a few captives to Babylon, among whom were Daniel and his companions, b.c. 606. 2 Kgs 24:1; Dan 1:1-4. In the tenth or eleventh year of Jehoiakim he came again, b.c. 698, 2 Chr 36:6, and a third time in the eighth year of the reign of Jehoiachin. This invasion resulted in the carrying away of 10,000 Jews. 2 Kgs 24:10-16. The 70 years' captivity began when Nebuchadnezzar, for the fourth time, invaded Judea, b.c. 588. 2 Kgs 25:1. The king, Zedekiah, was taken, his sons slain, the temple burnt and the city despoiled, and the greater part of the population carried into Babylonia. Jer 52:8-13. During this long captivity the rite of circumcision was observed, the genealogical tables filled, distinctions of rank maintained, and thus the Jews retained their nationality intact.

In b.c. 536 the Jews were allowed to return from Babylon by Cyrus, as a portion of them did under Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:2, and some time afterward under Ezra, Ezr 7:7, b.c. 468, and Nehemiah, Neh 7:66, b.c. 445. Those who remained in Assyria or scattered over the Roman empire, but kept up their national distinctions, were known as "The Dispersion," John 7:36; 1 Pet 1:1; Jas 1:1, and afterward were starting-points for Christianity.

Children of the Captivity, Ezr 4:1, a common figure of speech, denoting those who were in captivity, or perhaps sometimes literally their posterity. Turn again, Ps 126:1, turn away, Jer 29:14, turn back, Zeph 3:20, or bring again, Eze 16:63, the captivity, are figurative phrases, all referring to the Jewish nation in bondage and their return to Canaan.

A similar expression is used in relation to individuals, as in Job 42:10. The Lord turned the captivity of Job -that is, he released him from the unusual sufferings and perplexities to which he had been in bondage, and caused him to rejoice again in the favor 164 of God. He led captivity captive, Eph 4:8, or "he led those as his captives who had made captives of others," is a figurative allusion to the victory which our blessed Redeemer achieved over sin and death, by whom our ruined race are brought into bondage. Rom 8:21; Gal 4:24; Heb 2:15; 2 Pet 2:19.

CAR'BUNCLE. This term represents two Hebrew words. The first, Ex 28:17; Ex 39:10; Eze 28:13, meaning flashing like lightning, is supposed to be either the emerald or beryl, both of which are precious stones of a green color." Thy gates of carbuncles," Isa 54:12, has reference to a stone shining like fire — possibly a brilliant species of ruby.

CARCHEMIISH, or CHAR'CHEMISH {citadel of Chemosh), a chief city of northern Syria, on the Euphrates, where a great and decisive battle was fought, in which Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh-necho, 2 Chr 35:20; 2 Kgs 23:29; Jer 46:2, in b. c. 605. It was formerly identified with Circesium. Rawlinson placed it at Bir, near Hierapolis, on the Euphrates; a later writer at Kalaat, below Beredjit.

CARE'AH (bald-head), the father of Johanan. 2 Kgs 25:23. Elsewhere spelt Kareah.

CA'RIA, a small Roman province in the south-western part of Asia Minor. Its cities, Cnidus and Miletus, are mentioned in Acts 20:15; 1 Chr 27:7.

CAR'MEL (fruitful, or wooded). 1. One of the most noted mountains in

Mount Carmel, from the Bey of Acre. {After Views of G. M. Powell.)

Palestine, a range or ridge about 12 miles long, one end jutting into the Mediterranean Sea in a bold bluff over 500 feet high, extending thence southeast until it abruptly breaks off in an inland bluff over 500 feet above the sea level. Its highest elevation, about 4 miles from the east end, is nearly 1740 feet. It is specially noted as being the scene of remarkable events in the history of Elijah and Elisha. 2 Kgs 2:25; Gal 4:25. The scene of the famous contest between Elijah and the prophets of Baal, 1 Kgs 18:20-42, was near the east end of the ridge, at el-Mahrakah (i. e. "burnt-offering"); a well is near, and a slippery path leads down to the Kishon, several hundred feet below. This stream is now called Nahr el-Mukatta, "river of slaughter," in memory of this event. It is a sacred mountain alike to Jews, Christians, and Moslems, and formerly swarmed with monks and hermits. One tract, known as the Monk's Cavern, has hundreds of caves, and a little below is the traditional cave of Elijah. On the mountain is the large monastery of the Carmelites, which affords hospitable accommodation and a magnificent view. It is now occupied by eighteen monks. The German colony of Haifa has recently planted vineyards on Mount Carmel.

Present Appearance. — Carmel is covered with a profusion of vegetation, illustrating "the excellency of Carmel." Isa 35:2. It is still known as Kurmul 165 and Mar Elyas (Mount St. Elias). The rugged sides of the ridge are of hard, dark stone, always steep, often precipitous, covered with shrubs of dark, rich green. These shrubs are chiefly a kind of pistachio with no berries, the sponge laurel, the hawthorn, and the arbutus. The bare spots are covered with flowers, as rock-roses, striped asphodel, the daisy, and the red and purple anemone. The horse of the traveller often presses out a sweet fragrance from the thyme and mint. Herds of goats are frequently seen climbing its steep sides, and occasionally a gazelle bounds through the shrubs, while the fox, jackal, wolf, and a stray wild boar and a panther (chetah) add to the animal life of the mountains. The partridge and woodcock also abound. Huge valleys upward of 1000 feet deep wind tortuously from the main ridge to the sea, requiring hours to cross to the opposite summits. The rock is a compact, sandy limestone.

  1. A town in the mountains of Judah, where Saul set a monument, 1 Sam 15:12;Acts 25:2, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Kgs 15:7, 1 Sam 15:40; 1 Sam 27:3, and Uzziah had vineyards, 2 Chr 26:10; now Kurmul, 10 miles south-east of Hebron, where are ruins of a strong castle.

CAR'MI (vine-dresser). 1. The fourth son of Reuben, progenitor of the Carmites. Gen 46:9; Ex 6:14; Num 26:6; 1 Chr 5:3. 2. The father of Achan, the "troubler of Israel." Jos 7:1, 1 Sam 30:18.

CAR'PENTER . The first allusion to the carpenter's trade in the Scriptures occurs in the command to Noah to build the ark. Gen 6:14-16, and the directions here given presuppose quite a considerable skill. The second time the trade is mentioned is in the description of the setting up of the tabernacle in the wilderness, Ex 25:23; Ex 27:1-15, where various kinds of wood-work -the ark, the table, the altar, the acacia boards, etc. -are spoken of. From this point and throughout the holy writings frequent mention is made of this trade; and though it appears that both David, 2 Sam 5:11, and Solomon, 1 Kgs 5:6, employed foreign artisans, the numerous allusions, in the historical, prophetical, and poetical books of the O.T., to the tools, implements, and methods of this trade, show that the native craftsmen must have been possessed of great skill, and the trade itself held in high esteem among the people.

Joseph, the husband of Mary, was a carpenter, Matt 13:55, and our L̲ord himself worked at the trade, Mark 6:3. "Is not this the carpenter's son?" yea, "Is not this the carpenter?" asked the people, not in contempt, but in wonder. They implied, however, that they regarded him as one of themselves, as no better than they. But we may be thankful that our Lord is thus called, for the very word "is full of meaning, and has exercised a very noble and blessed influence over the fortunes of mankind. It has tended to console and sanctify the estate of poverty, to ennoble the duty of labor, to elevate the entire conception of manhood as of a condition which in itself alone, and apart from every adventitious circumstance, has its own grandeur and dignity in the sight of God."נ-Farrar:Life of Christ, ch. vii.

CAR'PUS (fruit), a friend of Paul at Troas. 2 Tim 4:13.

CAR'RI AGE (from *carro, "a car"), old English for "baggage," luggage requiring to be carried. Jud 18:21; 1 Sam 17:20, Josh 11:22; Isa 10:28; Gen 46:1; Acts 21:15. They "took up their carriages"-נi. e. they packed up their things and commenced their journey.

CARSHE'NA (illustrious?), one of the seven highest princes of Persia and Media. Esth 1:14.

CART . See Wagon.

CASE'MENT . See Window.

CASIPH'IA . Ezr 8:17. Probably near Ahava.

CAS'LUHIM (fortified), a Mizraite people or tribe. Gen 10:14; 1 Chr 1:12.

CAS'SIA . [scripture]Ex. 30:24[scripture]. The bark of a tree (Cinnamomum cassia) like the cinnamon, and one of the ingredients of the holy anointing oil. It was brought from India by the Tyrians. The Hebrew refers, in Ps 45:8, to another kind of spice, remarkable for its fragrance, and not yet identified with much probability.

CAS'TLE, in Acts 21:34, 2 Kgs 18:37; Acts 22:24; Acts 23:10, Ex 17:16, Jud 1:32, means "the fortress at the north-west corner of the temple in Jerusalem. It was called by Herod the Tower of Antonia, in honor of his patron, Mark Antony. The temple was 166 a kind of citadel that guarded Jerusalem, and so the Tower of Antonia was a fortress that commanded the temple." נ-Ayre.

CASTOR AND POLLUX. Acts 28:11. In heathen mythology "Castor" and "Pollux" were the names of twin sons of Jupiter who presided over the

Castor and Pollux. (From a Coin of Bruttii.)

destinies of sailors. Hence an image representing them was often seen on the prow of ancient ships, like the figureheads of modern days. In the case of Paul's ship, the name was Castor and Pollux.

CAST OUT, comp. John 9:22 and Num 32:34, OR EXCOMMUNICATE, was to cut off from the privileges of the Jewish Church.

CAT'ERPILLAR (the consumer), probably another word for locusts in their immature or wingless state, appearing in vast numbers and of most destructive voracity. 1 Kgs 8:37. Hence they were often employed as the agents in the execution of God's judgments, Ps 78:46 and Ps 105:34, and figuratively represent a great multitude. Isa 33:4; Jer 51:14, Gen 1:27. They were regarded as among the most desolating visitations of God's hand.

CAT'TLE. Gen 1:25. In the common scriptural use of this term it embraces the tame quadrupeds employed by mankind, as oxen, horses, sheep, camels, goats, etc. Gen 13:2; Ex 12:29 and Ex 34:19; Num 20:19; Num 32:16, and Ps 50:10, and Job 1:3, where the word translated ''substance" would be more properly rendered "cattle."

The allusion in Job 36:33 is explained by the well-known fact that certain animals of this class are peculiarly sensitive to the change of air which precedes rain.

CAUL. Isa 3:18. The attire of the head, made of net-work and ornamented. In Hos 13:8 the word "caul" denotes the pericardium, or membranous bag which encloses the heart. This word in the Pentateuch denotes one of the viscera, probably the great lobe of the liver.

CAVE. Caves are very common in Palestine, and the names of sections of country were derived from this fact, as the Hauran, Eze 47:16, is caveland, and the Horites are dwellers in caves. They were made use of as temporary dwelling-places. Gen 19:36; as places of concealment, Josh 10:16; Jud 6:2; 1 Sam 13:6: ; 1 Sam 22:1, 2; 1 Sam 24:3; 2 Sam 23:13:1 Kgs 18:4; 1 Kgs 19:9; Heb 11:38; and as burial places. Gen 23:17, Acts 1:19 and Gen 49:29; John 11:38. Some noted ones are named in the Bible, such as Adullam, the Machpelah, Makkedah, etc. The manger in which our Lord was born may have been a cave. See Tombs and Burial.

CE'DAR. Undoubtedly several cone-bearing, evergreen trees are included under this title. But ordinarily, and especially when the full form is given נcedar of Lebanonנ the still famous tree of that name (Cedrus Libani) is meant. The Scriptures correctly give its characteristics. Comp. Ps 92:12; Eze 31:3-6; 1 Kgs 7:2; Neh 10:27; Song of Solomon 4:11; Hos 14:6; Isa 2:13; Isa 10:19. It is one of the most valuable and majestic evergreen trees of Eastern forests, and is found upon Mounts Amanus and Taurus, in Asia Minor, and other parts of the Levant, but in its greatest perfection on Mount Lebanon. It grows to the height of 70 or 80 feet. The branches are thick and long, spreading out almost horizontally from the trunk, which is sometimes 30 or 40 feet in circumference. Eze 31:3, 1 Chr 24:6, 1 Kgs 15:8. Maundrell measured one which was 36 feet and 6 inches in the girth, and 111 feet in the spread of its boughs. The wood is of a red color and bitter taste, which is offensive to insects, and hence it is very durable and admirably adapted for building. A specimen of this wood in the British Museum is labelled "Cedar of Lebanon, from Palace of Nimrod; 3000 years old." Cedar was used for the most noble and costly edifices, as the palace of Persepolis, the palace of Solomon, and the temple at Jerusalem. This timber served not only for beams for the frame and boards for 167 covering buildings, but was also wrought into the walls. 2 Sam 7:2; 1 Kgs 6:36 and Num 7:12. The gum which exudes from the trunk and the cones is as soft and fragrant as the balsam of Mecca.

This tree, there is reason to believe, once quite covered the mountains of Lebanon between the heights of 3000 and 7000 feet. Rev. H. H. Jessup has visited and described eleven distinct groves of cedars on those mountains, including, altogether, several thousand trees.

The principal forest visited by travellers is 8 hours' ride from Baalbec, on Cedar Mountain (Jebel el-Arz), about 6300 feet above the sea-level, a little below the summit. Baedeker (Palestine and Syria, p. 505) thus describes it: "The group occupies the top of a hill with five culminating points of various sizes, on the eastern and western sides of which runs a water-course. It consists of about 350 trees, the tallest of which does not exceed 78 feet in height. The rock on which they grow is white limestone, and the decaying spines, cones, and other matter have formed a dark-colored soil. The oldest trees, about 9 in number, are on the southeastern height. In the midst of the north-western group stands a Marnmite

Cedars of Lebanon. (After Photographs.)

chapel. Unfortunately, no care whatever is taken of these noble trees. The goats eat all the young shoots, and cedar branches are even used for fuel, particularly on the occasion of an annual festival in August. Countless names are cut on the trunks of the trees. ... In gloomy weather the sombre group and its black surroundings form a weird and wild picture."

In most of the botanic gardens and arboretums of Europe and America growing specimens of this monarch of Eastern forests may now be seen. It thrives especially well in England. In the general appearance of its bark and foliage it is much like the larch, but it is a far more widely-branching and massive tree.

Dr. G. E. Post, of Beirfit, Syria, who is a good botanist, supplies the following interesting information concerning this tree: "The first mention of the cedar in the Bible is in Lev 14:4, 1 Chr 24:6, Lev 14:49, Jer 25:51, 2 Kgs 5:52, with the parallel passage. Num 19:6. The children of Israel were then in the peninsula of Mount Sinai. Did the cedar grow in that region? or is the cedar there alluded to a different tree from the cedar of Lebanon?

"There are other trees known now in Syria as cedars. The Aleppo pine is one, and it is quite probable that this tree may have grown in that region, 168 although not more so than that the cedar itself was there. The juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) still grows in the peninsula of Sinai; and being of the same family as the cedar, it is allowable to regard it as the plant here intended. A species of juniper is known in English by the name of 'cedar.' In view, however, of admitted changes in climate in all the countries bordering the eastern end of the Mediterranean, there is nothing to forbid the possibility of the cedar of Lebanon having once existed on Sinai. It grows on the Atlas chain and the mountains connecting Taurus with the Himalayas, as well as in the latter groups. May it not have found in Sinai a connecting station between its distant homes in the Atlas and the Lebanon and Himalayas?

"Some very foolish things have been said about the durability of the cedar. It has been pronounced, perhaps from trials on specimens taken from European or American trees, a crooked, inferior, perishable wood. In point of fact, it is notable for toughness, durability, and adaptedness to the climate and circumstances of Syria. There is no such thing as a rotten cedar. Branches broken off by the tempests lie unrotten on the ground. The trunks, where barked by travellers or peeled by the lightning, remain dead, but uncorrupted. The name of Lamartine, carved on one of the giant trees 109 years ago, is fresh and legible to-day. All other woods indigenous to Syria are liable to the attacks of insects or a kind of dry rot. Cedar beams are unchangeable. No greater injury has been done to Lebanon than denuding it of its kingly tree. The cedar is a desirable wood for carving. Isa 44:14. It is hard, fragrant, takes a high polish, which develops a beautiful grain, and it grows darker and richer by time.

"'The trees of the Lord are full of sap; the cedars of Lebanon, which he hath planted.' Ps 104:16. The aromatic sap of this tree exudes from the slightest scratch, and distills in copal drops down the bark. If two branches rub together, they soon unite. Several trees are often joined in this way through the superabundance of their vitality.

"'The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.' A palm tree attains its height in a hundred years or less; a cedar grows for thousands of years. A palm tree soon bears fruit and flourishes; a cedar grows slowly and tarries long before it bears fruit, but it continues to bear fruit long centuries after the palm tree has decayed. It continues fat and flourishing (green). The cedar is ever green. Its vitality is equally apparent in the heat of summer and the snows of winter. How apt a likeness of the righteous, who grows in grace as he lengthens out his years! The cedar still bears multitudes of cones when it has been riven by lightning, torn and almost uprooted by the wind. So affliction but develops the graces of the righteous, and the green branches bear abundance of fruit when the blighted ones have been severed and for ever lost." See Lebanon.

CE'DRON. John 18:1. See Kedron.

CEIL'ING. We have a description of the ceiling of Solomon's temple and palace in 1 Kgs 6:9-10,2 Sam 20:15; 1 Kgs 7:3; 2 Chr 3:5. It was made of planks of cedar or fir "laid on beams or rests in the wall." Eastern floors and ceilings were just the reverse of ours. Their ceilings were of wood, painted, Jer 22:14, ours are of plaster; their floors were of plaster or some sort of tiles, ours are of wood.

CEL'LARS. 1 Chr 27:27. Of cellars such as are common among us nothing was known in the East, if we except the chambers which are used in Persia for the storing of earthen jars or other vessels of wine. Among the Hebrews and Greeks these jars were buried up to the neck in the ground. The word "wine-cellars" in the passage cited probably denotes the patches of ground used to bury wine. See Wine.

CEL'O-SYR'IA . See Caelo-Syria.

CEN'CHREA (accurately CEN'CHREAE), the eastern harbor of Corinth, on the Saronic Gulf, and the emporium of its trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean, about 9 miles east of that city; the western harbor was Lechaeum. A church was formed at Cenchrea. of which Phebe was a deaconess. Rom 16:1. Paul sailed from thence to Ephesus. 169 Acts 18:18. The town was full of idolatrous monuments and shrines. It is now called Kikries.

CEN'SER. Lev 10:1. A vessel used in the temple-service for the purpose of carrying the fire in which the incense was burned, taken from the perpetual supply on the altar of burnt offering. It was sometimes made of pure gold. 1 Kgs 7:50; 2 Chr 26:16, Acts 1:19. The censer was held in one

Egyptian Censers. ( Wilkinson.)

hand, and the incense was carried in the other hand. The priest strewed the pulverized incense upon the fire, and the cloud of smoke ascended up in a dark volume and filled the apartment with its fragrance. The word rendered "censer" in Heb 9:4 means a golden altar of incense.

CEN'SUS. In the O.T. there is mention made of twelve censuses.

1.The earliest was under Moses, in the third or fourth month after the Exodus. Its object was to raise money for building the tabernacle, each person numbered נi. e. every male from 20 years and upward נbeing obliged to pay half a shekel. The census showed there were 603,550 men. Ex 38:26. 2. In Num 1:2 there is the order for a second numbering, in the second month of the second year after the Exodus. The result showed the same figures. Num 1:46. This fact has led some to suppose that these two numberings were in fact one, but applied to different purposes. 3. The next census was made immediately before the entrance of the Hebrews into Canaan. Num 26. The total number of males fit for military service was 601,730, while the Levite males from a month old were 23,000. 4. For a long time after that there was no reckoning made. But David, instigated by Satan, out of mere curiosity and ambition to know how large a people he governed, ordered a count, which showed that the men of Israel over 20 years of age were 800,000, and of Judah 500,000. 2 Sam 24:9; 1 Chr 21:1. These are round figures, and do not quite agree with those of 1 Chr 21:5. 5. Solomon completed the census by causing the foreigners and remnants of the conquered nations resident within Palestine to be numbered. 2 Chr 2:17-18.

We read of much more frequent censuses after this:6. Rehoboam, 1 Kgs 12:21; 7. Abijam, 2 Chr 13:3, 17; 8. Asa, 2 Chr 14:8-9; 9. Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:14-19; 10. Amaziah, 2 Chr 25:5-6; 11. Uzziah, 2 Chr 26:13. All these must have kept at least an account of how many could bear arms, since we find in the passages cited the number of their troops. Besides, the numbers referred to are those of the separate tribes and companies נe. g. Jud 7:3; 1 Kgs 20:15; Jer 52:30. 12. The last general census was that made at the time of the Return. Ezr 2:64 and Ezr 8:1-14 give the numbers of males in the first and second caravan. These figures indicate the importance attached to the census, though no scientific use was made of it, as by us. It would appear that the kingdom of Judah was most populous under Jehoshaphat. The numbers, in proportion to the area of the country, have been quoted as an objection to the narrative. But while it must be freely granted that the population was dense, still the density has been paralleled, and even exceeded, in modern times. Palestine, it should be remembered, was a very fertile land. On the census of Cyrenius, Luke 2:2, see Taxing, Days of the 170 CENTU'RION. Matt 8:5. The title of an officer of the Roman army who had command of 100 soldiers. See Captain.

CE'PHAS (rock), a Syriac surname given to Simon, which in the Greek is rendered Petros, and in the Latin Petrus, both signifying "a rock." John 1:42. See Peter.

CESARE'A. See Caesarea.

CESARE'A-PHILIP'PI. See Caesarea-Philippi.

CHAFF. The Hebrew farmer separated the corn from the husk by throwing the mixed mass up against the wind. On account of their weight, the grains were thrown quite a distance, while the light chaff fell immediately to the ground if not blown entirely away. Hence the exceedingly forcible image of the wicked being swept off by the breath of God. Ps 1:4; Ps 35:5. In the figurative language of John the Baptist, the winnowing shovel -called in our version a "fan" -is said to be in the hand of God, and with it he will thoroughly purge his floor. Matt 3:12; Luke 3:17.

CHAINS . A distinction must be made between fetters, which were for the feet, and chains, which were for any part of the body. Chains were worn for ornament, dignity, or restraint. They were made of gold for the first two purposes, and of iron for the last. In the ancient Orient both sexes wore them ostentatiously. They were put on Joseph and Daniel as a symbol of sovereignty. Gen 41:42; Dan 6:29. So to-day kings wear the chain of the order of the Golden Fleece. Chains were put by the Midianites upon their camels. Jud 8:21. They were also worn by women as a fastening between the anklets. Isa 3:19. The chains used on prisoners, Jud 16:21;2 Sam 3:34; 2 Kgs 25:7; Jer 39:7; Jer 52:11, were fetters. Handcuffs were also used. The Roman practice was to bind the prisoner's hand to the hand of a soldier, or to a soldier by either hand. Acts 12:6-7; Job 21:33; Acts 28:16, Ruth 4:20; 2 Tim 1:16.

The "chains" which bound the madman of Gadara, Mark 5:3-4, were probably not of iron, but were ropes. The iron "fetters" he shivered. "Chain" is used in Lam 3:7 in a metaphorical sense to denote tribulation.

CHALCED'ONY . Rev 21:19. A variety of quartz much like the agate, of pearly, wax-like lustre, and of great translucency; sometimes called white carnelian. Its name is from Chalcedon, near Constantinople.

CHALDAE'A, a country anciently situated on both sides of the river Euphrates, and bordering on the Persian Gulf. It had an estimated area of 23,000 square miles, about the same as the modern kingdom of Denmark, or half that of Louisiana in the Mississippi Delta. In later times, and in a more extended sense, it included a territory about 450 miles long by 100 to 130 miles wide. It occupied the southern portion of the great Mesopotamian plain, the most fertile part of that country. It was rendered still more productive by numerous canals, which were used for defence, for commerce, and for navigation. The country was naturally divided into two portions, the larger part lying between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and the smaller portion lying on the southwestern side of the latter river. It was also divided into Northern and Southern Chaldaea, each having four important cities. In later times the "land of the Chaldaeans" was applied to all Babylonia, and to the whole of the empire over which the Chaldaeans ruled.

Physical Features and Products. -The chief features of the country were the rivers, for on all sides it was a dead level, broken now only by solitary mounds, old ruins, marshes, and streams. The summers are hot, the winters rainy, and seldom colder than 30F. Wheat, millet, barley, dates, and fruits of all kinds were abundant. Its fertility and productions were proverbial in ancient times. For sketch-map of Chaldaea, see Assyria.

History. -It is noticed in Scripture as the native country of Abram, Gen 11:31; its people attacked Job, Job 1:17, and it was the term by which the empire of Nebuchadnezzar was sometimes called. Originally it was the district in the south of the "land of Shinar" where Nimrod built four cities. Gen 10:10. Chaldaea soon extended its influence and sway, until in the time of Abraham its conquests reached nearly to the sources of the Euphrates, and westward into Canaan and Syria. Among the four great kingdoms or empires on the Euphrates, 171 secular historians usually place the Chaldaean as the first in order or earliest, lasting for about ten centuries, from b.c. 2300 to about b.c. 1300; the Assyrian empire next, lasting about six and a half centuries, from b.c. 1270 to b.c. 625; the Babylonian empire third in order, continuing from about b.c. 625 to B.C. 538; and the Medo-Persian fourth. Some of these kingdoms in their earlier history no doubt existed contemporaneously for a time. Chaldaea and Assyria were at times independent of each other; hence the order given above applies chiefly to them as empires. The great cities of the Chaldaean empire were Ur, Ellasar, Babylon, Erech, Accad, Calneh, Sepharvaim, Ahava, and Cutha. Its great rulers were Nimrod, Urukh, and Chedorlaomer. The latter marched an army for 1200 miles on a conquering tour to the Dead Sea, and held Canaanitish nations in subjection for 12 years. Gen 10:9; Gen 14:1-4, The Chaldaeans, according to Rawlinson and others, were chiefly of Cushite origin, while their more northern neighbors were Semitic. After the lapse of centuries the former lost their Cushite character, and became a people scarcely distinguishable from the Assyrians. After their subjugation, in b.c. 1300, they held an insignificant place in history for over six centuries, but recovered themselves in b.c. 625, and established a new kingdom, known as the Babylonian empire. For the later history see Babylon, Assyria, and Nineveh.

CHALKS'-STONES. Isa 27:9. A soft mineral substance resembling what we call limestone. To make the stones of the Jewish altars like chalkstones is to crumble and destroy them.

CHAM'BER. Gen 43:30. Usually, the private apartments of a house are called chambers. 2 Sam 18:33; Ps 19:5; Dan 6:10. Particular rooms of this class in Eastern houses were designated by significant terms.

Guest-chamber. Mark 14:14, This we may suppose to have been a spacious unoccupied room, usually in the upper part of the house, and furnished suitably for the reception and entertainment of guests and for social meetings. The proverbial hospitality of the Jews would make such provision necessary, and especially at Jerusalem, in festival seasons, when every house in the city was the stranger's home. Mark 14:15; Luke 22:12; Acts 1:13. See Hospitality.

Inner Chamber. 2 Kgs 9:2. A chamber within another chamber.

Little Chamber. 2 Kgs 4:10. An apartment built upon and projecting from the walls of the main house, and communicating by a private door with the house, and by a private stairway with the street.

Upper Chamber, or Loft, Acts 9:37, occupied the front part of the building, over the gate or outer entrance, and was used to lodge strangers. Comp. Acts 1 Kgs, 17:19 and Heb 12:23 with 2 Kgs 4:10. See Dwellings.

CHAM'BERING. licentiousness, wantonness. Rom 13:13.

CHAM'BERLAIN. 2 Kgs 23:11. An officer who has charge of the royal chambers, or the king's lodgings, wardrobes, etc. In Eastern courts eunuchs were commonly employed for this service. Esth 1:10, Jud 4:12, 2 Sam 20:15. The word occurs twice in A.V. of N.T., but entirely different offices are meant in the Greek. Blastus, "the king's chamberlain," mentioned in Acts 12:20, "held a post of honor which involved great intimacy and influence with the king." Erastus, "the chamberlain of the city of Corinth," who sent salutations to the Roman Christians, Rom 16:23, was probably the treasurer of the city.

CHAME'LEON. Lev 11:30. A species of lizard of very singular anatomy, appearance, and habits. "It remains exclusively on trees (and bushes), often suspended by its tail to the extremity of a branch, whence it darts forth its long tongue, covered with a viscous fluid, to entrap passing insects. Each foot is a grasping hand, by which it clings with great force to a branch, but it is almost helpless on the ground. The chief peculiarity of this lizard is the enormous size of the lungs (whence arose the fable that it lived on air), and these, when filled, render the animal semi-transparent. It has the faculty of changing color more developed than in any other lizard, and this change is influenced, not by the bodies on which it happens to rest, but by the wants and passions of the animal. The structure of the eyes is very wonderful. They are so prominent that one-half of the ball 172 projects out of the head, and not only can they be moved in any direction, but each has an independent action:one eye may be looking forward, while with the other the animal examines an

Chameleon. (After Tristram.)

object behind it. The chameleon is very common in Egypt and the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan valley." - Tristram.

CHAM'OIS (pronounced sham'my). Deut 14:5. The true chamois is believed never to have lived in Arabia or Palestine. It is now thought that this animal of the Bible was a species of wild sheep (Ovis tragelephus) formerly abundant among the mountains of Sinai, but now apparently confined to Africa.

CHA'NAAN, Greek form of Canaan. Acts 7:1. See Canaan.

CHAN'CELLOR . The word occurs in Ezr 4:8, 2 Sam 21:17 as the translation, of the Hebrew lord of counsel - i.e. counsellor, royal prefect - the office held by Rehum, who was the Persian governor in Samaria at the time.

CHANGEABLE SUITS OF AP'PAREL . See Clothes.

CHANGERS OF MONEY, or MONEY-CHANGERS. Matt 21:12; John 2:14. When Judaea became a province of Rome the Jews were required to pay taxes in Roman currency, while the annual tribute for the service of the sanctuary was the half-shekel of Jewish currency. To exchange the one for the other was the business of the money-changers, like the business of modern brokers. They stationed themselves in the courts of the temple, the place of general resort for strangers from every part of the land, and their oppressive and fraudulent practices probably justified the allusion of our Saviour to a den of thieves.

CHANGES OF RAIMENT . See Clothes.

CHANT . See Viol.

CHAP'EL . The word occurs. Am 7:13, as a mistranslation for SANCTUARY, a place of worship. Bethel is called the king's sanctuary by one of the idol-priests, because there the king of Israel paid idolatrous worship to the golden calves. See Bethel.

CHAP'ITERS (French chapitre), Ex 36:38, or CAPITALS (as they are called in modern architecture), are the upper or ornamental part of a column.

CHAP'MAN (from the same root as cheap, chop), merchant. 2 Chr 9:14. In the corresponding passage, 1 Kgs 10:15, spice-merchants.

CHA'RAN. See Haran.

CHAR'ASHIM, VALLEY OF (ravine of craftsmen), near by Lydda. 1 Chr 4:14; now Hirsha.

CHAR'CHEMISH. 2 Chr 35:20. See Carchemish.

CHAR'GER (old English, from the French charger), that on which a thing is laid, a dish. Num 7:13; Ezr 1:9; Matt 14:8, Rev 1:11. A shallow bowl or basin used for receiving the blood at the preparation of the sacrifices. The charger in which Herod's daughter brought the head of John Baptist was probably a trencher or platter.

CHAR'IOT . Chariots were not exclusively used for warlike purposes. In the Bible, instances of a peaceful use occur, as in the account of Joseph's exaltation, Gen 41:43, and meeting with his father, Gen 46:29; Ahab's fleeing before the coming storm at the command of Elijah, 1 Kgs 18:44; Naaman's coming to Elisha, 2 Kgs 5:9; and the Ethiopian eunuch's journey homeward. Acts 8:28. But the commoner use was for war. They are first mentioned in the Bible in connection with Joseph in Egypt. Later on they formed part of Pharaoh's pursuing army at the Exodus. 173 And they were part of the offensive weapons among all nations which figure in Bible history. The use of war-chariots was introduced by David. 2 Sam 8:4. This change was obedient to the altered condition of the people, from a democracy, which relies upon volunteers for its defence, to a monarchy, which employs a regular army. Solomon had 1400 chariots, and cities fortified for their safe-keeping. 1 Kgs 10:26; 1 Chr 9:19. After his day they formed a regular branch of the military service, and are frequently mentioned. 1 Kgs 22:34; 2 Kgs 9:16,2 Chr 11:21; 2 Kgs 13:7, 2 Kgs 22:14; 2 Kgs 18:24; 2 Kgs 23:30; Isa 31:1. The texts just

Egyptian Chariot. (After Wilkinson.)

quoted also prove that Egypt was the source whence both the chariot-horses and the chariots themselves were principally drawn. A description of an Egyptian chariot will therefore be a description of a Jewish one. The Egyptian chariot was an "almost semicircular wooden frame with straightened sides, resting posteriorly on the axle of a pair of wheels, a rail of wood or ivory being attached to the frame by leathern thongs, and a wooden upright in front. The back of the car was open, and the sides were strengthened and embellished with leather and metal binding; the floor was of rope net-work, to give a springy footing to the occupants. On the off-side were the bowcase, sometimes the quiver, and spearcase, crossing diagonally; the last named inclined backward. If two warriors were in the chariot, there was a second bow-case. The wheels had usually six spokes, fastened to the axle by a linchpin, secured by a thong. The horses had a breast-band and girths attached to the saddle, but were without traces. They wore head-furniture, often ornamented, with a bearing-rein. The driving-reins passed through rings on each side of both horses. Two persons generally were in a chariot, but there was sometimes a third, holding the umbrella of state." - Wilkinson: Anc. Egypt., 1879, vol. i. pp.222-241: vol.ii. pp. 201-203. The Assyrian warchariots were nearly similar. Sometimes a third horse was attached, but in later times this was laid aside; the chariot was made higher, and the quiver placed in front instead of on the side. - Layard: Nineveh, vol. ii. pp. 348-354; Ayre: Treas. of Bib. Knowledge.

Chariots armed with scythes were used in later times. Warriors sometimes fought standing up in them, or else used them to carry them into the battle, and leaping from them fought on foot.

The word "chariot" is sometimes used figuratively; e.g. in Ps 68:17 it means the angelic host. Elisha called Elijah "the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof." 2 Kgs 2:12. The imagery was borrowed from the phenomena of the miraculous ascent. The phrase means that Elijah, by his prayers and his counsels, was the true defence of Israel, and better than either chariots or horsemen.

Captains of Chariots. The phrase occurs in Ex 14:7; Ex 15:4; 1 Kgs 22:33. 174 In the first two passages it means "commanders of the highest rank, chosen specially to attend on the person of Pharaoh; probably commanders of the 2000 Calasirians, who, alternately with the Hermotybians, formed his body-guard. They may have been, for the most part, known to Moses." -Bible (Speaker's) Commentary, in loco.

Chariots of the Sun. It was a Persian practice to dedicate a chariot and horses to the sun. These chariots were white, and drawn probably by white horses in sacred processions. This idolatrous practice found favor in Judah, for it is recorded, to the honor of Josiah and as a proof of his zeal, that he took away the horses which previous kings had given to the sun, and burned the chariots of the sun with fire. 2 Kgs 23:11.

CHAR'ITY (from Lat. caritas, Fr. charite). In 1 Cor 13:1 and parallel passages the Saxon word love (to God as well as to man) would better express the sentiment intended. See Love. Charity, in the popular acceptation of the word, is confined to love to suffering men, or almsgiving. See Alms.

CHARM, CHARMER . See Adder, Asp, Divination.

CHAR'RAN . Acts 7:2, Ex 6:4. The Greek form of Haran, which see.

CHAT'TER . See Crane, Swallow.

CHE'BAR, a river in Chaldaea, Eze 1:1, Num 1:3; Eze 3:15, etc.; probably the same as Habor, and perhaps the royal canal which connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, 30 miles above Babylon.

CHE'BEL (cord),a Hebrew topographical term, Josh 2:15; 1 Sam 10:5; Ps 16:6; usually applied to the Argob. Deut 3:4, Deut 3:13-14; 1 Kgs 4:13. See under Bashan.

CHEDORLA'OMER (handful of sheaves), the king of Elam, and one of the four allied kings who subjected the kings of the five cities of the plain. These remained in the service of Chedorlaomer for twelve years, but in the thirteenth rebelled. Chedorlaomer summoned the allies, met the five kings, completely routed them, carried off much spoil, part of which belonged to Lot, whom they likewise captured. Abram started in pursuit with his own servants, defeated them, was able to recover all the spoil and his nephew Lot. In the battle Chedorlaomer appears to have perished. The narrative is given in Gen 14.

CHEEK . To be struck upon the cheek was, among the Hebrews, to be grossly insulted. In proof see 1 Kgs 22:24; Job 16:10; Matt 5:39.

CHEESE was a common article of food among the Hebrews. The word occurs but three times in the Bible, and in each case the original word is different. 1 Sam 17:18; 2 Sam 17:29; Job 10:10. It is difficult to decide how far these terms correspond with our notion of cheese. In the original the first word means "a cutting," "ten sections of curds," soft cheese; the root of the second word means "to scrape," implying that the cheese was grated; while the third word means "curdled milk." The modern Bedouins use a kind of coagulated butter-milk, which is ground when dried hard, and eaten mixed with butter.

CHE'LAL (perfection), one who had a strange wife. Ezr 10:30.

CHEL'LUH (completed), one who had a strange wife. Ezr 10:35.

CHE'LUB (fruit-basket, or birdcage).

  1. One of Judah's posterity. 1 Chr 4:11.

  2. The father of one of David's officers. 1 Chr 27:26.

CHELU'BAI (capable), Hezron's son; same with Caleb. 1 Chr 2:9, 1 Sam 30:18, 1 Chr 2:42.

CHEM'ARIMS (those who go about in black ;i.e. ascetics), priests of false gods. Zeph 1:4; 2 Kgs 23:5, margin; Hos 10:5, margin.

CHE'MOSH (subduer), the national deity of the Moabites, who were his people, as the Israelites are the people of Jehovah. Num 21:29; Jer 48:7, 1 Chr 2:46; called "the abomination of Moab." 1 Kgs 11:7. Solomon introduced, 1 Kgs 11:7, and Josiah suppressed, 2 Kgs 23:13, his worship in Jerusalem. Upon the recently discovered Moabite Stone, King Mesha, 2 Kgs 3:4, attributes to his god Chemosh his victories. See DIBON. The same traits of cruelty and lust prove him to have been identical with Molech, the god of the Ammonites. Jud 11:24. It was to Chemosh that Mesha offered his son. 2 Kgs 3:27; 175 The god is also identified with Baal-Peor, Saturn, or Mars.

CHENA'ANAH (merchant)

  1. The father of the false prophet Zedekiah. 1 Kgs 22:11, Jud 6:24; 2 Chr 18:10, Heb 12:23.

  2. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 7:10; perhaps same as the preceding.

CHEN'ANI (contracted from next name), a Levite who took part in the purification of the people under Ezra. Neh 9:4.

CHENANV AH (whom Jehovah hath made), a Levite chief in David's reign. 1 Chr 15:22, Gen 1:27; 1 Chr 26:29.

CHE'PHAR-HAAM'MONAI (village of Ammonites), a village of Benjamin. Josh 18:24.

CHEPHI'RAH (village), one of four towns of the Gibeonites, belonging to Benjamin, Josh 9:17; Josh 18:26 ; Ezr 2:25; probably now Kefir, 8 miles west of Gibeon. Conder gives it as Kejireh.

CHE'RAN (lyre), a Horite chief's son. Gen 36:26; 1 Chr 1:41.

CHER'ETHIMS, identical with Cherethites.

CHER'ETHITES and PEL'ETHITES (executioners and couriers) formed the body-guard of King David. 2 Sam 8:18; 2 Sam 5:18; 2 Sam 20:7. It is probable they were mercenaries, originally Philistines, for Cherethite is connected with Pelethite, which was, it is likely, only another form of the word Philistine.

CHE'RITH (gorge), THE BROOK, a brook or torrent "before Jordan" where the prophet Elijah was hid. 1 Kgs 17:5. Its location is much disputed. Robinson and several others identify it with Wady Kelt, a swift, brawling stream, 20 yards wide and feet deep, running into the Jordan from the west, a little south of Jericho. Some identify it with Wady Fusail, a little farther north, and yet others think it was some stream on the other, or eastern, side of the Jordan.

CHER'UB. Ezr 2:59; Neh 7:61. A place in Babylonia; perhaps Cheripha of Ptolemy.

CHERUB, CHER'UBIM. Many derivations have been proposed. The best are from roots signifying either "strong" or "to plough;" hence, terrible. The cherubim were not angels, since altogether different occupations are given to them in the Bible. Thus angels are sent out upon messages, but the cherubim always are in the presence of God. They are winged, and are in appearance like combinations of parts of different animals. The word first occurs in Gen 3:24, and is applied to the guard which was placed over Eden after the expulsion of fallen man.

"It is remarkable that while there are precise directions as to their position, attitude, and material, Ex 26:18, etc., and descriptions, 2 Chr 3:10-13, nothing is said about their shape, except that they were winged. On the whole, it seems likely that the word 'cherub' meant not only the composite creature

Egyptian Winged Figures.

form, of which the man, lion, ox, and eagle were the elements, but, further, some peculiar and mystical form." -Smith:Dictionary of the Bible.

According to the primitive conception, the cherubim were the bearers of God when he appeared in his glory upon the earth, Ps 18:10; so, in Ezekiel's vision, they carry the throne of God. Eze 11:22; cf. Eze 1:19; Neh 10:16 ff. They are the "wings of the wind," by which God in the thunder-cloud is borne to the world. Isa 19:1; Ps 104:3. Hence they are the witnesses of his presence: wherever they are, God is. How appropriately, therefore, were representations of them placed in the tabernacle and temple! In the former, two golden cherubim stood in the holy of holies, upon the mercy-seat. Ex 37:8. They were likewise pictured upon the curtains. Ex 26:1, 1 Chr 24:31; Ex 36:8, Ex 28:35. In Solomon's temple two colossal figures of the cherubim, overlaid with gold, stood upon the floor 176 and overshadowed the ark, which was between them, in the holy of holies. 1 Kgs 6:27. They were also carved upon the doors, upon all the "walls of the house," and put between representations of palm trees. 1 Kgs 6:29, Jud 1:32, Ex 28:35; 2 Chr 3:7. Indeed, in all parts did they constitute, with lions, oxen, and palm trees, the ornamentation of the temple. 1 Kgs 7:29, Eze 23:36. The cherubim, therefore, testified that God was in the midst of his people.

A second idea which they represent is that they were the watchers of the places where God is. They cover his glory from vulgar gaze; they stand in the service of the invisible and the unapproachable God. Comp. Ex 19:9, Ex 17:16; Gen 24:15.

Similar winged creatures are met with in great variety in the legends and symbols of other peoples of antiquity, but the originality of the Hebrew cherubim is not to be disputed. Still, the forms which they assumed may have been in part derived from these nations. Very interesting is the comparison of the Hebrew cherubim with figures in the Egyptian and Assyrian temples.

CHES'ALON (strength), a place on the north-west of Judah, Josh 15:10; probably. Kesla, 8 miles west of Jerusalem.

CHE'SED (gain), Nahor's son. Gen 22:22.

CHE'SIL (fool, or idolatrous), in the south of Judah, Josh 15:30; probably the same as Bethul and Bethuel; if so, it may be at Beit Aula, 7 miles northwest of Hebron.

CHEST . There are two Hebrew words so translated. The first is applied,

Egyptian Chest or Box.

in 2 Kgs 12:9-10; 2 Chr 24:8, 2 Chr 24:10-11, to the coffer into which the people threw their voluntary contributions for the repair of the temple under Joash. But the original word in every other place except Gen 50:26, where it is applied to Jacob's coffin, means the ark of the covenant. A different word altogether is used for Noah's and Moses's "ark." The second word occurs only in Eze 27:24, and means a treasure-chest where valuables are stored.

CHESTNUT TREE. Gen 30:37. Doubtless the translation here should be "plane tree" (Platanus orientalis). This tree closely resembles the well known American species which we call sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis). The Oriental tree grows along streams in the north of Palestine, and when long spared attains great size. Eze 31:8.

CHESUL'LOTH (loins, or flank), a town of Issachar; possibly the same as Chisloth-tabor. Josh 19:12, 1 Sam 30:18; now Ikeal, 4 miles west of Tabor.

CHE'ZIB (lying), probably identical with Achzib, 2. Gen 38:5. Conder places it at 'Aia Kezbeh.

CHI'DON. 1 Chr 13:9. Called also the threshing-floor of Nachon, 2 Sam 6:6; it was near Jerusalem.

CHIEF OF A'SIA . Acts 19:31. Certain wealthy persons were appointed annually in the Asiatic provinces of Rome to preside over the religious rites, public games, etc., which they maintained in honor of the gods, and at their own expense. They received their title from the name of the province; as, the chief of Caria was called cariarch, or of Lycia, lyciarch, etc. The title is properly "asiarch," and was borne, it would seem, after the duties of the office had been discharged. This explains the reference in the Acts. These asiarchs, who advised Paul not to expose himself needlessly to the fury of the populace in Ephesus, may well have been friendly to the apostle, without being Christians.

CHIEF PRIEST . See Priest.

CHIL'DREN . The term is used in A.V. where "sons" would better represent the Hebrew or Greek; as, "the children of Abraham," "the children of Israel," "the children of God." It was regarded among the Jews as not only a misfortune, but even a disgrace, if a married woman was barren. The more sons a man had, the more was he 177 esteemed. The inheritance of the father was divided equally among all the sons, except the eldest, who received a double portion. The daughters got nothing unless there was no son, in which case they shared equally the property, and were forbidden to marry out of their father's tribe. Num 27:7-12; Num 35:2, 1 Kgs 15:8. Wills were needless, and therefore unknown. The authority of the parent was very great, and children are commanded to reverence their parents. The law allowed children to be sold into bondage in payment of the parents' debts. Lev 25:39-41. We find allusions to the practical working of this law in 2 Kgs 4:1 and Matt 18:25.

Child-birth in Eastern countries is usually, although not always, comparatively easy. Gen 35:17; Gen 38:27; Ex 1:19; 1 Sam 4:19-20. The newborn Hebrew child was washed, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in swaddling clothes, Luke 2:7; circumcised on the eighth day, when the name was given. Child-birth rendered the woman ceremonially unclean for 40 days in the case of a son, and 80 in the case of a daughter. At the conclusion of the period she offered for her cleansing the sacrifices the Law prescribed. Lev 12. Women nursed their own children in most cases, and did not wean them until the lapse of 30 months, or even 3 years. The weaning was made a festive occasion. This custom was very old. Gen 21:8. Daughters remained under the care of the mother until the period of marriage, but boys passed in their fifth year under the training of the father. See Education.

CHIL'EAB (like to his father?), a son of Abigail by David, 2 Sam 3:3; called Daniel in 1 Chr 3:1.

CHILI'ON (sickly), son of Naomi, and husband of Ruth. Ruth 1:2-5; Ruth 4:9-10.

CHIL'MAD, a place or country, Eze 27:23; perhaps identical with Kalwadha, near Bagdad.

CHIM'HAM . 2 Sam 19:37. It is possible he was a son of Barzillai, but it cannot be certainly inferred from 1 Kgs 2:7, which is sometimes cited to prove it. Some have supposed that David gave Chimham a parcel of land which was afterward known by his name. Jer 41:17.

CHIM'NEY . See Dwellings.

CHIN'NERETH, or CHIN'NEROTH . Josh 11:2. A fenced city of Naphtali, on the lake, or sea, of the same name; afterward called Gennesar, and about 3 miles north-west of Tiberias, according to Furst.

CHIN'NERETH, SEA OF . See Galilee, Sea of.

CHI'OS, an island of the AEgean Sea, 5 miles from the coast of Ionia, in Asia Minor. It is 32 miles long and from 8 to 18 miles wide, and noted for its wines. Paul passed by it. Acts 20:14-15. Its modern name is Scio or Khio.

CHIS'LEU . See Months.

CHIS'LON (confidence), the father of Elidad the Benjamite, who was chosen to represent his tribe in the division of the land. Num 34:21.

CHIS'LOTH-TA'BOR, either a mountain or a place. Josh 19:12. If the former, it is probably identical with Tabor; if the latter, it is perhaps to be found at Iksal, 2 1/2 miles west of Tabor.

CHIT'TIM, or KIT'TIM. Num 24:24; Isa 23:1, Jud 4:12; Jer 2:10; Eze 27:6; Dan 11:30. In these passages the "isles," "ships," "products," and "people" of Chittim are mentioned or alluded to; hence the name has generally been supposed to mean the island of Cyprus, though Kitto thinks it a general term applied to islands and coasts west of Palestine. See Cyprus.

CHI'UN. Am 6:26. An idol which the Israelites made and worshipped in the wilderness. See Remphan.

CHLO'E (green herb), a Christian woman, some of whose family told Paul of the dissensions in the Corinthian church. 1 Cor 1:11.

CHORA'SHAN . 1 Sam 30:30. Probably the same as Ashan (Aseileb).

CHORA'ZIN, a city named with Capernaum and Bethsaida in the woes pronounced by Christ. Matt 11:20-23; Luke 10:13. The identification of Chorazin depends largely, though not wholly, upon that of Capernaum. Robinson places it at Tell Hum, but others, with greater probability, fix its site at Kerdzeh, 2 1/2 miles west of Tell Hum, and west of the valley of the Jordan. The ruins cover a large area, and consist of a synagogue, the ornaments being 178 cut in black basalt rock, walls of dwellings, columns which supported the roofs and doorways, some of them in a tolerably perfect condition, and a paved roadway leading to the great caravan-route to Damascus. See Capernaum.

CHOZE'BA . 1 Chr 4:22. It has generally been regarded as identical with Chezib and Achzib, but Conder places Chozeba at a ruin of importance in Wady Arnib, or valley of Berachoth, and called Kueiztbah, a name which is almost the exact equivalent for the Hebrew Chozeba.

CHRIST, JE'SUS . Matt 1:1. Christ is the official, Jesus the personal, name of our Lord. It is from the Greek word Christos, which signifies "anointed," corresponding to the word Messiah in the Hebrew. He is called the Anointed in allusion to the custom of anointing with oil such as were set apart to a sacred or regal office, because by the Spirit he was anointed to the threefold office of prophet, priest, and king.

The word "Jesus" is derived from a Hebrew word signifying "to save," or "sent to save." Matt 1:21; Luke 2:11,2 Chr 11:21. The word "Joshua" has the same meaning, and is a very common name among the Hebrews, and should have been used in Acts 7:45 and Heb 4:8 instead of "Jesus."

Jesus the Christ is a descriptive phrase, like John the Baptist. Matt 26:63; Mark 8:29; Mark 14:61; John 1:20, Gal 4:25, 1 Chr 4:41; John 6:69; John 7:41; John 10:24; John 11:27; John 20:31. The word "Jesus" is almost always used alone in the Gospels, while, in the Acts and Epistles, "Jesus Christ " or "Lord Jesus Christ" is the prevailing expression.

The first promise of the Messiah was given in Gen 3:16. The Son of God and all true believers are "the seed of the woman." Comp. Acts 13:23; Gal 4:4, and Heb 2:16 with John 17:21,Heb 12:23. The devil and all his servants represent the serpent and his seed. John 8:44; 1 John 3:8. The temptations, sufferings, and ignominious death of Christ, and the fierce opposition and persecution which his followers have endured, are significantly described by the bruising of the heel; while the complete victory which our Redeemer has himself achieved over sin and death, and which his grace enables the believer also to obtain, and the still more perfect and universal triumph which he will finally accomplish, are all strikingly illustrated by the bruising or crushing of the serpent's head.

The books of heathen mythology furnish curious allusions to this passage of the Bible. In one of them Thor is represented as the eldest son of Odin, a middle divinity, a mediator between God and man, who bruised the head of the serpent and slew him. And in one of the oldest pagodas of India are found two sculptured figures, representing two incarnations of one of their supreme divinities, the first to be bitten by a serpent and the second to crush him.

The promise thus given when man fell was supplemented by so many particulars in the course of the centuries that the coming Messiah was the great hope of Israel. In type and symbol, in poetry and prose, in prophecy and history, the Jews had set before them in increasing prominence and clearness the character and life and death of the promised Messiah, and yet, as a nation, they grossly misapprehended his character and the purpose of his mission. They were accustomed to regard his coming as the grand era in the annals of the world, for they spoke of the two great ages of history, the one as preceding and the other as following this wonderful event; but they perverted the spiritual character of the Messiah and his kingdom into that of a temporal deliverer and ruler.

We find that about the time of the Messiah's appearance Simeon, Anna, and others of like faith, were eagerly expecting the promised salvation. Luke 2:25-38.

At the appointed time the Redeemer of the world appeared. He was born in the year of the city of Rome 749 -i.e. 4 years before the beginning of our era- at Bethlehem, in Judea, of the Virgin Mary, who was espoused to Joseph; and through them he derived his descent from David, according to prophecy. Ps 89:3-4 and Ps 110:1. Comp. Acts 2:25, Eze 23:36; Isa 11:1-10; Jer 23:5-6; Eze 34:23-24; Eze 37:24-25; John 7:42. The story of Christ's life is told with so much simplicity, completeness, and 179 sweetness in the Gospels, and is at the same time so familiar to every Bible-reader, that it is not necessary here to repeat it. In one sentence, Jesus Christ was the incarnate God, whose coming was the fulfillment of prophecy; whose life was the exemplification of absolute sinlessness; whose death was the result of man's malice, and yet the execution of God's design and the atonement for the sins of the world; whose resurrection was the crowning proof of his divinity; whose ascension was a return to his abode, where he ever liveth to make intercession for us. To prove his character we have the unanimous testimony of eighteen centuries. "The person of Christ is the miracle of history."

We claim for him perfect humanity and perfect divinity. He was not only the Son of man, but the Son of God in one undivided person. The term "Son of man," which Christ applies to himself about eighty times in the Gospels, places him on a common level with other men as partaking of their nature and constitution, and at the same time above all other men as the absolute and perfect Man, the representative Head of the race, the second Adam. Comp, Rom 5:12 ff.; 1 Cor 15:27; Heb 1:8. While other great men are limited by national prejudice, Christ is the King of men, who draws all to him; he is the universal, absolute Man, elevated above the limitations of race and nationality. And yet he is most intensely human. The joys and sorrows of our common life are met by his deep and tender sympathy. All love him who know him. His foes are the cruel, the licentious, and the malicious. The records of the evangelists are not elaborate, artistic pages with many erasures, as if the writers had toiled after consistency. They are simple, straight-forward, guileless testimonies; and yet the impression they leave upon the attentive reader is that in Jesus Christ the plant of Humanity bore its rarest flower, the tree of Life its most precious fruit. It will be granted that the question of the justice of this claim turns upon his perfect sinlessness. Some have dared to say that while in the Gospels no sinful acts are recorded, there may have been sins which are unrecorded. But without fear he challenged his foes to convict him of sin. John 8:46. He was the only man who has made any such demand. Christ's sinlessness is confirmed by his own solemn testimony, the whole course of his life, and the very purpose for which he appeared. Self-deception in this case would border on madness, falsehood would overthrow the whole moral foundation of Christ's character. Hypocrites do not maintain themselves under such a strain. But besides being sinless, he was perfectly holy. He did not simply resist sin; he blended and exercised actively all virtues. The grandeur of his character removes him at once from all the sordidness, pettiness, and sinfulness of our every-day life. His memory comes to us with the refreshment of the cooling breeze on a summer's day. We can supplicate his help because we have seen him tried and triumphant, and we know his strength is great. All human goodness loses on closer inspection, but Christ's character grows more pure, sacred, and lovely the better we know him.

But Jesus was likewise the Son of God, and so he is usually called by the apostles. The perfection of his humanity if matched by the perfection of his divinity. His Godhead comes out in many ways. He exercises a supernatural control over Nature. The waves sink at his command, the fig tree withers away, the water turns into wine. By his touch or word, without a prayer or any recognition of superior power, the lepers are cleansed, the blind see, and the lame walk. Higher yet does Christ go; he forgives sins - not with the ostentation of a presuming charlatan, but simply, decidedly, gently. He takes from the sinner his damning load by the same action which brings back health. He likewise intercedes with the Father for men. He claims equality and eternity with God. Twice God proclaims him as his Son. Accompanied by legions of angels, sustained by divine strength, Jesus of Nazareth lives as the express image of the Father, conquers the grave, rises from the dead, and ascends to take his place as God, blessed for ever.

The Church has the daily experience of her Lord, who is present always in the hearts of all true believers. When souls yearn for cheer, when mourners cry out for comfort, when men need 180 counsel, they seek Jesus; and they are supplied from the inexhaustible fount of his humanity. When the sinner feels the burden of his sin pressing heavily and groans for release, when the insolvent debtor falls at the feet of his Lord, crying, "Have mercy!" when the saint is set amid the perplexities of life, when he enters the valley of the shadow of death, when he comes to the brink of the river, -these are times when the perfect divinity of Jesus is proven to the satisfaction of the soul.

"Behold the God-Man!" cries the Church; and this is the exultant exclamation of the soul left to its deepest instincts and noblest aspirations, the soul which was originally made for Christ, and finds in him the solution of all moral problems, the satisfaction of all its wants, the unfailing fountain of everlasting life and peace.

Personal Appearance of Jesus Christ. -None of the evangelists- not even the beloved disciple and bosom-friend of Jesus- has given us the least hint of his countenance and stature. This was wise. We ought to cling to the Christ in the spirit rather than to the Christ in the flesh. Yet there must have been spiritual beauty in his face. He won the hearts of his disciples by a word. We are indeed left to conjecture merely, but we cannot read in the hints of his personal power any necessity for taking Isaiah's description of the suffering Messiah in all its literal baldness. There was nothing repulsive about Jesus. He had not the physiognomy of a sinner; a supernatural purity and dignity must have shone through the veil of his flesh.

The first formal description of his looks dates from the fourth century-is, indeed, unauthentic, probably a monkish fabrication, and yet, because it is curious and has had a great influence upon the pictorial representations of Jesus, we insert it here. It is ascribed to Publius Lentulus, a heathen, supposed contemporary and friend of Pilate, in an apocryphal letter to the Roman Senate: "In this time appeared a man, who lives till now -a man endowed with great powers. Men call him a great prophet; his own disciples term him the Son of God. His name is Jesus Christ. He restores the dead to life and cures the sick of all manner of diseases. This man is of noble and well proportioned stature, with a face full of kindness, and yet firmness, so that beholders both love him and fear him. His hair is the color of wine, and golden at the root, straight and without lustre, but from the level of the ears curling and glossy, and divided down the centre, after the fashion of the Nazarenes, His forehead is even and smooth, his face without blemish, and enhanced by a tempered bloom, his countenance ingenuous and kind. Nose and mouth are in no way faulty. His beard is full, of the same color as his hair, and forked in form; his eyes blue and extremely brilliant. In reproof and rebuke he is formidable; in exhortation and teaching, gentle and amiable of tongue. None have seen him to laugh, but many, on the contrary, to weep. His person is tall, his hands beautiful and straight. In speaking be is deliberate and grave and little given to loquacity; in beauty, surpassing most men."

It may be proper to suggest the leading points and principal references respecting the divinity of our Lord.

I. The names and titles of the supreme Being are applied to him, John 1:1; Rom 9:5; 1 John 5:20; Rev 1:11; comp. Isa 6:1-10 with John 12:41.

II . The principal attributes of God are ascribed to Christ; as, eternity, John 1:1; John 8:58; Rev 23:13; superhuman knowledge, Matt 9:4; John 16:30; John 21:17; omnipotence, Phil 3:21; Col 2:9-10; omnipresence. Matt 18:20; Matt 28:20; John 3:13; and unchangeableness. Heb 13:8.

III . The works and prerogatives of God are ascribed to him, such as the creation of all things, John 1:1,Num 1:3; Col 1:16-17, and their preservation, Heb 1:3; forgiveness of sins, Dan 8:9; comp. with Ps 30; Matt 9:2, 1 Chr 24:6; Col 3:13; power to raise the dead and to judge the world. Matt 25:31-33; John 5:2-29;Rom 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10.

IV . He is the object of religious worship. Phil 2:10-11; Heb 1:6; Rev 5:11-13.

We insert here, as a help in studying the harmony of the four Gospels, the chronological table of the life of Christ, from Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament (New York, 1879), vol. i. p. 18.

181

Outline of the Gospel History.

182

The life of Christ has been of late studied with an eagerness, a keenness, and a wealth of illustration that argue well for the future. The question, "What think ye of Christ?" is asked to-day with peculiar emphasis. This new-born interest in the earthly life of the Founder of the Christian religion will bear fruit in the increased reverence of believers and the increased respect of his foes.

Christs, False. Matt 24:24. Our Lord warned his disciples that false Christs should arise. Not less than 24 different persons of such pretensions have appeared, and the defence of their claims to the Messiahship has cost the Jews a great expense of life and treasure. One of them, Coziba, or Barchocheba, lived early in the second century. He put himself at the head of the Jewish nation as their Messiah; they adhered to him. The Romans made war upon him, and the Jews themselves allow that in their defence of this false Messiah they lost between 500,000 and 600,000 souls! In the twelfth century not less than 8 or 10 impostors appeared under the same name, and were followed by great numbers of the Jews. Most of them were punished for their imposture with death, and usually involved a multitude of their deluded followers in persecution and death. The last that gained any considerable number of converts was Mordecai, a Jew of Germany, who lived in 1682. He fled for his life, and his end is not known.

CHRIS'TIAN. Acts 26:28. This was a name given to the followers of our Saviour, and its proper beautiful meaning is "a follower of Christ." The Christians called themselves first "disciples," "believers," "brethren," "saints." The name "Christian" originated at Antioch. Acts 11:26, about the year 42 or 43, and probably (like the names " Nazarenes " and "Galilgeans ") as a term of reproach or contempt. The word occurs in only three places in the New Testament -viz. in the two passages before cited and in 1 Pet 4:16, where it is implied that the very name was associated with reproach and suffering. Tacitus (b. about a.d. 54), a profane historian, tells us of the low or vulgar people called the followers of Christ, or Christians.

The term Christian is now employed (1) in contradistinction to pagans, Jews, and Mohammedans, and (2) to denote the open professors of religion, in contradistinction from those who are not professors. In some countries it is still a term of bitter reproach, and the assumption of it is attended with persecution, cruelty, and death.

The Christian religion is received at the present day (as it is supposed) by nearly one-third of the inhabitants of the world -i. e. over 400,000,000 among 1,460,000,000. But in point of intelligence, civilization, and influence on the world the Christian nations far surpass all other nations combined. One of the most recent estimates is the following:

Jews......................................7,000,000

Mohammedans................230,000,000

Pagans..............................793,000,000

Roman Catholics..............216,000,000

Protestants.......................130,000,000

Eastern Christians.............84,000,000

.......................................1,460,000,000

CHRON'ICLES . In its general signification, this term denotes a chronological history, or an account of facts and events in the order of time. The thirteenth and fourteenth books of the Old Testament, which among the ancient Jews formed only one book, are called the First and Second Book of Chronicles, and are in some sense supplemental to the two books of Kings, which precede them, with this difference -that the Chronicles are written from the sacerdotal point of view and present chiefly the fortunes of Jewish worship, while, the Kings are written from the prophetic view of the history of the theocracy. They appear to have been compiled from the national diaries or journals, and the constant Jewish tradition, which internal evidence supports, is that they were written by Ezra. These voluminous diaries are referred to frequently under different names, 1 Kgs 14:19; 1 Chr 27:24; Esth 2:23, but are not to be confounded with the abstract which constitutes the books to which this article refers.

The principal object of the author of these books was to point out, from the public records, the state of the different families before the Captivity and the 183 distribution of the lands among them, that each tribe might, as far as possible, obtain the ancient inheritance of its fathers at its return. So that this portion of the Old Testament may be considered as an epitome of all the sacred history, but more especially of that from the origin of the Jewish nation to their return from the first captivity, embracing a period of nearly 3500 years. The first book traces the rise and propagation of the children of Israel from Adam, together with a circumstantial account of the reign and transactions of David; the second continues the narrative, and relates the progress and dissolution of the kingdom of Judaea (apart from Israel) to the year of the return of the people from Babylon. Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles should be read and compared together, as they relate substantially the same histories, though with different degrees of particularity and with different means of information, so that the whole contains but one history; and what is obscure or defective in one part may be explained or supplied in another.

CHRONOLOGY. We present here a condensation of the article of R. S. Poole on this subject in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible.

We must seek a via media between putting absolute reliance upon the biblical chronological data and declaring them altogether vague and uncertain. The truth is, the Bible does not give a complete history of the times to which it refers; in its historical portions it deals with special and detached periods. This accounts for its scantiness and occasional want of continuity. Hence there is great value in independent evidence in the N.T. and in incidental evidence in the O.T.

Scientific observation of the natural changes of the weather and the seasons was probably unknown to the Jews until the Captivity. But still these changes must have been noted, and from these observations we are safe in deducing their divisions of time. An hour was the smallest division the Jews recognized. The "sun-dial of Ahaz" -whatever instrument, fixed or movable, it may have been- implies a division of the kind. The civil day was reckoned from sunset, the natural day from sunrise. The night was divided into three watches, though the first must be inferred. The "middle watch" occurs in Jud 7:19; the "morning watch" is mentioned in Ex 14:24 and 1 Sam 11:11. In the N.T. four watches are mentioned -the Roman system; all four are mentioned together in Mark 13:35 -the late watch, midnight, the cock-crowing, and the early watch. The Hebrew week was a period of seven days, ending with the Sabbath, which word indeed is often used for "week." As the Egyptians divided their month of 30 days into decades, the Hebrews could not have borrowed their week from them; probably both it and the Sabbath were used and observed by the patriarchs. The month was lunar. The first day of it is called the "new moon," and was observed as a sacred festival. In the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth we find but one month, the first, the month Abib, mentioned with a special name, the rest being called according to their order. In 1 Kgs. three other names appear -Zif, the second, Ethanim, the seventh, and Bui, the eighth. No other names are found in any book prior to the Captivity. The year was made up of 12 lunar months, beginning with the first part of our April. The method of intercalation can only have been that which obtained after the Captivity -the addition of a thirteenth month whenever the twelfth ended too long before the equinox for the first-fruits of the barley-harvest to be offered in the middle of the month following, and the similar offerings at the time appointed. The later Jews had two beginnings to the year, the seventh month of the civil reckoning being Abib, the first of the sacred. The sabbatical and jubilee years began in the seventh month. Agricultural considerations probably led to this anomaly. The seasons do not appear to have been fixed among the ancient Hebrews. We find mention of the merely natural divisions of "summer and winter," "seed-time and harvest." Anciently, their festivals and holy-days were noticeably few; for besides the Sabbaths and new moons, there were but four great festivals and one fast -the feasts of the Passover, of weeks, trumpets, tabernacles, and the fast on the 184 day of atonement. But after the Captivity many holy days were added, such as the feast of Purim, of the dedication -recording the cleansing and rededication of the temple by Judas Maccabseus- and fasts on the anniversaries of great national misfortunes connected with the Babylonish captivity. The sabbatical year was a year of rest. It commenced at the civil beginning of the year, with the seventh month, at the feast of tabernacles. Deut 31:10. The jubilee year began on the day of atonement, after the lapse of seven sabbatical periods, or 49 years. It was similar to the sabbatical year in its character, although doubtless yet more important. Eras seem to have been used by the ancient Hebrews, but our information is scanty. The Exodus is used as an era in 1 Kgs 6:1, in giving the date of Solomon's temple. The era of Jehoiachin's captivity is constantly used by Ezekiel. The earliest date is the fifth year, Ezekiel 1:2, and the latest the twenty seventh Ezekiel 29:17. The era of the Seleucidae is used in the First and Second Maccabees, and the liberation of the Jews from the Syrian yoke, in the first year of Simon the Maccabee, is stated to have been commemorated by an era used in contracts and agreements. 1 Macc 13:41-42. Regnal years seem to have been counted from the beginning of the year, not from the day of the king's accession.

We may distinguish different periods in Jewish history, although we are not able with accuracy to assign them dates. 1. From Adam to Abram's departure from Haran. This period is the most indefinite of all. We have indeed two genealogical lists -from Adam to Noah and his sons, Gen 5:3-32, and again from Shem to Abram. Gen 11:10-26. But the Masoretic Hebrew text, the Septuagint, and the Samaritan Pentateuch greatly differ. The Septuagint makes this period 1000 years longer than the Hebrew. The question to which list the preference should be given is still unsettled. 2. The second period is from Abram's departure from Haran to the Exodus. The length of this period is stated by Paul in Gal 3:17 to be 430 years, and there is no difficulty in the way of accepting his figures which cannot be solved. 3. The third period is from the Exodus to the foundation of Solomon's temple. We may consider this period about 638 years, but others reduce it to one-half. 4. The fourth period is from the foundation of Solomon's temple to its destruction. We come now upon tolerably sure ground; from b.c. 1000 on we have contemporary evidence. Two interregnums have been supposed -one of 11 years, between Jeroboam II and Zachariah, and the other of 9 years, between Pekah and Hoshea. We prefer, in both cases, to suppose a longer reign of the earlier of the two kings between whom the interregnums are conjectured. The whole period may be held to be of about 425 years; that of the undivided kingdom, 120 years; that of the kingdom of Judah, about 388 years; and that of the kingdom of Israel, about 255 years. 5. The fifth period is from the destruction of Solomon's temple to the return from the Babylonish captivity. The difficulty in calculating this period springs from the prophesied number -the 70 years. Two numbers, held by some to be identical, must here be considered. One is the period of 70 years, during which the tyranny of Babylon over Palestine and the East generally was to last, Jer 25; and the other the 70 years of the Babylonish captivity. The commencement of the first is the first year of Nebuchadnezzar and the fourth of Jehoiakim, Jer 25:1, when the successes of the king of Babylon began, Jer 46:2, and the conclusion is the fall of Babylon. The famous 70 years of captivity would seem to be the same period, since it was to terminate with the return of the captives, Jer 29:10; and the order for this was published by Cyrus, who took Babylon, in the first year of his reign.

Principal Systems of Biblical Chronology. -There are three, long, short, and Rabbinical. The long chronology takes the Septuagint for the patriarchal generations, and adopts the long interval from the Exodus to the foundation of Solomon's temple. The short chronology -that in the margin of the A.V., and derived from Archbishop Ussher (1580-1656)- takes the Hebrew for the patriarchal generations, and makes the second period to be 480 years. The Rabbinical chronology accepts the biblical 185 numbers, but makes the most arbitrary corrections. We subjoin a table in which the results of some of the more important of the various chronological schools are contrasted:

CHRYS'OLITE . Rev 21:20. The word means "golden stone," and we thus learn its color. It is quite agreed that it was the yellow topaz or the beryl of the O.T.

CHRYSOP'RASUS. Rev 21:20. A stone of a "golden leek" or green color, as its name imports. It is of a most agreeable hue, opaque, and extremely hard.

CHUB, a people, probably in north Africa, and of a land near Egypt. Eze 30:5.

CHUN. 1 Chr 18:8. Same as Berothai. 2 Sam 8:8.

CHURCH . The English word (like the similar terms in the Teutonic, Celtic, and Slavonic languages) is derived from a Greek word (?KvpiaKov?) meaning "belonging to the Lord" (Christ), "the Lord's house." Some derive it from a Celtic root meaning "round," because the temples in which the first Christian congregations gathered were circular. In the N.T. the original word is ecclesia, which means an assembly, either secular, Acts 19:32, or religious. Acts 2:47, etc. It is applied either to the whole body of believers in Christ, the Church universal. Matt 16:18 Eph 1:22, or to a particular congregation in a local sense, as "the church at Jerusalem," Acts 15:4; "at Antioch," Acts 13:1, "of the Thessalonians," 2 Thess 1:1, "at Corinth," 1 Cor 1:2. The original word is used only twice in the Gospels, each time by Matthew 1 Cor 16:18, where it means the Church universal, and Josh 18:17, where it means a local congregation. The evangelists usually employ the term "the kingdom of God" or "the kingdom of heaven" for the spiritual substance of the Church universal.

The day of Pentecost is the birthday of the Christian Church. From small beginnings it has spread over all the earth and been the one permanent fact amid all temporal changes. To-day it is the foundation of true civilization, virtue, and religion. What the Christian Church condemns the world must eventually give up, for darkness cannot abide the entrance of light.

A distinction must be made between the real Church of Christ, the genuine believers, and the outward organization, which comprises both true and false friends of Christ. To the former only do the promises belong.

In the outward sense the Church is divided into various denominations, as the Baptist, the Congregational, the English, the Episcopal, the Greek, the Lutheran, the Methodist, the Moravian, the Presbyterian, the Reformed, the Roman, and other churches. But in the Bible the word is never used in a denominational or confessional sense, or in the sense of a church-building.

CHURCHES, ROBBERS OF, is the translation in Acts 19:37, instead of "robbers of temples" or "sacrilegious" persons.

CHURN . See Butter.

CHU'SHAN-RISHATHA'IM. Jud 3:8-10. A king of Mesopotamia, and an oppressor of the Israelites. Othniel, Caleb's nephew, delivered them from his dominion.

CHU'ZA (a seer ?), the steward of Herod Antipas. His wife, Joanna, was one of the women who ministered to 186 Jesus in life and in death. Luke 8:3; 24:10.

CILI'CIA, the south-easterly province of Asia Minor, having Cappadocia on the north, Syria on the east, the Mediterranean Sea on the south, and Pamphjiia and Pisidia (?) on the west. Eastern Cilicia was a rich plain; western Cilicia was rough and mountainous, lying on the Taurus range. Its capital was Tarsus, and many of its people were Jews. It is frequently mentioned in the book of Acts 6:9; Acts 15:23, 1 Chr 4:41; Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3; Acts 23:34; Acts 27:5; and Gal 1:21. See Tarsus.

CIN'NAMON. Song of Solomon 4:14. A well-known aromatic, produced from the

Cinnamon. (C. zeylanecum. After Dr. Birdwood)

inner bark of a tree which grows chiefly in Ceylon, and being peeled off and cut into strips curls up in the form in which it is usually seen. The cinnamon tree belongs to the laurel family, and attains the height of 30 feet. Cinnamon was one of the ingredients of the holy oil, Ex 30:23, and was probably an article of commerce in ancient Babylon. Rev 18:13.

CIN'NEROTH . 1 Kgs 15:20. Same as Chinnereth.

CIRCUMCIS'ION (cutting round), a rite or ceremony of the Jewish religion, which consisted in cutting oflf the foreskin of all males on the eighth day after their birth. It was established as the token of God's covenant with Abraham, Gen 17:9-14, who immediately subjected himself and all his family to its observance. The precept of circumcision was renewed to Moses, Ex 12:44; Lev 12:3; John 7:22-23, requiring that all should submit to it who would partake of the paschal sacrifice. The Jews have always been very scrupulous in its observance, though it was omitted in their journey through the wilderness for some reason. Many other nations have the rite. It existed among the Egyptians, the Ethiopians, the Mexicans, and the West Indians, and to-day among the Caffres of South Africa, the Abyssinians, the islanders of the Pacific Ocean, and the South American tribes. It is the chief ceremony of initiation into the religion of Mohammed, though it is regarded only as a traditionary precept, and is not performed till the child is 13 years old. The instrument used for this purpose was a knife, a razor, or even a sharp stone. Ex 4:25; Josh 5:3.

The design of this requirement obviously was to fix upon the persons of all the natural male descendants of Abraham a distinguishing mark, separating them from all the rest of the world. As this rite was peculiar to the Jews, they are called "the circumcision," and the Gentiles "the uncircumcision." Rom 4:9 . The terms "uncircumcised" and "uncircumcision" are also used to denote impurity or wickedness generally, and "to circumcise the heart" was to become tractable and docile. Ex 6:12, 1 Kgs 20:30; Jer 4:4; Jer 6:10; Jer 9:26; Eze 44:7; Acts 7:51. Jews who renounced Judaism sometimes endeavored to erase the mark of circumcision by a surgical operation, and probably Paul alludes to this. 1 Cor 7:18. See Covenant, Concision.

CIS'TERN . The face of the country and the rarity of rain between May and September made cisterns indispensable in Judgea. They were mostly private property. Num 21:22. Some were formed by merely excavating the earth; others were covered reservoirs, into 187 which the water was conducted; and others still were lined with wood or cement, or hewn out of the rock with great labor and ornamented with much skill. When the pits were empty there was a tenacious mire at the bottom, and they were used as the places of the most cruel punishments. It was into such a pit, probably, that Joseph and Jeremiah were cast. Gen 37:22; Jer 38:6. Large cisterns are now found in Palestine at intervals of 15 or 20 miles. One of them is described by a modern traveller to be 660 feet long by 270 broad. These cisterns were the chief dependence of the people for water; hence the force of the allusion. Jer 2:13. The city of Jerusalem was remarkably well supplied with water, so that during her many sieges her inhabitants never suffered from thirst. See Conduit.

Various illustrations from the cistern are given in Scripture. A wheel was used to draw up the bucket, and "the wheel broken at the cistern," in Eccl 12:6, denotes the breaking up of the vital powers of the human body. An exhortation to due restraint in pleasure is indicated by "Drink waters out of thine own cistern." Prov 5:15.

CIT'IZENSHIP . The Jew had no earthly citizenship in the Roman sense; his commonwealth was a congregation of believers, governed by the Lord himself. But Roman citizenship is referred to in the N.T. This was the term for the privileges enjoyed by certain subjects of the Roman empire. The right was obtained by inheritance or by purchase, Acts 22:28, or by military service, by favor, or by manumission. Among the privileges of this position was, the possessor could not be imprisoned without trial. Acts 22:29, still less be scourged, Acts 16:37, or crucified. Since to inflict either of these was a great indignity and severely punished, the assertion that one was a Roman citizen was a deterrent. But Jews who escaped on this account were still liable to their own law. 2 Cor 11:24. The right of appeal unto Caesar was one of the privileges of Roman citizenship. Acts 25:11. Paul was a Roman citizen, and repeatedly availed himself of his privileges against the violence of the mob. The words "I am a Roman citizen" had a magic power all over the civilized world, and even among barbarians.

CIT'Y . It is not very easy to determine by what the Jews distinguished villages from towns, and towns from cities. Probably, at first, a number of tents and cottages formed a village. They were brought together by family relationship, by local attraction, and for mutual defence against more powerful clans or tribes. When their situation became insecure, they began to protect themselves by a ditch or hedge or a wall. The advancement from this rude state to the fortified towns and cities of ancient days was easy and rapid. The first city was built by Cain. Gen 4:17. It may be presumed that cities were always walled. Num 13:28. They were often (if not always) fortified, and many of them were very populous. The streets were crooked and narrow, so that in some of them loaded camels could not pass each other, as is the case to-day in Alexandria, Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus. Sometimes, in Asiatic cities, a broad street, or a section of it, is covered for the accommodation of merchants or tradesmen, and such places are called bazaars; and the prominent branch of business transacted there gives the name to the street; as, the woollen-drapers', coppersmiths', etc. Around the gates of cities was the principal concourse of people, Neh 8:1; Job 29:7; and therefore these stations were desirable for booths or stalls for the sale of merchandise. 2 Kgs 7:1. These square or open places are probably intended in 2 Chr 32:6 and Neh 3:16; Neh 8:1, Num 1:3. Some cities were adorned with open squares and large gardens. One-third of the city of Babylon was occupied with gardens. Csesarea, Jerusalem, Antioch, and other of the largest cities, were paved.

Fenced City, 2 Kgs 10:2, or Defenced Cities, Isa 36:1, a fortified city. To build a city and to fortify or fence it, in the Oriental idiom, mean the same thing. The fencing or fortification was usually with high walls, and watch-towers upon them. Deut 3:5. The walls of fortified cities were formed, in part at least, of combustible materials, Am 1:7, 1 Kgs 16:10, 2 Kgs 22:14, the gates being covered with thick plates of iron or brass, Ps 107:16; Isa 45:2; Acts 12:10. 188 There was also within the city a citadel or tower, to which the inhabitants fled when the city itself could not be defended. Jud 9:46-52. These were often upon elevated ground, and were entered by a flight of steps. See Gate.

At the time when Abraham came into the land of Canaan there were already in existence numerous towns, which are mentioned in the book of Genesis -Sodom, Gomorrah, Zeboim, Admah, Bela, Hebron, and Damascus. This last is probably the oldest city in the world. The spies who were sent to Canaan brought back an account of well fortified cities. In the book of Joshua we read of no less than 600 towns of which the Israelites took possession. When the city of Ai was taken, its inhabitants, who were put to the sword, amounted to 12,000, Josh 8:16-25, and we are told that Gibeon was a still greater city. Josh 10:2. It is commonly calculated that in Europe one-third or one-fourth of a nation is comprised in its cities and towns. Reckoning the Hebrews, then, at 3,000,000, it would give about 1250 for the average population of the towns, and it is probable that half the inhabitants dwelt in towns for greater safety. Now, in Gibeah, Jud 20:15, there were 700 men who bore arms, and of course not less than 3000 inhabitants. By a similar calculation, we conclude that the 48 cities of the Levites contained each about 1000 souls. In the time of David the population of Palestine was between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000, and we may suppose that the towns and cities were proportionately increased. On the great annual festivals Jerusalem presented a sublime spectacle of countless multitudes, when all the males of the nation were required to be there assembled. At such times the city itself was insufficient to contain the host of Israel, and thousands encamped around on its outskirts. After the return from the Babylonish captivity, the population of the towns may have been inconsiderable, but the subsequent increase was most rapid; so that in the time of Josephus the small villages of Galilee contained 15,000 inhabitants, and the larger towns 50,000. At the same period Jerusalem was 4 miles in circuit and had a population of 150,000.

The same author tells us that under Cestius the number of paschal lambs was 256,500, which would give about 2,700,000 persons attending the Passover. At the time of the fatal siege of Jerusalem more than 1,000,000 of persons were shut in by the Romans; so that the space included by the 4 miles must have been remarkably economized. But the number may be exaggerated.

City of David, 1 Chr 11:5, a section in the southern part of Jerusalem, embracing Mount Zion, where a fortress of the Jebusites stood. David reduced the fortress and built a new palace and city, to which he gave his own name. Bethlehem, the native town of David, is also called, from that circumstance, the city of David. Luke 2:11.

City of God, Ps 46:4, was one of the names of ancient Jerusalem, and its appropriateness is evident from Deut 12:5.

Holy City. Neh 11:1. The sacredness of the temple extended itself in some measure over the city, and hence Jerusalem itself was called the "Holy City," and is so distinguished in the East at the present day.

Cities of the Plain. See Sodom.

Cities of Refuge, Deut 19:7, Gal 1:9; Josh 20:2, Josh 20:7-8, were six of the Levitical cities divinely appointed by the Jewish law as asylums, to which those who had been undesignedly accessory to the death of a fellow-creature were commanded to flee for safety and protection. The kinsmen of the deceased, or other persons who might pursue to kill him, could not molest him in one of these cities until his offence was investigated and the judgment of the congregation passed. If he were not within the provisions of the law, he was delivered to the avenger and slain. If he was, then his life was safe so long as he lived within the city or in the circuit of 1000 yards beyond. There he must remain until the death of the high priest during whose term of office the homicide was committed. The custom of blood-revenge was deeply rooted among the Israelites, and continues among the Arabs to this day, and the institution of cities of refuge was wisely designed to check the violence of human passion. Several sections of the Jewish law have relation to this subject. For the size and situation 189 of the cities, see Num 35:4-5, 2 Kgs 22:14; the description of persons and the manner of killing in cases which entitled the slayer to protection, Num 35:15-25; Deut 19:4-13. For the mode of ascertaining whether the offence was worthy of death and the consequences of the judgment, see Num 35:24-33; and for the rules to be observed by the manslayer in order to avail himself of the benefit of the city of refuge, see Num 35:25-28. It is doubtful whether the trial of the manslayer was had at the city of refuge or in the vicinity of the place where the offence occurred. Perhaps there were two processes, one introductory to the other, as we have a preliminary examination to determine if the party accused shall be held to answer for his offence. This first process might have been at the city of refuge. Jewish writers say that signs were erected in some conspicuous place, pointing to the cities of refuge, at every crossroad, on which was inscribed, "Refuge, Refuge," which, with many other similar provisions, were designed to direct and facilitate the flight of the unhappy man who was pursued by the avenger of blood. There were other sacred places of refuge, particularly the temple and the altar of burnt-offerings. Ex 21:14.

Cities with Suburbs. Josh 21:41-42. This expression is explained by reference to Num 35:1-5. See Treasure-cities, Walls.

CLAU'DA, a small island, 7 miles long by 3 miles wide, in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Crete, Acts 27:16; now Gozzo.

CLAU'DIA, a Christian woman in Rome who joins Paul in saluting Timothy. 2 Tim 4:21.

CLAU'DIUS (lame), the fourth Roman emperor, successor of Caius

Coin of Claudius. (British Muesum.)

Caligula, a.d. 41-54. Acts 11:28. Herod Agrippa I. was mainly instrumental in securing him the throne. Several different famines took place during his reign, one of which, predicted by Agabus, was very severe, and lasted three years. In the ninth or twelfth year of his reign he banished the Jews, probably including the Christian converts, from Rome. Acts 18:2,

CLAU'DIUS LY'SIAS, the chief captain or commander of a band of soldiers stationed as a public guard over the temple, who interposed his authority, and thus saved Paul from violence at the hands of a temple-mob, and afterward sent him with a strong guard to the procurator Felix at Cassarea. Acts 21, Josh 11:22, and Heb 12:23.

CLAY The Hebrew word is used in the O.T. in the sense of ordinary mire in the streets, Ps 18:42; at the bottom of the sea, Isa 57:20; in a cistern or subterranean prison. Jer 38:6. It is also translated "clay" -i.e. potter's clay- Isa 41:25; Nah 3:14. In the N.T. the word "clay" is applied to a mixture of spittle with dust. John 9:6, Rev 1:11, 2 Sam 20:15. For the use of clay in brickmaking, see Brick; and in pottery, see Potter. Clay was also used for sealing. Job 38:14. Wine-jars, tombs, and doors were, and are, sealed with clay. See Seal.

CLEAN, and UNCLEAN'. Lev 10:10. These words are applied in the Jewish law to persons, animals, and things.

In order to partake of the privileges of the Jewish Church, the individual must not only be circumcised, but be ceremonially clean. How the various kinds of uncleanness were contracted, what time it continued, and what was the process of purification, are particularly described in Lev 11-15; Num 19.

The division of animals into clean and unclean existed before the Flood, Gen 7:2, and was probably founded upon the practice of animal sacrifice. Those animals only which divide the hoof and chew the cud were regarded as clean. Lev 11:3-4. The same chapter enumerates a variety of beasts, birds, reptiles, fishes, and things which are unclean. See also Ex 22:31; Ex 34:15, Acts 11:26; Deut 14:21. One object of these distinctions was to guard the Jews against heathen idolatry. Eating with the Gentiles was regarded as a peculiar aggravation 190 of the offence of associating with them. Matt 9:11; Acts 11:3. Some of the prohibited animals were unwholesome. The Hebrews were taught by these strict regulations to habitually regard their relation to God, and to abstain from everything that should offend his infinite holiness or involve the least appearance of pollution. The distinction between clean and unclean animals and nations was annulled by a special revelation to Peter. Acts 10:9-16.

CLEM'ENT, a fellow-laborer of Paul, Phil 4:3; probably the same who was afterward bishop of Rome and wrote two epistles to the Corinthians, which are still extant, and were once read in some churches,

CLE'OPAS (very renowned), one of the two disciples who were met by Christ on the way to Emmaus. Luke 24:18. Some regard him as the same with Cleophas.

CLE'OPHAS . John 19:25. See Alpheus.

CLERK. See Town-clerk.

CLOAK. See Clothes.

CLOS'ET. See Dwelling.

CLOTH . The art of making cloth was known very early. The skins of animals supplied the place of cloth at first, but we may suppose that spinning and needle-work were so far perfected as to furnish cloth, of a coarse kind at least, at an early period. Ex 35:25; Jud 5:30. The beauty of dress consisted in the fineness and color of the cloth. See Sackcloth.

CLOTHES, CLOTH'ING . The immobility of the East is evinced in nothing more than in the absence of any change in dress from generation to generation. The clothing of the ancient Hebrews may be known from that of the modern Orientals. The ordinary dress consisted of the inner garment, the outer garment, a girdle, and sandals.

  1. The inner garment originally was a sort of shirt, sleeveless, and reaching only to the knees. Afterward it was larger and longer, and with sleeves. A girdle confined it around the waist. Jud 14:13. A person with only it on was said to be naked. 1 Sam 19:24; Isa 20:2-4; John 21:7. Its material was wool, cotton, or linen, varying in quality according to the taste and wealth of the owner. This inner garment is commonly translated in the Bible "coat," but "shirt" would be more correct.

  2. The girdle. -When the garments came to be made long and flowing they were confined around the loins with girdles, which served not only to bind

A Modern Arab. A Modern Greek.

them to the body, but also to hold them when tucked up. This increased the gracefulness of their appearance and prevented them from interfering with labor or motion. Hence "to gird up the loins" became a significant figurative expression, denoting readiness for service, activity, and watchfulness, and "to loose the girdle" was to give way to repose and indolence. 2 Kgs 4:29; Job 38:3; Isa 5:27; Jer 1:17; Luke 12:35; John 21:7; Acts 12:8; 1 Pet 1:13. This girdle was a belt or band of cord, cloth, or leather, 6 inches or more in breadth, with a clasp affixed to loosen or draw it closer. Sometimes the girdle was made of linen, Eze 16:10, and was often adorned with rich and beautiful ornaments of metal, precious stones, and embroidery.

The girdle was used to carry weapons, 2 Sam 20:8, money, and other things usually carried by us in the pocket. The Arabs carry their daggers in it, pointing to the right side, and through all the East it is the place for the handkerchief, smoking-materials, and the implements of one's profession. See INK HORN. The word translated "purses," Matt 10:9, is in other places translated "girdle." The girdle not only protected the body, but braced it with strength and firmness. The girdle is 191 supposed by some to have been a chief article or appendage of the armor; hence to have it continually fastened upon the person is emblematical of great fidelity and vigilance. And because it encircled the body very closely, the

Girded for Walking.

perfect adherence of the people of God to his service is figuratively illustrated by the cleaving of the girdle to a man's loins. Jer 13:11. In the same view, righteousness and faithfulness are called by the prophet, Isa 11:6, "the girdle" of the promised Messiah.

  1. The outer or upper garment, Matt 21:8, or cloak, Matt 5:40, was a square or oblong strip of cloth, 2 or 3 yards long and 2 yards wide. Such a garment is now worn by the Arabs. It was simply wrapped around the body as a protection from the weather; and when occasion required, it might be thrown over the shoulder and under the arm, somewhat like an Indian blanket, and be fastened with clasps or buckles, two corners being in front, which were called skirts, and were often used as aprons sometimes are among us. Ex 12:34; 2 Kgs 4:29; Luke 6:38. The Arabs throw this garment over the left shoulder and under the right arm, and thus cover the whole body, leaving only the right arm exposed. This garment was the poor man's bed-clothing. Ex 22:26-27; Job 22:6; Job 24:7. This was probably the cloak and the coat or linen garment to which reference is had in Matt 5:40, and, in a more ample form, was called a robe, Luke 23:11, or a mantle. 2 Kgs 2:8. It is supposed that the fringes, with the blue ribbon. Num 15:38, were placed on the corners or borders of this garment. Matt 23:5. They are seen still on ancient monuments.

In winter fur dresses or skins were worn, as at the present day, in Eastern countries. A dress of sheep- or goatskins is, perhaps, meant in 2 Kgs 1:8 and Zech 13:4. The common skins of this kind were worn by the poorest and meanest people, Heb 11:37, but the fur dresses were sometimes very costly, and constituted a part of the royal apparel. The word translated "robe," Jon 3:6, is supposed to mean a fur garment. The sheep's clothing, Matt 7:15, was considered emblematical of innocence and gentleness, and was the disguise of the false prophets, who were, in truth, fierce and ravenous as wolves for the blood of souls. The word translated "sheets," Jud 14:12-13, is supposed to denote some kind of garment worn next to the skin, and probably the same which is spoken of under the general name of "fine linen" in Prov 31:24; Isa 3:23; and Mark 15:46. See Sheets.

The linen cloth mentioned in Mark 14:51 was probably an article of bedclothing caught up in haste and thrown around the body -"a wrapper of fine linen, which might be used in various ways, but especially as a night-shirt." The Arabs use for a complete dress by day the same garment which serves them for a bed and covering by night. Deut 24:13. Such also is the use of the Highlander's plaid.

The dress of the women differed from the men's only in the outer garments. A veil further distinguished them. It was considered a token of modesty in unmarried women. Gen 24:65, and of subjection and reverence in those that were married. 1 Cor 11:3-10. The robe was often made full, and when tucked up the front of it would answer the purpose of a large apron, which is one meaning of the word translated "veil." Ruth 3:15. The Arabs put their hykes or cloaks to a like use.

Handkerchiefs. Acts 19:12. -These were common among the Hebrews. The people of Eastern nations at this day carry them in their hands, and they are often wrought beautifully with the needle.

Aprons, mentioned in Acts 19:12, 192 were sweat-cloths from the apostle's body.

  1. Sandals and shoes. Deut 25:9; Mark 6:9. -The sandal was at first a flat piece of wood or leather suited to the sole of the foot, and bound upon it by straps or strings. The fastening was called a latchet. Gen 14:23.

The common sandal is made of a piece of hide from the neck of a camel, and sometimes of several thicknesses sewed together. It is fastened by two straps, one of which passes between the great and second toe, and the other around the heel and over the instep. Hence it appears that the shoe was easily slipped off, and that it afforded no protection from the dust and dirt. Sandals were never worn in the house. The taking off of the shoes was a mark of reverence shown to exalted persons and sacred places. At the doors of Hindoo pagodas and Mohammedan mosques sandals are collected in great numbers for the use of strangers.

The necessity of washing the feet after every walk is obvious, and it was the first token of hospitality to supply water for this purpose. Gen 24:32; Luke 7:44. To unloose the straps or latchets was the business of a menial, Mark 1:7, as was also the washing of the feet. John 13:1-16.

The wooden sandal is much worn in Arabia, Judaea, and Egypt. Though often expensive and neat, it was usually a cheap, coarse, and very clumsy article. The following represent various forms of sandals which are still in common use in many countries of the East.

Sandals. (From Farrar's "Life of Christ.")

Mitre, Ex 39:28, or bonnet, Ex 28:40, was a part of the sacred dress only, worn on the head. The Arab women wear a cap of folded cloth not unlike the modern turban, and the Hebrew women wore head-dresses of various shapes. Isa 3:20.

Blue fringes were attached to the four corners of the outer garment to remind the wearer of God's commandments. Num 15:37-39. It was one of the fringes of Jesus's garment which is called the "hem" touched by the woman. Matt 9:20; Luke 8:44. For enlarging these fringes to attract notice Jesus rebukes the Pharisees. Matt 23:5.

Change of raiment or garments. 2 Kgs 5:5, Josh 11:22. -It is customary in the East at this day to make presents of garments; and the Asiatic princes keep changes of raiment ready made for presents to persons of distinction whom they wish particularly to honor. The simple and uniform shape of the garments makes this custom practicable, and accounts also for the change of one person's dress for another's which is mentioned in sacred history. Gen 27:15; 1 Sam 18:4. See also Deut 22:5; Luke 15:22.

Changeable suits of apparel, or festal robes, Isa 3:22, are supposed to have been made of some thin fabric ornamented with embroidery and worn over garments of various colors; of which beautiful representations are to be seen in Indian paintings.

Coat of many colors. -This was, properly speaking, a "shirt of extremities" --a "shirt" which reached to the feet -probably made of fine material. Gen 37:3.

Among the appendages to Jewish 193 dress were jewels of gold and silver, bracelets, necklaces, ear-rings, etc. Nose- and ear-rings are very common in the East. The thread, Gen 14:23, is supposed by some to mean the thread

Eastern Fringed Garment. (From Fanar's "Life of Christ.")

on which precious stones were hung for neck-chains. Eze 16:11. Bracelets were worn on the arms by both sexes, 2 Sam 1:10, and by females upon the leg also. Isa 3:19-20. See Bracelets. Women in Persia and Arabia wear rings full of little bells about the ankle. Isa 3:16. Hand-mirrors, made of molten brass and finely polished, were also a common accompaniment of female dress, Ex 38:8; Isa 3:23;, and were either carried in the hand or suspended from the girdle or neck. In later times these mirrors were made of polished steel.

All the Grecian and Roman women, without distinction, wore their hair long. On this they lavished all their art, disposing it in various forms and embellishing it with many ornaments. In ancient medals and statues we see the plaited tresses interwoven with expensive and fantastic decorations so pointedly condemned by the apostle as proofs of a vain mind, and as inconsistent with the modesty and decorum of Christian women. 1 Tim 2:9-10; 1 Pet 3:1, 1 Pet 3:3-4. See Phylacteries.

Rending Clothes. See Rend.

CLOTH, LIN'EN. See Clothes.

CLOUD. The Hebrew words thus translated bring out the ideas of a "covering" for the sky a "darkness," or simply a "vapor." The references to clouds in the Bible will be better understood when the fact is known that from the beginning of May to the end of September not a cloud is usually seen, 1 Sam 12:17-18; hence their appearance would be phenomenal. The oncoming of clouds marked the approach of rain. 1 Kgs 18:44; Luke 12:54. "A cloud without rain" was indeed a proverb for a man whose performance belied his promise. Prov 25:14. Clouds shield the divine Presence, Ex 16:10; Ex 33:9; Num 11:25; 1 Kgs 8:10; Job 22:14; Ps 18:11; and in evidence of the divinity of Christ is the fact that clouds play a part in his recorded life and in his future glory. Matt 17:5; Matt 24:30; Acts 1:9; Rev 14:14. Clouds symbolize transitoriness. Job 30:15; Hos 6:4; armies and multitudes of people, Hos Isa, 60:8; Jer 4:13; Heb 12:1. "A cloudy day" is a day of calamity. Eze 30:3; 3Lev 4:12. Peter likens false teachers to "clouds that are carried with a tempest." 2 Pet 2:17.

CLOUD, PILLAR OF. When the people of Israel commenced their march through the wilderness, God caused a cloud resembling a pillar to pass before the camp. In the day-time it was like a cloud, dark and heavy, and in the night bright and shining like fire. It also served as a signal for rest or motion. Num 9:17-23.

CLOUT'ED. Josh 9:5. Worn out and patched.

CNI'DUS, a Greek city at the extreme south-western corner of Asia Minor, now in ruins, on Cape Crio.

COAL . There is no evidence that the Hebrews were acquainted with coal. They used charcoal for their fires. The Hebrew words which are translated "coal" etymologically refer to heat in general, usually to fuel of wood, and in 194 1 Kgs 19:6 and Isa 6:6 to hot stones. In the N.T. the Greek words, Rom 12:20 and John 18:18; John 21:9, refer likewise to charcoal.

COAST (from the Latin costa, "a rib") is often used in the English Bible for "border," and has no reference to the sea. Jud 11:20; 1 Sam 5:6; Matt 8:34.

COAT. See Clothes.

COCK. See Cock-crowing.

COCKATRICE . Jer 8:17; Isa 11:8; Isa 14:29; Isa 69:5. The word, in the Scriptures, evidently denotes a very venomous reptile. The original signifies a creature that hisses, doubtless some species of serpent. Tristram proposes the great yellow viper, the largest of its kind found in Palestine, and one of the most dangerous. On one occasion he saw one of these vipers spring on a quail which was feeding; "It missed its prey, and the bird fluttered on a few yards, and then fell in the agonies of death. On taking it up I found that the viper had made the slightest possible puncture in the flesh of one of the wings as it snapped at it, and this had caused death in the course of a few seconds." In the passage from Jeremiah above cited allusion is made to the unyielding cruelty of the Chaldean armies under Nebuchadnezzar, who were appointed ministers of divine vengeance on the Jewish nation for their manifold and aggravated sins.

COCK'-CROWING. Mark 13:35. A name given to the third watch of the night, from midnight to daybreak. Some perplexity has been occasioned by the difference between the expressions in Matt 26:34, "before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice," and Mark 14:30, "before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." To reconcile this seeming variance, it is stated that there were two cock-crowings -one soon after midnight, and the other about three o'clock- and that the last, which was the signal of approaching day, was spoken of as the cock-crowing. To this it has been answered that only one hour elapsed between the denials. Luke 22:59. This is true of the second and third, but there seems to be no authority for saying it is of the first and second. It seems most natural to suppose that the phraseology in both cases was substantially the same, and that the Jews understood by the phrase "before the cock crow" the same time which was denoted by the phrase "before the cock crow twice." Both referred to that cock-crowing which especially and most distinctly marked a watch or division of the night. There is no reference to poultry in the O.T., and only an incidental one in the New. Matt 23:37; Luke 13:34. Some suppose that poultry were introduced into Judaea by the Romans.

COCK'LE (stinking like carrion). This word may denote troublesome or offensive weeds in general. Job 31:40. But the arums, which abound in Galilee and other Eastern regions, have precisely the odor indicated by the original, and may be the plants meant. The proximity of these offensive growths is sometimes scarcely endurable.

COE'LE-SYR'IA (hollow Styria), the great valley between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges of mountains. See Lebanon and Syria.

COF'FER, "a movable box hanging from the side of a cart." 1 Sam 6:8, Rev 1:11, 2 Sam 20:15.

COF'FIN. See Bury.

COHORT. See War.

COL-HO'ZEH (all-seeing), a man of Judah. Neh 3:15; Neh 11:5.

COL'LEGE . 2 Kgs 22:14. This word is the translation of what was probably the name of one of the divisions of Jerusalem -viz. "the lower city." built upon the hill Akra.

COL'LOPS . Job 15:27. Thick pieces of flesh.

COL'ONY . Acts 16:12. A city or province planted or occupied by Roman citizens, as Philippi. Roman laws and manners naturally prevailed, but the colony had an independent internal government. The colonists were in the beginning all Roman citizens, and therefore entitled to vote at Rome.

COL'ORS . Gen 37:3. The art of coloring cloth seems to have attained to great perfection among the Jews, though it did not originate with them, but with their idolatrous neighbors, the Phoenicians and Egyptians, the former supplying the dyes, the latter the mode of applying them. Four artificial colors are spoken of in the Bible.

  1. Purple, which was derived from a shell-fish native to the Mediterranean
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Sea. The coloring-matter was found in a small vessel in the fish, and the rest of the fish was useless. Purple was the royal and noble color, indicative of wealth and station. Jud 8:26; Esth 8:15; Luke 16:19; Rev 17:4.

  1. Blue, produced from a similar source, used in the same way, and for the same purposes. Ex 25:4; Esth 1:6.

  2. Scarlet, and crimson appear to express the same color. "The dye was produced from an insect somewhat resembling the cochineal, which is found in considerable quantities in Armenia and other Eastern countries" -Smith. The three colors above mentioned, together with white, were employed in the tabernacle curtains and in the vestments of the priests.

  3. Vermilion was used in fresco-painting, Eze 23:14, for coloring the idols themselves, and for decorating the walls; and beams of houses. Jer 22:14.

The natural colors noticed in the Bible are white, black, red, yellow, and green, yet only three colors are sharply defined, white, black, and red. To show the vagueness of the use of the others, the tint green (translated "yellow" in the A.V.) is applied in the Hebrew to gold, Ps 68:13, and to the leprous spot. Lev 13:49.

COLOS'SE, OR COLOS'SE, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, a branch of the Maeander, and 12 miles above Laodicea. Paul wrote to the church there, Col 1:2, and possibly visited it on his third missionary journey. See Acts 18:23; Acts 19:10. The town is now in ruins; there is a little village called Chronos 3 miles south of the site of Colosse.

COLOSSIANS, EPIS'TLE TO THE, was written by Paul while he was a prisoner at Rome, a.d. 62. It is probable that Epaphras, who is spoken of as the minister of Christ in that place. Col 1:7, came to Rome to consult Paul respecting the semi-Judaistic and semi-Oriental opinions that had been preached among the Colossians by Jews who had been tainted by Essenic Gnosticism. See Essenes. These notions would tend not only to mar the simplicity of their belief, but to obscure the glory of Christ. Col 2:8-23. To these damaging errors Paul writes a refutation. "The occasion, then, of the Epistle being the existence and influence of false teachers in the Colossian church, the object of the apostle was to set before them their real standing in Christ, the majesty of his person, and the completeness of his redemption, and to exhort them to conformity with their risen Lord, following this out into all subordinate duties and occasions of common life."

The Epistle to the Ephesians, written at a little later date, is very similar to it, but more full on the doctrine of the church. Both were sent from Rome by the same bearers, Tychicus and Onesimus.

COLT . The young of camels and asses are so called. Gen 32:15; Gen 49:11; Jud 10:4; Job 11:12; Matt 21:2, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Kgs 15:7, and elsewhere.

COME BY . In Acts 27:16 this phrase means "to secure the boat, so as to hoist it into the ship."

COMFORTER . John 14:16. This word is the English rendering for Paraclete, and occurs only in the Gospel of John. In four out of the five passages in which it is used it is applied to the Holy Ghost, and should be translated "advocate" or "helper." For the Paraclete does not simply comfort, but defends our cause and inspires our courage. See Advocate.

COMMANDMENTS. See Law.

COM'MERCE. In some form this must have existed from the time when men formed separate communities, and when the dwellers in cities became dependent upon farmers and foreign nations for food. We find notices of trade in this way in the time of Abraham, and particularly in the history of Joseph and of the Egyptian famine. But foreign trade was not much cultivated by the Jews. Indeed, they do not seem to have been in the least a sea-faring people, for the commercial enterprises of Solomon and of Jehoshaphat both ultimately failed. 1 Kgs 22:48-49. But we know that the Jews consumed foreign articles, Neh 13:16; Ezr 3:7, and also supplied foreign countries, as Phoenicia. 1 Kgs 5:11; Eze 27:17; Acts 12:20. Joppa, the modern Jaffa, the port of Jerusalem, carried on a busy trade. From it went vessels to various ports. Isa 2:16; Jon 1:3. The internal trade was largely increased by the festivals. The sale of 196 animals for sacrifice and the exchanging of money were carried on even in the temple-enclosure, and led to our Lord's indignant rebuke. John 2:14; Matt 21:12.

COMMUN'ION . 1 Cor 10:16. Intimate fellowship and communication, such as is expressed in John 15:1-7 and John 17:10, John 15:21-26; Rom 12:4-5; 2 Cor 13:14; 1 John 1:3. As the ordinance of the Lord's Supper furnishes both the opportunity for and the motive to this mutual love and confidence, John 13:34; John 15:12, it is called, by way of distinction, "the holy communion."

COMPASS, TO FETCH A, means "to go around." 2 Sam 5:23; 2 Kgs 3:9; Acts 28:13.

CONANI'AH (whom Jehovah hath made), a Levite chief. 2 Chr 35:9.

CONCIS'ION, a term used sarcastically to denominate the Judaizers who insisted on circumcision as necessary for Gentile converts. Phil 3:2. They thus perverted the rite, and therefore, instead of calling them by the honorable name of the "circumcision," Paul calls them the "concision," the "mutilation."

CON'CUBINE, by the Jewish law, a lawful wife of a secondary or inferior rank, and consequently neither regarded nor treated as the matron or mistress of the house. Concubines were either Hebrew girls bought of their fathers, or Gentile captives taken in war. Foreign slaves or Canaanitish women were also illegally concubines. Concubines were not betrothed or wedded with the usual solemnities and ceremonies which attended marriage. They had no share in the family government, and the children of the wife were preferred to the child of the concubine in the distribution of the inheritance. Yet the children of the latter were not counted as illegitimate, but stood upon the same footing as those of the wife in the family, as their names occur in the genealogical lists. Gen 22:24; 1 Chr 1:32. The custom among the Jews originated in the great desire for children, and therefore it was that barren wives gave their maid-servants to their husbands that they might have children by them. Gen 16:3; Gen 30:4. The law of Moses did not stop the practice, but modified it. Ex 21:7-9;Deut 21:10-17. There was no stigma upon the position. The concubine was a recognized member of the family; when she had been a slave previous to becoming such a one, she still remained in slavery. Her distinction from the wife was in her lower social position, and in her far looser hold upon her husband. She might be dismissed without any formal divorce. Her unfaithfulness was criminal, but not looked at as, strictly speaking, adultery, and hence was not so severely punished. Jud 19:2. In the days of the monarchy the kings imitated their heathen neighbors in the establishment of harems, and multiplied the number of wives and concubines. To seize on the royal concubines for his own use was thus a usurper's first act. Such was probably the intent of Abner's act, 2 Sam 3:7, and similarly the request on behalf of Adonijah was construed. 1 Kgs 2:21-24. -Smith: Dictionary of the Bible.

Where polygamy was tolerated -as it was among the Jews- the permission of concubinage would not seem so much at war with the interests and preservation of society as we know it to be. The gospel restores the sacred institution of marriage to its original character, Gen 2:24; Matt 19:5; 1 Cor 7:2, and concubinage is ranked with fornication and adultery.

CONDEMA'TION. The term refers to the sentence pronounced upon an adjudged criminal. In the sight of God the race lies under condemnation because of Adam's inherited sin and their actual transgressions. Rom 5:16, 1 Sam 30:18. The law which convicts men of sin is called the "ministration of condemnation." 2 Cor 3:7, Gal 1:9. But the gospel announces deliverance from sin. John 3:18. Therefore it is truly "good tidings of great joy." Luke 2:10. By faith in Christ are we delivered from condemnation, and are brought into the glorious liberty of the children of God. Rom 8:21.

CON'DUIT (te'alah in Hebrew). 2 Kgs 18:17; 2 Kgs 20:20; Isa 7:3; Isa 36:2. Used to signify something for conveying water, as a "water-course," Job 38:25, or a "trench." It probably included an aqueduct, such as must have been used to convey the water from the Pool of Solomon to Jerusalem. Pilate 197 built a new aqueduct or repaired that of Solomon, which still remains.

CO'NEY (the hider), a small animal (Hyrux Syriacus) found in Syria and Arabia, and much resembling the rabbit in size, general appearance, and habits. Ps 104:18 ,-Prov 30:26. Its Hebrew name is appropriate, from its dwelling in the rocks. The coney, however, does not burrow, but, like the rhinoceros and hippopotamus (with which naturalists class it), has hoofs rather than nails upon its toes. It is almost tailless, has short ears, is clothed in tawny fur, and is a very timid and harmless creature.

Solomon justly pronounced the coneys "exceeding wise." So great is their wariness that they have never been trapped and can but rarely be shot. They are accustomed to feed in small companies upon the herbage near their fastnesses, but it is said they always first post a sentinel, and at a squeak of alarm, on the least indication of danger, they all plunge into their retreats. The references to this animal in the

Coney. (Hyrax Syriacus. After Houghton.)

Law (Lev 11:5; Deut 14:7) are to be understood in a popular sense. Though not strictly a ruminant animal, the coney, like the hare and rabbit, has a habit of moving its jaws as if chewing, while it does not completely divide the hoof, as does the ox or deer.

The coney "is an exceedingly active creature, leaping from rock to rock with wonderful rapidity, its little sharp hoofs giving it a firm hold of the hard and irregular surface of the stony ground. Even in captivity it retains much of its activity, and flies about its cage with a rapidity that seems more suitable to a squirrel than to an animal allied to the rhinoceros and hippopotamus. ... It is a tolerably prolific animal, rearing four or five young at a birth, and keeping them in a soft bed of hay and fur, in which they are almost hidden. If surprised in its hole and seized, the Hyrnx will bite very sharply, its long, chisel-edged teeth inflicting severe wounds on the hand that attempts to grasp it. But it is of a tolerably docile disposition, and in a short time learns to know its owner, and to delight in receiving his caresses." J.G. Wood.

CONGREGA'TION, an assembly; a gathering of people for either political or religious purposes.

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  1. In the O.T. (kabal) it denotes the Hebrew people in its collective capacity, under its peculiar aspect as a holy community, held together by religious rather than political bonds. Deut 31:30; Josh 8:35; 1 Chr 29:1, etc. "Sometimes it is used in a broad sense, as inclusive of foreign settlers, Ex 12:19, but more properly as exclusively appropriate to the Hebrew element of the population. Num 15:15." The congregation was governed by the chief of the tribes and families, but from these was selected a council of 70 elders. Num 16:2; Num 11:16. This was a permanent institution, for these representatives of the people -who at first met at the door of the tabernacle at the call of one silver trumpet, while the congregation came at sound of the two, Num 10:3-4, 1 Kgs 15:7- became in postexilic days the Sanhedrin. Doubtless these meetings of the elders are often meant when the term "congregation" is used. Thus they meet to elect a king. 1 Sam 10:17. Their decisions bound the nation. Josh 9:15, 1 Sam 30:18.

  2. In the N.T. it means the Christian Church at large or a local congregation, but in King James's Version the corresponding Greek word (ecelesia), when used of a religious assembly, is always rendered "church," even in Acts 7:38, where it means the Jewish congregation in the wilderness. King James expressly commanded the revisers to do this, in opposition to the Geneva Version, which uses the more literal rendering "congregation." In Acts 19:32, Acts 19:39-40 it means simply a popular assembly. See Church.

'CONI'AH. See Jehoiachin.

CONONI'AH (whom Jehovah hath set), a chief among the Levites. 2 Chr 31:12-13.

CON'SCIENCE is the inborn sense of right and wrong, the moral law written on our hearts which judges of the moral character of our motives and actions, and approves or censures, condemns or justifies us accordingly. Rom 2:15. This universal tribunal is established in the breast of every man, even the heathen. It may be weakened, perverted, stupefied, defiled, and hardened in various ways, and its decisions are more or less clear, just, and imperative according to the degree of moral culture, John 8:9; Acts 23:1; 2 Chr 24:16; Rom 9:1; and 1 Tim 1:5.

CON'SECRATE, CONSECRA'TION. Ex 32:29; Lev 7:37. The word means "to set apart for holy uses." It is applied in the Bible to both persons and things. The tribe of Levi was consecrated to the priesthood with the most solemn and imposing ceremonies. Vessels, Josh 6:19, profits, Mic 4:13, fields, Lev 27:28, cattle, 2 Chr 29:33, individuals. Num 6:9-13; 1 Sam 1:11, Acts 20:28, and nations, Ex 19:6, were anciently consecrated or set apart to sacred purposes. See Priest.

CONVEN'IENT signifies "becoming," "fitting," "appropriate," in several passages; e.g. Prov 30:8; Jer 40:4; Rom 1:28; Eph 5:4; Phile 8. This is the old Latin sense of the word.

CONVERSA'TION is never used in the A.V. in its ordinary sense, but always denotes "course of life," "conduct." Phil 3:20 reads "our conversation is in heaven," but the Greek is properly translated by "citizenship." What is now called "conversation " is expressed in the A.V. by "communication." 2 Kgs 9:11; Matt 5:37; Eph 4:29 etc.

CONVER'SION, or turning from one state, pursuit, inclination, or direction to another. Acts 15:3. The corresponding Greek term in the N.T. denotes a change of mind or heart which takes place in the sinner when the Holy Spirit convinces him of his sinfulness, persuades him to hate sin and to forsake it, and to lead a life of holy obedience to Christ. Matt 3:8; Luke 3:3; Luke 15:7; Luke 24:47; Acts 5:31; Acts 11:18; Acts 20:21;2 Cor 7:9-10; 2 Tim 2:25; Heb 6:16; Heb 12:17; 2 Pet 3:9. Conversion is an act of man, while regeneration, or the new birth, is an act of God, but both are produced by the agency of the Holy Spirit, and usually coincide, though not always; for very young children may be regenerated, but cannot, strictly speaking, be said to be converted. The Scriptures describe mankind as alienated from God, as having the understanding darkened, and as dead in trespasses and sins. Hence the corresponding force and pertinency of the terms by which the change is described; such as created, renewed, 199 Eph 4:23-24, restored to sight, Eph 1:18; Rev 3:18, and raised from the dead. John 5:21, Jud 6:24; Eph 2:1.

CONVOCA'TION, sometimes used with the adjective "holy," denotes a meeting of a religious character. Ex 12:16; Lev 23:2; Num 28:18.

COOK'ING was not carried by the Jews to any perfection, because meat did not form part of their ordinary diet. It was done in early times exclusively, and in all periods of their history usually, by the matron of the family, apparently irrespective of her social condition, Gen 18:6 , although professional cooks were sometimes employed in later times, 1 Sam 8:13; 1 Sam 9:23. As is evident from the expeditious way in which meals were gotten up, the animal, usually a kid, a lamb, or a calf, was cooked immediately after killing. For roasting, a fire of wood or else an oven, which was merely a hole dug in the ground, heated by ashes, and then covered up, was employed. When the animal was boiled, which was the usual way, both in the case of sacrifice other than the paschal lamb, Lev 8:31, and for domestic use, it was cut up, the flesh separated from the bones and minced, and the bones themselves broken up, and the whole mass thrown into a caldron filled with water, Eze 24:4-5, and boiled over a wood-fire, and the salt or spices thrown in to season it. The meat and broth were served up separately, the latter being used as a sauce to dip bread into. Gen 18:8; Jud 6:19. Vegetables were usually boiled and served as pottage. Gen 25:29; 2 Kgs 4:38. Fish was probably boiled. Luke 24:42.-Smith: Diet, of the Bible.

CO'OS, OR COS, a small island north-west of Rhodes, Acts 21:1, in the AEgean Sea; now called Stanchio.

COPING . 1 Kgs 7:9. The top course or finish of a wall. It is usually of flat or semi-circular bricks or hewn stone, projecting beyond the face of the wall, and forming an ornament similar in effect to the capital of a column.

COP'PER, a well-known metal, once as "precious as gold." Ezr 8:27; 2 Tim 4:14. The word translated "copper" in Ezra is elsewhere improperly rendered Brass, which see.

COR, See MEASURES.

COR'AL, Eze 27:16, was an article of Tyrian merchandise, and is well known as a marine production, found in almost every variety of shape and size, and sometimes increasing to such an extent as to form the basis of islands, or to stretch out in dangerous reefs for many miles. It is capable of being worked up into beads and other ornaments; for which use the red species is the most valuable. Job mentions it in connection with pearls. Job 28:18.

COR'BAN (offering) signifies a gift or thing consecrated to God or his service, particularly in fulfilment of a vow. Mark 7:11. The Jews permitted such an abuse to be made of this consecration that a child was suffered to deny the request of his parents, or withhold assistance from them in their distress, merely on the pretence that what they asked or needed was consecrated to God.

CORDS . See Ropes.

CO'RE, the Greek form of Korah; used in Jude 11.

CORIANDER SEED. Ex 16:31, The coriander plant (Coriandrum sativum) grows wild in Palestine and neighboring countries, and is often cultivated in the United States. The seeds are globular, and when dry are pleasant to the taste and smell, and, incrusted with sugar, are often sold by confectioners. We are told that the particles of manna were shaped like coriander seed.

COR'INTH, the capital of Achaia, and a renowned and voluptuous city of Greece, about 40 miles west of Athens, on an isthmus about 10 miles wide at that point. It had two sea-ports, Cenchrea, on the east, about 9 miles distant, and Lechaion, on the west, only about 2 miles away. Corinth was about 5 miles in circuit, and on the south an immense rocky mountain called Aeroeorinthus rises abruptly to the height of 2000 feet, upon the summit of which was a temple of Venus. It had an extensive commerce, like all the large towns on the Mediterranean Sea, and became celebrated for its wealth, magnificence, and learning. It was esteemed as the light and ornament of all Greece. It was, however, no less remarkable for its corruption and licentiousness. "To live as at Corinth" was a proverb meaning profligate indulgence, 200 and the name "Corinthian" applied to a woman was infamous.

Paul preached at Corinth, about a.d. 53, a year and six months, Acts 18:11; paid it, A.D. 64-57, a short second visit (" by the way"), not mentioned in the Acts, but implied in 1 Cor 16:7; 2 Cor 12:13-14; Acts 13:1, where he speaks of

Corinth and Aeroeorinthus

an intended third journey to Corinth, which coincides with that in Acts 20:2; and spent there the three winter months, from 57 to 58, during which he wrote the Epistle to the Romans, Acts 20:2-3; comp, 1 Cor 16:6; Rom 16:1. He wrote two letters to the Christians in that city, rebuking their sins, and refers to the Isthmian games celebrated at Corinth every Olympiad. The city is now desolate, the little miserable village of Gortho occupying its site,

CORINTHIANS, PAUL'S EPISTLES TO THE. They exhibit the trials and temptations, the virtues and vices, of a Greek congregation in apostolic times, and the wisdom and love, the trials and patience, of Paul in dealing with some of the most difficult practical and doctrinal questions which arise again and again in the history of every church. They are so full of individuality and local adaptation that their Pauline origin has never been disputed.

  1. The First Epistle was written at Ephesus, toward the close of the apostle's three years' residence there, in the spring of a.d. 57. It was sent to the church by Stephanas, Fortunatus, Achaicus, and Timotheus, according to the superscription. Its immediate cause was the painful news which had reached Paul that there were dissensions in the church between the different elements -converted Jews, proselytes, and Gentiles- which composed it. Some of the members declared themselves Pauline, while others were Petrine; others were of Apollos, and others of Christ -Christians in a sectarian and exclusive sense, Rom 16:1-4. This state of things is explicable. The Corinthian church was founded by the apostle while upon his second missionary journey. Acts 18:1, sq., during his eighteen months' residence in Corinth. Not long after he left, Apollos came. Acts 19:1, who by his eloquence won followers. Judaizers also from Jerusalem came to the city, who misrepresented Paul as a dangerous radical, denied his apostolic authority, and obliged him to defend himself. Thus the church was sadly rent. Those who styled themselves "of Christ" may have at first attempted reconciliation by going back of all human authority to Christ, but would seem finally to have added a fourth to the existing factions. Another trouble which demanded decisive action was a lax state of sexual morals. This gives Paul opportunity to express his views upon marriage and the relation of the sexes generally, chs.Acts 19:5-7. From these specific cases of overt act he passes to the consideration of several matters of Christian practice -eating meats offered to idols, chs.Acts 19:8-9; the proper observance of the Lord's Supper and its true nature, ch.1 Kgs 16:10; the proprieties of worship, ch.Rev 1:11; the gifts of the Spirit, chs. Acts 19:12-14, In ch. 2 Sam 20:15 he treats of the resurrection in a strain of marvellous eloquence.

  2. The Second Epistle was written from Macedonia, Acts 7:5 Neh 8:1; 2 Cor 9:2, in the same year, a few months later than the First- i.e. in the summer or autumn of A,D. 57. The contents seem to have been determined by the accounts the apostle had received from Titus, and perhaps, also, from Timothy, of the effect of his previous Epistle. This was upon the whole favorable; still, many denied Paul's right to the apostleship. Accordingly, in this Epistle he first of

201

all gives an account of his ministry and opens his heart toward his converts, Acts 1-7; next, exhorts them to give liberally to the support of the church in Jerusalem, probably because this proof of Christian brotherhood would cure their local jealousies, chs. Acts 19:8-9; and lastly, he defends his apostolical character, chs. Acts 1:10-13.

It has been generally supposed, from 1 Cor 5:9, that there were more epistles to this church than these two, but how many cannot be determined. The two Epistles are singularly affectionate, although this church was sadly removed from the ideal.

CORIN'THUS, the Latin form of Corinth, which see. It occurs in the subscription to the Epistle to the Romans.

COR'MORANT (the plunger), a bird mentioned as unclean in Lev 11:17; Deut 14:17. In two other passages a word meaning the Pelican, which see, is translated "cormorant." The true cormorant is found along the salt and fresh waters of Syria, and is certainly a "plunger," so that there is no reason for a change in the passages of the Pentateuch, as some have suggested. These birds are as large as the raven, of a dark color, with long necks, webbed feet, feed upon fish, and are proverbial for their voracity. See cut on p. 203.

CORN . Mark 4:28. This word is generally applied in the United States to maize or Indian-corn, which it never means in the Bible, for that grain, like the Western continent, was, in scriptural times, as yet undiscovered. The English Bible uses the word as the general name for all sorts of cereals, such as wheat, barley, millet, and fitches, and of such cornfields only must we think. Oats are not known in Palestine, and rye is rarely, if ever, grown.

A "corn of wheat" is a kernel of wheat. The figurative use of the word "corn," usually in connection with wine and oil, is very frequent, as grain and wine and olives were the leading productions of the country. Deut 11:14; Deut 18:4; Deut 28:51; 2 Chr 32:28; Hos 2:22; Joel 2:19.

It is probable that grain was commonly used in its crude state in the early ages of the world. It was sometimes done in later times, Matt 12:1; and even now it is no uncommon thing, in passing a field of wheat, to pluck an ear, and, after rubbing the husk or beard off by rolling it between the hands, to eat the grain, which is very palatable, even in that state. The Jewish law permitted standing corn to be plucked by any one passing through it, Deut 23:25; and this custom, or right, is still respected in some parts of the East. See Mills.

The " parched corn" of the Bible, Lev 23:14; Ruth 2:14; 1 Sam 17:17, etc., corresponds to the kaly of the Arabs, and is obtained in the following manner: When wheat is being harvested, some of the green ears are thrown upon the coals of fire and roasted; they are but partially divested of the hull by rubbing between the hands, and are very much relished." Van Lennep.

CORNE'LIUS, a Roman centurion of the Italian cohort stationed at Caesarea, and the first heathen convert to Christianity. He was a Gentile by birth, but a God-fearing man, a half proselyte i.e. leaning to the Jewish religion, yet uncircumcised, and hence considered unclean. Acts 10:1. His prayers, being offered in the faith of a promised Messiah, were heard, and God sent Peter to make known to him the plan of salvation through a crucified and risen Redeemer. Thus the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles. Cornelius and his family were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Acts 10 and Rev 1:11.

COR'NER . According to the Mosaic law, it was forbidden to reap the corners of the field, so that there might be gleanings for the poor. Lev 19:9; Jer 23:22. The "corner of the house-top," Prov 21:9, is a narrow place exposed to sun and rain, contrasted with the wide room or house below. The word "corner" in the phrase "corners of Moab," or of any other country. Num 24:17; Jer 48:45, means the length and breadth of the country, and also of the world. "Corner of a bed," Am 3:12, the corner of a room, was on the elevated part (used by night for a bed or couch), and contained the most honorable seat. See Bed. In the passage last cited it figuratively denotes the most proud and luxurious of the Israelites in Samaria. In Zech 10:4 the word "corner" is used to denote either 202 the corner-stone or the most conspicuous part of a building, and evidently refers to Christ, Matt 21:42, where he is mentioned as "the head" (or chief ) "of the corner," though the Jews, in erecting the temple of their faith, rejected him as unfit for so important a place.

Corner-stone. Job 38:6. A massive stone placed at the foundation in the corner of a building, and binding the two walls together. Christ is called " the Corner-stone of the Church" because he gives strength and unity to the whole structure of God's house. Comp. Eph 2:20; 1 Pet 2:6; Matt 21:42; Rom 9:32-33; 1 Cor 1:23.

COR'NET. 1 Chr 15:28. An instrument of music about 18 inches long, used by the priests, and giving a loud, smooth sound.

CORRUP'TION, MOUNT OF. See Olives, Mount of.

COS. See Coos.

CO'SAM (a diviner), one of Christ's ancestors. Luke 3:28.

COT'TAGE. Isa 24:20. The same with tent or garden-hut.

COTTON is now grown in Syria and Palestine, and is preferred to linen for turbans and shirts. But there is no proof that the ancient Hebrews knew anything about it. The word occurs only in Esth 1:6, where the A.V. renders "green."

COUCH. See Bed.

COUN'CIL . There are three legal bodies called "councils" in the English N.T.

  1. The Sanhedrin, the supreme court of the Jews, the fountain of their government, which sat at Jerusalem. By this body Jesus was tried. Matt 26:59. See Sanhedrin.

  2. The lesser courts. Matt 10:17; Mark 13:9. One was in each town, but two in the capital. Josephus states that each court consisted of seven judges, with two Levites as assessors. The "judgment," Matt 5:21, probably applies to them.

  3. The "council" spoken of in Acts 25:12 was a kind of jury "composed of councillors appointed to assist and advise the Roman governors."

COUN'SELLOR. Luke 23:50. An ofiicer connected with the royal camp of the Jews; supposed to be referred to in 1 Kgs 12:6-12,

COURSE. See Abia.

COURT . See Temple, Dwellings.

COVENANT, an agreement or mutual obligation contracted deliberately and with solemnity. God's covenant with men signifies his solemn promise or engagement. Gen 17:14; Ex 34:10; Deut 4:13; Isa 59:21.

The Hebrew word for "making a covenant" signifies "a cutting," because covenants were often made by cutting animals in two and passing between their parts. Gen 15:10, 2 Sam 21:17; Jer 34:18.

The term "the covenants," Rom 9:4, refers to the various promises made to Abraham. God made a covenant with Noah and with Abraham.

The chief and most important use of the word, however, is in relation to the two great dispensations which are distinguished as the old and new, or as the covenant of the law and the covenant of the gospel. The former was made with the children of Israel through Moses, and rested much in the outward ceremonies and observances which the law enjoined (meats and drinks, and divers washings and carnal ordinances). The new covenant was made through Christ, sealed by his own blood, and secures to every believer the blessings of salvation and eternal life. Comp. Ex 20:24; Gal 3; Heb 8. The titles "Old and New Testaments" arose from the inaccurate rendering of the word "covenant" by testamentum in the Latin Vulgate.

Covenant of Salt. Num 18:19; 2 Chr 13:5. This term denotes a covenant in the sealing or ratification of which salt was used, which made it inviolable. Lev 2:13. See Salt.

COVET, Ex 20:17, COV'ETOUSNESS. Ex 18:21. To covet is to desire strongly. 1 Cor 12:31. When such a desire is felt for that which we cannot lawfully possess, it is sinful and becomes covetousness, which is idolatry, Col 3:5, for it is placing the heart and affections on the creature rather than on the Creator. Covetousness has relation commonly to riches, and, in the scriptural sense, includes the desire of accumulating, whatever may be the means. Prov 28:16; Eccl 5:10; Luke 12:15-34; 1 Tim 6:9-10.

COW, Isa 7:21. In this remark

203

Cormorant. (After Tristram.)

Crane. (After Tristram.) 204 able prophecy the event foretold is that the face of the land of Judah should be so completely changed, and the inhabitants so greatly reduced in number, that, with only a single young cow and two sheep, a family should be supplied with an abundance of milk and butter, and vineyards which before commanded a high rent should be overgrown with briers and thorns.

By the Levitical law, Lev 22:28, a cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day. A similar precept is found in Ex 23:19, and another in Deut 22:6-7. Whether they were designed to prevent inhumanity or referred to some heathen custom is uncertain. The cow is esteemed holy by the Hindoos.

COZ (thorn), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:8.

COZ'BI (lying), the daughter of a Midianite chief. She was slain by Phineas. Num 25:15, 1 Sam 30:18.

CRACK'NELS denotes crumbcakes, so called because of the "sharp noise made when breaking." 1 Kgs 14:3.

CRANE, next to the ostrich, the largest bird found in the Holy Land, measuring 4 feet in height and 7 feet from tip to tip of its extended wings. The crane (Grus cinerea) feeds upon frogs, fish, worms, insects, and sometimes vegetable substances. When upon the wing it is always noisy, and its cry is hoarse and melancholy; hence the allusion of Isa 38:14. These birds return in the spring with great regularity from their migrations, and flocks of thousands pass over Palestine. Jer 8:7.

CREATE', Ps 61:10, CREA'TOR, Eccl 12:1, CREA'TION. Mark 10:6. The word "creation" sometimes denotes all living things, and at others the act of creation. To create is to cause anything to exist that never existed in any form or manner before. Gen 1:1; Col 1:16. It is to make without materials to make of. Thus, "God said, Let there be light, and there was light." Gen 1:3.

The panorama of creation in the first two chapters of Genesis is the sublimest that can be found or conceived, and eminently worthy of God, and man as made in the image of God. Neither poetry nor science has been able, or will ever be able, to produce anything better. God must have revealed it to the writer in a retrospective vision. The Bible gives two accounts. Gen 1:1-2:3, and Gen 2:4-25. They supplement each other, and they differ as the names of God Elohim (used in the first) and Jehovah (used in the second) differ. The first refers to the creation of the whole universe, the second looks particularly to the creation of man and to the subsequent history of the fall and of redemption. The great object of the inspired writer in both was to show that God is the Author of all existence, that he made all things in beautiful order, and that he made them for his glory and for the use and dominion of man as the crowning work of his hands; that the God who created the universe is the same as the Jehovah of the history of the redemption of fallen man. The six days represent six indescribable divine works in six divine periods, ending in a divine rest. Gen 2:2-3.

The first work was the creation of light -i.e. the diffused cosmic light; the second, the organization of the physical heavens and the separation of the firmament from the earth; the third, the formation of the earth and the division of sea and land, with the creation of vegetable life; the fourth, the creation of the sun -i.e. the concentrated solar light-and the planetary system; the fifth, the creation of lower animal life in water and air; the sixth, the creation of higher animals on land, and the creation of man in the image of God. On the seventh day God rested from his creative work and entered upon his activity as the Preserver of all things, blessing his creatures and instituting the weekly day of rest for the benefit of body and soul. The first three days represent the era of matter, the next three days the era of life; the seventh day introduces the period of history, or of the moral world as distinct from the physical.

The six days of creation are not necessarily six literal days, but may be, and are probably, periods of indefinite length. The question is not what God could do (for one hour or one minute would suffice for his omnipotence), but in what manner he usually works. That 205 the word "day" is often used in a wider sense is evident from such expressions as the "day of the wicked," the "day of grace," the "day of judgment." To God a thousand years are as one day. Ps 90:4; 2 Pet 3:8. The narrative itself indicates such a wider use of the word; for the sun, that luminary which determines the solar day, was not created before the fourth day, and the seventh day, which represents the period of divine rest or preservation, has no evening. Gen 2:4. For a profound scholarly handling of this matter see Tayler Lewis's, "Special Introduction to the First Chapter of Genesis," part ii. pp. 131-135, in Lange's Commentary on Genesis (and his Six Days of Creation). He says: "It is not any duration, but the phenomenon, the appearing itself, that is called day." The Bible and science, nature and revelation, being the products of one and the same God, cannot contradict each other; and various attempts have been made to harmonize the Mosaic cosmogony with modern geology and astronomy by able Christian scientists (such as Prof. Guyot, Principal Dawson, and others). But it should be kept in mind that the Bible does not intend to teach science, but religion and the way of salvation. The great truths taught by Moses in the first two chapters of Genesis are obvious and independent of all science, as Guyot says: "A personal God calling into existence by his free, almighty will, manifested by his word, executed by his Spirit, things which had no being; a Creator distinct from his creation; a universe, not eternal, but which had a beginning in time; a creation successive-the six days-and progressive-beginning with the lowest element, matter, continuing by the plant and animal life, terminating by man, made in God's image; thus marking the great steps through which God, in the course of ages, has gradually realized the vast organic plan of the cosmos we now behold in its completeness, and which he declared to be very good,-these are the fundamental spiritual truths which have enlightened men of all ages on the true relations of God to his creation and to man. To understand them fully, to be comforted by them, requires no astronomy or geology. To depart from them is to relapse into the cold, unintelligent fatalism of the old pantheistic religions and modern philosophies, or to fall from the uppper regions of light and love infinite into the dark abysses of an unavoidable scepticism."

It is interesting to compare with the Mosaic cosmogony the old Assyrian tradition of the Creation, which has been brought to light by modern discovery.

These Chaldaean or Assyrian legends of the Creation have been discovered in a mutilated form, written upon twelve tablets, and are printed by the late Mr. George Smith in his Chaldaean Account of Genesis (London, 1876). He thus translates the fragments which contain the first part of the story: "When above were not raised the heavens, and below on the earth a plant had not grown up; the abyss also had not broken up their boundaries: the chaos (or water) Tiamat (the sea) was the producing mother of the whole of them. Those waters at the beginning were ordained; but a tree had not grown, a flower had not unfolded. When the gods had not sprung up, any one of them; a plant had not grown, and order did not exist; were made also the great gods, the gods Lahmu and Lahamu they caused to come . . . and they grew . . . the gods Sar and Kisar were made ... a course of days and a long time passed" (pp. 62, 63). Compare Gen 1:1-2.

The succeeding tablets are so broken that no connected story can be read from them until we come to the fifth, which gives an account of the fourth day of creation: "It was delightful, all that was fixed by the great gods. Stars, their appearance [in figures] of animals he arranged. To fix the year through the observation of their constellations, twelve months (or signs), of stars in three rows he arranged, from the day when the year commences unto the close. He marked the position of the wandering stars [planets] to shine in their courses, that they may not do injury, and may not trouble any one; the positions of the gods Bel and Hea he fixed with him. And he opened the great gates in the darkness shrouded-the fastenings were strong on the left and right. In its mass [i.e. the lower 206 chaos] he made a boiling, the god Urn [the moon] he caused to rise out, the night he overshadowed, to fix it also for the light of the night, until the shining of the day, that the month might not be broken, and in its amount be regular. At the beginning of the month, at the rising of the night, his horns are breaking through to shine on the heaven. On the seventh day to a circle he begins to swell, and stretches toward the dawn further" (pp. 69-71). Comp. Gen 1:14-19.

The seventh tablet is very imperfect, but the translation gives some interesting coincidences with Genesis: "When the gods in their assembly had created . . . were delightful the strong monsters . . . they caused to be living creatures . . . cattle of the field, beasts of the field, and creeping things of the field . . . they fixed for the living creatures . . . cattle and creeping things of the city they fixed . . . the assembly of the creeping things the whole which were created . . , which in the assembly of my family . . . and the god Ninsi-ku (the lord of noble face) caused to be two . . . the assembly of the creeping things he caused to go ... " (pp. 76,77). Comp. Gen 1:24-25.

The tablets which relate the creation of man are unhappily so mutilated that the sense is totally uncertain, but the first fragment appears to give the speech of the Deity to the newly-created pair, and on the reverse a particular address to the woman. Then follow more tablets relating the Fall.

Prof. Oppert read before the congress of Orientalists in Florence (1878) a translation of the Assyrian tablets relating to the Creation and the Fall, which differs greatly from the above-given translation of Mr. George Smith. The mutilated condition of the tablets, together with the uncertainty of many of the meanings, easily accounts for the differences. We give, by way of comparison, Prof. Oppert's translation of the tablet on which the fourth creative day is described:

  1. "He distributed the stations of the great gods, seven in number,

  2. And fixed the stars, the mansions of the seven lumari (i.e. fixed stars regulating the celestial movements).

  3. He created the perpetual renewal of the year and divided it into thirty six decades.

  4. For each of the twelve months he fixed three stars.

  5. From the day of the beginning of the year until its close

  6. He fixed the station of the god Nibiru that their circles (of days) might be perpetually renewed.

  7. In order to prevent either shortening or interruption

  8. The stations of Bel and Hea he fixed with it,

  9. And he spread the three gates on the limbs of the angles.

  10. He made a sigar on the right and on the left:

  11. At the four exteriors he established staircases.

  12. The moon was appointed to betray the night,

  13. And he made it renew itself to hide the night and make day perpetual;

  14. (Saying): 'Every month with daybreak accomplish thy circle.

  15. In the beginning of the month the night will reign;

  16. Thy horns will be invisible, for the heaven is renewed.

  17. The seventh day thy disk will be filled up on the left,

  18. But open in darkness will remain the half on the right.

  19. (In the middle of the month) the sun will be on the horizon of the sky at thy rising.

  20. (In splendor may thy form reign and make . . .

  21. (Hence go back) and turn thyself toward the way of the sun.

  22. (Then will change) the darkness: to the sun return,

  23. . . . seek her ways . . .

  24. (Rise and) set according to the eternal laws.'"

The account of the Creation upon these tablets is manifestly confused. How different the account in Genesis, which bears throughout the impress of truth! The Bible contains the revealed order of events; the tablets have only the traditional, and in part purely fanciful, story to tell.

CREDITOR. See Loan.

CRES'CENS (growing), a Christian of whom Paul speaks in 2 Tim 4:10.

CRETE, now Candia, a large island 207 in the Mediterranean Sea, midway between Syria and Italy. It is about 140 miles long by 35 miles wide. Its surface is mountainous, the classic Mount Ida being one of its peaks, but there are fertile valleys. It was formerly possessed by a rich and powerful people; Virgil speaks of its hundred cities. But the people were proverbially liars, Tit 1:12-a character they are said still to bear. "Homer dates all the fictions of Ulysses from Crete, as if he meant to pass a similar censure on the Cretans to that quoted by Paul-Kp^re? ael \jjev(Trai." -COWPER: Odyssey, b. xiii. Cretans were at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:11; Paul was shipwrecked near the island, and he left Titus there as the first pastor and superintendent, who was "to ordain elders in every city" of the island. Tit 1:5. It is now under the tyranny of the Turks, but thoroughly Greek in nationality and sympathy, and will probably ere long be annexed to the kingdom of Greece. It is supposed to have been first settled by the Philistines. See Gaphtorim.

CRIB,a stall for cattle or fodder, Prov 14:4; Job 39:9; Isa 1:3; or perhaps simply the manger out of which the cattle were to eat.

CRIM'SON. Jer 4:30. See Colors.

CRISP'ING-PINS. The word is not properly translated in Isa 3:22, for it denotes a reticule, probably richly ornamented.

CRIS'PUS. Acts 18:8. An officer of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth. He and his family were converted under Paul's preaching, and he received the ordinance of baptism at the apostle's hands. 1 Cor 1:14.

CROSS, CRUCIFY. Matt 23:34; Matt 27:32. Crucifixion is a mode of execution of great antiquity, and still prevails among the Hindoos and Chinese. It was regarded by the Romans as the basest and most ignominious death, deserved only by traitors and slaves. Luke 23:32. It was an accursed death. Deut 21:23; Gal 3:13. Hence the force of the expressions 1 Cor 1:23; Phil 2:8; Heb 12:2. As soon as the sentence was pronounced, "Thou shalt be crucified," the person was stripped and fastened to a post about as high as the waist, and was then scourged with rods or whips made of leather strips armed with small bits of lead or bone, and often so severely as to occasion death. After the scourging the person was compelled to bear his own cross to the place of execution. This was usually an elevated place without the city, and near the highway.

There are three forms of the cross-one in which the two pieces of wood cross below the top, one in which they are placed one on the top of the other, and one in which they are placed diagonally:

Three Forms of the Cross.

The first is the usual form; the second' is probably the oldest.

The monogram of Christ used by the early Christians and by Constantine represents the cross with the initials of the name of Christ (the X and the P), thus:

The cross was so fixed into the earth that the feet of the sulferer were usually about 2 feet from the ground. In or near the middle of the upright post there was a projection, to which he was raised by cords; and being previously divested of his clothing, he was first bound to the cross-beam, and then nailed by his hands, with strong iron spikes, to its extremities. There is conclusive evidence from profane history that the hands were pierced in this way, and that it was peculiar to the punishment of crucifixion, but whether the feet were 208 nailed separately, or whether a single nail transfixed them both, or whether they were merely tied to the beam by a cord, is doubtful. In order to lessen the pain, it was customary to give the sufferer wine medicated with myrrh, etc. Our Redeemer rejected this draught, Mark 15:23, choosing to suffer to the full extent the pains of death. Vinegar, too, was a refreshing and sustaining drink, and was offered to him. Matt 27:48. The criminal was fastened to the cross by four soldiers appointed for the purpose, who were allowed the apparel of the sufferer as the perquisite of their office. Matt 27:35.

Over the cross was commonly placed a writing or superscription, indicating the offence for which the individual was put to death. It was called by the Romans titulus, or the title. John 19:19-22.

Among the Romans the prisoner often remained upon the cross till his body fell to the earth by its own weight, but the Jews were permitted, in obedience to the precept of their law, Deut 21:22-23, to terminate the sufferings of the malefactor before sundown. This was effected in various ways-sometimes by setting fire to the foot of the cross, and at others by breaking the limbs with a hammer or piercing the body with a lance. John 19:31-37. The agonies of this death were extreme. Cicero says: "The executioner, the covering of the head, the very name of the cross, should be removed afar, not only from the body, but from the thoughts, the eyes, the ears, of Roman citizens; for of all these things, not only the actual occurrence and endurance, but the very contingency and expectation-nay, the mention itself-is unworthy of a Roman citizen and a freeman." The judges denominated it "the utmost torment, the extremest punishment."

The extension of the limbs just after so severe a scourging, and the impossibility of making the slightest motion without occasioning suffering, the piercing of the hands and feet in the parts most susceptible of acute and agonizing pain, the exposure of the wounded and lacerated flesh to the action of the sun and air hour after hour, the loss of blood, and the sense of the indignity and contempt, which, as shown to our Saviour, was the most bitter, malicious, and unsparing that can be conceived,-all conspired to make it, to the very last degree, a death of pain. Often the strength of the malefactor lingered for three days, and even longer. Hence the surprise of Pilate. Mark 15:44.

The figure of a cross has often been represented on the banners of contending armies, thus:

With the conversion of the Roman empire, the cross, from a sign of shame, became a sign of honor. It reminds us of the great price of our salvation, and points the true way to immortality and glory: "No cross, no crown."

The cross is often used figuratively for those reproaches, self-denials, and sacrifices which the true followers of Christ must be expected to endure if they faithfully maintain their profession. Matt 16:24.

The classic work upon the cross and the crucifixion of Jesus is Justus Lipsius's (d. 1606) De Cruce, 1595. But in 1878, Herman Fulda, pastor near Halle, Germany, issued a work entitled Das Kreuz und die Kreuzigung, which maintains that Lipsius and all his followers are wrong. This statement he fortifies by a fresh examination of the sources. According to Fulda, the cross of Jesus was a post. His hands were nailed on either side of it; his feet, the knees being much bent, were fastened by a stout cord to this post, but not nailed, and they, together with the nailed hands, supported the 209 body. Owing to haste, he deems it probable that the customary "seat" fastened to the cross as a partial support was wanting. Fulda finds in this extremely painful position one reason for the speedy death of Jesus, which occasioned Pilate's incredulity.

CROWN. 2 Kgs 11:12. Anciently the crown or diadem was only a headband, Eze 16:12, or a ribbon or fillet, made of silk or linen, surrounding the head, and probably connected behind. Crowns arose probably from the natural custom of wearing wreaths of flowers on occasions of joy and festivity, or else from the custom of binding the hair to prevent its dishevelment by the wind. Ex 28:36-37; Ex 29:6. We find it represented on ancient medals. Newly married persons of both sexes wore crowns. Comp. Song of Solomon 3:11 with Eze 16:12. It was usually a badge of royalty or princely distinction. It was sometimes of pure gold, and was worn by kings, 2 Chr 23:11; Matt 27:29, and sometimes in battle. 2 Sam 1:10; 2 Sam 12:30. The weight, in the last passage, denotes the value, and not the

Crowns. (After Ayre.) 1. Crown of Upper Egypt. 2. Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt United, 3. Assyrian Crown, from Nineveh Marbles. 4. Laurel Crown. 5. Crown of Herod the Great. 6. Crown of Aretas, King of Arabia.

gravity, of the crown. Afterward the shape and size were changed, and costly ornaments appended to it. 2 Sam 12:30. It was worn by queens. Esth 2:17. It was customary for a king to wear as many crowns as he had kingdoms. Rev 19:12. The word is figuratively used by the sacred writers to denote honor, Prov 12:4, prosperity, Lam 5:16, eternal life, and blessedness. 1 Pet 5:4. The inscription on the crown of the high priest, Ex 39:30, was significant of his sacred office and functions. Such inscriptions have sometimes been placed on the crowns of princes and heroes to indicate some splendid action or service. Paul uses the custom of giving crowns of laurel or parsley to the victors in the Greek games to furnish an illustration of the difference between the honor of earthly distinction and that which comes from following Christ. In Rev 17:5 allusion seems to be made to the crown of the Jewish high priest, whose raiment is described as having the colors and ornaments of the sacred vestments. It is said that the word mystcrium ("mystery") was formerly engraven on the papal crown, and was erased in the time of Julius III.

The "crown of thorns" worn by Christ, Matt 27:29, was probably made of a common Arabian plant, called ??uabk??, which has "many small and sharp spines, soft, round, pliant branches, leaves much resembling ivy, of a very deep green, as if in designed mockery of a victor's wreath."-Hasselquist, quoted in Ayre: Treasury of Bible Knowledge. The soldiers plaited the wreath for Christ rather as an insult than to cause him suffering.

CRU'CIFY. See Cross.

CRUSE. 1 Kgs 17:12. A small vessel for liquids, used by the Jews.

CRYS'TAL. Job 28:17. The word here rendered "crystal" is used nowhere else, and is believed to mean "glass," which was made by the ancient Egyptians and highly valued. Elsewhere the subject of this paragraph usually denotes ice or frost, and the original term is often so translated, as "frost," Gen 31:40; Job 37:10; Jer 36:30; and "ice." Job 6:16; Job 38:29; Ps 147:17. In Eze 1:22, rock-crystal, a stone perfectly transparent and resembling the purest glass, was plainly meant, and there may be reference to the peculiarly dazzling effect of light reflected from its surface. The ancients supposed that this mineral was only "ice congealed by intense cold," and valued it highly for its great beauty. Its transparency is alluded to in Rev 4:6; Rev 21:11; Rev 22:1. 210 CU'BIT. See Measures.

CUCK'OO. Lev 11:16. Doubtless a mistranslation. It is thought most probable that "the slender bird" here referred to may have been a species of shearwater (Puffins), several kinds of which are common on the coast of Palestine, are sold in the markets of maritime towns, and, as living on fish, would be forbidden food to the Jews.

CU'CUMBER. Num 11:5. A garden-vegetable well known in this counrty.

Squirting Cucumber. (From Eiehm.) c. Section of the Fruit. a. Plant. b. Fruit.

Cucumbers, melons, and onions are now among the leading productions of Egypt, and are also commonly cultivated in Palestine. Besides our own kind, another (Cucumis chafe) is cultivated, having a fruit with less flavor, but larger.

"Cucumbers form an important item in the summer food of the poor, and are eaten with the rind on, without any condiment. In the oppressive heat of summer they form a most grateful vegetable. I remember seeing dinner served out to an Arab school in Jerusalem, which consisted of a thin barley-cake and a raw cucumber to each boy."-Tristram.

The "lodge in the garden of cucumbers," Isa 1:8, rudely constructed of poles and boughs, may still be seen in many fields. It is intended to shelter a watchman set to protect the fruit from jackals and other animals, as well as from thievish men. When the crop is over and the lodge forsaken by the keeper, "the poles fall down, or lean every which way, and those green boughs with which it is shaded will have been scattered by the wind, leaving only a ragged, sprawling wreck, a most affecting type of utter desolation."-Thoinson. Job seems to have had such ruins in mind. Job 27:18.

CUM'MIN. Matt 23:23. A low herb (Cuminum sativum) of the fennel kind, which produces aromatic seeds and is found in Syria. In Isa 28:25, Gen 1:27 reference is made to the manner of sowing and threshing it. The same method is observed in Malta at this day. It was one of the things of less consequence which the Pharisees strictly tithed. See Mint.

CUN'NING is used in the Bible in its original sense of "knowing," "skilful." Gen 25:27; 1 Sam 16:16, etc. In 2 Pet 1:16 the word "cunningly" is used in a similar sense.

CUP. 1 Kgs 7:26. The horns of animals were anciently used by some nations as drinking-vessels, but the Jews had cups and goblets at a very early period, Gen 44:2, though they used horns for anointing-oil. 1 Sam 16:13. Some of their cups were highly ornamented, 1 Kgs 7:26, and in shape were probably not unlike those now used for culinary purposes by the Egyptians. Cups of this kind, made of gold, silver, copper, etc., according to the owner's wealth, are in use in Persia at this day.

Assyrian King and Cup-bearer.

The figurative use of this word in the Scriptures is frequent. Generally, however 211 , it represents the blessings or the judgments of Heaven, or the allotments of God's providence. Ps 23:5; Ps 75:8; Ps 116:13; Isa 51:17-22. Comp. Jer 25:15 and Jer 51:7 with Rev 14:10 and Rev 16:10. The sufferings of our Saviour are also represented bv a similar figure. Matt 20:22 and Matt 26:39.

CUP'-BEARER. See Butler.

CUP OF BLESSING. See Blessing.

CURSE. Gen 27:12. In the scriptural use it is the opposite of bless.

To curse is to imprecate evil upon any one. Gen 9:25; comp. Gen 27:12; Neh 13:2; Matt 5:44; John 7:49:James 3:9. The curses which are recorded in the Bible as being pronounced by Noah, Moses, Joshua, and others, are not to be regarded as the effects of passion or revenge. They were either pronounced under the immediate influence of God's Spirit, or are to be viewed as only predictions of evil uttered in the form of imprecation.

The words "curse" and "cursed" are the opposite of "bless" and "blessed," and are often so contrasted. Deut 28. See Bless. The curse of the ground and of the serpent. Gen 3:14, 2 Sam 21:17, is to be regarded as the doom or judgment of God upon them.

The curse of the Law is the sentence of condemnation which it pronounces on the transgressor, Gal 3:10, and from which Christ redeems us by "being made a curse for us." Gal 3:13; comp. Rom 8:1 and Gal 3:13 with Rom 5:16 and 2 Cor 3:7-9.

To curse, in an evil or blasphemous sense, is to affirm or deny anything with thoughtless or rash imprecations of divine vengeance. Matt 26:74.

CUSH (black?).

  1. The oldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod. Gen 10:6, 7, 8; 1 Chr 1:8-10.

  2. A Benjamite in the time of Saul. Ps 7, title.

CUSH.

  1. A country near the Gihon, Gen 2:13, marg., north of Assyria.

  2. The country peopled by Cush or the Ethiopians, Gen 10:6, lying to the south of Egypt, on the upper Nile, and possibly extending its rule into southern Arabia. See Ethiopia.

CU'SHAN. Hab 3:7. Perhaps the same as Cush, though some think it refers to the king Chushan-rishathaim.

CU'SHI (the Ethiopian). 1. One to whom Joab intrusted the news of the defeat and death of Absalom. 2 Sam 18:21-23, 2 Sam 18:31-32.

  1. An ancestor of Jehudi. Jer 36:14.

  2. The father of Zephaniah the prophet. Zeph 1:1.

CUSH'ITE. See Cush.

CUS'TOM, RECEIPT OF. See Publican.

CUTH, AND CU'THAH. 2 Kgs 17:24, 1 Kgs 20:30. A city of Assyria, 15 miles north-east of Babylon, where the name Cutha is inscribed upon bricks of Nebuchadnezzar's age. At Cutha was the great university from whence the originals of the tablets giving an Assyrian account of the Creation were brought by Assurbanipal. II. Rassam, a distinguished Assyrian scholar, in 1879 attempted to discover the site of the royal record-office and to re-explore these ruins of Cutha.

CUT'TINGS IN THE FLESH. This repulsive practice, common among idolaters, ancient and modern, originates in the notion that pain and blood please the angry deity. Cutting with a knife also formed a part of a funeral ceremony. It would seem that the Syrians were particularly addicted to the custom; accordingly, the Israelites were strongly forbidden thus to mutilate themselves. Comp. Lev 19:28; Deut 14:1; 1 Kgs 18:28; Jer 16:6.

CYM'BALS. There are two kinds of cymbals, both of which we find mentioned in Ps 150:5. The first kind, called the "loud cymbals," like castanets, consisted of small round plates, two of which are held in each hand, one upon the thumb and the other upon the middle finger, and being struck together skilfully make an agreeable sound. The second kind, called the "high-sounding cymbals," were two broad convex plates of brass, the concussion of which produced a shrill, piercing sound, like clattering rather than tinkling. 1 Cor 13:1. The cymbals were used in connection with other instruments, not only in the temple or on sacred occasions, but in times of war and as a musical accompaniment to Hebrew women in dancing. Both kinds are in common use to-day in the East.

CY'PRESS. Isa 44:14. The 212 Hebrew word indicates a tree with hard-grained wood, but there are objections to the true cypress, and there is no certainty what it was. It may have been the Syrian juniper, which grows wild upon Lebanon, as the cypress never does in the Holy Land. The latter tree (Cupressus sempervirens) is a tall evergreen, the wood of which is heavy, aromatic, and remarkably durable. Its foliage is dark and gloomy, its form close and pyramidal, and it is usually planted in the cemeteries of the East. Coffins were made of it in the East, and the mummy-cases of Egypt are found at this day of the cypress-wood. The timber has been known to suffer no decay by the lapse of 1100 years.

CY'PRUS, a large, fertile island of the Mediterranean Sea, triangular in form, 150 miles long, and from 50 to 60 miles broad. Venus was its chief goddess; hence her name Cypria. It contained two prominent cities, Salamis and Paphos, and 17 towns. Salamis was at the east and Paphos at the west end of the island. Acts 13:5. Barnabas was a native of Cyprus, and its people are noticed in apostolic history. Acts 4:36; Acts 13:4; Acts 15:39. Sergius Paulus, proconsul of Cyprus, was converted by Paul on his first missionary-tour, Acts 13:7 ff., and thus became the first Christian ruler on record.

History.-Cyprus was colonized by the Phoenicians at a very early date. It was the Chittim, or Kittim, of the O.T. Num 24:24. Through Greek colonists it received the name of Kypros, perhaps from the plant cyprus (henna-Lawsonia alba. See Camphire). Copper-mining and the production of swords, armor, and other articles in bronze were its principal industries. There was also an extensive commerce. In literature, Cyprus boasted of very early distinction. Thothmes III

Map of Cyprus.

of Egypt conquered the island. At a later period Belus, king of Tyre, destroyed most of its cities. Sargon made it tributary to Assyria, b.c. 707; Apries, king of Egypt (the Pharaoh of Scripture), plundered it. Later, it was tributary to Darius. The Athenians and Lacedemonians conquered part of Cyprus from the Persians, b.c. 477. Alexander the Great was aided by 120 ships from this island in his siege of Tyre, b.c. 335. In b.c. 294 the island was a dependency of Egypt. Cato took possession of it for the Romans. Cicero was proconsul there, b.c. 52. The Byzantine emperors and the Arabs successively held sway. Cyprus was a frequent halting place of the Crusaders. Richard I, of England captured it in A.D. 1191, and sold it to the Knights Templars. Later, the Genoese and Venetians held the island. The Turks dispossessed the Venetians a.d. 1570, and have retained their mastery for more than 300 years. The control of Cyprus was secured in 1878 by the English government as a naval station and base of operation for the protection of Asiatic Turkey and the 213 Indian government. The recent excavations and discoveries of General Cesnola have brought to light a vast number of antiquities and works of art of Phoenician, Egyptian, Greek, and specific Cypriotic characters, which are deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of New York. See Cesnola: Cyprus, its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples, New York. 1878.

CYRE'NE, the capital of a small province, and the chief city of Libya, in northern Africa. It was the centre of a wide district between Carthage and Egypt, and corresponding to modern Tripoli. It was a Grecian city, founded about b.c. 631. Under Alexander the Great the Jews were about one-fourth of the population, and were granted citizenship on the same terms as Greeks. At Alexander's death it was attached to Egypt; became a Roman province in b.c. 75; Simon, who bore our Saviour's cross, was of that city, Matt 27:32; its people were at Jerusalem during the Pentecost, and they had a synagogue there, Acts 2:10; Acts 6:9, and some of them became preachers of the gospel. Acts 11:20; Acts 13:1. Cyrene was destroyed by the Saracens in the fourth century, and is now desolate.

CYRE'NIANS. See Cyrene.

CYRE'NIUS(Kyrenios),the Greek form of the Roman name Quirinius. Luke 2:2. He was probably twice governor of Syria-the first time from b.c. 4 (the year of our Lord's birth) to B.C. 1, and again from a.d. 6 to 11. It was during his first governorship that the "first taxing" or enrolment occurred, which necessitated the visit of Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem. The second census took place a.d. 6, and is mentioned by Luke in Acts 5:37 and by Josephus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinius. See axing, Days of the.

CY'RUS(the sun; in Hebrew, Koresh), founder of the Persian empire, a prince, statesman, and conqueror of great renown, and an instrument employed by Jehovah in the execution of his designs of mercy toward the Jews, as foretold by Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-7; comp. 2 Chr 36:22-23; Ezr 1:1-4; Dan 6:28. He was the son of Cambyses, king of Persia, and a nephew of Darius the Mede (Cyaxares), and united the crowns of Persia and Media. His chief biographers (Xenophon and Herodotus) present his history and exploits in very different aspects. His conquests extended over all western

Reputed Tomb of Cyrus.

Asia, but the most brilliant of them was that of Babylon, b.c. 538. After this event he ordered a return of the Jews, who had been 70 years in captivity, to their own land, and furnished them very liberally with the means of rebuilding their temple. Daniel lived at his court, and was his favorite minister and adviser. Dan 6:28. His edict for the rebuilding of the temple may be said to mark the beginning of strict Judaism, for the Jews from that time became consolidated ecclesiastically under the government of the Sanhedrin. Cyrus died from a wound received in battle, b.c. 529. His reputed tomb still exists, near Murgab, the ancient Pasargadae.-Rawlinson: Ancient Monarchies, vol. iii. p. 318. The captivity of the Jews, which was ended by the decease of Cyrus, ended also the sin of idolatry in the nation.

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