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B.

BA'AL, or BEL, or BE'LUS (lord, or master), different forms of the name of the supreme male divinity of the Phoenicians and Canaanites,as Ashtoreth was that of their supreme female divinity. 1 Kgs 18:21; Isa 46:1; 1 Sam 12:10; 1 Kgs 11:33. That the divinities were derived from astrological fancies there is little doubt, but it is a question with what pair of the heavenly bodies we are to identify them. The common opinion is that they represent the sun and moon respectively, while other scholars say they are Jupiter and Venus. The license sanctioned — indeed, demanded — by their worship may have given it attractiveness. At all events, it spread among the Jews, being introduced into Israel by Jezebel and by her daughter into Judaea. Many and severe were the judgments required to eradicate it.

Baal side of an Altar from a temple in Kunawat (Canatha), east of the Jordan.

The frequent use of the word Baal in the plural form, Baalim, e.g. Jud 2:11; Jud 10:10;1 Kgs 18:18; Jer 9:14; Hos 2:13, 2 Sam 21:17, proves probably that he was worshipped under his different modifications. Hence several compounds exist.

  1. Ba'al-be'rith (covenant lord), the form of Baal worshipped by the Shechemites after Gideon's death. Jud 8:33; Jud 9:4.

  2. Ba'al-pe'or (lord of the opening, an allusion to the character of the rites of worship), the form of Baal-worship in Moab and Midian shared in by the Israelites. Num 25:3, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Sam 30:18; Deut 4:3; Josh 22:17; Ps 106:28; Hos 9:10.

  3. Ba'al-ze'bub (lord of the fly), the form of Baal worshipped at Ekron. 2 Kgs 1:2-3, 1 Chr 24:6, Ex 17:16.

Human victims were offered to Baal. Jer 19:5. Elevated places were selected for his worship, and his priests and prophets were very numerous. Sometimes the tops of the houses were devoted to this purpose. 2 Kgs 23:12; Jer 32:29. See High Places.

The worship of Baal by the ancient Druids was probably general throughout the British Islands. One of the Druidic yearly festivals and deemed of special importance took place in the beginning of May, which was the first month of their year, and called Be'el-tin, or "fire of God." A large fire was kindled on some elevated spot in honor of the sun, whose returning beneficence they thus welcomed after the gloom of winter. Of this custom a trace remains in "Beltin Day" (or Whitsunday) in many of the Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland. In the Lowlands the same name was retained till a comparatively recent date.

House of Ba'al 1 Kgs 16:32. Is the same with the temple (or place of worship) of Baal. See particularly 2 Kgs 10:21-28.

BA'AL (lord).

  1. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:5.

  2. A Benjamite, a relative of Saul. 1 Chr 8:30;1 Chr 9:36.

BA'AL(lord, or master), a city of Simeon, 1 Chr 4:33; called also Bealoth, Baalath-Beer. Knobel and Wilton locate it at Kurnub; Conder at Umm Bagblek. "Baal" is also used as a prefix to the names of several places, given below.

BA'ALAH (mistress).

  1. Another name for Kirjath-jearim, Josh 15:9-10, and for Baale of Judah, 2 Sam 6:2, and for Kirjath-Baal in Judah. Josh 15:60; Josh 18:14. See Kirjath-jearim.

  2. A place in Judah, Josh 15:29, the same as Balah, Josh 19:3, and Bilhah, 1 Chr 4:29 now Dier-el-Belak, near Gaza,

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  1. Ba'alah, Mount. Josh 16:11. Either the same as No. 1, or possibly a mountain in the north-western part of Judah.

BA'ALATH, a town in Dan, Josh 19:44; probably the same that was fortified by Solomon. 1 Kgs 9:18; 2 Chr 8:6. Conder proposes to identify it with the ruin Bel'ain, in Wady Deir Ballat; Canon Cook suggests it may be near Mount Baalah, or modern Yebna.

BA'ALATH-BE'ER (lord of the well). Josh 19:8. See Bealoth.

BAALBEC' or BAALBEK (bul'bek), a magnificent city of Coele Syria, and called by the Greeks Heliopolis, or "city of the Sun." It is situated in a plain near the foot of the Anti-Libanus range, about 42 miles north-west of Damascus and 3800 feet above the level of the sea. Its origin and early history are unknown. It is now famous for its colossal ruins, consisting chiefly of two magnificent temples. The lesser of the two was 225 feet in length by 120 feet in breadth; it was surrounded by rows of immense columns, 45 feet high, standing about 9 feet from the temple walls, the distance between the columns being from 8 to 12 feet. Robinson counted 19 of these columns still in place in 1852. The larger temple, that of the Sun, was an immense structure, 324 feet long, and was surrounded by a peristyle of 54 vast Corinthian columns, about 7 feet in diameter, and, including capital and pedestal, 89 feet high. Over these Corinthian capitals the temple was bordered with a frieze. The temples were constructed of limestone or marble and granite. Some of the stones used in them are 64 feet long and 12 feet thick. The temple of the Sun was built by Antoninus Pius, about a.d. 150.

Baalbec has been identified by some

Columns of Great Temple.

Ruins of Baalbec.

with Baal-gad, Josh 11:17; Acts 12:7; Josh 13:5; by others with Baalath or Baal-hamon, but these identifications are uncertain, and the last is very improbable.

BA'ALE OF JUDAH, a name of Kirjath-jenrim. See Baalah. 1.

BA'AL-GAD (troop of Baal), the northern limit of Joshua's conquests,

Temple of the Sun. (From Photographs.)

Josh 11:17; Acts 12:7; Josh 13:5; probably the modern Banias (Caesarea-Philippi, Matt 16:13), though some suppose it to be the famous Baalbec.

BA'AL-HA'MON (multitude of Baal). Cant. 8:11. The place can only be conjectured; some identify it with Baalbec, others with Balamon, in the 90 mountains of Ephraim, north of Samaria.

BA'AL-HA'ZOR (Baal's village), where Absalom killed Amnon. 2 Sam 13:23.

BA'AL-HER'MON, Jud 3:3; 1 Chr 5:23; one of the three peaks of Mt. Hermon, or perhaps Suheibeh.

BA'ALI (my lord) occurs in Hos 2:16, The verse retranslated reads: "Thou shalt call me My husband, and shalt no more call me My Baal." Baali is used in a twofold sense: first, My Baal, the name of the principal god of the Canaanites; and second, My lord, a usual name for husband. The idea of the verse is that so wholly devoted to Jehovah shall Israel be that she will not apply to him even a word which suggests the former idolatry.

BA'ALIM, the plural form of Baal, which see.

BA'ALIS (son of exaltation), a king of the Ammonites. Jer 40:14.

BA'AL-ME'ON, a town built by the Reubenites, Num 32:38; 1 Chr 5:8; "a glory" of the Moabites, Eze 25:9; called also Beth-baal-meon, Josh 13:17, Beth-meon, Jer 48:23, and perhaps Beon, Num 32:3; now called Ma'in, 9 miles south-west of Hashan, where extensive ruins are still found.

BA'AL-PER'AZIM (lord of defeats), a place in the valley of Rephaim, 2 Sam 5:20; 1 Chr 14:11; same as Mount Perazim, near the valley of Gibeon. Isa 28:21.

BA'AL-SHAL'ISHA. 2 Kgs 4:42. The English Survey proposed to identify it with Sirisia, 13 miles north of Lydda. Conder favors Kefr Thilth.

BA'AL-TA'MAR (lord of palm trees), a place near Gibeah, Jud 20:33; possibly the same as the palm tree of Deborah, Jud 4:5, and known later as Beth-tamar.

BA'AL-ZE'PHON. Ex 14:2; Num 33:7. A place near the head, or on the western shore, of the Gulf of Suez where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea. Dr. Ebers identifies it with Mount Atakah, near Suez; Dr. Brugsch, with less probability, proposes Mount Casius, on the Mediterranean, as the site of Baal-zephon. It was south of Migdol and west of Suez.

BA'ANA, or BA'ANAH (sun of affliction).

  1. One of the sons of Rimmon, and an officer in the army of Ishbosheth, Saul's son. In company with his brother Rechab, he entered the house of Ish-bosheth at noonday and stabbed him as he was lying upon the bed. Taking the head of their victim with them, they fled to David at Hebron, supposing that he would reward them liberally, but, so far from it, he, indignant at their cruel and cowardly conduct, caused them to be slain, their hands and feet to be cut off, and their bodies to be publicly suspended over the pool at Hebron. 2 Sam 4:2, 2 Sam 4:5-6,Gal 1:9.

2, The father of one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:29; 1 Chr 11:30.

3, 4. Two of Solomon's ofiicers for provision. 1 Kgs 4:12, Ex 17:16.

  1. One of Zerubbabel's company on the Return. Ezr 2:2; Neh 7:7.

  2. The father of a repairer of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 3:4. Probably also mentioned in Neh 10:27 as sealing the covenant.

BA'ARA (brutish), a wife of Shaharaim. a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:8.

BAASE'IAH (work of Jehovah), a Gershouite Levite, and an ancestor of the psalmist Asaph. 1 Chr 6:40,

BA'ASHA (valor), son of Ahijah, of the tribe of Issachar, third king of Israel, and founder of a dynasty, was probably of common birth, 1 Kgs 16:2, but rose to the throne by his slaughter of Nadab, king of Israel, and all his family while the king was besieging Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines. 1 Kgs 15:27. By this cruel act he undesignedly fulfilled the prophecy respecting Jeroboam's posterity. 1 Kgs 14:10. He followed in the wicked ways of Jeroboam, and was visited with the most fearful judgments of God. The warning he received of the consequences of his conduct, 1 Kgs 16:1-5, did not induce him to forsake his evil courses. He attempted to fortify Ramah, but was stopped by the attack of Ben-hadad at Asa's prompting, 1 Kgs 15:16-21; 2 Chr 16:1-6. He reigned twenty-four years, b.c. 953-930. His reign was filled with war and treachery, and his family and relatives were cut off according to the prediction.1 Kgs 16:3-11. See Asa.

BA'BEL (confusion), a city founded by Nimrod

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ed by Nimrod as the beginning of his kingdom, Gen 10:10; built on the phiin of Shinar. See Babylon.

BABEL, TOWER OF, named only once in the Bible, and then as incomplete. Gen 11:4, 1 Chr 6:5. It was built in the plain of Shinar, of burnt bricks, with "slime" (probably bitumen) for

Birs Nimrfld Reconstructed. (After Layard.)

mortar. Jewish traditions and early profane writers say that the tower was destroyed. The captive Jews at Babylon imagined they recognized it, however, in the famous temple of Belus, which some would identify with the temple of Nebo at Borsippa, the modern Birs Nimrud. Rawlinson thinks that Birs Nimrud cannot be identical with either the temple of Belus or the tower of Babel, but concedes that it may be used to show the probable form of the Babel tower. The Birs Nimrud is one of the most striking ruins on the plain, and is 6 miles southwest of Hillah, on the Euphrates. This immense mound is about 2300 feet in circumference and 235 to 250 feet high, and was built of burnt bricks, each brick being 12 inches square and 4 inches thick. Several of them bear an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar. The tower is represented as in the form of a pyramid, built in seven receding stories, each placed upon the south-western side of the one below, and each of the first three being 26 feet high, each of the last four being 15 feet high. On the seventh story was a temple or ark, perhaps with a statue of the god Belus. George Smith, the Assyriologist (and the Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. iii. p. 155, ninth edition, adopts Smith's view), says, "The Birs Nimrud is most probably the tower of Babel of the book of Genesis." Mr. Smith describes another ruin called Babil or Mujelliha as the one which in his view covers the site of the temple of Belus, and the great tower of Babylon (not Babel). Birs Nimrud seems to have been a temple dedicated to the heavenly bodies, and the inscriptions on cylinders found there record that Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the edifice after it had been left unfinished by others. Further excavations may solve these unsettled questions. See Rawlinson's Herodotus, and George Smith's Assyrian Discoveries, 1875. BAB'YLON (Greek form of Babel), the noted capital of the Chaldaean and

Plan of Babylon,

showing the largest extent, as given by Herodotus, and the smaller, quoted by

Ctesias, with the ruins according to Oppcrt.

Babylonian empires, situated on both sides of the Euphrates river, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris,

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300 miles from the Persian Gulf, and about 60 miles south-west from the modern city of Bagdad. The valley is broad, and the Euphrates is now about 600 feet wide and 18 feet deep at this place.

Extent of the City. It was the largest known ancient city in extent. According to Herodotus, the city was a vast square on both sides of the Euphrates, enclosed by a double line of walls, about 56 miles in circuit and including about 200 square miles. Ctesias and others make the circuit about 42 miles, enclosing about 106 square miles. The walls, according to Herodotus, were about 335 feet high and 75 feet broad. Ctesias, quoted by Diodorus, states that they were 200 feet high and built by 2,000,000 men. Later writers, regarding these measurements as incredible, give the circuit of the walls at about 40 miles, their height at 75 to 190 feet, and their width at 32 feet, or wide enough to allow two chariots to pass each other on the top. M. Oppert and Rawlinson as explorers hold that the ruins warrant the statement of Herodotus as to the extent of Babylon. Its size --if 200 square miles --largely exceeded that of any modern city. The area of London is 122 square miles; Paris, 30; Pekin, 50; New York (1873), 42; and Philadelphia, 129 square miles. The wall of Babylon was surmounted by 250 towers, and it had 100 gates of brass. Jer 51:68; miumiu 財布 激安

Streets and Buildings--Babylon is described as cut into squares some say 676 --by straight streets crossing each other at right angles, those at the river being closed by brazen gates, as the banks of the river were fortified by high walls; the river was crossed by drawbridges and lined with quays; the two palaces on opposite sides of the river were connected by a bridge, and also by a tunnel under the river. Among the wonderful buildings were, (1.) Nebuchadnezzar's Palace, an immense pile of buildings, believed to be nearly 6 miles in circumference. (2.) The Hanging-Gardens one of the Seven Wonders of the world, built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his queen, Amytis, who longed for her native mountains. These gardens were 75 feet high and covered 3 1/2 acres, enclosed in an area of larger extent, some say 1000 feet on each side. Upon this mountain was soil of depth to support the largest trees, and water was drawn up from the river by means of a screw. (3). The Temple of Belus, a vast pyramid or tower, 600 feet square, having eight stages, or stories, and according to Rawlinson 480 feet high, with a winding ascent passing around it, and a chapel of a god at the top.

Scripture History. Babylon is named over 250 times in the Bible. It was founded by Nimrod, Gen 10:10; its builders dispersed, Gen 11:9. Then, except some allusion to Shinar, Gen 14:1, the Chaldaeans, Job 1:17, and the Babylonish garment, Josh 7:21, it drops out of Scripture history until the era of the Captivity. It was often subject to Assyria, 2 Chr 33:11, and was the residence of at least one Assyrian king. After the fall of Nineveh, b.c. 625, it became an independent kingdom, and under Nebuchadnezzar was enlarged, beautified, and reached the height of its magnificence. See Isa 13:19; miumiu 財布Isa 47:5; Jer 51:41, where it is called " the glory of kingdoms," " the golden city," " the praise of the whole earth," etc. It was the home of the chief of the captive Jews, Dan 1:1-4, and was taken by the army of Cyrus under Darius, Dan 5. Its desolation was frequently foretold. Isa 13:4-22; Jer 25:12; Jer 50:2-3; Jer 25:51; Dan 2:31-38; Hab 1:5-10. It was taken by Alexander the Great, who died there. It gradually became a complete ruin, fulfilling the prophecy, Babylon " shall never be inhabited, . . . wild beasts of the deserts shall lie there." Ruins--Though for centuries Babylon has been the source of building-material for the towns of all the adjacent region, yet the ruins are very extensive, covering, according to Oppert, 200 square miles. Among them are, (1.) The Babil or Mujelliha, 600 feet square and 140 feet high, probably the site of the ancient temple of Belus. The mound is mainly built of sun-dried brick and filled with burnt brick, the latter bearing the name of Nebuchadnezzar. (2.) The Kasr, or Nebuchadnezzar's palace, south of Babil, about 2100 feet long by 1800 feet broad, and 70 feet high. It is composed of bricks, tiles, and fragments of stone. Some of the bricks are glazed; others resemble fire www.miumiu-yahoos.com

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brick, and bear the name of Nebuchadnezzar. (3.) The Amram, a large mound, possibly the ruins of the

Sculptured Lion over a Prostrate Man. (Discovered in the ruins of Babylon by Rich.)

famous hanging - gardens, though more probably a palace of the earlier kings. See Rawlinson's Five Ancient Monarchies, 1870, ii. 532. (4.) Birs Nimrud, 6 miles south-west of Hillah, at ancient Borsippa, and by many regarded as covering the tower of Babel. See Babel. Many corroborations of Scripture have

Birs Nimrud. (After Plumptre's Biblical Educator )

been furnished by the Assyrian tablets deciphered by Oriental scholars. Near the hanging-gardens a sculptured lion standing over a man with outstretched arms may illustrate the mode of punishment to which Daniel was condemned. Dan 6:16. George Smith, after a careful exploration, quite decidedly dissents from historians and other explorers in ascribing so great an extent to Babylon. In his opinion, there is no ground in the inscriptions or ruins for making Babylon over about 8 miles in circuit, or nearly the same size as its sister-city, Nineveh. He regards its shape as a square with one corner cut off. At the north was the temple of Belus, now the mound Babil; about the centre of the city were the palace and hanging-gardens, both now represented, in his view, by the mound Kasr, as he places the gardens between the palace and the river. George Smith concludes that the few pits and tunnels made in the ruins are acknowledged to be insufficient to decide any of the questions as to sites, which can only be done by satisfactory excavations, and hence that the "recovery of Babylon is yet to be accomplished." Assyrian Discoveries, 1875, pp. 55-59. — The modern town of Hillah now occupies a portion of the space covered by the ruins of ancient Babylon, and a telegraph connects it with the city of Bagdad. See Chaldea, Assyria.

BAB'YLON, in Rev 14:8;Rev 16:19;Rev 17:5; Ps 18:2, 2 Chr 11:21, is a symbolical name for heathen Rome, which took the place of ancient Babylon as a persecuting power. This is also the sense given to Babylon in 1 Pet 5:13 by the fathers and many commentators; but others refer it to Babylon in Asia, since it is quite possible that Peter labored for a while in that city, where there was at that time a large Jewish colony; still others maintain that Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo is meant.

BABYLON, PROVINCE OR KINGDOM OF, the country of which Babylon was the capital.

Dan 2:19; Dan 3:1, Jud 4:12, 1 Kgs 20:30; Dan 4:29, Its boundaries and history are involved in much obscurity. It was originally known as the " land of Shinar " and the "land of Nimrod," Gen 10:1; Mic 5:6. It was chiefly between the Euphra-

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tes and Tigris Rivers. Asshur or Assyria and Mesopotamia were on the north, Elam and Media on the east, Chaldea on the south. As Chaldea gained in power its name was applied to the whole country, including Babylon. See Chaldea. The early kingdom of Babylon is generally regarded as covering an extent of about 27,000 square miles, rich of soil and abundant in resources, the home of one of the earliest civilized nations. After the time of Nimrod, Babel or Babylon appears to be displaced in Scripture history by Chaldea until the time of Joshua, Josh 7:21; after this both again disappear until about the time of the Captivity. At the fall of Nineveh, b.c. 626, Babylonia speedily extended its sway over most of western Asia and Egypt, and under Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, lasting, however, less than a century, and fell before the Medians under Cyrus and Darius, b.c. 538, and soon after dropped out of history as a separate country.

General History. — Bernsus gives a list of ten mythical kings, including Xisithrus, who ruled Babylonia before the Flood; while the inscriptions so far discovered on the tablets and monuments give three mythical kings before the Flood, and four after it. From the inscriptions, long lists of kings during the historical period have also been deciphered. The earliest list of twelve kings in this period begins with Izdubar, who is identified with Nimrod by George Smith. To this list he adds from the inscriptions the names of six viceroys, six kings of Ur, five kings of Karrak, six of Erech and Larsa, five of Akkad, and four Elamite kings; and among the latter is Chedorlaomer of Gen 14:1-17. Five native kings were contemporary with these Elamite kings, and twenty other kings ruled successively until the accession of an Assyrian dynasty in b.c. 1271. The last list given by George Smith from the inscriptions covers the period from b.c. 1150 to 539, and includes Sargon, b.c. 710, Merodach-baladan III., restored b.c. 705, Esarhaddon, who rebuilt Babylon, b.c. 681, Assurbanipal, b.c. 648, Nebuchadnezzar III., the Nebuchadnezzar of Scripture, b.c. 605, Amil-maruduk, the Evil-merodach of the Bible, b.c. 562, and Bel-sar-uzar, the Belshazzar of the book of Daniel, and who reigned with his father until the fall of the Babylonian empire, b.c. 538. It is not certain how far back the records of Babylonia reach, but George Smith regards it as certain that they reach to the twenty fourth century before Christ, and some scholars would stretch them nearly two thousand years beyond that early period. The civilization, literature, and government found in Babylonia two thousand years before the Christian era could not have sprung up in a day, but further explorations only can determine its age. Among the biblical cities named in the earliest inscriptions — those of Izdubar — are Babylon, Cuthah, and Erech, thus adding new light to the truth of Scripture history. See George Smith's Assyrian Discoveries, 1875, chap. 23. The Babylonian Empire. — Upon the fall of Nineveh, b.c. 625, the Chaldaeans and Babylonians controlled all the southern and western portions of the former Assyrian empire. This Babylonian empire extended, therefore, over Susiana, Elam, Mesopotamia, Syria including Palestine and Phoenicia, Idumaea, northern Arabia, and lower Egypt. Among the important cities of the empire were Babylon, Borsippa, Sippara or Sepharvaim. Isa 36:19, Cuthah, 2 Kgs 17:24, Orchoe or Erech, in Babylonia; and in the provinces, Susa, Carchemish, Harran, Hamath, Damascus, Jerusalem, Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, Askelon, and Gaza. Of those in the provinces, Susa was of the first importance, and may be regarded as the second city of the empire. It had a royal palace, where the Babylonian kings spent a portion of their time, Dan 8:2, doubtless during the heat of summer. The dominant people in the Babylonian empire were, according to Rawlinson and others, a mixed race, mainly descendants of the earlier Chaldaeans (who were chiefly Cushites), mixed with those of the later Assyrians, who were of the Semitic type. The Babylonians were celebrated for their wisdom and learning, Dan 1:4; Jer 50:35; Isa 47:10, especially for their knowledge of astronomy. They were also a commercial, avaricious, and luxurious people, Hab 2:9; Jer 51:13; Isa 47:8, though they were likewise valorous and war

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like. Their princes were proud and boastful. "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built ... by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?'' was the boastful speech of its greatest king, Nebuchadnezzar. Dan 4:30.

In architecture, sculpture, science, philosophy, astronomical and mathematical knowledge, and in learning the Babylonians made original investigations and discoveries not surpassed by any other ancient people. " To Babylonia," says G. Rawlinson, "far more than to Egypt, we owe the art and learning of the Greeks." --Five Ancient Monarchies, iii. 76.

In religion the Babylonians differed little from the early Chaldaeans. Their chief deities were Bel, Merodach, and Nebo. The names of these gods frequently appear in the names of noted princes, as Bel-shazzar, Nabo-polassar, Merodach-baladan, Evil-merodach Abed-nebo or -nego. Their gods were worshipped with great pomp and magnificence. The temples erected in honor of the gods and devoted to their worship were celebrated for their vastness, and for the massiveness and finish of their sculptures. Of the precise mode of their worship little is known. It was conducted by priests, through whom the worshippers made offerings, often of great value, and sacrifices of oxen and goats. Images of the gods were exhibited, probably on frames or sacred vehicles, and, as some suppose, were some times set up in a public place, as on the plain of Dura, Dan 3:1; but late investigations indicate that the image there set up was a statue of Nebuchadnezzar. See on this text Canon Cook's Bible Commentary, 1876. Some of the principal temples of their gods noted by Rawlinson were that of Bel at Babylon, another of the same god at Niffer, one of Beltis at Warka or Erech, one of the Sun-god at Sippara or Sepharvaim, and one of Nebo at Borsippa.

The empire began with the accession of Nabo-polassar, b.c. 625: was in its greatest prosperity during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, lasting forty -four years, to b.c. 561. See Nebuchadnezzar. Under the less able rulers who followed, the power of the empire declined, and it fell a comparatively easy prey to the Medo-Persians under Cyrus, b.c. 538. See Chaldaea, Assyria, and Media. For sketch-map see Assyria, and also map at the end of this volume.

BABYLO'NIANS . See Babylon.

BABYLONISH CAPTIVITY . See Captivity.

BABYLO'NISH GAR'MENT, THE (literally, "garment of Shiar "), which Achan stole at the destruction of Jericho, Josh 7:21, is described by Josephus as "a royal mantle all woven with gold." But no accurate description is possible. Babylon was famous for the products of the loom.

BA'CA (weeping). The margin reads "mulberry trees." Ps 84:6. It is generally supposed to refer to a valley near Jerusalem, though some later writers, as Robinson and Hackett, are inclined to regard it as not a proper name, but a figurative "valley of weeping."

BACH'RITES, the family of Becher the Ephraimite. Num 26:35.

BADGERS' SKINS . Ex 25:5; Eze 16:10. The true badger is rare, if known, in Arabia. It is believed that the skins meant were those of such marine animals as the dolphin, dugong, and seal. Dr. Robinson writes:"The superior" (of the convent of Mount Sinai) "procured for me a pair of the sandals usually worn by the Bedouin of the peninsula, made of the thick skin of a fish which is caught in the Red Sea. . . . The skin is clumsy and coarse, and might answer very well for the external covering of the tabernacle which was constructed at Sinai, but would seem hardly a fitting material for the ornamental sandals belonging to the costly attire of high-born dames in Palestine described by the prophet Ezekiel." Tristram adds: "As the tachack (badger) probably included also the seal, the sandals of the Jewish women may have been of that material, and so also may have been the covering of the tabernacle."

BAG, the English translation of several quite different words. When used in connection with money, it means the long cone-like receptacles in which coin was packed. 2 Kgs 12:10. These were made of various sizes, each to contain a precise amount of money. We read that the workmen on the temple 96 were paid in bags, which were probably delivered to them sealed. At this day in Eastern nations money passes in bags from hand to hand under the seal of a banker or other public officer, and without counting, as it is paid by one

Egyptian Money-bags. (After Wilkinson.)

to another. If the seal is genuine and unbroken, the exact value of each bag is known at sight. The shepherd's "bag" which David had was probably one in which the young lambs unable to walk were carried. The "bag" of Judas was probably a little box, John 12:6; John 13:29.

BAHU'RIM (warriors), a place not far from Jerusalem, 2 Sam 3:16; 2 Sam 16:5; 2 Sam 17:18; 1 Kgs 2:8; probably east of Olivet, toward the Jordan.

BA'JITH (house). In Isa 15:2 the Hebrew reads "the bajith" or "the temple;" probably the temple of Chemosh.

BAKBAK'KAR (destruction of the mountain), a Levite. 1 Chr 9:15.

BAK'BUK (a bottle). Among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubabbel are mentioned the children of Bakbuk. Ezr 2:51; Neh 7:53.

BAKBUKI'AH (destruction from Jehovah), a Levite, Neh 11:17; Neh 12:9, Neh 12:25.

Arabian Bake Oven. ( After Niebuhr.)

BAKE The business of baking in early times was principally, if not exclusively, the work of women. Lev 26:26; 1 Sam 8:13; 2 Sam 13:8; Jer 7:18. In Rome, as Pliny tells us, there was no such thing as a public baker for 580 years. It seems probable from Jer 37:21 and Hos 7:4-7 that public bakers were known in their day, and inhabited a particular section of the city of Jerusalem. See Bread, Oven.

BA'LAAM (glutton) was the son of Beor or Bosor, and a native of Pethor, a village of Mesopotamia. Num 22:5. He had a great reputation as a prophet or soothsayer, and appears to have been a worshipper of the one God, coming from the country of Abraham, where it is in every way probable that remnants of the primitive monotheism existed to his day. His history is given in Num 22, Num 23, Num 24, and Num 31. So great was his fame that Balak, king of Moab, sent for him to curse Israel when they were encamped upon the plains of Moab; but he consulted God during the night, and the next morning refused, declaring the Lord had not given him leave. But Balak sent again, and Balaam at length obtained the desired permission to go, and went. It was on this journey that his ass spake. Num 22:28. Arriving, he ordered Balak to build seven altars, and to offer a bullock and a ram on each. Then, proclaiming his intention of speaking only what God showed unto him, he twice went aside to watch for an augury. God met him each time and told him what to say, and on his return he uttered a blessing instead of the expected curse. The third time the sacrifices were offered, but Balaam saw that it pleased the Lord to bless Israel; so, without seeking an augury, he uttered these magnificent prophecies, in which Israel's complete supremacy is announced:

"How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob,

Thy tabernacles, O Israel!

As valleys are they spread forth.

As gardens by the river side.

As lign aloes which the Lord hath planted,

As cedar trees beside the waters.

He shall flow with water from his buckets,

And his seed shall be in many waters,

And his king shall be higher than Agag,

And his kingdom shall be exalted.

God, he bringeth him forth out of Egypt;

He hath as it were the strength of a buffalo;

He shall eat up the nations his adversaries,

And shall break their bones in pieces,

97

And smite them through with his arrows.

He couched, he lay down as a lion,

And as a lioness, who shall stir him up?

Blessed is he that blesseth thee.

And cursed is he that curseth thee."

Num 24:5-9.

And again

"There shall come forth a Star out of Jacob,

And a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel,

And shall smite through the corners of Moab,

And break down all the sons of tumult."

Num 24:17.

The prophecies of Balaam are justly regarded as some of the most remarkable in Scripture. But having won the anger of Balak by his course, and feeling himself cast out from the people of God by reason of his sinfulness, he became desperate, and endeavored to do as much immediate harm to Israel as he could, since he could in no wise injure her future. He therefore suggested that the Moabites destroy the purity of Israel by seducing the people into fornication while taking part in the worship of Baal. Num 31:16; cf. Num 25:1-5. They did so; and the consequence was, a plague broke out among the Israelites and killed 24,000 of them. Num 25:9. In a battle fought by Israel with the Midianites, Balaam was slain. Num 31:8. The phrase "the doctrine of Balaam," used in Rev 2:14, refers to the above-mentioned sin.

BAL'ADAN (the name is part of a sentence meaning "___ sent the son," the name of the god to be substituted), the father of Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon. 2 Kgs 20:12; Isa 39:1.

BA'LAH. Josh 19:3. A shorter form of Baalah.

BA'LAK (spoiler), the king of Moab who hired Balaam to curse Israel. Num 22-24; Josh 24:9; Jud 11:25; Mic 6:5; Rev 2:14.

BAL'ANCES. Lev 19:36. In the early periods of the world gold and silver were paid by weight, so that persons employed in traffic of any kind carried with them a pair of scales or balances and different weights (generally stones of different sizes) in a pouch or bag. Dishonest men would carry two sorts of weights, the lighter to sell with, and the other to buy with. This explains the allusions Mic 6:11; Hos 12:7.

In pictures on monuments is represented a balance in which the scales are simply a pair of weights. There are two bags of money which are to be equalized, one of which is a standard.

Egyptian Balancer weighing Rings of Gold. (After Wilkinson.)

The scribe stands by to register the result.

BALD'NESS, when voluntary, was a token of mourning and great distress, Isa 3:24; Eze 7:18, or else showed the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow. Num 6:9. Natural baldness seems to have been uncommon. "Bald head" was a cry of contempt, 2 Kgs 2:23, because it was generally caused by leprosy. Lev 13:40-43. The people, and especially the priests, were forbidden to make themselves bald, since this was a heathen custom. Lev 21:5; Deut 14:1; Eze 44:20.

BALM. Gen 37:25. One of the articles of merchandise which the Ishmaelites (to whom Joseph was sold) were carrying from Gilead to Egypt. It is worthy of remark that the particulars of this trading company or caravan, their character, course of travel and freight, though referring to a period 1700 years before the Christian era, correspond with wonderful accuracy to those of similar commercial expeditions across the desert at the present day.

The balm is supposed to be the production of the balm-of-Gilead tree (Balsamodendron Gileadense), which grows about 12 or 14 feet high, with diverging branches. The resin which it produces is exceedingly odoriferous, and greatly esteemed in the East for its healing properties.

It was once an important article of merchandise among the Eastern nations. Eze 27:17. Nothing can exceed the eloquence and tenderness of the language employed by the prophet Jeremiah to express his grief and disappointment 98 that the chosen people of God (the daughter of Zion) should remain spiritually wounded and diseased, when there was a healing Balm of unfailing virtue and a Physician of divine skill to administer it, and both within

Balm. Balm.

(Balsamodendron Gileadense. After Dr. Birdwood.)

(Balsamodendron Opobalsamum. After Dr. Birdwood.)

their reach. Jer 8:22; Jer 46:11 and Jer 51:8.

BA'MAH (high place), the name applied to idolatrous places of worship. Eze 20:29.

BA'MOTH (heights). See Bamoth-baal.

BA'MOTH-BA'AL (heights of Baal), a place in Moab given to Reuben, Josh 13:17. Conder suggests el Masiubiyeh, 5 miles south of Nebo.

BAND. A band of Roman soldiers consisted of the tenth part of a legion, called a "cohort;" it varied, according to the size of the legion, from 400 to 600 soldiers. Matt 27:27; Acts 21:31, and elsewhere.

BA'NI (built). 1. A Gadite, one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:36. 2. A Judite.1 Chr 9:4. 3. The names of seven others, mostly Levites. 1 Chr 6:46; Ezr 2:10; Ezr 10:29, Ezr 10:34, Acts 10:38; Neh 3:17; Neh 8:7; Jud 9:4; Num 10:14; Neh 11:22.

BAN'ISHMENT. See Punishment.

BANK. See Money-changer.

BAN'NER, EN'SIGN, STAND'ARD are translations of words used indiscriminately by the sacred writers. A standard pertained to each of the four grand divisions of the host of Israel, Num 1:52, distinguished from the others by colors and by an emblematic device. Thus, according to the rabbins, the device of Judah was a lion; that of Reuben was a man; that of Ephraim, an ox; of Dan, an eagle. Another standard for subdivisions, denoted by another word, was probably nothing more than a common spear richly burnished or ornamented. The Egyptian princes used a standard like this, surmounted with a ball of gold. There was another standard in use among the Jews, which is called a beacon. Isa 30:17. It was stationary, erected on lofty mountains, and used as a rallying token. Comp. Isa 18:3; Isa 62:10; Jer 4:6, 2 Chr 11:21; Gen 6:1; Jer 51:12, Jer 51:27. None of these standards were flags.

Some writers have supposed that the ancient Jewish ensign was a long pole, on the top of which was a grate not 99 unlike a chaffing-dish, made of iron bars and supplied with fire, the size, height, and shape of which denoted the party or company to whom it belonged. This seems rather to describe the night-torches of Eastern encampments. The shape, etc., of the Roman standards are seen under the article Abomination.

BAN'QUET. See Feast.

BAP'TISM, an ordinance or religious rite which was in use before Christ's ministry began, but which he recognized, and which was continued by his disciples as a Christian ordinance. Matt 28:19, Ruth 4:20; Mark 16:16. On the due administration of this rite, the use of water in the name of the Holy Trinity becomes the sign or emblem of inward purification from sin and uncleanness, while the subject of the rite is introduced into a peculiar relation to Christ and his Church. Baptism is in the N. T. what circumcision was in the Old--a sign and seal of the covenant of grace whereby God promises forgiveness of sin and salvation, and man vows obedience and devotion to his service. See Acts 2:41; Rom 6:3-4; Gal 3:27; 1 Pet 3:21. It was first administered on the day of Pentecost. Christ himself did not baptize, John 4:2, and the apostles received instead the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost, Acts 2. In the case of Cornelius regeneration preceded water-baptism, Acts 10:44-48; while, on the other hand, in the case of Simon Magus, water-baptism was not accompanied or followed by regeneration. Acts 8:13, Acts 8:21-23. Nevertheless, God is true though men should abuse his gifts and turn his blessing into a curse. The controversy between Baptists and Paedobaptists refers to the subjects and to the mode of baptism. The former hold that adult believers only are to be baptized, and that immersion is the only valid mode of baptism; the latter maintain that children of believing parents may and ought to be baptized, and that baptism may be administered by sprinkling and pouring as well as by immersion.

Baptism with the Holy Ghost and with Fire. Matt 3:11; Luke 3:16. The phrase is figurative, and refers to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon believers, as on the day of Pentecost especially, but often since in the history of the Church.

Baptism of John the Baptist.--John was a preacher of righteousness; his baptism was significant of the inward cleansing which followed repentance, and was introductory to the higher baptism instituted by Christ. John said to his disciples, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire." Matt 3:11. He demanded faith in the Messiah, sorrow for sin, and trust in God, as prerequisites for the administration of the rite, which, however, differed from Christian baptism in that it implied no belief in the Trinity, nor was it followed by the gift of the Holy Ghost. Those who had received John's baptism were rebaptized. See Acts 19:1-6; cf. Matt 3; Acts 18:25-26.

Baptism for the Dead.--There is only one allusion to this practice in the N. T., in 1 Cor 15:29: "What shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?" Paul evidently speaks of a well-known ceremony. Various interpretations have been put upon the phrase. It is simplest to say with Meyer, Paul refers to the belief that a living Christian could be baptized for a dead Christian who was unbaptized, and the latter would in consequence be accounted baptized and have part in the eternal joys. This custom, abandoned by the Church--a proof that it was condemned by the leaders--was kept up among heretics, such as the Cerinthians and Marcionites, and is practised at the present day by the Mormons in Utah. Chrysostom tells us that when an unbaptized catechumen died, a living man was put under the bed on which the dead body lay. The priest then asked the dead man if he desired baptism. The living man answered in the affirmative, and was baptized in place of the dead. The practice, of course, was superstitious, and Paul merely uses it in argument, but does not approve of it. Indeed, his use of the third person shows that the notion of the 100 paramount importance of baptism which led to the custom was condemned by him.

Other interpretations of the phrase have been given. Thus, "If the dead rise not, then baptism could have no authority and no use, because then Christ did not rise." Again, "Baptized when death is close at hand." "Over the graves of the martyrs." "If there be no resurrection, why art thou then baptized for the dead— i. e. for the dead bodies? For in this faith thou art baptized, believing in the resurrection of the dead."

BARAB'BAS (son of Abba), a noted criminal at Jerusalem who was in confinement for sedition and murder when Christ was condemned. Matt 27:16. It was the custom of the Romans to release some one prisoner at the time of the Jewish Passover. The Jews were permitted to name any one whose release they desired; and when the choice lay between Barabbas and Christ, they chose the robber. Matt 27:21; Mark 15:6-11; Luke 23:18; John 18:40; Acts 3:14. Pilate was anxious to save Christ, but at last released Barabbas.

The custom is said to have prevailed among the Venetians as lately as the close of the eighteenth century to release a prisoner at the annual commemoration of our Saviour's resurrection.

BAR'ACHEL (whom God hath blessed), the father of Elihu. Job 32:2, 1 Chr 24:6.

BARACHI'AH (whom Jehovah hath blessed), in the N. T. form, Barachaias. Zech 1:7; Matt 23:35. See Berechiah.

BA'RAK (lightning) was the son of Abinoam, and was distinguished for his share in the conquest of Sisera and the deliverance of Israel from long and severe oppression. A history of the transaction and a copy of their sublime triumphal song are given in Jud 4:1-5:31. Barak's date cannot be determined, but probably he was a contemporary of Shamgar. See Deborah.

BARBA'RIAN. This term is used to denote any one who was not a Greek. In its scriptural use it does not import any rudeness or savageness of nature or manners. Acts 28:2, Ex 6:4 and Rom 1:14.

BARHU'MITE. 2 Sam 23:31. See Bahurim.

BARI'AH (fugitive), one of David's posterity. 1 Chr 3:22.

BAR-JE'SUS was a magician who resided with Sergius Paulus at Paphos, on the isle of Cyprus, when Paul and Barnabas were there. Acts 13:6. He is also known by his Arabic designation Elymas the Sage. Sergius Paulus was an officer of high rank under the Roman government, and was anxious to receive religious instruction from the two missionaries. But Bar-jesus, seeing that his occupation and influence would cease wherever the light of the gospel should come, opposed himself to Paul and Barnabas, and tried to dissuade Paulus from giving heed to their preaching. Paul gave him a most severe reproof, immediately after which the wicked man was struck with temporary blindness as a rebuke from God. See Sergius Paulus.

BAR-JO'NA. Matt 16:17. See Peter.

BAR'KOS (painter), the father of some of the returning Nethinim. Ezr 2:53; Neh 7:55.

BAR'LEY. Ex 9:31. A well-known species of grain used for bread, Jud 7:13; John 6:9-13, and also as food for horses and dromedaries. 1 Kgs 4:28. Barley-harvest, Ruth 1:22, usually comes in April — earlier at Jericho, later on the hills. It precedes wheat-harvest about three weeks in Palestine and a month in Egypt. As human food barley was held in low estimation, which adds significance to the connection between Gideon and the barley-cake in the dream which the man told "his fellow." Jud 7:13. "If the Midianites were accustomed in their extemporaneous songs to call Gideon and his band 'eaters of barley bread,' as their successors, the haughty Bedouins, often do to ridicule their enemies, the application would be all the more natural." — Thomson. The same fact adds force to Eze 13:19, and elucidates Hos 3:2 and Num 5:15.

BAR'NABAS (son of consolation), a Levite of the island of Cyprus, and an early convert to the Christian faith. Acts 4:36. His original name was Joses, but he derived his usual title 101 from his remarkable powers of exhorting the people and ministering consolation to the afflicted. Barnabas was one of those who gave up all their worldly substance and all their strength and influence to the support and spread of the gospel. He introduced Paul to the disciples on the latter's visit to Jerusalem, three years after his conversion. Acts 9:27. Afterward he brought Paul from Tarsus to Antioch, and they labored for two years together with great success. Acts 11:25, Acts 11:26. They attended together the council of Jerusalem. Acts 15:22; Gal 2:1. Afterward they separated, and Barnabas went on an independent missionary-tour with Mark. Acts 15:1-41. Some ascribe to him the Epistle to the Hebrews. We have under his name an epistle, which, however, is of doubtful genuineness.

BAR'SABAS (son of Saba), the name of two men.

  1. Joseph Barsabas, surnamed Justus, was one of the two candidates for the vacancy in the apostleship occasioned by the apostasy of Judas. Acts 1:23. Some identify him with Joses Barnabas, the companion of Paul. See preceding article.

  2. Judas Barsabas. Acts 15:22. He was appointed to accompany Paul and Barnabas from Jerusalem to Antioch on an important embassy. He is called one of "the chief among the brethren," but is otherwise unknown. Some commentators infer from the surname that he was a brother of Joseph Barsabas,

BARTHOL'OMEW (son of Tolmai) is supposed to be the same person who is elsewhere called Nathanael. This conjecture rests in part upon the fact that Philip and Nathanael are associated together by John, and in the parallel passages of the other evangelists Philip and Bartholomew are associated; and further, that Bartholomew is not mentioned in John's list of the twelve, nor is Nathanael in the list of the other evangelists. It is therefore in every way likely that he bore two names, as so many others did. We know nothing of his history save the fact of his conversion, John 1:45-51, and his presence on the Lake of Tiberias when the risen Lord appeared to him and other disciples. John 21:2.

BARTIME'US (son of Timeus), a son of Timeus, who was instantly cured of blindness by our Saviour in the vicinity of Jericho. Mark 10:46.

BA'RUCH (blessed). 1. The secretary of the prophet Jeremiah, was of a distinguished Jewish family. Jer 32:12. His friendship for Jeremiah was strong and constant. At his dictation Baruch wrote his prophecies. These he read before the princes, who rehearsed them to Jehoiakim, the king, having previously deposited the writing in one of the offices of the temple. The king ordered the writing to be read in his presence, and he became so much exasperated that he destroyed the manuscripts and gave orders to arrest both the prophet and his secretary, but they had concealed themselves. Jehovah, however, repeated the prophecies to Jeremiah, with some additions, and a second time did Baruch write them down. Baruch was falsely accused of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldaeans, and they were both imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem, b. c. 586. They were afterward forced to go down to Egypt. Jer 43:6-7.
2. The name of three other persons, otherwise unknown. Neh 3:20; Neh 10:6; Neh 11:5.

BARUCH, BOOK OF. One of the Apocrypha of the O. T., of uncertain date and authorship. See Jeremie, Epistle of.

BARZIL'LAI (of iron, i. e. strong) was a wealthy Gileadite, and a fast friend of David when he was in exile on account of Absalom's revolt. 2 Sam 17:27. After the rebellion had been suppressed, Barzillai, on account of age, and probably also from natural and proper pride, declined David's offer to be a resident of the court, but proposed his son Chimham should go instead. 2 Sam 19:31-40. David, in his final charge to Solomon, enjoined it upon him to show kindness to Barzillai's family, and even to make them members of the royal household. 1 Kgs 2:7.

  1. The Meholathite, father-in-law of Michal, Saul's daughter. 2 Sam 21:8.

  2. The husband of a daughter of Barzillai the Gileadite, whose descendants returned from Babylon, but in vain sought admittance to the priesthood. Ezr 2:61; Neh 7:63, Neh 7:64.

BA'SHAN (light soil), a district 102 reaching from Hermon to Gilead at the river Arnon, and from the Jordan valley eastward to Salcah. It is referred to about 60 times in the Bible. Physical Features.---There are two ranges of mountains, one along the Jordan valley, about 3000 feet high, another irregular range on the east side of Bashan; between them are plains or undulating table-land watered by springs. The rock of basalt on the west is broken into deep chasms and jagged projections; the hills are covered with oak-forests, as in former times. Isa 2:13; Eze 27:6; Zech 11:2. The plain of the Jaulan (Golan of Scripture) is a vast field of powdered lava and basalt, a fertile pasture to this day. The north-eastern portion of Bashan, including the Argob of Scripture, is a wild mass of basaltic rock, 22 miles long by 14 wide, resembling a "cyclopean wall in ruins." Fissures and chasms cut it like a network and it abounds in caves, yet has much fertile land. The centre of Bashan was mostly a fertile plain, and was regarded as the richest in Syria.

History.---Its early people were the giants Rephaim. Gen 14:5. Og, its king, was defeated and slain by Israel, Num 21:33; Num 32:33, and the country divided; its pastures, cattle, sheep, oaks, and forests were famous. Deut 32:14; Ps 22:12; Isa 2:13; Jer 50:19; Eze 39:18. After the Captivity it was divided into four provinces: (1) Gaulanitis, or modern Jaulan; (2) Argob, or Trachonitis, now Lejah; (3) Auranitis, now Haurau; (4) Batanaea. Ituraea was not strictly a part of Bashan, though taken by Israel. Under the Roman rule the division was but slightly changed. The country is now nominally under Turkish rule, but is really held by tribes of Arabs, dangerous, warlike, and unsubdued.

Ruins.---Bashan is almost literally crowded with cities and villages, now deserted and in ruins, corroborating the account in Scripture. Josh 13:30. There are four classes of dwellings:(1) the natural cavern fitted up for residence. (2) Long tunnels descending obliquely, sometimes 150 feet, at the bottom of which run out a number of passages or underground streets, 16 to 23 feet wide, lined on either side by subterranean dwellings furnished with air-holes in the ceilings, each generally having only one outlet, and that in a rocky, precipitous slope. (3) Dwellings cut in the rock and covered over with stone vaulting; not all of these, however, belong to early biblical times. Deut 3:4-13. (4) The villages in the Hauran consist chiefly of dwellings built of handsome well-hewn stone, closely jointed without cement. Wood was nowhere used. The gates, doors, and window-shutters are of stone, turning on stone hinges; the roofs are also of stone, resting on supports and arches of the same material. Some of the gateways are ornamented with sculptured vines and bear numerous inscriptions yet undeciphered, while within are stone cupboards, benches, and candlesticks. Many of these dwellings belong to an age since the beginning of the Christian era, but, though deserted for centuries, seem almost as if the occupants had gone out only for a few hours. Porter's views on their antiquity are not accepted. Among its cities mentioned in Scripture are Golan, Ashteroth, Karnaim, Edrei, Salcah, Kerioth, and Bozrah. See these titles, and Porter's Giant Cities (1865-6), Merrill's East of Jordan (1881), and Baedeker's Handbook of Syria and Palestine (1876).

BA'SHAN-HA'VOTH-JA'IR (Bashan of the villages of Jair), the country of Argob, in Bashan, Deut 3:14, containing 60 great cities, and called Havoth-jair. Num 32:41.

BASH'EMATH (pleasing), one of Esau's wives. Gen 26:34; Gen 36:3, Gen 36:10, Gen 36:13, Gen 36:17.

Assyrian Basins. (British Museum.)

BA'SIN. It is impossible at this day 103 to tell wherein the basins, bowls, and cups so often mentioned together exactly differed, but the basins were probably small. "The 'basin' from which Jesus washed his disciples' feet was probably larger and deeper than the hand-basin for sprinkling." John 13:5.

BAS'KET. The word is the uniform term by which several picturesque Hebrew terms are translated. The context will generally enable us to decide not only on the probable size of the "basket," but also on its material. Thus, that mentioned in Jud 6:19 must have been of metal, while that in which Paul was let down from the wall at Damascus was of rope. 2 Cor 11:33. Wicker was, however, probably the usual material. They were of all shapes, sizes, and for all purposes. The fact is unfortunately concealed in our version

Egyptian Baskets. (After Wilkinson.)

that the word for "basket" in the account of the miracle of feeding the five thousand, Matt 14:20; Matt 16:9; Mark 6:43; Luke 9:17; John 6:13, is entirely different from that similarly translated in the miracle of feeding the four thousand. Matt 15:37; Mark 8:8 — an indirect but striking proof that there were two miracles. It is not, however, possible to tell wherein the difference consisted.

BAS'MATH (pleasing), same name as Bashemath. A daughter of Solomon, and wife of Ahimaaz, one of his officers. 1 Kgs 4:15.

BAS'TARD. Deut 23:2 forbids for ever the entrance of a bastard into the congregation — i. e. "from intermarrying with pure Hebrews." But since concubinage was tolerated, the term evidently does not apply to one born out of wedlock. "The Rabbins, therefore, are probably right when they interpret the word as denoting only those born of incest or adultery." See Concubine.

BAT. Lev 11:19. An unclean beast whose resting-places are caves, old ruins, and filthy and desolate places. Hence the allusion Isa 2:20. It has no resemblance to a bird except that it can fly, but the organs it uses for this purpose are altogether different from those of a bird.

BATH. See Measures.

BATH, BATH'ING. In Eastern lands bathing is a necessity as well as a luxury. It is characteristic of the Mosaic cultus that it enjoins such frequent washings; e.g. Lev 14:8; Lev 15:5; Lev 17:15. The high priest on the day of atonement must pay particular attention to this regulation. Lev 16:4, Lev 16:24. The Jews bathed in running water or in pools in courts. It was not until their subjection to Greece and Rome that public baths were known. Then came in also the luxurious bathing-customs of those peoples.

BATH'-KOL (daughter, voice). See Prophecy.

BATH'-RAB'BIM (daughter of many), a gate of Heshbon, near which were pools. Song of Solomon 7:4.

BATH-SHE'BA (daughter of the oath), the daughter of Eliam, 2 Sam 11:3, otherwise called Ammiel, 1 Chr 3:5, Ahithophel's son, 2 Sam 23:34. She became the wife of Uriah, an officer in David's army. Her beauty proved a snare to David, for he not only committed adultery with her, but treacherously procured the death of her injured husband. 2 Sam 11:1-27. The child of this intercourse died. When the days of mourning were accomplished, David married her, and she afterward bore him three sons besides Solomon. When Adonijah attempted to seize the throne, Bath-sheba told the king at the instigation of Nathan. 1 Kgs 1:15. It was to her as queen-mother that Adonijah went with the request for the hand of Abishag. 1 Kgs 2:13-22. See Adonijah.

BATH'-SHU'A (daughter of an oath), a variant of Bath-sheba; used in 1 Chr 3:5.

BAT'TERING-RAM. Eze 4:2 and Eze 21:22. This was a long beam of strong wood, usually oak, sometimes connected with a carriage or framework of heavy timber. One end was shaped like a ram's head, which when driven repeatedly and with great force against 104 the wall of a city or fortification either pierced it or battered it down. In the tower of the structure in which the battering-ram was hung were often posted

Ancient Battering-ram.

archers and slingers, who fired at the defenders upon the walls while their comrades were pushing the ram along or working it against the walls. See War.

BAT'TLE-AXE. See Armor.

BAT'TLEMENT. Deut 22:8. A wall, parapet, or other structure around the flat roofs of Eastern houses, designed as a partition from an adjoining building or to prevent persons from falling off. The law required a battlement to be built upon every house. It is sometimes used in a more extensive sense to denote the fortifications of a city. Jer 5:10. A traveller says that at Aleppo, where the houses join each other, the battlements are so low that he could walk over the tops of a dozen houses without interruption. See Dwelling.

BAV'AI, one who helped rebuild the wall. Neh 3:18.

BAY TREE. Ps 37:35. "It may be questioned whether any particular tree is intended by the Psalmist; but if so, it must have been an evergreen, and may possibly be the sweet bay (Laurus nobilis), which is a native of Palestine. It is not very common, but may be found in most of the wooded dells of northern and western Palestine." — Tristram. The leaves of the bay are much like those of the American mountain-laurel, but are fragrant when crushed, and often come to our market packed with figs.

BAZ'LITH, BAZ'LUTH (a stripping), one whose descendants were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:52; Neh 7:54.

BDELL'IUM. Gen 2:12. After much discussion, it is still impossible to say whether bdellium is a mineral, an animal production (pearl), or a vegetable exudation. It is probably the latter. There is a gum produced in the East Indies which has the same name and is thought by many to be the same substance. It resembles myrrh in color, and is of a bitter taste. Num 11:7.

BEA'CON. Isa 30:17. A mark or signal erected in some conspicuous place for direction or for security against danger. See Banners.

BEALI'AH (Jehovah is Baal, i. e. lord), a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:5.

BE'ALOTH (mistresses; plur. feminine form of Baal), a town in the extreme south of Judah, Josh 15:24; probably the same as Baalath-beer, Josh 19:8, the modern Kurnub.

BEANS. Eze 4:9. The Eastern plant ordinarily thus known (Vieia faba) is quite unlike the garden or field bean of the United States. It is of the same family, but is an erect annual with a stout stem, is one of the commonest field-crops of Europe and the Orient, and bears in its pods large coarse seeds which are fed to animals and much eaten by the poorer classes. Kidney-beans are now sometimes cultivated in Palestine.

BEAR. Prov 17:12. The Syrian bear seems but a variety of the brown bear of Europe and Asia, though it is much lighter in color. Its food is seeds, fruits, and roots, to which it occasionally adds a goat or sheep. "I never but 105 once saw the Syrian bear south of Hermon; this was in winter, in a rugged ravine near the Lake of Gennesaret.

Syrian Bear. (After Tristram.)

When we visited Hermon, before the snow had melted from the top, we found the snow-ridges trodden in all directions by the tracks of bears, which were well known, but not much feared, by the shepherds; and we also saw their trace in the snow on Lebanon. They descend both sides of Hermon and do considerable damage to the crops, especially the lentiles, of which they are very fond." —Tristram. The attachment of the female bear to her young is very great, and nothing enrages her so much as to see her cubs hurt or taken from her. Hence the allusions 2 Sam 17:8; Hos 13:8, and also the passage above cited.

BEARD. Among the Jews much attention was paid to the beard. To show any contempt toward it by

Fig. 1. Egyptian Beards. (After Wilkinson.) Fig. 2. Beards of Assyrian, and other Nations. (After Rosellini and Layard.)

plucking it or touching it, except from respect or courtesy, was esteemed a gross insult, while to kiss it respectfully and affectionately was regarded as a signal mark of friendship. Tearing out the beard, cutting it entirely off, and neglecting to trim and dress it were all expressions of deep mourning. Ezr 9:3; Isa 15:2; Jer 41:5 and Jer 48:37.

The Arabs and Orientals generally at this day cherish great respect for the beard. They solemnly swear by it; and their most significant and comprehensive phrase to express their good wishes for a friend is, "May God preserve your blessed beard!" We are told of an Arab who was wounded in the jaw, and chose to hazard his life rather than to have his beard cut off that the surgeon might examine the wound. Hence the keenness of the insult offered to David's ambassadors. 2 Sam 10:4-5. The Egyptians were accustomed to shave except when mourning, the direct opposite to the Jewish custom, but they wore false beards, made of plaited hair and graduated according to rank. The prohibition, Lev 19:27, against marring the "corners of the beard" refers probably to the Arabian custom of shaving off that portion of the beard upon the cheeks on a line with the ears.

BEAST. Gen 2:19. This word is generally used to distinguish all animals from man, as in Ps 36:6. Sometimes quadrupeds only are denoted by it, as Lev 11:2; and in Gen 1:24-25, it is supposed to refer to creatures that roam at large. Beasts were created on the sixth day, and were named by Adam. Paul describes some of his opposers as wild beasts, so furious and brutal was their treatment of him. 1 Cor 15:32. A similar application will be found in Ps 22:12-16; Eccl 3:18; Isa 11:6-8, and in 2 Pet 2:12 and Jude 10, to denote a class of wicked men. "Wild beasts of the islands" Jer 50:39, etc., seem to be jackals (literally, "the howlers," as in Arabic these animals are called "the sons of howling"). "Wild beasts of the desert" probably denote such creatures as the hyena.

Under the ancient dispensation the beasts were sometimes made to participate externally in the observance of religious ceremonies, Jon 3:7-8, and suffered, with men, the judgment of God. Ex 9:6 and Ex 13:15; Ps 135:8; 106 Jer 7:20 and Jer 21:6; Eze 32:13; Eze 38:20; Hos 4:3. See Clean and Unclean.

BEAT'EN OIL. See Olive.

BEAT'EN WORK. Ex 25:18. Not cast, but wrought.

BEB'AI (paternal), the ancestor of some who came back with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:11; Neh 7:16. Later on some more returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:11. Four of these came up for censure as the husbands of foreign wives, Ezr 10:28; but the cognomen was attached to the covenant. Neh 10:15.

BE'CHER (youth). 1. One of Benjamin's sons. Gen 46:21; 1 Chr 7:6, 1 Kgs 15:8.
2. A descendant of Ephraim, Num 26:35; called Bered in 1 Chr 7:20.

BECHO'RATH (first born), one of Saul's ancestors. 1 Sam 9:1.

BED. Gen 47:31. The floors of the better sort of Eastern houses were of tile or plaster, and were covered with mats or carpets; and as shoes were not worn on them and the feet were washed, their floors seldom required sweeping or scrubbing. Matt 12:44; Luke 15:8. Thick, coarse mattresses were thrown down at night to sleep upon. The poorer people used skins for the same purpose. Such beds were easily moved. Matt 9:6. On two or three sides of the room was a bench, generally a foot high and three feet broad, covered with a stuffed cushion. This bench, called the

Asiatic Beds. (From Fellow's "Asia Minor.")

divan, was used for both lying and sitting upon; but at one end of the room it was more elevated, and this was the usual place of sleeping. 2 Kgs 1:4; 2 Kgs 20:2; Ps 132:3; Am 3:12. But besides the divan, we find mention of bedsteads made of wood, ivory, Am 6:4, or other materials. Deut 3:11. This knowledge of the construction of Eastern beds relieves of difficulty such passages as Ex 8:3; 2 Sam 4:5-7; Ps 6:6; Mark 4:21.

Some part of the day-clothing usually served for bedclothes. Ex 22:26-27; Deut 24:12-13. The Orientals do not generally undress before lying down for the night, but are content to take off the upper part of their clothing and unloose their girdle.

Bedsteads were used by the ancient Egyptians, as we know from the monuments. They also used wooden pillows of the same style as are now in use in Japan.

The pillow of the Hebrews was probably a goat-skin stuffed with some soft substance, since one of this sort is common to-day in Palestine. The pillow meant in Mark 4:38 was a rower's cushion. It has been conjectured that Saul and Elijah may have used their skin water-bottles, "a cruse of water," for the purpose of a bolster. 1 Sam 26:12; 1 Kgs 19:6, margin.

BE'DAD (part), the father of Hadad, king of Edom. Gen 36:35; 1 Chr 1:46.

BE'DAN (servile). 1. In 1 Sam 12:11 the name of this judge stands between Jerubbael, or Gideon, and Jephthah, but probably it is a copyist's error for Barak, as several of the versions give it. The difference in Hebrew is not great.
2. A Manassite. 1 Chr 7:17.

BEDEI'AH (servant of Jehovah), one who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:35.

BEE. Deut 1:44. The honeybee is probably the only species alluded to in the Bible. They must have been very numerous in Canaan, as honey was a common article of food, 1 Kgs 14:3; Ps 81:16; Song of Solomon 5:1; Isa 7:15, and commerce. Eze 27:17.

The disposition of bees to take vengeance on any one who disturbs their hive is alluded to in Ps 118:12.

Isa 7:18 doubtless finds its explanation "in the custom of the people in the East of attracting the attention of any one by a significant hiss, or rather hist." Zech 10:8.

We read, Jud 14:8, that "after a time," probably many days, Samson 107 returned to the carcass of the lion he had slain, and saw bees and honey therein. "If any one here represents to himself a corrupt and putrid carcass, the occurrence ceases to have any true similitude, for it is well known that in these countries, at certain seasons of the year, the heat will in the course of twenty-four hours so completely dry up the moisture of dead camels, and that, without their undergoing decomposition, their bodies long remain like mummies, unaltered and entirely free from offensive odor."—Oedmann.

Wild bees often deposited their honey in hollow trees or the clefts of rocks. Ps 81:16; 1 Sam 14:25-27. See Honey.

BEELI'ADA (Baal knows), a son of David, 1 Chr 14:7; called Eliada in 2 Sam 5:16; 1 Chr 3:8.

BEEL'ZEBUB. The name properly should be Beelzebul in all the N. T. passages. Matt 10:25; Matt 12:24, Matt 12:27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15, 1 Sam 30:18, Acts 1:19. But this is, some say, merely because to the Greek tongue the latter form was easier. This name was in common use among the Jews in Christ's day as a title of Satan as the "prince of the demons." It means "lord of the house." Those who regard Beelzebul as a corruption of Baalzebub (lord of flies), the god of the Ekronites, 2 Kgs 1:3, worshipped as the patron deity of medicine, interpret it "lord of dung" or "filth," and explain the change in the name by the contempt of the Jews.

BE'ER (well). 1. Near the Arnon, Num 21:16, Num 21:18; probably Beer-elim.
2. A town in Judah, Jud 9:21; probably el-Bireh, 10 miles north of Jerusalem.

BEE'RA (a well), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:37.

BEE'RAH (a well), a Reubenitish prince taken captive by Tiglath-pileser, 1 Chr 5:6.

BE'ER-E'LIM (well of heroes). Isa 15:8. See Beer, 1.

BEE'RI (the well-man). 1. The father of Judith, one of Esau's wives. Gen 26:34.
2. The father of Hosea the prophet. Hos 1:1.

BE'ER-LAHAI'-ROI (well of the living), a fountain in the wilderness, south-west of Beer-sheba, Gen 16:7, 2 Kgs 22:14; Gen 24:62; Gen 25:11; perhaps Muweileh; not the same as that in Gen 21:19.

BEE'ROTH (wells), one of four Hivite cities. Josh 9:17; now el-Bireh, 10 miles north of Jerusalem. See Beer, 2.

BEE'ROTH OF THE CHILDREN OF JAAKAN. Deut 10:6. Same as Bene-jaakan, Num 33:31; possibly el-Mayin, 60 miles west of Mount Hor.

Well at Beer-sheba. (From Palmer's "Desert of the Exodus.")

BE'ER-SHE'BA, or BEER'-SHEBA (well of seven, or of oath), a city on the southern border of Canaan, 25 miles south-west of Hebron, on a line between the uplands and the desert. It is named 33 times in the Bible; only in the O. T.

History. — It was first named by Abraham, Gen 21:31-33, who lived there, Gen 22:19; was re-named by Isaac,Gen 26:33, and was then a city; visited by Jacob, Gen 28:10; Gen 46:1; given to Judah, Josh 15:28; afterward to Simeon, Josh 19:2; 1 Chr 4:28; a place where judges 108 held court, 1 Sam 8:2; often noted as the southern limit of Canaan, as Dan was the northern — "Dan even to Beersheba," Jud 20:1; 1 Sam 3:20; 2 Sam 3:10; 2 Sam 17:11; 1 Kgs 4:25; 1 Chr 21:2, etc.; a place of idolatrous worship, Am 5:5; Am 8:14; was peopled after the Captivity, Neh 11:30; was a city in Jerome's time; now in ruins, but retains its ancient name, Bir-es-seha.

Wells and Ruins. — There are two large wells 300 feet apart, and five smaller ones some distance down the valley. The larger of the two chief wells is 12 1/2 feet in diameter and 38 to 45 feet deep to the water, 16 feet of the lower portion being dug into solid rock, and the portion above this rock walled up with square hewn stones, hard as marble. The ropes of water-drawers for 4000 years have worn over 140 furrows in the face of the stones, some of them 4 inches deep. The second well is smaller, being only about 5 feet in diameter and 42 feet deep. Around the wells are 10 or 12 stone troughs, of oblong and irregular shape, for the use of cattle. All day long Arab herdsmen and women are drawing water in skins to fill the troughs, as in the days of Abraham and Isaac.

BEESH'-TERAH (house of Astarte), a city of Bashan, Josh 21:27; same as Ashtaroth, 1 Chr 6:71.

BEE'TLE. Lev 11:21-22. Beetles have not "legs above their feet to leap withal upon the earth," neither are they ever eaten by man. From the connection, the word probably indicates an insect of the Locust family, which see. The Egyptians worshipped the beetle (scarabus) as a symbol of fertility and immortality.

BEEVES. Lev 22:19. As used in the Bible, this word is synonymous with "cattle," in its modern use. As they divide the hoof, and also chew the cud, they were reckoned among clean animals.

BEG'GAR, BEG'GING. The poor among the Hebrews were much favored. They were allowed to glean in the fields, and to gather whatever the land produced in the year in which it was not tilled. Lev 19:10; Lev 25:5-6; Deut 24:19. They were also invited to feasts. Deut 14:29 and Deut 26:12. The Israelite could not be an absolute pauper. His land was inalienable, except for a certain term, when it reverted to him or his posterity. And if this resource were insufficient, he could pledge the services of himself and family for a valuable sum. Those who were indigent through bodily infirmities were usually taken care of by their kindred. A beggar was sometimes seen, however, and was regarded and abhorred as a vagabond. Ps 109:10. In later times they were accustomed, it would seem, to have a fixed place at the corners of the streets, Mark 10:46, or at the gates of the temple, Acts 3:2, or of private houses. Luke 16:20.

Hippopotamus. (After Wood. "Animal Kingdom.")

BE'HEMOTH. Job 40:15-24. The word elsewhere translated beastsi. e. great beasts — is here given in its Hebrew form. Evidently this is right, for Job plainly refers to a beast preeminently great. The animal described as the behemoth in the passage above cited was of prodigious size and strength, and corresponds better with the river-horse of Africa (Hippopotamus amphibius), than with any other known animal. It is very probable that this creature, though not now 109 found in Palestine, may once have inhabited the rivers of Western Asia.

The average length of the male hippopotamus (including a tail about 1 foot long) is 14 feet. His girth is nearly the same, and his height at the shoulder is 5 or 6 feet. The huge, uncouth body of the animal is supported by short, stout limbs with four toes, each of which toes has a small hoof. The aperture of his mouth is 2 feet broad, and his tusks are more than a foot long. Cutting-teeth, which retain their sharpness by the same wonderful provision seen in the squirrel, enable him to mow as with a scythe the coarse, tough plants, aquatic roots, and grasses which are his food. A stomach capable of containing 5 or 6 bushels of vegetable matter prepares him to devour enormous quantities of herbage along river-margins and prove sadly destructive to neighboring crops.

Though clumsy on the land, in the water the movements of the hippopotamus are often graceful and rapid. For the most part, he loves to lie "in the covert of the reeds and fens," or float in the water with only his nostrils visible. By way of exercise, he walks at the bottom of the river or climbs the neighboring hillsides ("mountains" of the Bible).

"The old commentators have made all sorts of conjectures on the behemoth. Some have maintained it was the elephant, others the wild buffalo, others the mammoth or some extinct pachyderm, others that it is a poetical description of these large creatures generally. But it appears clear that the description suits the hippopotamus exactly, and it alone; and this description has been adopted by Bochart and most modern critics. We know from the Egyptian monuments that this huge animal was hunted with spears; and noting its place in the description of the marvels of creation in Job, just before the leviathan or crocodile, the sequence seems to be that, powerful and terrible as is the hippopotamus, yet it may sometimes be taken with spears: 'But what canst thou do with the crocodile? Will spears and barbs avail against him?' " — Tristram.

BE'KAH. See Measures.

BEL. See Baal.

BE'LA (a swallowing up, or destruction). 1. A king of Edom, eight generations before Saul. Gen 36:32-33; 1 Chr 1:43-44.
2. Benjamin's eldest son. Num 26:38-40; 1 Chr 7:6-7; 1 Chr 8:1-3. In Gen 46:21 called Belah.
3. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:8.

BE'LA (swallowing, or destruction). Gen 14:2, 1 Kgs 15:8. See Zoar.

BE'LAITES. The descendants of Bela are so called in Num 26:38.

BE'LIAL (worthlessness). This word is applied by the sacred writers to such lewd, profligate, and vile persons as seem to regard neither God nor man. Deut 13:13; Jud 19:22, and 1 Sam 2:12. Hence the question of the apostle, 2 Cor 6:15, to the citizens of Corinth, which was remarkable for its lewdness and profligacy, has great force: "What concord hath Christ with Belial," the prince of licentiousness and corruption?

BELIEVE'. See Faith.

BELL. Bells were attached to the bottom of the high priest's robe, that he might be heard when he went into or came out of the holy place. Ex 28:33, Ex 28:35. Many of the Eastern kings and nobles wear bells in the same manner at this day, not only for ornament, but to give notice of their approach. The Arabian ladies in the royal presence have little gold bells fastened to their legs, necks, and elbows, which make an agreeable sound when they dance. The "bells of the horses" mentioned in Zech 14:20 were concave or flat pieces of brass, still used in the East as ornaments upon animals.

BEL'LOWS. The word occurs once only in the Authorized Version, Jer 6:29, but the article must have been known before Moses's day, since without them smelting ores would be impossible. It is probable that the Jews had bellows of the same general appearance as the Egyptians', which are thus described by Wilkinson: "They consisted of a leather bag secured and fitted into a frame, from which a long pipe extended for carrying the wind to the fire. They were worked by the feet, the operator standing upon them, with one under each foot, and pressing them alternately while he pulled up each 110 exhausted skin with a string he held in his hand." The modern Palestinian bellows are even simpler, being a mere skin bag having a pipe fastened at one

Egyptian Bellows. (After Cailliard.)

end; it is pressed between two boards, and thus the air expelled.

BELSHAZ'ZAR (Bel's prince, or may Bel protect the king!) was the son or grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, and the last king of Babylon. Dan 5:1, 1 Sam 30:18. During the siege of the city of Babylon he gave a sumptuous entertainment to his courtiers, and impiously made use of the temple-furniture (of which Nebuchadnezzar had plundered the temple at Jerusalem) as drinking-vessels. In the midst of the festivities, to the terror of the king, a hand miraculously appeared to be writing upon the wall: Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. Daniel was called in to explain the mystery, which, thus interpreted, proved to be a prophecy of the king's death and the kingdom's overthrow, which took place in the course of the succeeding night, when Darius the Median captured the city. Dan 5:25-31.

BELTESHAZ'ZAR (Bel's prince or Bel protect his life!), the name given to the prophet Daniel at the court of Nebuchadnezzar. Dan 1:7. See Daniel.

BEN (son), a porter, a Levite, in David's time. 1 Chr 15:18.

BENA'IAH (whom Jehovah hath built up). 1. Son of Jehoiada, the chief priest, and distinguished for his enterprise and bravery on several occasions. 2 Sam 23:20-23. He was an adherent of Solomon against the pretensions of Adonijah, 1 Kgs 1:36, and after putting Joab to death succeeded to the command of the army. 1 Kgs 2:29-35.
2. One of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:30; 1 Chr 11:31; 1 Chr 27:14.
3. A Simeonite chief. 1 Chr 4:36.
4. A musical Levite in David's day. 1 Chr 15:18, 1 Chr 15:20; 1 Chr 16:5.
5. A priest in David's reign. 1 Chr 15:24; 1 Chr 16:6.
6. A Levite. 2 Chr 20:14.
7. A Levite in Hezekiah's day. 2 Chr 31:13.
8., 9., 10., 11. Four persons who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:25, 1 Kgs 20:30, Ex 28:35,Ezr 10:43.
12. The father of Pelatiah. Eze 11:1, 2 Kgs 11:13.

BEN-AM'MI (son of my people), the son of Lot by his youngest daughter, and the progenitor of the Ammonites. Gen 19:38.

BEN'E-BE'RAK (son of lightning), a city of Dan, Josh 19:45, probably Ibn Ibrak, near el-Yehudizeh.

BENEFAC'TORS was a title given to several rulers, particularly to two of the Egyptian Ptolemies, who are called accordingly in the Greek form Euergetes. Hence our Lord's remark, Luke 22:25. It is analogous to our title "Excellency."

BEN'E-JA'AKAN (children of Jaakan), a tribe probably descended from a grandson of Seir the Horite, and which gave a name to wells where Israel encamped. Num 33:31, Jud 1:32; same as Beeroth, and as the wells at el Mayin, 60 miles west of Mount Hor.

BEN-HA'DAD (son, i. e. worshipper, of Hadad). 1. King of Damascus in the time of Asa, king of Judah, with whom he formed an alliance against Baasha, king of Israel. 1 Kgs 15:18. See Asa, Baasha.
2. King of Damascus, and a son of the preceding. 1 Kgs 20:1. He was engaged in numerous wars with Israel, and once was taken prisoner. 1 Kgs 20. See Ahab. Afterward he declared war against Jehoram, king of Israel, but the prophet Elisha disclosed his plans so accurately that Jehoram was able to defeat them. 2 Kgs 6:8-33. It was Ben-hadad who sent Naaman to Elisha. 2 Kgs 5. See Elisha.

In the siege of Samaria, which subsequently took place, that city was reduced to the greatest extremity. The Syrian army, under Ben-hadad, was lying around the walls, when in the course of the night they were led to 111 conceive that they heard the noise of an immense army in motion. Supposing that the city had been succored by supplies of men and provisions from abroad, and terrified with the fancied tumult of their approach, the Syrians just at daybreak fled for their lives, leaving their camp, with all their horses, asses, provisions, utensils, etc., just as they were, and their garments and vessels scattered all along the road by which they had fled. The citizens of Samaria were thus unexpectedly relieved and supplied with an abundance of food.

The next year, Ben-hadad, being sick, sent Hazael to inquire of the prophet Elisha whether he would recover; and he received for answer that the king might certainly recover, and yet would surely die. Hazael also was informed by the prophet that he would be elevated to the throne of Syria, and would be guilty of enormous wickedness. The very next day Ben-hadad was murdered, and Hazael became king of Syria. 2 Kgs 8:15. See Hazael.

Various successful campaigns against Ben-hadad II. are mentioned upon the tablets of the Assyrian king, Shalmaneser II., b.c. 858-823. Ben-hadad, who is called Ben-hadar, was in league with Ahab when the first campaign took place, as the Bible says. 1 Kgs 20:34.

  1. Another person of the same name, and son of Hazael. 2 Kgs 13:3, He suffered several defeats from the hand of Jehoash, king of Israel, and was compelled to relinquish all the land of Israel which his father, Hazael, had obtained in conquest. 2 Kgs 13:25.

BEN'-HA'IL (son of the host, i. e. warrior), one of the "princes" whom Jehoshaphat sent to teach the people the law. 2 Chr 17:7.

BEN'-HA'NAN (son of one gracious), a Judite. 1 Chr 4:20.

BEN'INU (our son), a Levite who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:13.

BEN'- JAMIN (son of the right hand, i. e. of fortune). 1. The youngest son of Jacob and Rachel. His mother died immediately after his birth, which took place near Bethlehem when the family were on their journey from Padan-aram to Canaan, With her dying breath she called him Ben-oni (the son of my sorrow), but his father gave him the name he bore. Gen 35:16-18. The relation between him and Jacob was ever most tender, particularly after Joseph's supposed death. We know, however, nothing about him personally. The tribe formed from his descendants exhibited the traits of courage, cunning, and ambition foretold by the dying Jacob. Gen 49:27. It had its portion of the Promised Land adjoining Judah; and when ten of the tribes revolted, Benjamin continued steadfast in its attachment to Judah, and formed a part of that kingdom. 1 Kgs 12:17, Heb 12:23. Saul, the first king, and Paul were descendants of this tribe. 1 Sam 10:21; Phil 3:5.

  1. A Benjamite chief. Phil 1 Chr, 7:10.

  2. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:32.

BEN'JAMIN (son of the right hand), LAND OF, the portion of Canaan between Ephraim, the Jordan, Judah, and Dan, containing 26 cities, including Jerusalem and the famous passes of Michmash and Beth-horon. See Josh 18:11-28. It was about 25 miles long by 12 wide.

Physical Features. — This territory was a hilly country, its general level being about 2000 feet above the Mediterranean and 3000 feet above the Jordan valley. It includes mountains broken by deep ravines. For productions, etc., see Canaan, Palestine, and Judah.

Some of the most important events in Scripture history took place in this territory, which will be noticed under the kings of Judah.

BE'NO (his son), a Levite. 1 Chr 24:26-27.

BEN-O'NI. See Benjamin.

BEN-ZO'HETH (son of Zoheth), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:20.

BE'ON. Num 32:3. See Baal-Meon.

BE'OR (torch). 1. The father of Bela, king of Edom. Gen 36:32; 1 Chr 1:43.

  1. The father of Balaam, Num 22:5, etc. called Bosor in 2 Pet 2:15.

BE'RA (son of evil), king of Sodom. Gen 14:2.

BER'ACHAH (blessing), a Benjamite leader who joined David. 1 Chr 12:3.

BER'ACHAH, (blessing), VALLEY OF, where Jehoshaphat celebrated the victory over the Moabites, 112 2 Chr 20:26; now Wady Breikût, west of Tekua (Tekoa), and about 8 miles south-west of Bethlehem.

BERACHI'AH (whom Jehovah hath blessed), the father of Asaph. 1 Chr 6:39.

BERAI'AH (whom Jehovah created), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:21.

BERE'A, a city of Macedonia, Acts 17:10-13, on the eastern side of the Olympian Mountains; now Verriu, with a population of about 6000, though some incorrectly give 20,000.

BERECHI'AH (whom Jehovah hath blessed). 1. One of David's posterity. 1 Chr 3:20. 2. A Levite. 1 Chr 9:16. 3. The father of Asaph, also called Berachiah. 1 Chr 15:17. 4. A doorkeeper for the ark. 1 Chr 15:23. 5. An Ephraimite in the days of Ahaz. 2 Chr 28:12. 6. The father of a builder of the wall. Neh 3:4, 1 Kgs 20:30; Neh 6:18. 7. The father of Zechariah. Zech 1:1, 1 Kgs 15:7.

BE'RED (hail), a place in southern Palestine, near the well Lahai-roi. Gen 16:14. Grove suggests El-Khulasah, 12 miles south of Beer-sheba; Conder proposes Bereid.

BERENI'CE . See Bernice.

BE'RI (well), an Asherite chieftain. 1 Chr 7:36.

BERI'AH (in evil, or a gift). 1. 1. A son of Asher. Gen 46:17; Num 26:44-45; 1 Chr 7:30-31. 2. A son of Ephraim. 1 Chr 7:23. 3. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:13, Ex 17:16. 4. A Levite. 1 Chr 23:10, Rev 1:11.

BERI'ITES, the descendants of Beriah, 1. Num 26:44.

BE'RITES, THE (the people of the wells), a family mentioned in 2 Sam 20:14, but it is not known who they were.

BE'RITH (a covenant). Jud 9:46. See Baal-berith.

BERNI'CE, OR BEREN'ICE (victorious), was the eldest daughter of Agrippa, surnamed the Great, and sister to the younger Agrippa, kings of the Jews. Acts 25:13, Heb 12:23; Acts 26:30. Her first husband was her uncle Herod, the king of Chalcis. She appears in the Acts in connection with her brother, Agrippa II., with whom she lived in incestuous intercourse after Herod's death, a.d. 48. To put an end to the scandal she married Polemo, king of Cilicia, whom she persuaded to be circumcised. The bond was soon dissolved, and she returned to her brother. Subsequently, so remarkable were her powers of

Bernice. (On a Coin of Polemo II)

Bernice married Polemo II., king of a part of Cilicia. The coin was struck in 52 a.d., about the time when Paul was at Corinth with Aquila and Priscilla.

attraction, and so well preserved her beauty, that she became mistress to both Vespasian and his son Titus.

BERO'DACH-BAL'ADAN . 2 Kgs 20:12. See Merodach-baladan.

BERO'THAH, and BER'OTHAI (my wells), one in the north of Palestine, Eze 47:16, the other in the same region, 2 Sam 8:8. The two may be the same, and possibly modern Beirut, but more probably farther east, at Brithen or Bretun, about 6 miles south-west of Baalbec.

BER'YL . Ex. 28:20. By the Hebrew word "tarshish " modern yellow topaz is supposed to be meant. This designation seems to indicate the place from which it was brought. Beryl, in the N. T., Rev 21:20, is probably a different stone, and very likely the mineral now so called, which is found in Palestine, but was less abundant and more precious in ancient times than in modern. It is usually of a light-green color and considerably opaque.

BE'SAI (sword, or conqueror), an ancestor to some of the Nethinim. Ezr 2:49: Neh 7:52.

BESODE'IAH (in the secret of Jehovah), the father of a repairer of the wall. Neh 3:6.

BE'SOM . Isa 14:23. A broom made of twigs.

BE'SOR . 1 Sam 30:9-21. A torrent-bed in the south of Judah; probably Wady Sheriah, south of Gaza.

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BE'TAH (confidence). 2 Sam 8:8. Called Tibhath, 1 Chr 18:8; possibly Tibhath, between Aleppo and Euphrates.

BE'TEN. Josh 19:25. A town of Asher, east of Ptolemais; now el Baneh.

BETH'-AB'ARA (house of the ford), a place beyond Jordan. John 1:28. Some of the best manuscripts read Bethany same as Beth-abara; possibly at Beth-nimrah, or Nimrin; or, as Conder thinks, at 'Abarah; a leading ford of the Jordan on the road to Gilead.

BETH'-A'NATH (house of answer), a place in Naphtali, Josh 19:38; Jud 1:33; possibly at Hanin, near Diblathaim; or at 'Ainatha.

BETH-A'NOTH (house of echo), a city of Judah, Josh 15:59; perhaps Beit 'Ainun, 3 miles northeast of Hebron.

BETH'ANY (house of dates, or of misery). 1. A village on the eastern slope of Mount Olivet, about 1 1/2 to 2 miles ("15 furlongs") east of Jerusalem, John 11:18, toward Jericho; the home of Mary and Martha, whither Jesus often went. Matt 21:17; Mark 11:11-12. It was the home of Simon, Mark 14:3; the place where Lazarus was raised from the dead, John 11:18-44;

Bethany. (After Photographs.)

and near it Jesus ascended to heaven, Luke 24:50; named only in the Gospels, and there eleven times.

Present Appearance. — Three paths lead from Jerusalem to Bethany — the first over Olivet, north of its summit; the third branches from the first, below Gethsemane, over the southern slope of Olivet; the second lies between these two. "The name, which signifies 'house of poverty,' was probably suggested by its solitary and remote situation, bordering on the desert, or by the fact that lepers, who are popularly called the 'poor,' once sought an asylum here." Mark 14:3. — Baedeker's Handbook. The town is now a poor mountain hamlet of about 20 rude stone houses inhabited by Moslems. The water is good, and olive, fig, almond, and carob trees abound. The reputed sites of Simon's house and that of Mary, also "the tower" and the tomb of Lazarus, are still pointed out. A church stands over the tomb. Bethany is now called el-Aziriyeh, "place of Lazarus." See Schaff's Bible Lands, p. 276.
2. Some manuscripts read Bethany for Bethabara in John 1:28. See Bethabara.

BETH-AR'ABAH (house of the plain), a city of Judah in the wilderness, Josh 15:6, Josh 15:61; counted as a city of Benjamin, Josh 18:22; called 114 Arabah in Josh 18:18, in the valley of the Jordan near the Dead Sea.

BETH-A'RAM (house of height), a town of Gad in the valley, Josh 13:27; perhaps same as Beth-haran. Num 32:36; Merrill locates it at er-Rama, on the Shittim plain.

BETH-AR'BEL (house of God's court, or ambush), probably Arbela or Irbid, between Tiberias and Sepphoris. Hos 10:14.

BETH-A'VEN (house of naught, or idols), east of Bethel, Josh 7:2; Josh 18:12; 1 Sam 13:5; 1 Sam 14:23; used as a name for Bethel, "house of God;" changed to Beth-aven, ''house of idols." Hos 4:15; Hos 5:8; Hos 10:5.

BETH-AZ'MAVETH, a town in Benjamin; called Azmaveth, Neh 7:28; Neh 12:29; Ezr 2:24; perhaps Hizmeh, south-east of Jeba.

BETH-BA'AL-ME'ON . Josh 13:17. See Baal-meon.

BETH-BA'RAH . Jud 7:24. See Beth-abara.

BETH'-BIR'EI (house of my creation), a town of Simeon, 1 Chr 4:31; probably same as Beth-lebaoth and Lebaoth. Josh 19:6; Josh 15:32, in the south of Palestine; probably Bireh.

BETH'-CAR (house of lambs), a place west of Mizpeh. 1 Sam 7:1. Conder locates it at 'Ain Karim.

BETH-DA'GON (house of Dagon). 1. A town in Judah, near Philistia. Josh 15:41. Perhaps at Beit Dejan. 2. A place in Asher. Josh 19:27. Ganneau locates it at Deijun, southwest of Ekron; Conder, at Tell D'auk.

BETH-DIB'LATHA'IM (house of fig-cakes), a town of Moab; same as Almon-diblathaim. Jer 48:22; Num 33:46.

BETH'EL (house of God). 1. A town about 12 miles north of Jerusalem.

History. — Visited by Abraham, Gen 12:8; Gen 13:3; marked by Jacob after his vision of the ladder. Gen 28:11-19; Gen 31:13; dwelling-place of Jacob, Gen 35:1-8; name applied to Luz, Jud 1:22-23; before this the city and the altar site appear to have had different names, see Josh 16:2; Jud 1:22-23; Gen 28:19; Samuel judged there, 1 Sam 7:16 a place of calf-worship, 1 Kgs 12:29 2 Kgs 10:29; called Beth-aven — i.e. "house of idols," Hos 10:5, 1 Kgs 15:8; taken by Judah, 2 Chr 13:19; home of prophets, 2 Kgs 2:2-3; of priests, 2 Kgs 17:28; 2 Kgs 23:15-17; was desolate. Am 3:14; Am 5:5-6; settled by Benjamites after the Captivity, Neh 11:31; named about seventy times in the O.T.; not noticed in the N.T.; now called Beitin (9 miles south of Shiloh), a village of about 25 Moslem hovels, standing amid ruins which cover about 4 acres. Among the ruins is a Greek church, which appears to have been built out of the ruins of an older, and probably a Jewish, edifice. There are also the remains of a tower and a very large cistern. From the top of this ruined tower the Mount of Olives is distinctly visible, and Jewish tradition asserts, no doubt truthfully, that from the rival temple of Jeroboam idol priests could look down upon the temple of Solomon at Jerusalem. The spot is hallowed by Jacob's dream of a ladder which reached from earth to heaven, and caused him to exclaim, "How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven." Gen 28:17. 2. A town in the south of Judah; same as Chesil, Bethul, and Bethuel. Josh 12:16; Josh 15:30; Josh 19:4; 1 Chr 4:30. Either Beit Aula, or El-Khulanah, 3. Mount Bethel, Josh 16:1; 1 Sam 13:2, a hilly district near Bethel.

BETH-E'MEK (house of the valley), a town of Asher, Josh 19:27; possibly Amkah. 8 miles north-east of Akka.

BE'THER, THE MOUNTAINS OF . Song of Solomon 2:17. Probably near the Lebanon range.

BETHES'DA (house of mercy, or flowing water), a pool in Jerusalem near the sheep-gate or market, John 5:2-9; tradition identifies it with the modern pool Birket-Israel, 360 feet long, 120 feet wide, and 80 feet deep, half filled with rubbish. Capt. Warren found an aqueduct leading from it, probably into the Kedron. Robinson, with more probability, regards Bethesda as identical with the intermittent Pool of the Virgin, outside of the city, above the Pool of Siloam.

BETH-E'ZEL (house of firm root). Mic 1:11. Speaker's Commentary identifies it with Azal, near Jerusalem.

BETH-GA'DER (house of the wall), possibly a place in Judah. 1 Chr 11:51; now Jedur. See Geder.

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Traditional Pool of Bethesda. (Birket-Israel. After a Photograph by Bonfils.)

BETH-GA'MUL (house of camel), a town of Moab, Jer 48:23; perhaps Um-el-Jemal, near Bozrah, an unwalled town, having some of the most remarkable ruins in that country, houses, streets, walls, and gates deserted, but in perfect preservation. See Jer 48:21-25. Grove, however, thinks Jemal too far north-east to be Gamul.

BETH-GIL'GAL . Neh 12:29. Same as Gilgal, near Bethel.

BETH-HAC'CEREM (house of the vine), a place near Tekoa, Jer 6:1; Neh 3:14; probably the Frank Mountain, 4 miles south-east of Bethlehem.

BETH-HA'RAN . See Beth-aram .

BETH-HOG'LA, or HOG'LAH (partridge-house), a town of Benjamin, Josh 15:6; Josh 18:19, 2 Chr 11:21; now 'Ain Hajla, between Jericho and the Jordan.

BETH-HO'RON (house of the cave), the name of two places, the "Upper" and "Nether" Beth-horon, Josh 6:3, 1 Chr 6:5, about 3 miles apart, on the opposite sides of a ravine or steep pass — the Thermopylae of Palestine — on the road from Jerusalem to the seacoast. The "Nether" or lower town was the most important; now Beit Ur el-Tahta. The Upper Beth-horon is now Beit Ur el- Fauga.

BETH-JES'IMOTH, and JESH'IMOTH (house of wastes), a town of Moab. Num 33:49; Josh 12:3; Josh 13:20; Eze 25:9. Schwarz places it at Beth-Jisimuth, north-east of the Dead Sea; Merrill, at Ain Suweimeh; Tristram, at er-Rama, 5 miles north-east from the mouth of the Jordan.

BETH-LEB'AOTH (house of lionesses). See Beth-birei.

BETH'LEHEM (house of bread). 1. A town in the "hill-country," about 6 miles south of Jerusalem, situated on a narrow ridge running eastward, which breaks down in abrupt terraced slopes to the deep valleys below. The town is 2527 feet above the sea. It is one of the oldest in Palestine.

History. — It was Rachel's burial-place (still marked by a white mosque near the town), and called Ephrath, Gen 35:19; the home of Naomi, Boaz, and Ruth, Ruth 1:19; birthplace of David, 1 Sam 17:12; burial-place of Joab's family, 2 Sam 2:32; taken by the Philistines, and had a noted well, 2 Sam 23:14-15; fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:6; foretold as the birthplace of Christ, Mic 5:2; the birthplace of Jesus, Matt 2:1; was visited by the shepherds, Luke 2:15-17, and by the magi, Matt 2:1-23. It is noticed over 40 times in the Bible.

It has existed as a town for over 4000 years. It was a small place until after the time of Christ; was improved and 116 its walls rebuilt by Justinian; had a famous church in a.d. 600; was destroyed by the Arabs, rebuilt by the Franks, again twice destroyed, a.d. 1214 and in 1489; rebuilt within the last two centuries; now has about 5000 inhabitants, nearly all nominally Christians, mostly of the Greek Church. The women of Bethlehem, as also those of Nazareth (the two homes of Christ), are exceptionally beautiful, and demonstrate the superiority of Christian women over Moslem women. It is now called Beit-Lahm; is surrounded by nicely kept terraces covered with vine, olive, and fig trees. The church of the Nativity, the oldest in Christendom, built in a.d. 330 by the empress Helena, stands over the grotto reputed to be the place of our Lord's birth, and is the joint property of the Greeks, Latins, and Armenians, who have separate convents adjoining it. The "plain of the Shepherds" is about a mile from the town. The so-called David's well is pointed out near the city. A massive column

Bethlehem, (from Original Photograph by Bonfils.)

stands upon the reputed spot where monkish legends say 20,000 martyred innocents were buried. The claim of these places as the true localities where the biblical events occurred rests wholly upon traditions covered with the accumulated rubbish of superstition, which render the identifications of small value. The chapel beneath the church, however, was the study of St. Jerome, where he spent thirty years on his great work, the Latin version of the Bible, called the Vulgate, and which is still the standard version in the Roman Church. The "holy crypt," the reputed birthplace of our Lord, is a cave in the solid rock, twenty feet beneath the great choir of the church. At the entrance of a long winding passage cut out of the limestone rock is an irregular-shaped chapel, containing two small recesses. In the northernmost of these is a marble slab, on which a silver star marks the supposed spot of the Nativity. Hepworth Dixon (The Holy Land, 1865, ch. xiv.) not only accepts this cave as the birthplace of Jesus, but also tries to prove that it belonged to Boaz and was the home of David. The tradition that Jesus was born in this cave is very old, and is first mentioned by Justin Martyr (about a.d. 140), who was a native of Palestine. The precise place of our Saviour's birth, as that of his crucifixion, has been left in obscurity by a wise Providence. The greeting of Boaz to the reapers may still be heard in the fields of Bethlehem. The farmer now salutes his laborers with "The Lord be with you!" and 117 they reply, as in the days of Ruth, "The Lord bless thee!" Ruth 2:4. 2. A town in Zebulon, Josh 19:15; now a poor village, Beit-Lahm, 6 miles west of Nazareth.

BETH-MA'ACHAH 2 Sam 20:14-15 Same as Abel-beth-maachah, Abel-maim, and Abel; now Abel el-Kamh, a village north-west of Lake Merom. Grove supposes Maachah was a petty Syrian kingdom north of Palestine.

BETH-MAR'CABOTH (house of chariots), a town in the south of Judah. Josh 19:5; 1 Chr 4:13. Rowland identifies it with el-Murtabeh, 10 miles south-west of Beer-sheba.

BETH-ME'ON See Baal-meon.

BETH-NIM'RAH (house of leopards), a fenced city east of the Jordan, Josh 13:27; Num 32:3, Eze 23:36; same as Nimrah, and the modern Nimrin, on the Jordan, above Jericho. Some would identify it also with Beth-abara.

BETH-PA'LET (house of flight), a town in the south of Judah; same as Beth-phelet, Josh 15:27; Neh 11:26; either modern el-Kuseifeh, near Moladah, or el-Hora.

BETH-PAZ'ZEZ (house of dispersion), in Issachar, Josh 19:21, west of the Sea of Galilee; possibly, but not probably, modern Beit-Jenu.

BETH-PE'OR (temple of Peor), a place on Pisgah. Deut 3:29; Deut 4:46; Deut 34:6; Josh 13:20. See Pisgah.

BETH'PHAGE (house of green figs), a place near Bethany, Matt 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29, and possibly west of that place.

BETH-PHE'LET . See Beth-palet .

BETH-RE'HOB (house of Rehoh), called Rehob, Num 13:21; 2 Sam 10:6, 1 Kgs 15:8; was near Laish, Jud 18:28; possibly Hunin, on the mountain west of the plain of Dan, and about 1000 feet above it.

BETHSA'IDA (house of fishing), a city of Galilee, near Capernaum. John 12:21; Matt 11:21. Many recent writers urge that there were two Bethsaidas, since the desert-place where the 5000 were fed belonged to ''the city called Bethsaida," Luke 9:10, while after the miracle the disciples were to go before him unto the other side to Bethsaida, Mark 6:45, which it is said could not refer to the same town. 1. If there were two towns of this name, the first one, in Galilee, was on the west side of the lake. Robinson, Grove, Porter, and others place it at Ain et-Tabighak, north of Khan Minyeb, others at Khan Minyeh. 2. Bethsaida Julias, in Gaulanitis, on the eastern bank of the Jordan, near its entrance into the lake.

But it seems quite unlikely that two cities in such close neighborhood should have borne the same name. Hence Dr. W. M. Thomson supposes that there was but one Bethsaida, which was built on both sides of the Jordan, and places the site at Abu-Zany, where the Jordan empties into the Lake of Galilee. The Sinaitic manuscript omits "belonging to a city called Bethsaida" in Luke 9:10; hence, Wilson also holds that there is no necessity for two Bethsaidas; and this seems the more probable view. The eastern part was beautified by Philip the tetrarch, and called Bethsaida Julias (in honor of a daughter of the emperor Augustus), to distinguish it from the western Bethsaida, in Galilee. — Schaff:Through Bible Lands, p. 353. See Capernaum.

BETH-SHE'AN (house of quiet),

BETH'SAN, OR BETH'SHAN, a city 5 miles west of the Jordan, first in Issachar, but later in Manasseh. Josh 17:11; 1 Chr 7:29. Saul's body was fastened to its walls, 1 Sam 31:10, Jud 4:12; after the Captivity it was called Scythopolis, and was a chief city of Decapolis; now Beisan, having ruins of temples, colonnades, hippodrome, theatre, and city walls.

BETH-SHE'MESH (house of the sun). 1. A city on the north of Judah belonging to the priests. Josh 15:10; Josh 21:16; same as Ir-shemesh and Mount Heres, Josh 19:41; Jud 1:35; noted as the place to which the ark was returned, 1 Sam 6:9-20; now a heap of ruins near 'Ain Shems, about 14 miles west of Jerusalem. 2. A fenced city of Naphtali. Josh 19:38. Conder proposes 'Ain esh Shims&#0238yeh. 3. A city on the border of Issachar, Josh 19:22; perhaps the same as No. 2. 118 4. A place in Egypt, Jer 43:13; same as Heliopolis, or On, See On.

BETH- SHIT'TAH (house of acacia), now perhaps the village of Shattah, east of Jezreel. Jud 7:22.

BETH-TAP'PUAH (house of apples), a town of Judah near Hebron, Josh 15:53; now Tuffuh, 5 miles west of Hebron, and noted for olive-groves and vineyards. Traces of the ancient terraces still remain.

BETHU'EL (man of God), the son of Nahor, nephew of Abraham, and father of Laban and Rebekah. Gen 22:22-23; Gen 24:15,Jud 6:24,Josh 15:47; Gen 28:2. His son Laban plays the prominent part in the narrative.

BE'THUEL, and BE'THUL See Chesil and Bethel.

BETH'ZUR (house of rock), in the mountains of Judah; built by Rehoboam; its ruler helped to repair Jerusalem, 2 Chr 11:7; Neh 3:16; now Beit Sur, 4 miles north of Hebron.

BET'ONIM, a town in Gad. Josh 13:26.

BETROTH' Deut 28:30. A man and woman were betrothed or espoused each to the other when they were engaged to be married. It is giving one's troth — i.e. faith or promise — to marry at a future time.

Among the Jews this relation was usually determined by the parents or brothers, without consulting the parties until they came to be betrothed. The engagement took place very early, though it was not consummated by actual marriage until the spouse was at least twelve years of age.

The betrothing was performed a twelvemonth or more before the marriage, either in writing or by a piece of silver given to the espoused before witnesses. During the interval, however, from the time of espousals to the marriage, the woman was considered as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was betrothed; nor could the engagement be ended by the man without a bill of divorce; nor could she be unfaithful without being considered an adulteress. See Marriage.

BEU'LAH (married), a word used by Isaiah, Isa 62:4, to set forth the intimate relation of the Jewish Church to God.

BE'ZAI (conqueror), father of some who returned. Ezr 2:17; Neh 7:23; Neh 10:18.

BEZAL'EEL (in the shadow of God). A famous artificer who received wisdom and instruction directly from God to qualify him for the work of building the tabernacle and preparing its various furniture. Ex 31:2. 2. One who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:30.

BE'ZEK (lightning). 1. In the mountains of Judah, Jud 1:3-5; probably Bezek, near Jerusalem. 2. Possibly a district. 1 Sam 11:8-9. Schwartz places it at Bezik or Ahsik; Conder at Ibzik, north of Tirzah.

BE'ZER (ore), an Asherite.1 Chr 7:37.

BE'ZER IN THE WILDERNESS, a city of refuge east of the Jordan, Deut 4:43; Josh 20:8; Josh 21:36; 1 Chr 6:78; possibly Burazin, 12 miles north-east of Heshbon.

BE'ZETHA, and BE'ZETH, a hill in Jerusalem north of Acra and Moriah. See Jerusalem.

BI'BLE "The Holy Bible" is the name given to the collection of books which contains the revelation of God in the creation, redemption, and sanctification of the world; a history of the past dealing of God with his people; a prophecy of coming events till the final consummation; and a living exhibition of saving truth in doctrine, precept, and example for all men and all time. The name is from the Greek (?ra. ^l^Ala?, "the books"), and means the Book of books, the best of all books (so used since the fifth century in distinction from heretical and all uninspired writings). The collection is likewise spoken of as the "Scriptures," "the word of God." The Bible embraces the work of about forty authors from all classes of society, from the shepherd to the king, living during an interval of sixteen hundred years, but all of the Hebrew extraction, with the single exception of Luke, whose Gospel, however, came from Jewish sources, and whose fame from his association with Paul. All forms of literary composition unite to give the Bible its unique interest, aside from its religious importance. These books, though differing in age, contents, and style, represent one and the same system 119 of truth as revealed by God in its various aspects and adaptations to the existing wants and progressive understanding of his people. The Bible is not a book simply; it is an institution. It never grows old; it renews its youth with every age of humanity, and increases in interest and importance as history advances. It is to the Christian the only infallible source and rule of his faith and conduct; it is his daily bread of life, his faithful guide in holy living and dying, his best friend and companion — far more precious than all other books combined. It is now more extensively studied than ever, and its readers will continue to multiply from day to day to all parts of the earth and to the end of time. Let us add some testimonies to its importance.

The eloquent F. W. Robertson says: "This collection of books has been to the world what no other book has ever been to a nation. States have been founded on its principles; kings rule by a compact based on it; men hold it in their hands when they give solemn evidence affecting death or property; the sick man is almost afraid to die unless the Book be within reach of his hands; the battle-ship goes into action with one on board whose office is to expound it; its prayers, its psalms, are the language we use when we speak to God; eighteen centuries have found no holier, no diviner language. The very translation of it has fixed language and settled the idioms of speech. It has made the most illiterate peasant more familiar with the history, customs, and geography of ancient Palestine than with the localities of his own country. . . . The orator holds a thousand men for half an hour breathless, a thousand men as one listening to his single word. But this word of God has held a thousand nations for thrice a thousand years spell-bound — held them by an abiding power, even the universality of its truth; and we feel it to be no more a collection of books, but the Book." The translators of the A. V., in their Address unto the Reader (reprinted in the Cambridge Paragraph Bible), say of the Bible: "And what marvel? — the original thereof being from heaven, not from earth; the author being God, not man; the inditer, the Holy Spirit, not the wit of the apostles or prophets; the penmen, such as were sanctified from the womb and endued with a principal portion of God's Spirit; the matter, verity, piety, purity, uprightness; the form, God's word, God's testimony, God's oracles, the word of truth, the word of salvation, etc.; the effects, light of understanding, stableness of persuasion, repentance from dead works, newness of life, holiness, peace, joy in the Holy Ghost; lastly, the end and reward of the study thereof, fellowship with the saints, participation of the heavenly nature, fruition of an inheritance immortal, undefiled, and that shall never fade away. Happy is the man that delighteth in the Scripture, and thrice happy that meditateth in it day and night!"

The Bible is ordinarily divided into two parts, called the Old and New Testaments. But it would be more accurate to say "the Old and New Covenants," inasmuch as "testament" implies the idea of a will and the death of the testator.

In the present article the general questions in regard to the Bible will be discussed. The matters relating to the formation of the collection will be found under Canon, and the particulars of the different books under their respective names.

I. The Original Languages of the Bible.

  1. The O. T. is written in Hebrew, a Shemitic tongue, differing in most respects very widely from the Japhetic or Aryan languages, to which family ours belongs. The difference is not simply in vocabulary, but in grammatical structure, and also in the manner of writing, which is from right to left, giving rise to the common saying that Hebrew books begin at the last page. It is triliteral — i. e. its words are built up according to certain rules from roots formed of three consonants. The verb has only two tenses, the perfect and the imperfect. There is no proper declension of nouns, and only two genders, masculine and feminine. There are three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. There are no compounds, in our sense of the term; the article, conjunction, and preposition, expressed each by a single consonant, are attached directly to the word. Pronouns undergo a similar treatment, "whether they are the subject
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or object of verbs or dependent upon other forms of speech. Thus the Hebrew 'and from his land' is written as one word, though it embraces a conjunction, preposition, noun, and pronoun; but this is a mere aggregate, in which each element retains its separate force unchanged, not a compound, in which the several constituents combine in the expression of one idea." — Prof. W. H. Green. Hebrew is highly figurative — pre-eminently fitted for devotion, but by lack of precision singularly unfitted for philosophy. It was therefore just the requisite medium for an introductory revelation. The O. T. does not argue against or analyze or defend any religion in set phrase, but it fills the mind with the knowledge of the true God and inspires the heart in his service.

  1. The N. T. was written in Greek, which had, since the Macedonian conquest of Alexander the Great, supplanted Hebrew in common use among the Jews who dwelt in the Roman provinces, and was the medium of communication between all parts of the civilized world. The ancient Greek literature is a perennial source of inspiration and knowledge. The language is at once vigorous and flexible, profound and clear, remarkably well suited to express every variety of thought. It is equally adapted to the concise, the critical, and the commonplace. In short, every order of mind can use it appropriately. It was in that day a better channel than the Hebrew for a divine revelation, and that of the highest kind. Hebrew no longer met the wants of culture. By nature it was hampered. It was the language of monotheism, but not of developed trinitarianism.

The N. T. Greek is the Macedonian, and more particularly the Hellenistic, dialect, more or less mixed with Hebraisms, arising from the fact that the writers were Jews. In some books this tinge is very strong, especially in Matthew, Mark, and Revelation. On the contrary, the Greek of James and Luke, particularly in the preface of Luke's Gospel and in the latter part of the Acts, is good and forcible. Paul has a style of his own; broken and involved, interminable at times, as his sentences are, they are bold, pregnant, and lively. But whether with classical finish or unadorned simplicity, in this language the apostles addressed their own countrymen and the Gentiles upon the momentous truths and facts of the everlasting gospel.

II. The Text of the Bible.

The Bible, like the Saviour whom it presents, is divine-human in its character. The written word became flesh, as well as the personal Word. The eternal truth of God passed through the mental faculties of the prophets and apostles, and uttered itself in human speech. Its contents were first in the mind, and then written out, either directly by the inspired man or at his dictation. The autographs have perished. We possess at best but copies of other copies. These, although made with reverent care, are not free from the imperfections of human writings. Errors would be perpetuated and new ones constantly made. This was pre-eminently the case with the N. T. The number of textual variations in the Greek N. T. or "different readings," as they are called, amounts to 150,000. And yet we may claim that a special Providence has watched over the purity and integrity of the text of Holy Scripture, since only about 400 of these are of any consequence, the rest being trifles of spelling, etc., and none of these 400 affect a doctrine or precept.

1 The Hebrew Bible of to-day is a reprint of the so-called Masoretic text — i. e. the text punctuated and vocalized by a body of Jewish scholars who lived at Tiberias, and at Sora in the Euphrates valley, from the sixth to the twelfth century, and who committed to writing the mass of traditional notes of all kinds called the Masora — i. e. tradition. Up to the beginning of that period the Hebrew text was written without "points," as the vowel-points are called. These were added, and thus the pronunciation was fixed. By means of other marks punctuation and the tone-syllables were indicated. The separation of the text into verses by means of two dots arranged like a colon and the assortment of the books in a fixed order had been previously effected. It is stated that after the Masoretes had finished their labors all the manuscripts which had not this text were condemned 121 as "profane and illegitimate," which caused most of these rejected copies to perish. Thus the facts that there are very few old Hebrew manuscripts — the oldest dating from the tenth century — and that the same text is found in each, are accounted for. But happily for the scholars of Hebrew, the Masoretes marked their corrections upon the margin instead of inserting them in the text, and therefore they are at liberty to reject or use them.

The Hebrew character has changed from an irregular to a square form. The Rabbins, however, in their books employed still another form, which is more cramped. The manuscripts whose use is obligatory in the synagogues to-day are written without punctuation-marks upon rolls, and are very carefully written and preserved.

The whole Hebrew Bible was first printed in 1488; a second edition appeared in 1494. This was the one used by Luther. All subsequent Hebrew Bibles have been little more than reproductions of these two editions.

2 The Greek New Testament. — It is quite in keeping with the character of Christianity, which is free, active, bold, and progressive, that the little book upon which it rests for its initial history, its theology, and, to a certain extent, for its polity, should exhibit such diverse elements at work upon it, and likewise that the book itself should exist in so many more or less variant texts. Superstition, which secured the Jew a verbatim copy, as far as possible, of his sacred Scriptures, did not operate to anything like the same extent in the case of the Christians. They esteemed it a great privilege to have the Gospels and Epistles, but as copies multiply in the Church we find the thoughts of the inspired writer are better preserved than his exact words. At all events, the "various readings" increased. A very fruitful source of variation was the habit of writing at dictation, for a word incorrectly heard would be of course incorrectly written. Then, too, the use of "ligatures," or combinations of letters, to save time, the arbitrary signs employed, and the marks of correction or doubt gradually worked into the text from the margin, each and all contributed to destroy the correctness of the copy. Superfluous words, filling out one sentence by piecing to it a part of another (e. g. Rom 8:1 compared with Rom 8:4 shows conclusively that the latter clause of ver. 1 is repeated by inadvertence from ver. 4), marginal glosses which at last crept into the text, — these are some of the unintentional faults of all copies. But these variations evince the lively interest which all classes took in the book, and therefore are an indirect proof of its divinity. They multiply the means for ascertaining the original reading and supersede the necessity of conjecture, to which we must often resort in the case of the ancient classics. So far from being alarmed at this state of things, we see in it the hand of God, who does not want his Church to be bound to the letter, but to be free in the Spirit, and to exercise all its powers of research upon his holy word.

In the case of the N. T. the number of manuscripts is very large, considering the labor and expense of transcribing. They are divided into two classes: The uncials, which are written throughout in capitals, and with no division of words or of sentences, and with very few and simple marks of punctuation. The writing is in columns of uniform width, from one to four on a page, the letters filling out the page irrespective of the completion of a word. The material was parchment in book-form. The uncials go down to the tenth century. The most important uncial manuscripts are the Sinaitic of the fourth century (discovered by Prof. Tischendorf in the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, 1859, and published in fac-simile, 1862), the Vatican of the same age (in the Vatican Library at Rome), and the somewhat later Alexandrian (in the British Museum, London). The second kind of manuscripts, the cursives, are so called because written in running-hand. The uncial form was, however, retained for some time after this in church copies. From about the eleventh century paper made from cotton or linen superseded parchment. The style of penmanship and other peculiarities in writing enable "diplomatists," as such experts are called, to tell the century to which any given manuscript belongs. The later manuscripts 122 are of little or no critical account since the discovery of the older or uncial manuscripts.

The N. T. in Greek was first printed as part of the Complutensian Polyglot, which Cardinal Ximenes patronized, at Alcala, the modern name for the Spanish town Complutum, in 1514, but the Polyglot was not published till 1522. The editors, probably in their ignorance, pretended to have relied for the text upon very ancient manuscripts received from Rome; but as a matter of fact, the manuscripts were comparatively recent and very inaccurate. The first Greek Testament published was that of Erasmus, which appeared in 1516. The so-called "Textus Receptus," or received text, is derived from the second edition of Elzevir, published at Leyden, 1633. It is in the main a copy of Beza's (1565-1589). The typographical beauty of the Elzevir edition and its handy shape, and not its critical merit, determined its acceptance. In England the text of Stephens (1550), which is substantially the same with the text of Elzevir, has often been reprinted and taken as the basis of critical editions from Mills down to Tregelles, although Bentley suggested a new basis from the oldest sources. The text of the N. T. has been brought into its present satisfactory condition after long-continued and patient study, and every Bible student should thank God for the scholars he has raised up to do this work. All honor to the immortal names of Griesbach (1754-1812), Lachmann (1793-1851), Tischendorf (1815-1874), Tregelles (1813-1875), Westcott, and Hort, for to them are we indebted for the oldest and purest text of the Greek Testament which can be attained at the present day, and which makes a revision of our English version at once desirable and safe.

III. The Order of the Books and the Names of their Divisions.

1 The Old Testament. — The Jewish arrangement differs widely from ours. The N. T. recognizes a division of the O. into "the Law and the Prophets," Matt 11:13; Matt 22:40; Acts 13:15, etc., which phrase was doubtless a popular way of speaking of the whole book. We also find a longer phrase, "the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms," Luke 24:44. The Jews divided their sacred Scriptures into (a) the Law — i. e. the five books of Moses, commonly known as the Pentateuch, the five-fold book; (b) the Prophets, divided into the earlier, including Joshua, Judges, First and Second Samuel, First and Second Kings, and later, which are subdivided into the greater — Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel — and the twelve so-called minor prophets; (c) The Holy Writings, or Hagiographa, as they are usually denominated, comprising the Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, First and Second Chronicles. In this probably chronological order the books are arranged in the Hebrew Bibles.

The Christian division into historical, poetical, and prophetical books is topical and more appropriate. It is not necessary to enumerate the books, as a full list is appended to almost every copy of the Bible.

2 The New Testament is divided into the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles, both Pauline and Catholic (the latter — those of James, Peter, John, and Jude — so called because not addressed to particular churches or individuals, but of universal import), and the Revelation; or more briefly into the historical, the doctrinal, and the prophetical books. The oldest manuscripts vary in their arrangement. Many put the Catholic Epistles immediately after the Acts, while the Sinaitic puts the Pauline Epistles before the Acts.

IV. The Division of the Text into Chapters and Verses.

The ancient mode of writing was continuous; no stops of any kind were made, nor were words separated. See article Book. As soon as any break is made we get the germs of a system of division, for these breaks will indicate punctuation, and thus serve the secondary purpose of facilitating reference and remembrance. We find that the division of the sacred text into sections was early made as a matter of necessity, but that chapters and verses were of much later origin.

1 The Old Testament. — The Rabbinic

123

Specimens of existing MSS. of the Scriptures.

4th Cent. Codex Sinaiticus. — 1 Tim. iii. 16.

το της ευσεβειας | μυστηριον [θε late corr.] ος ε.

4th Cent. Codex Sinaiticus. — John i. 18.

νογενης θ(εο)ς [o ων corr.] εις τον.

4th Cent. Codex Vaticanus. — Mark xvi. 8.

στασις και ουδενι ου | δεν ειπαν εφοβουν | το γαρ:

5th Cent. Codex Alexandrinus. — John i. 1.

εν αρχη ην ο λογος και ο λογος ην | προς τον θ(εο)ν και θ(εο)ς ην ο λογος

10th Cent. Codex Basiliensis, known to Erasmus, but little used by him.

-Luke i. 1-2 nearly, as in all Greek Testaments. 124 division is very elaborate. It originated in the liturgical use in worship; and so, the more the books were used, the more complete was the notation. The N. T. quotations from the O. T. for the most part are cited with no more specific reference than to the book from which they come, but sometimes in other ways: thus, "the bush " quoted from in Mark 12:26 and Luke 20:37 was a familiar section of our present Exodus, and was only one of similar terms for other parts. In like manner, the existence of a cycle of lessons is indicated by Luke 4:17; Acts 13:15; Acts 15:21; 2 Cor 3:14, and this, whether identical or not with the later Rabbinic cycle, must have involved an analogous arrangement to that subsequently adopted. Prof. Plumptre, in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible says:"The Law was divided first, much later the Prophets; the former into fifty-four sections, to correspond with the number of Sabbaths in the Jewish intercalary year. But these sections were subdivided to fit them for reading by different persons in the synagogue service. The Prophets were not so uniformly nor so imperatively divided. Yet in intention these sections corresponded to the sections of the Law, so that they together constitute a 'table of lessons' for Sabbath public use. Some time in the ninth century a.d. the sections were divided into verses."

2 The New Testament. — The Gospels were divided first about the middle of the third century (a.d. 220), by Ammonius of Alexandria, into short chapters, "constructed to facilitate the comparison of corresponding passages of the several Gospels." Later on the Acts, the Pauline and the Catholic Epistles, and finally, about a.d. 500, the Revelation, were thrown into chapters.

Our present division of all the books in the Bible into chapters is much later, dating from Cardinal Hugo de St. Cher (died 1263), whose Concordance to the Vulgate popularized the use of verses likewise. This division was introduced into the Latin Bible, and afterward into the Greek O. T.

The present system of verses was prepared and introduced by Robert Stephens in his Greek Testament, 1551.

While both these divisions are on the whole well made, there are numerous places where correction is loudly demanded; chapters begin in wrong places, and verses end in the midst of a sentence. These divisions are at best necessary evils. The reading of the Bible is interrupted by them, owing to the practice of ending with a chapter. Paragraph Bibles are to be commended, because in them the sections are arranged according to the writer's thought, irrespective of the chapters, and the verses are merely indicated by numbers on the margin. No verses are marked in Tyndale, Coverdale, or the Great Bible.

V. The Translations of the Bible.

1. Ancient Translations.

(a) Into Chaldee. — Since the Jews, during the Captivity, had lost command over Hebrew, it became necessary to translate the sacred books into their vernacular, the Chaldee. We find a reference to this state of things in Neh 8:8. These Chaldee translations and paraphrases are called Targums (the word means interpretation), but there is no one which comprises the whole O. T.

(b) Into Greek. — The best known is called the Septuagint, and is commonly represented in scholarly books by the Roman numerals LXX. It was made direct from the Hebrew by a company of learned Alexandrian Jews in that city under the patronage of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and begun b.c. 285. It is not of equal fidelity throughout. The name Septuagint — i. e. seventy, a round number for the more exact seventy-two — arose from a tradition that the work was executed in seventy-two days by seventy-two Jewish scholars. The version was made from Egyptian Hebrew manuscripts, and probably at different times, which may account for the inequality. As it now stands, it includes the Apocrypha, but did not at the beginning. Those books were gradually added. The LXX. has exerted great influence, was claimed by the Jews to be inspired, was in universal use among them in Christ's day, is continually quoted by the N. T. writers and by the Greek Fathers, was translated instead of the Hebrew into Latin, and is the authority in the 125 Greek Church to-day. When the Christians in debate quoted it against their Jewish adversaries, the latter awoke to the fact that their own regard for it was excessive, and therefore abandoned it and returned to the study and use of the original Hebrew. Though not literal, and perhaps intentionally so, it is very valuable in explaining the Hebrew text. Other Greek translations were made by Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, but they exist only in fragments.

(c) Into Siriac. — A translation into this language, made by Christians, direct from the Hebrew, called the Peshito (simple, because it was literal, and not paraphrastic), was in common use in the fourth century, but probably dates from the latter part of the second. It is the earliest of these direct versions.

(d) Into Latin. — The one called the Itala, made from the Septuagint, existed very early in the Latin Church. But the one which is now the "authorized version " in the Church of Rome was made by Jerome, the most learned Christian of his day, directly from the Hebrew, a.d. 385-405. It is called the Vulgate, and was declared by the Council of Trent (1563) to be of equal authority with the original Bible. All Roman Catholic versions must be conformed to it.

It was very natural that the first book printed was the Bible. Gutenberg, the inventor of the art of printing, turned his skill unto the service of God (1450-55). Before discussing other versions,we quote a few lines upon pre-Reformation Bibles: "The earliest printed Bibles in the modern European languages were the first and second German Bibles by Mentelin and Eggesteyn of Strasburg, of rather uncertain date, but certainly not later than 1466. In 1471 appeared at Venice two translations into Italian — the one by Malermi, printed by Vindelin de Spira, and the other by Nicolas Jenson. In 1477 was printed the first N. T. in French, by Buyer, at Lyons, and the same year appeared the first edition of the O. T. in Dutch, printed at Delft by Jacob Jacobs zoen and Mauritius Yemants zoen. In 1480 was published the splendid Bible in the Saxon or Low German language, from the press of Heinrich Quental, of Cologne, followed by a second edition in 1491, and a third in 1494. The Psalms, in Dutch, first came out in 1480, in small octavo, and in Greek and Latin in 1481, while the first Hebrew Pentateuch appeared in 1482. The entire Bible, done into French paraphrase, was published by Guyard de Moulins in 1487. A full translation appeared in the Bohemian language, printed at Prague in 1488. The same year appeared the entire O. T. in Hebrew from the press of Abraham ben Chayim de'Tintori, at Soncino. This chronological arrangement shows us also many noteworthy points, such as that nearly all the earliest Bibles were huge folios; that the first Bibles printed at Rome and Venice appeared in 1471, and that the sixth German Bible, by G. Zainer, in 1475, at Augsburg, was the first with the leaves folioed or numbered; that the first quarto Bible appeared in 1475, printed by John Peter de Ferratis at Placentia, which also was the first book printed at Placentia; that the first of Coburger's celebrated Bibles appeared in Nuremberg in 1475, and that by the end of the century no less than thirteen large folio Bibles had come from this house alone; that the four splendid Bibles printed in 1476 all bear the printers' signatures, though it is difficult to say with certainty which was the first; that the first Bible with a distinct title-page was printed at Venice, by George de Ravabenis, in 1487, in small quarto, and that the first Bible in small octavo — or the poor man's Bible — was the earliest, or among the earliest books, from the press of Johann Froben, of Basle, in 1491. "Prior to the discovery of America no less than twelve grand patriarchal editions of the entire Bible, being of several different translations, appeared from time to time in the German language; to which add the two editions by the Otmars of Augsburg of 1507 and 1518, and we have the total number of no less than fourteen distinct large folio pre-Reformation or ante-Lutheran Bibles. No other language except the Latin can boast of anything like this number." — Henry Stevens: Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition, pp. 27, 28.

Thus, prior to the Reformation, there were translations of the entire Bible into the principal languages. Still, their unwieldy size and great cost kept them from popular use, although, more than 126 is commonly supposed, they carried a knowledge of the Word unto the common people, and thus prepared the way for better things. These several translations were from the Vulgate; those now to be very briefly mentioned were made after the Reformation, and from the original tongues.

2. *Modern Translations.*

(a) Into German. — We have already seen that there were fourteen editions of the entire Bible printed and circulated in Germany before Luther (1483-1546) nailed his theses upon the church-door at Wittenberg, Oct. 31, 1517. But to the great Reformer is due the credit of translating the entire Bible, together with the Apocrypha, out of the original tongues. He conceived the idea, and carried it out by translating the N. T. while in friendly captivity in the Wartburg during 1521. He published the work in the fall of 1522. Then he began at the O. T., and published the translation in sections as he advanced. The first edition of the entire Bible appeared in 1534. Ten editions of the original version were printed. In 1541 he issued an edition in which the first had been faithfully revised by his colleagues and himself. This translation is that used in Germany to-day. It has often been remarked that it fixed the German language and at the same time established Protestantism.

(b) Into French. — A French version by Le Fevre was published at Antwerp in 1530. But there is no national French version; that which comes nearest to it is Olivetan's, which, however, is sadly defective, though improved by Calvin, his cousin. This version appeared in 1535 in the village of Serrieres, near Neufchatel, at the expense of the Waldenses. Of existing versions, Segond's (1880) is by far the best.

(c) Into Dutch. — The States-general's translation, ordered by the Synod of Dort (1619), is reputed the most accurate of all present modern versions.

(d) Into English. — The story of the English Bible begins before the Reformation.

(1.) John de Wycliffe (about 1324-84), aided by Hereford, was the first to translate the entire Bible into English. The greater part of the translation of the N. T. was made by him; this appeared in 1381. The O. T. was principally the work of Nicholas de Hereford, but Wycliffe finished it. Manuscript copies were multiplied. Many poor priests went through the country preaching from this version. The first true text was not brought out in print before 1850, in the edition of Forshall and Madden, in 4 vols. (The earliest printed editions of the N. T. by Baber and in Bagster's English Hexupla are not the version of Wycliffe, but of one of his followers).

Wycliffe simply translated from the Vulgate, and hence there was need of a new and independent version. Besides, the change in the language required it. The invention of printing rendered it possible to give the Bible in the vernacular to the masses, but the Roman Church has never been favorable to this, knowing full well that Bible study means independent research and protest against unscriptural traditions. It was not until the gathering storm of the Reformation burst upon the deformed and diseased Roman communion that the English people received a translation from the original languages of the entire Bible.

(2.) For doing this the credit belongs to William Tyndale (born 1484), who was burnt at the stake, a martyr to the cause of religious liberty, Oct. 6, 1536; but not before he had by his work won an imperishable fame. Filled with the one wish, which he lived to realize — to give every one who could read English the opportunity of reading for himself God's holy word — he endured the contradiction of sinners against himself. Understanding, as he says, "that there was no place to translate the N. T. in all England," he went to Europe in 1524, and carried on his work amid every sort of difficulty and danger. The N. T. appeared at Worms in the latter part of 1525, and arrived in England the early part of 1526, where it was extensively circulated. Tyndale revised it, and published in this enforced and stealthy way several editions under his personal supervision. He also issued at intervals various books of the O. T., and the manuscript translation of other parts was just before his death transmitted to Thomas Poynitz of Antwerp, who finally delivered them to John Rogers (alias 127 Thomas Matthew), who subsequently edited them.

(3.) Miles Coverdale (1488-1569) is the next name upon the list. He differed greatly from his predecessor, Tyndale, lacking his independence and devotion and his knowledge of the original languages, yet on the whole he deserves well of posterity. His translation of the entire Bible appeared Oct. 4, 1535, prefaced by a fulsome dedication to the king, Henry VIII. In order to render the volume more attractive, it was illustrated with several wood-cuts. It was avowedly not made from the original tongues, but from three Latin and two German translations (viz. the Vulgate, Erasmus, Pagninus, Luther, and Leo Judii). The O. T. was based chiefly on the Swiss-German (Zurich) Bible, and the N. T. on Tyndale, although with many variations. It was printed in Antwerp at the expense of Jacob van Meteren,11   *Vide Henry Stevens|Bibles in Caxton Exhibition, pp. 38, seq. but published in London. This translation had but little influence upon the so-called A. V.

(4.) The "Thomas Matthew" Bible was a compilation, although not a mechanical one, under this assumed name, made by John Rogers (1505-55), Tyndale's friend, who is famous as the first Marian martyr, burnt at Smithfield, Feb. 4, 1555, from the above-mentioned translations of Tyndale and Coverdale. It was published in London, 1537, but probably printed by Jacob van Meteren in Antwerp22   Stevens, p. 75.. The publishers, Messrs. Grafton & Whitechurch, in some way interested Archbishop Cranmer in this edition, who through Crumwell procured a royal license for it, and this Bible became the first authorized version. And so it came about that this edition of the Bible, which was two thirds Tyndale's translation, "that had been again and again publicly stigmatized and condemned by authority of this same king, Henry VIII., and even actually prohibited seven years before, was now 'set forth with the king's most gracious license,' this authorization being printed in red ink in each separate volume." Appended to the chapters are notes; upon this part the editor laid out his strength.

(5.) Richard Tavener (1505-1575) issued a revised edition of the Matthew Bible in 1539, but it never was widely used. Its sale may have been stopped by the publication of the so-called Great Bible.

(6.) The "Great Bible," sometimes called Whitechurch's, after one of the printers' names, or oftener "Cranmer's Bible," from the mistaken idea that he was the editor of it, was published in London, 1539. Its name came from its size; its pages are fully 15 inches in length and over 9 in breadth. Its text is Matthew's, revised by Coverdale, who in his singular humility thus revised his own work. To Crumwell's Protestant zeal and triumphant energy do we owe the volume. It was devoid of notes. It was the first edition which printed in a different type the words not found in the original. It also derives interest from the fact that the Scripture sentences in the English Prayer-book in the Communion Service, in the Homilies, and the entire Psalter are taken from it. In 1540 appeared the Cranmer Bible, so called from the archbishop's prologue, but in fact only a new revised edition of the Great Bible of the previous year.

(7.) The Geneva Version (1560), made by the refugees from the Marian persecution, principally by William Whittingham (1524-89), whose wife was Calvin's sister. But the Genevan Bible must not be confounded with the New Testament which appeared there in June, 1557, the fruit of the editorial labors of Whittingham. The Genevan Bible was begun the January following. The N. T. had for the first time the division of verses (following the Greek of Stephens, 1551), with the numbers prefixed. It had also characteristic marginal notes, and marks by italics the words supplied. The Genevan Bible, having been begun, was carried resolutely through. It is not known how many were engaged upon it, but a large share of the work fell upon Whittingham, who tarried in Geneva along with Gilby and Sampson a year and a half after Queen Elizabeth's accession in order to complete the work begun during the dark days of ''Bloody Mary." The Bible finally appeared April, 1560, with a dedication to the queen. The translation is careful and scholarly 128 work, based chiefly upon Tyndale and Cranmer, with many proofs of the influence of Beza. It is really the first complete direct English translation from the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. It at once became widely popular. "It was printed in Roman characters, with division into chapters and verses. It was not a heavy, unhandy folio like the editions of Coverdale, Rogers, or the Great Bible, but a moderate and manageable quarto. Its marginal notes were a kind of running comment, vigorous and lucid, dogmatic and practical. ... It became at once the people's book in England and Scotland, and it held its place not only during the time of the Bishops' Bible, but even against the present A. V. for at least thirty years. It was the first Bible ever printed in Scotland (1576-79), and it was the cherished volume in all Covenanting and Puritan households." — Eadie:The English Bible, vol. ii. p. 16.

(8.) The Bishops' Bible. — In the early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign the Great Bible was allowed to be read in the churches as the authorized version, but the Genevan edition was a formidable rival, greatly excelling it in popularity and, besides, in accuracy. Thus it came about that a revision was demanded, and this Archbishop Parker (1504—75) was anxious to make. He began it about 1563-64, having distributed the work to 15 scholars, 8 of whom were bishops, and therefore the Bible was called "The Bishops' Bible," and the book was published in 1568. It contained no word of flattery, nor even a dedication, but was ornamented with 143 copper-plate engravings of maps, portraits, coats of arms, etc.; it also had notes, brief but valuable, generally on matters of interpretation, but occasionally dogmatic. It was a revision of the Great Bible, which in turn was based on "Matthew's" recension of Tyndale. An effort was made to secure for the Bishops' Bible the royal sanction, but ineffectually. Convocation, however, passed a decree in 1571 "that every archbishop and bishop should have at his house a copy of the Holy Bible of the largest volume as lately printed in London, and that it should be placed in the hall or large dining room, that it might be useful to their servants or to strangers." The order applied to each cathedral, and, "so far as could be conveniently done, to all the churches." The Bishops' Bible supplanted the Great Bible, but could not the Genevan, because that was wide-spread among the people. The most important fact in its history is that it was made the basis for the recension which resulted in our present A. V.

(9.) Roman Catholic Translations. — The Roman Church has never been friendly to vernacular translations of the Scriptures. Hence we should not expect it would spontaneously make one; but when the Genevan version became so popular in England, it seemed desirable that, since English Roman Catholics were sure to fall in with it, they should be given a corrective in the shape of a translation by some of the faithful. The N. T. appeared at Rheims, in France, in 1582, and the O. T. at Douai (1609-10), although it had been prepared before the appearance of the N. T., but delayed for lack of means. The first complete edition of the entire Bible according to this recension was published at Rouen (1633-35). Its translators were good scholars, but were obliged to take the Latin Vulgate as the basis, and to adhere very closely to it. They accompanied the translation with polemical notes. On the whole, the work is inferior to our version, and disfigured by unintelligible Latinisms. No effort was made to give this translation any circulation. It was issued in an expensive form, and none of the Church dignitaries concerned themselves with it. Cardinal Wiseman (Essays, vol. i. pp. 73-75) says:"To call the Roman Catholic version now in use the version of Rheims and Douai is an abuse of terms. It has been altered and modified till scarcely any verse remains as it was originally published; and so far as simplicity and energy of style are concerned, the changes are in general for the worse." The revision was chiefly made by Dr. Challoner (1750) and by Dr. Troy (1791). The Catholic version has retained from the Vulgate some of the oldest and best readings and a large number of Latinisms, some good (as advent, victim, allegory, 129 prevarication, altercation, fallacy), others which have never gone into public use (as azyntes, corhana, parasceve, consubstantial, coinquination, scenopegia). It has contributed some improvements to King James's revisers. See examples in Moulton's History of the English Bible, p. 187 (London, 1878). "Nothing is easier," says Dr. Moulton, " than to accumulate instances of the eccentricity of this revision, of its obscure and inflated renderings; but only minute study can do justice to its faithfulness and to the care with which the translators executed their work."

(10.) The King James's Version (1611). — The final outcome of this series of original translations and revisions of translations of the Scriptures was the so called A. V., which for 250 years has been the channel whereby God's truth has flowed into Anglo-Saxon minds. But it has been even an instructor in other things than those of religion, for from it the language has drawn its stability. Its style is regarded with admiration by natives and foreigners alike. It is the first of English classics. Even seceders to Rome admit this, as the sweet and fervent hymnist, Dr. F. William Faber, whose remarkable judgment (often falsely attributed to Dr. John Henry Newman) is well worth quoting in full: "Who will say that the uncommon beauty and marvellous English of the Protestant Bible is not one of the great strongholds of heresy in this country? It lives on the ear like a music that can never be forgotten, like the sound of church-bells, which the convert hardly knows how he can forego. Its felicities often seem to be almost things rather than mere words. It is part of the national mind and the anchor of national seriousness. Nay, it is worshipped with a positive idolatry, in extenuation of whose grotesque fanaticism its intrinsic beauty pleads availingly with the man of letters and the scholar. The memory of the dead passes into it. The potent traditions of childhood are stereotyped in its verses. The power of all the griefs and trials of a man is hidden beneath its words. It is the representative of his best moments; and all that there has been about him of soft, and gentle, and pure, and penitent, and good speaks to him for ever out of his English Bible. It is his sacred thing, which doubt has never dimmed, and controversy never soiled. It has been to him all along as the silent — but oh how intelligible ! — voice of his guardian angel, and in the length and breadth of the land there is not a Protestant, with one spark of religiousness about him, whose spiritual biography is not in his Saxon Bible. And all this is an unhallowed power!"

The A. V. is a monument to the memory of King James I. of England, but he had no more to do with it than to appoint the commission, and did not contribute a penny for its execution. It was abruptly proposed in the Hampton Court Conference (Jan., 1604) by a learned Puritan divine, the Rev. Dr. Reynolds (1549-1607), president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, who suggested to His Majesty "that there might be a new translation of the Bible, because those which were allowed in the reign of King Henry VIII. and Edward VI. were corrupt and not answerable to the truth of the original." Bishop Bancroft opposed the motion as impertinent, but the vain king, who thought himself as wise as Solomon, unexpectedly and at once agreed to it, and displayed his biblical erudition by criticising the previous translations, especially that of Geneva, which he hated on account of its marginal notes. He invited a number of distinguished scholars to do the work (June 30, 1604), but without any expense to himself. Professing his own poverty, he held out before the revisers the hope of Church preferment, giving orders to the bishops to that effect, and for their immediate expenses he called upon the bishops and chapters to contribute toward the requisite amount. Revision had no attractions for the clergy nor for the people. The Bishops' and Geneva Bibles already in their hands seemed to answer every purpose. Accordingly, as far as can be determined, no one responded to the king's call for money; yet since the whole amount was only about £700, the proportion from each diocese was really small. "King James's version never cost King James a farthing." At the chancellor's suggestion, the revisers met 130 at the universities, where they received board and lodging free of cost; and "at the final revision the 6 or 12 revisers received each, according to one statement, 20 shillings a week from the Company of Stationers." The work of revision thus arranged in the summer of 1604 was not really begun in earnest till the spring of 1607, and then occupied about 2 years and 9 months. Dr. Reynolds, who had proposed the work, and who was well qualified to carry it on, died in that year, just as his wish was to be gratified. The original number of revisers appointed by the king at the suggestion of some one unknown, but probably Richard Bancroft (1544-1610), then the bishop of London, soon afterward the archbishop of Canterbury, was 54, but owing to death, declinature, and other causes there were only 47 actually engaged. These 47 formed themselves into 6 companies, two meeting at Westminster, Cambridge, and Oxford respectively. The following are the rules which were composed to govern them in their labors:

"(1.) The ordinary Bible read in the Church, commonly called 'The Bishops' Bible,' to be followed, and as little altered as the truth of the original will permit.

"(2.) The names of the prophets and the holy writers, with tiie other names of the text, to be retained as nigh as may be, accordingly as they were vulgarly used.

" (3.) The old ecclesiastical words to be kept; viz.:the word church not to be translated congregation, etc.

"(4.) When a word hath divers significations, that to be kept which hath been most commonly used by the most ancient fathers, being agreeable to the propriety of the place and the analogy of the faith.

"(5.) The division of the chapters to be altered either not at all or as little as may be, if necessity so require.

" (6.) No marginal notes at all to be affixed, but only for the explanation of the Hebrew or Greek words which cannot, without some circumlocution, so briefly and fitly be preserved in the text.

"(7.) Such quotations of places to be originally set down as shall serve for the fit reference of one Scripture to another.

"(8.) Every particular man of each company to take the same chapter or chapters; and having translated or amended them severally by himself where he thinketh good, all to meet together, confer what they have done, and agree for their parts what shall stand.

"(9.) As any one company hath despatched any one book in this manner, they shall send to the rest to be considered of seriously and judiciously; for His Majesty is very careful in this point.

"(10.) If any company, upon the review of the book so sent, doubt or differ upon any place, to send then) word thereof, note the place, and withal send the reasons; to which if they consent not, the difference to be compounded at the general meeting, which is to be of the chief persons of each company at the end of the work.

"(11.) When any place of special obscurity is doubted of, letters to be directed by authority to send to any learned man in the land for his judgment of such a place.

"(12.) Letters to be sent from every bishop to the rest of his clergy, admonishing them of this translation in hand, and to move and charge as many as being skilful in the tongues, and having taken pains in that kind, to send his particular observations to the company either at Westminster, Cambridge, or Oxford.

"(13.) The directors in each company to be the deans of Westminster and Chester for that place, and the king's professors of Hebrew and Greek in either university.

"(14.) These translations to be used when they agree better with the text than the Bishops' Bible: Tindale's, Matthew's [Rogers'], Coverdale's, Whitchurch's [Cranmer's], Geneva.

"(15.) Besides the said directors before mentioned, three or four of the most ancient and grave divines in either of the universities, not employed in translating, to be assigned by the vice-chancellor, upon conference with the rest of the heads, to be overseers of the translations, as well Hebrew as Greek, for the better observation of the fourth rule above specified." How closely these rules were followed it is impossible to say. The secrets of their sessions have been inviolably kept; for although the translators were engaged for 3 years, of the incidents of their labor little can be gathered from contemporaneous history, and little was probably known beyond the circle of the translators. A passing remark of Selden furnishes nearly all that can now be known of what may be termed the private history of our English Bible:"The translation in King James's time took an excellent way. That part of the Bible was given to him who was most excellent in such a tongue, and then they met together, and one read the translation, the rest holding in their hands some Bible, either of the learned tongues, or French, Spanish, Italian, etc. If they found any fault, they spoke; if not, he read on." — Table Talk. When the revision was completed, 131 three copies of the whole Bible were sent [to London] — one from Cambridge, a second from Oxford, and a third from Westminster — where they were committed to six persons, two from each company, who reviewed the whole. This final revision lasted 9 months. The work was at last given up to the printer, Robert Barker; the proofs were read by Dr. Thomas Bilson, bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Myles Smith (appointed bishop of Gloucester in 1612).

The first edition of the A. V., including the Apocrypha, appeared, bearing date 1611, in handsome folio, in black letter, with a beautiful frontispiece engraved by C. Boel of Richmont. Besides the translation, there were given a Calendar, a Table of Lessons, and elaborate Tables of Genealogies. The dedication was fulsome in its praise of James. The preface, entitled "The Translators to the Reader," written by Dr. Myles Smith, is pedantic, according to our notions, but written in excellent English, and important as a clear statement of the principles upon which the revision was made. The title-page contained the words ''Appointed to be read in the churches " — i. e. of England. But there is no evidence that this appointment was ever made by convocation or Parliament, privy council or the king. The version "gained currency partly by the weight of the king's name, partly by the personal authority of the prelates and scholars who had been engaged upon it, but still more by its own intrinsic superiority over its rivals." — Westcott. The printing of the so-called A. V. at once stopped the printing of the Bishops' Bible, though it did not that of the Genevan Bible, which continued to be used, especially in New England, until about the middle of the seventeenth century, when King James's version was on all hands accepted as the English Bible.

"When all critical helps and sources of influence have been taken into account, the student whose analysis [of the A. V.] has been most complete will find most to admire in the work that the translation or revision of 1607-11 has given us. The praise he will award to the revisers will not be indiscriminate eulogy. He will discover that very much that they have transmitted to us was inherited by them from others; the execution of different parts of the work will prove to be unequal, the Epistles, for example, standing far below the Pentateuch in accuracy and felicity of rendering; many flaws and inconsistencies will reveal themselves; occasionally it will be found that better renderings have been deliberately laid aside, and worse preferred; but, notwithstanding, almost every paragraph will bear testimony to the tact, care, diligence, and faithfulness of the men to whom, in God's providence, we owe the version of the Scriptures which has come down to us consecrated by the associations of 250 years." — Moulton:History of the English Bible, pp. 207-8.

The modern edition of the English Bible is a great improvement upon that of 1611. In that year there were two issues, both incorrectly printed, and both containing errors which were not typographical. Much care has been taken since that date to make the version, in grammatical and typographical correctness, as nearly perfect as possible. Three editions of the A. V. deserve particular mention: (1.) Bishop Lloyd's (London, 1701), containing, for the first time, marginal dates, derived principally from Archbishop Ussher; (2.) the Cambridge Bible of 1762, edited by Dr. Paris; (3.) the Oxford edition of 1769, edited by Dr. Blayney. ''These editors sought to apply with greater consistency the principle of denoting additions to the original text by italic type, substituted ordinary forms of words for such as had, in their opinion, become obsolete, and made very large additions to the number of marginal references, which in our present Bible are said to be seven times as numerous as in the edition of 1611.... [But] as late as 1830, Bibles were often printed with serious want of accuracy. The last forty years have witnessed a considerable improvement, and recent editions have left little to be desired. The Cambridge Paragraph Bible, edited by Dr. Scrivener, is the classic edition of the A. V., and is a monument of minute accuracy and unsparing labor." — Moulton:History of the Engish Bible, pp. 209-11. In the Jubilee Memorial of the American Bible Society, prepared by Rev. Isaac Ferris, D. D., LL.D. (New York, 132 1867), it is stated (p. 25) that the American Bible Society's Version Committee in 1847 undertook a "most careful revision of our English text in order to secure its conformity to the British, so as to make what should be a standard edition.'' Their final report was made in 1851. But inasmuch as their changes were many and important, there was a constitutional objection to the Society's adopting this revision, and then, moreover, there was a deep prejudice or reluctance to any alteration; and therefore the revision was rejected in 1852. A new committee was appointed, and the Bible, as it came from their hands, with some fruits of the labors of the previous committee, is now (since 1860) the standard of the American Bible Society.

VI . The Anglo-American Revision of the Authorized Version.

The reasons for desiring a revision may be thus stated: (1.) During the 268 years since our version was finished the English language has undergone some changes; some words have become obsolete, and others have changed their signification. In this way sentences which conveyed a clear and correct meaning to our ancestors mislead or mystify us. It will be sufficient to instance such examples as: to ?ear? for to plough; to ?prevent? for to go before, to precede; to let for to hinder; carriage for baggage. (2.) Immense strides have been made in all biblical studies. The geography and archaeology of the Holy Land, the Hebrew and Greek languages, both in grammar and dictionary, are far better known now than they could be in King James's time. The A. V. is very careless and inconsistent in the use of the article, the tenses and modes of verbs. (3.) The text of the Bible is now in a very satisfactory state — much nearer the ipsissima verba of the inspired writers than that known in 1611. ''The number of the various readings," says Prof. Ezra Abbot, "which have been collected from more than 500 manuscripts, more than a dozen ancient versions, and from the quotations in the writings of more than a hundred Christian fathers, only attests the exuberance of our critical resources, which enable us ?note? to settle the true text of the N. T. with a confidence and precision which are wholly unattainable in the case of any Greek or Latin classical author; [but] in the time of our translators of 1611 only a small fraction of our present critical helps was available." We are able to appreciate this remark when we remember that the best texts rely on manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries, while of our Greek and Latin classics many (e. g. Schyliis and Sophocles) are transcriptions from only one ancient manuscript, and that not earlier than the tenth century. The Anglo-American Bible revision movement originated in the Convocation of Canterbury, May 6, 1870, by the appointment of a committee of eminent biblical scholars and dignitaries of the Church of England to undertake the revision in association with scholars from other denominations. The English committee was divided into two companies, one for each Testament, who held monthly meetings in the Jerusalem Chamber and the Chapter Library at the deanery of Westminster, London. The American committee was organized in 1871, on invitation of the British committee, to co-operate with it. It was similarly composed of representative scholars of different denominations, and met for several days of each month in the Bible House, New York. The two committees embraced about 80 active members (exclusive of about 20 more who died or resigned after the work began), and were in constant correspondence. They submitted to each other portions of their work as it advanced, and issued one and the same revision. The variations of the American committee were embodied in an appendix. Some American editions embody these variations in the text. The object set before them was to bring King James's version up to the present state of the English language without changing the idiom and vocabulary, and to the present standard of biblical scholarship. It was not the intention to furnish a new version, but merely a conservative revision of the received version, so deservedly esteemed in all churches. And so slight are most of the changes that the mass of readers and hearers will scarcely mark them, while a careful comparison will reveal improvements in every chapter and almost every verse. The object was to remove acknowledged 133 errors, obscurities, and inconsistencies, to make a good and faithful version better and more faithful, and thus to bring the old Bible nearer the understanding and make it dearer to the heart of English-speaking Christendom. The general principles followed by both committees are as follows:

"(1.) To introduce as few alterations as possible in the text of the A. V. consistently with faithfulness.

"(2.) To limit, as far as possible, the expression of such alterations to the language of the Authorized and earlier English versions.

"(3.) Each company to go twice over the portion to be revised — once provisionally, the second time finally, and on principles of voting as hereinafter is provided.

"(4.) That the text to be adopted be that for which the evidence is decidedly preponderating; and that when the text so adopted differs from that from which the A. V. was made, the alteration be indicated in the margin.

"(5.) To make or retain no change in the text on the second final revision by each company except two-thirds of those present approve of the same, but on the first revision to decide by simple majorities.

"(6.) In every case of proposed alteration that may have given rise to discussion, to defer the voting thereupon till the next meeting whensoever the same shall be required by one-third of those present at the meeting, such intended vote to be announced in the notice for the next meeting.

"(7.) To revise the headings of chapters, pages, paragraphs, italics, and punctuation.

"(8.) To refer, on the part of each company, when considered desirable, to divines, scholars, and literary men, whether at home or abroad, for their opinions."

The revised New Testament appeared in England May 17, and in America May 20, 1881. Several million copies were sold in a few months. In the United States there were, almost at once, upwards of twenty reprints. The New Testament for the first time in history supplanted the newspaper in popular interest. It was sold upon news-stands, hawked through the streets, and read on all public conveyances. It was the literary event of the century. Its reception by the religious public was most flattering. The revised Old Testament is expected in 1885. It will then be for the churches to decide, through their ecclesiastical authorities, whether the Anglo-American revision shall supersede King James's Version. If the verdict be favorable, the British and Foreign and the American Bible Societies can amend their constitutions so as to allow them to publish the revised version.

VII. Other Versions, and the Distribution of the Bible.

The Bible is now printed in 226 different languages or dialects. More than four-fifths of these versions are the product of missionary scholarship and zeal. In many cases the very language needed to be reduced to a written form and permeated with Christian thought before a translation could be made. The chief agencies in giving the Scriptures this world-wide distribution are: (1.) The British and Foreign Bible Society, founded March 7, 1804. Its predecessors, the most prominent of which were the "Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," 1698, and the "Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts," 1701, had cultivated a much narrower field. The honor of suggesting a society to send Bibles all through the world has been assigned to Rev. Joseph Hughes, a Baptist and one of the secretaries of the London Religious Tract Society, Lord Teignmouth was the first president. Up to 1878 this society had issued 82,407,062 copies of the Scriptures. (2.) The American Bible Society, founded May 8, 1816. The need of a national society had been felt for some time, but the obstacles in the way prevented its formation. Hon. Elias Boudinot, LL.D., was the first president. The society had, up to Jan. 1, 1879, issued 35,621,262 copies of the Scriptures. Twice as many copies of the Bible have been circulated in the present century in heathen lands as were issued between the first printed Bible (1450-1455 — to date) and the era of Bible societies, in 1804. One hundred and forty nine million copies of Bibles, Testaments, and portions have been distributed by the various Bible societies in this and other countries since 1804. And thousands of copies have been privately printed. ''The demand for the printed Bible has always been great. It is supposed that within three years after the publication of the Great Bible in 1539, no less than 21,000 copies were printed. 134 Between 1524 and 1611, 278 editions of Bibles and Testaments in English were printed. In 1611, 1612, 1613, five editions of King James's Version were published, besides separate editions of the New Testament." — Manual of the American Bible Society, 1876, p. 34.

The enormous demand for the Bible still continues, and it is a most healthy sign. The entrance of God's Word giveth light. It is a veritable miracle how rapidly its use dissipates moral and spiritual darkness. As Chancellor Kent once said: "The general distribution of the Bible is the most effectual way to civilize and humanize mankind; to purify and exalt the general system of public morals; to give efficacy to the just precepts of international and municipal law; to enforce the observance of prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude, and to improve all the relations of social and domestic life."

BICH'RI (youthful), a progenitor of Sheba. 2 Sam 20:1.

BID'KAR (son of stabbing, i.e. stabler), a "captain" of Jehu who had ridden in the chariot with Ahab as an upper officer. 2 Kgs 9:25.

BIER . Luke 7:14. The bed or frame on which the dead body is conveyed to the grave. Probably it was made (as coffins are in modern times) more or less expensive in shape and ornament according to the circumstances and rank of the deceased. 2 Chr 16:14. See Burial.

BIG'THA (gift of God), one of the "chamberlains" or eunuchs in the harem of King Ahasuerus. Esth 1:10.

BIG'THAN, OR BIG'THANA (gift of God), a chamberlain or eunuch who, with Teresh, a fellow-eunuch, sought to lay hand on King Ahasuerus. Esth 2:21; Esth 6:2.

BIG'VAI (happy?). 1. "Children of Bigvai" returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:14; Neh 7:19, and others with Ezra. Ezr 8:14. 2. One of this name was prominent under Zerubbabel, and afterward signed the covenant. Ezr 2:2; Neh 7:7; Neh 10:16.

BIL'DAD (son of strife), one of Job's three friends who visited him in his affliction, and whose arguments in justification of God's dealings occupy chaps. 8, 18, and 25 of the book of Job. Job 2:11. See Job. The name Shuhite is probably derived from the country in which he lived, or from Shuah, son of Abraham and Keturah, whose descendant he may have been.

BIL'EAM (foreigners), a place in Manasseh, 1 Chr 6:70; same as Ibleam and Gath-rimmon. Josh 17:17; Josh 21:25. Porter would locate it near Megiddo, on the plain of Esdraelon; Drake, behind Jenin, on the same plain, and on the ruin Belameh.

BIL'GAH (cheerfulness). 1. The head, in the time of David, of the fifteenth course of the priests. 1 Chr 24:14. 2. A priest who returned under Zerubbabel. Neh 12:5, 1 Sam 30:18.

BIL'GAI (cheerfulness), probably the same with Bilgah, 2. A priest who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:8.

BIL'HAH (timid, modest), the handmaid of Rachel, and, by Jacob, the mother of Dan and Naphtali. Gen 29:29; Gen 35:25.

BIL'HAH . See Balah.

BIL'HAN (modest). 1. A Horite chief. Gen 36:27; 1 Chr 1:42. 2. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 7:10.

BIL'SHAN (son of the tongue, i. e. eloquent), a companion of Zerubbabel on the Return. Ezr 2:2; Neh 7:7.

BIM'HAL i (son of circumcision,i. e. circumcised), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:33.

BIN'EA (fountain), a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:37; 1 Chr 9:43.

BINNU'I (a building). 1. A Levite. Ezr 8:23.

2, 3. Two who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:30, Acts 7:38. 4. A Levite, a builder of the wall. Neh 3:24. 5. The father of some who returned with Zerubbabel, Neh 7:15; called, Bani in Ezr 2:10.

BIRDS are mentioned as articles of food in Deut 14:11, and lists of birds not to be eaten are given. Lev 11:13-19; Deut 14:12-19. In general, the ravenous kinds feeding on flesh are forbidden. From Job 6:6; Luke 11:12 we learn that the eggs of birds were also eaten. In the cleansing of the leper birds were used in a peculiar way. Lev 14:4-7. There was a humane law in the Jewish code which forbade the taking a

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mother-bird, though her young might be taken. The common mode of taking birds was with a snare. Ps 124:7; Prov 7:23; Am 3:5. A speckled bird, Jer 12:9, probably means a vulture (in Hebrew), which, as is well known, other birds are accustomed to pursue and attack. Some authors find etymological reasons for reading "hyena" instead of "speckled birds" in Jer 12:9. Many of the birds of Palestine are similar to our own, but, strictly speaking, there is but one species common to both countries. The house-sparrow (Passer domesticus), which we have received from England, is found in the towns along the coast. Of 322 kinds obtained by Mr. Tristram in the Holy Land, 172 are also found in England, 260 in Europe, and 26 are peculiar to Palestine.

BIR'SHA (son of godlessness), a king of Gomorrah. Gen 14:2.

BIRTH . See Children.

BIRTH'DAYS . The custom of making a feast in anniversary of a birth is very ancient. We find reference to it in Gen 40:20. In regard to the custom in Egypt, Wilkinson tells us: "The birthdays of the kings were celebrated with great pomp. They were looked upon as holy, no business was done upon them, and all classes indulged in the festivities suitable to the occasion. Every Egyptian attached much importance to the day, even to the hour, of his birth." But the Jews, probably on this very account, "regarded their observance as an idolatrous custom." "The day of our king," spoken of in Hos 7:5, was probably his birthday. It was upon Herod's birthday that John Baptist was beheaded. Matt 14:6-10. The fact that the Herodian family observed birthdays would be an additional grievance on the part of the Jews.

BIRTH RIGHT . Gen 25:31. The first-born son among the Jews enjoyed special privileges above his brethren, and these privileges were hence called his birthright, or his right by birth. Among these privileges were, consecration to the Lord, Ex 22:29 ("In consequence of this fact — that God had taken the Levites from among the children of Israel, instead of all the first-born, to serve him as priests — the first-born of the other tribes were to be redeemed at a valuation made by the priest, not exceeding five shekels, from serving God in that capacity. Num 18:15-16 comp. Luke 2:22 ff." — Home's Introduction); great dignity, (Jon 49:3; a double portion of his father's estate, Deut 21:17; and (in the royal families) succession to the kingdom. 2 Chr 21:3. Though this was not invariably the case. Solomon was a younger son; so was Jehoahaz, 2 Kgs 23:31, Eze 23:36,- and so was Abijah. 2 Chr 11:18-22. The eldest son seems to have been regarded, in the father's absence, as in some respects his representative.

The paternal blessing was also in a peculiar sense the right of the first-born, though the right itself and all the blessings of it might be forfeited or transferred, as in the case of Jacob and Esau, Gen 25:33, Reuben and Joseph. 1 Chr 5:1. But whoever enjoyed it was regarded as invested with great dignity and superiority. The Jews attached a sacred import to the title "first born."

Hence the peculiar force and appropriateness of the titles "first born," "first begotten," given to the divine Redeemer. Rom 8:29; Col 1:18; Heb 1:2, Ex 6:4, 1 Chr 24:6.

BIR'ZAVITH (olive-source), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:31.

BISH'LA ilI (son of peace), a Persian olficer in Palestine at the time of the Return who wrote a letter against Jerusalem to Artaxerxes. Ezr 4:7.

BISH'OP . 1 Tim 3:2. The original Greek word means "overseer," as Joseph was in Potiphar's house. Gen 39:4, or as the three thousand six hundred men were in Solomon's temple, 2 Chr 2:18, or as Uzzi was of the Levites. Neh 11:22. In the N. T. the term is synonymous with presbyter or elder, with this difference — that bishop is borrowed from the Greek and signifies the function, presbyter is derived from an office in the synagogue and signifies the dignity of the same office. Comp. Acts 20:17,Acts 20:28; Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:1ff.; Tit 1:5ff. These presbyters or bishops of the apostolic period were the regular teachers and pastors, preachers and leaders, of the congregations. We may imagine, however, that among themselves there would be a division made

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according to individual fitness. See Elder.

BISH'OPRIC . Acts 1:20; 1 Tim 3:1. The jurisdiction, charge, or office of a bishop.

BITHI'AH (daughter, i. e. worshipper, of Jehovah), a daughter of Pharaoh and wife of Mered. 1 Chr 4:18.

BITH'RON (ravine), a defile or tract of country east of the Jordan, toward Mahanaim. 2 Sam 2:29.

BITHYN'IA, a rich Roman province of Asia Minor, on the Black Sea; named only twice in Scripture. Acts 16:7; 1 Pet 1:1.

BITS . See Harness.

BITTER HERBS . Ex 12:8. The Jews were commanded to eat the Passover with a salad of bitter herbs; and the Rabbins tell us that such plants as wild lettuce, endives, and chicory were employed for that purpose, as they still are by the Arabs in those regions. The use of them on that occasion was intended to call to their remembrance the severe and cruel bondage from which God delivered them when they were brought out of Egypt.

BIT'TERN . Isa 34:11. Doubtless a correct translation. The bitterns belong to the heron tribe, and the Oriental species differ but slightly from the American. A solitary bird, its strange booming note is often heard during the stillness of the night in fens and marshes. The language of prophecy, Isa 14:23 and Isa 34:11; Zeph 2:14, imports the utmost solitude and desolation.

BITU'MEN . See Slime.

BIZJOTH'JAH (contempt of Jehovah), in the south of Judah, Josh 15:28; perhaps same as Baalah and modern Deir-el-Belah.

BIZ'THA (eunuch), one of the seven "chamberlains" or eunuchs of Ahasuerus. Esth 1:10.

BLAINS . Ex 9:9. Burning pustules or ulcers, which broke out upon the Egyptians and all their beasts, and constituted the sixth plague. "It seems to have been the black leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis." — Smith. Perhaps reference is made to this plague in Deut 28:27.

BLAS'PHEMY . Col 3:8. The word, in its original use, denotes all manner of detraction or calumny, such as is expressed by the terms rail, revile, speak evil, etc.; but in the restricted sense of the Scriptures and of common use, it denotes reproachful, irreverent, or insulting language concerning God or any of his names or attributes. Lev 24:10-16. Whoever thinks of the character of God as infinitely holy, just, and good will not be surprised that this offence was regarded as very heinous, and was punished by stoning. There is no reason to suppose that the sin of profane swearing, so common at this day, is less odious and offensive to God than it was in the time of Moses.

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, Matt 12:32, such as the Pharisees were guilty of or were in danger of committing, when they ascribed the miracle of curing the blind and dumb man (who was also possessed with a demon) to the agency of Beelzebub or Satan, is declared to be unpardonable.

It is far worse than ''grieving the Spirit." Some persons are apprehensive that they have committed this sin and give themselves up to despair, but such fears prove that they are still open to recovery and pardon. The sin against the Holy Ghost implies a state of final and hopeless impenitence, and is committed by those who have again and again wilfully resisted the influences and warnings of the Holy Ghost, and have made themselves incapable of repentance, and consequently of pardon.

BLAS'TUS (sprout), the chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I. Acts 12:20.

BLEM'ISH . For a list of ceremonial blemishes see Lev 21:18-20; Lev 22:20-24.

BLESS, BLESSED, BLESS'ING . Gen 12:2; Gen 22:17-18. These words are of frequent occurrence in the sacred writings, and their particular force may generally be determined by the connection. Men are said to bless God when they ascribe to him the praise and glory which are due to him. Ps 134:1-3. God blesses men in bestowing upon them continually mercies, spiritual and temporal. Job 42:12; Ps 45:2. And men are said to bless their fellow-creatures when, as in ancient times, in the spirit of prophecy they predicted blessings to come upon them. This was the kind 137 of blessing which the patriarchs pronounced. Gen 49:1-33. So Moses blessed Israel. Deut 33:1-29. The form of blessing prescribed by the Jewish ritual, Num 6:23-27, is admirably simple and sublime. It was pronounced standing, with a loud voice, and with the hands raised toward heaven. Luke 24:50. National blessings and cursings were sometimes pronounced. Deut 27:1-28:68; Isa 19:25.

The Cup of Blessing, 1 Cor 10:10, and Cup of Salvation, Ps 116:13, are expressions derived from a custom prevalent among the Jews at their feasts. The master of the feast took a cup of wine in his hand, and solemnly blessed God for it and for all the mercies which were then acknowledged. It was then passed to all the guests, each of whom drank of it in his turn. The aptness and force of the figures employed in the above passages are thus made obvious.

BLESSING, VALLEY OF . See Berachah, Valley of.

BLIND'NESS is extremely common in the East, as all travellers in those lands observe. In Egypt especially ophthalmia prevails extensively among children and adults. The infliction of blindness was in old times a common as well as barbarous punishment or penalty of resistance to a victorious enemy. Jud 16:21; 1 Sam 11:2; 2 Kgs 25:7. There are several recorded occasions, when, as translated in A. V., God miraculously sent blindness. Gen 19:11; 2 Kgs 6:18; Acts 9:8; Acts 13:11. In these incidents there was not so much an actual, though transient, loss of vision as a confusion of sight — perhaps really a mental confusion, which gave all the uncertainty of actual blindness, as in Luke 24:16. The word ''blindness" is likewise employed in a spiritual sense as meaning the sinner's inability to recognize divine truth; e.g. Rom 11:25; Eph 4:18.

BLOOD is the fluid of life in the animal body. Ex 29:12. Its use was expressly prohibited to Noah when everything else was freely given him. Gen 9:4. By the Jewish law also it was expressly and solemnly forbidden. Lev 17:10, etc. The reason of this interdiction is probably because blood was sacredly appropriated. Lev 17:11. The Jewish ritual abounds with the use of blood, Heb 9:22; and the manner of employing it is stated with minuteness in Heb 9:1-10:39, where also its use and effects are shown in striking contrast with the blood shed upon the cross. See also Acts 20:28; Rom 5:9; Eph 1:7; Col 1:14; Heb 7:27; 1 John 1:7.

The prohibition of eating blood or animals that are strangled has been always rigidly observed by the Jews. In the Christian Church the custom of refraining from things strangled and from blood continued for a long time. In the council of the apostles held at Jerusalem, Acts 15, it was declared that converts from paganism should not be subject to the legal ceremonies, but that they should refrain from idolatry, from fornication, from eating blood, and from such animals as were strangled and their blood thereby retained in their bodies: which precept was observed for many ages by the Church. Acts 15:20-29.

The notion that the blood of the victims was peculiarly sacred to the gods is impressed on all ancient pagan mythology. See Christ.

Blood, Avenger of. See Avenge, Cities of Refuge.

BLUE . See Colors.

BOANER'GES (sons of thunder), the name Christ gave to James and John, probably because of their fiery zeal; for proof of which, see Luke 9:51;Mark 9:38; comp. Matt 20:20.

BOAR . Ps 80:13. This is the original stock of the common hog, and when hard pressed is a very furious and formidable animal. The wild boar is found throughout Europe and the neighboring

Wild Boar (After Tristram)

parts of Africa and Asia. Travellers tell us that it is found in great numbers on the banks of the Jordan, among the reeds

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of the Sea of Tiberias, and generally among the thickets of the Holy Land. In some districts wild boars are so destructive to the vineyards and crops that it is necessary at times to keep nightly watch against them. — Hartley:Researches in Greece, p. 234.

BO'AZ, or BO'OZ (lovely), was a descendant of Judah, Ruth 2:1, and through him is traced the regular succession of Jewish kings. Matt 1:5. Boaz was a man of wealth and of great respectability. He married Ruth and begat Obed, the father of Jesse, the father of David. See Ruth.

BO'AZ (lively), one of the brazen pillars erected by Solomon before the portico of the temple. Its companion was Jachin. They were named for their givers or makers, or else had a symbolical meaning. 1 Kgs 7:21; 2 Chr. 3:17; Jer 52:21.

BOCH'ERU (youth), the son of Azel. 1 Chr 8:38; 1 Chr 9:44.

BO'CHIM (weepers), so named from the weeping of Israel. Jud 2:1-5. It was west of the Jordan, above Gilgal.

BO'HAN (thumb), a Reubenite. Josh 15:6; Josh 18:17.

BO'HAN (thumb), STONE OF, in the valley of Achor, between Judah and Benjamin. Josh 15:6; 18:17. The "stone of the finger," in Wady Daber, may be on its site.

BOIL . See Medicine.

BOL'LED . Ex 9:31. The expression flax was boiled means that it was podded or nearly in a state to be gathered, and of course the loss of it was much more severe than it would have been at an earlier stage of its growth.

BOL'STER . See Bed.

BOND, BOND'AGE, BOND'MAN, BONDWOMAN, BOND'MAID . See Servant.

BON'NETS . See Clothes, Mitre.

BOOK . What we call books were unknown to the ancient Jews, at least in their present convenient form. Letters were engraved on stone, brick, metal (as lead and copper), or wood, and written on cloth and skins, and at a later period on parchment. Ex 17:14; 2 Tim 4:13. Tablets of lead and brass or copper of great antiquity have been discovered in modern times.

The earliest mode of preserving inscriptions was by engraving on a rock. Comp. Job 19:24. The Sinaitic peninsula, especially the Wady Mukattab (the "Sculptured Valley"), and the neighborhood of Mount Serbal and Mount Sinai, are full of rock-inscriptions (called the Sinaitic Inscriptions).

The writing-table mentioned Luke 1:63 was probably a tablet covered with wax or otherwise prepared to be written upon. Deut 27:2-3. Such tablets were used in England as late as the year 1300.

Leaves and the bark of trees were also used, and were often prepared with much skill. The people of Ceylon write with a bodkin on broad and thick leaves cut into narrow slips; and these leaves, being fastened together, make books which they call alias. The missionaries often prepared tracts in this form before paper and printing were introduced upon the island. In Sumatra and among the Indians of North America bark is still used for making letters and pictures. Leather and linen or cotton cloth were also used. These were prepared in the form of long rolls, 12 or 14 inches wide, and fastened at each end to sticks (like the rollers to which maps are attached), and which were rolled together till they met midway. Sometimes these leaves were connected in the form of modern books, and opened in the same way. In this case the sheets were fastened to rods, and these rods passed through rings, and thus formed the back of the book.

The writing was generally in capital letters and without punctuation or division of words; and when used, the reader unrolled the manuscript as far as the place which he wished to find, and kept before him just so much as he would read.

The pages resembled the following in their general appearance, though they were of course wider and longer than these, and were read from right to left:

INTHEBEGI WORDWASG EMADEBYHI INHIMWASLI

NNINGWAST OGTHESAME MANDWITHO FEANDTHELI

HEWORDAN WASINTHEB UTHIMWASN FEWASTHELI

DTHEWORD EGINNINGW OTANYTHIN GHTOFMENA

WASWITHG ITHGODALL GMADETHA NDTHELIGHT

ODANDTHE THINGSWER TWASMADE SHINETHIND

John 1:1-5.

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These columns could be divided from one another and used separately, as we may cut the columns of a newspaper which is printed on one side only, and arrange the extracts as we like. Sometimes the reading was what is called furrow-wise. The first line was from right to left, and the second from left to right, and so on alternately, like ploughing a field. The roll or book of curses which Ezekiel saw was 30 feet long and 20 wide. The writing was usually on one side, but not always. Eze 2:10.

When the roll was done with, it was carefully deposited in a case. The cut on the next page shows the book of the Law rolled upon two cylinders, with the seal at one side. There were other forms of the scroll, and also collections of sheets in the shape of a modern book, secured with rings and rods.

A very good idea may be formed of an ancient roll by supposing a common newspaper to have rods or rollers at the right and left sides. The reader takes hold of the rods and unrolls the sheet until he comes to the desired column. Thus, in Luke 4:17 the phrase "opened the book" would properly read "unrolled the scroll," and in v.Ruth 4:20 for "closed the book" read "rolled up the volume" or "scroll." This shows the force of the figure, Isa 34:4, where the heavens are represented as rolled together as suddenly as the opposite ends of an unrolled scroll fly to meet each other when the hand of the reader is withdrawn from it.

A kind of paper was made from the stalk of an Egyptian vegetable called papyrus, or paper-reed, which is still found in various parts of India. See Bulrush. The stalk was slit with a needle into plates or layers as broad and thin as possible. Some of them were 10 or 15 inches broad. These strips were laid side by side upon a flat horizontal surface, and then immersed in the water of the Nile, which not only served as a kind of sizing, but also caused the edges of the strips to adhere together as if glued. The sheets thus formed were dried in the sun and then covered with a fine wash, which made them smooth and flexible. They were finally beaten with hammers and polished. Twenty or more of these sheets were sometimes connected in one roll. The pen or 11   Hence the word style, signifying one's manner of writing — easy style, elegant style, etc.style was made of some hard substance, perhaps not unlike the instruments used by glaziers to cut glass. Jer 17:1. Upon tablets of wax an instrument was used, one end of which was pointed, to mark the letters, and the other broad and flat, to make erasures. Pens or styles of copper are now used by the Ceylonese. On a soft substance like linen or papyrus, the marks were painted with a fine hairpencil, as is practised among the Chinese to this day.

Most of the Eastern nations now use the reed-pen, which is split with an instrument used as we use the penknife. Jer 36:23. The pith is removed, and the bark or rind, being split like a quill, retains and properly sheds the ink. It is not hard or stiff enough to be used long without mending. See Pen.

Ink was prepared from a variety of substances (see Ink), and those who were skilful in writing wore an inkhorn fastened to the girdle, Eze 9:2, which is the present mode among the Persians and the Moors of Barbary. See Inkhorn. As tables were unknown, the paper or other substance written upon was laid upon the knees or held firmly with the left hand.

A sealed book was a roll fastened together by a band or string, and a seal affixed to the knot, Isa 29:11, as seen in the cut.

Book of the Generation, Gen 5:1; Matt 1:1, signifies the genealogical history or records of a family or nation.

Book of the Living, Ps 69:28, and the kindred phrase. Book of Life, Rev 21:27, are supposed to allude to the genealogical lists or registers kept by the Jews, from which the names of the dead were erased. Isa 4:3. The aptness and force of the figurative use of the terms are sufficiently obvious.

Books of Judgment. Dan 7:10. The allusion here is probably either to the practice of opening books of account to settle with servants or laborers, or to the custom of the Persian kings to have a book in which a daily record is made of special services performed by

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any of their subjects, and of the rewards which were given to the individuals. Esth 6:1-3.

Book of the Wars of the Lord, Num 21:14, Book of Jasher, or the Righteous,

Book of the Law closed.

Josh 10:13 and 2 Sam 1:18, and Book of the Chronicles (or annals) of the kings of Judah and Israel, 1 Kgs 14:19,1 Chr 2:29, are the names of ancient writings known to the Jews, but not preserved in the sacred canon.

BOOTH . See Feast of Tabernacles.

BOOT'Y . Moses laid down the law upon this subject in Num 31:26-30. In regard to the army, David made the additional rule that those who "tarried by the stuff" — the baggage-guard — should share equally with those who fought. 1 Sam 30:24. No booty could be taken from the Canaanites, as they were all, with all they had, devoted to destruction. But in wars outside of Palestine the practice was allowable. Metallic articles were kept for holy use. Josh 6:17-19; cf. Deut 20:12-18.

BO'OZ, for BO'AZ. Matt 1:5; Luke 3:32.

BOR'DER . See Clothes.

BORROW . See Loan.

BOS'CATH . 2 Kgs 22:1. See Bozkath.

BO'SOM . The dress of the Jews was such as allowed them to carry within a fold in the bosom of the robe what could not be carried in the hand. Isa 40:11; Luke 6:38, It was also used to denote a place of rest and security. Hence the term Abraham's bosom is figuratively spoken of as the abode of Lazarus, and means the same as paradise. Luke 16:23; comp. Luke 23:43. To lean on the bosom implied great intimacy. John 13:23. The position of John, leaning on the bosom of the Saviour, was easy and natural, since the company were reclining at table upon couches, and the back of his head came near the bosom of Jesus, who was on his left. The use of this term, John 1:18, imports the perfect unity of the Father and Son.

BO'SOR, in 2 Pet 2:15, Greek form of Beor.

BOS'SES, the prominent or projecting parts of the buckler, and of course the thickest and strongest. Job 15:26.

BOTCH, probably the black leprosy, or elephantiasis. Deut 28:27, Ex 28:35. See Leprosy.

BOT'TLE . Gen 21:14. Ancient bottles were made of the skins of animals, which were properly dressed for the purpose. The openings of the skin were closed except at the neck, through which the liquor was to be received and discharged, and which was fastened by a string, like a bag. They were, of course, of different sizes and shapes, as the skins of kids, goats, or oxen might be used. Bruce describes particularly a bottle which he saw in Arabia, made in this manner, of an ox-skin, which would hold 60 gallons.

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Christian missionaries in Eastern countries frequently speak of the goatskins and leathern bottles in which they carry water in their journeys.

Skin-Bottles. (Ayre.)

Where the travelling is rough and the vessels likely to strike against each other, they are made of the strongest material that can be found. The skins or bottles used for new wine were of the freshest and most flexible kind, in order that they might the better endure the process of fermentation. Matt 9:17.

The effect of smoke on a skin-bottle would be to blacken and shrivel it. Ps 119:83. Water or wine put into such a bottle would all run out. Nearly

Arab Water-Carner.

all the drinking-water now used in Egypt is brought from the river Nile in skinbottles, by Arab water-carriers, as shown in the picture.

BOW . See Armor.

BOW, a posture. Gen 37:10. To bow down one's self is expressive of great reverence and humility. Gen 24:26, Gen 24:48; 1 Kgs 1:58 and 1 Kgs 2:19. It was a common mode of salutation in the East to kneel upon one knee and bow the head until it touched the ground.

It is still the custom in many Eastern nations for subjects to kneel before the throne of the king and bow their heads slowly till they touch the earth.

BOWELS . As we use the terms heart, breast, bosom, so this term is used by the sacred writers, evidently in a figurative sense, for affections or emotions of the heart. Col 3:12; 1 John 3:17.

BOX TREE . Isa 41:19. A small evergreen tree, either the same with or closely resembling the shrubby box of our gardens. One species (buxus longifolia) is found on Lebanon, and may once have been common in Palestine. It is believed that the Phoenicians imported the wood of other species from Chittim, and used it with ivory for inlaid work. The perfect proportions of this tree, its perennial beauty of foliage, and its utility illustrate the prosperity and grace which God will bestow on Zion. Isa 60:13.

BO'ZEZ, one of two sharp rocks between Geba and Michmash. 1 Sam 14:4-5. Robinson traced them out in Wady Suweineit, but Stanley could not make them out. Conder suggests El Hosn.

BOZ'KATH, and BOS'CATH (stony height), a place on the plains of Judah. Josh 15:39; 2 Kgs 22:1. Warren proposes ?Beskit? as its site.

BOZ'RAH (fortress), two cities. 1. Bozrah in Edoin, Isa 34:6; Isa 63:1, which was to become a perpetual waste, Jer 49:13; Am 1:12; Mic 2:12; modern Buseirah, in the mountains of Petra, 20 miles south-east of the Dead Sea.

  1. Bozrah in Moab. Jer 48:24. Judgment has surely fallen upon it. Porter thinks it the same as modern Buzrah, where are the ruins of a magnificent city nearly 5 miles in circuit, once having 100,000 inhabitants, but now only 20 families. It is near the Hauran, 60 miles south of Damascus. Portions of its massive walls and towers, theatre, temples, stone doors and roofs, some of the ruins of the work of the early inhabitants. perhaps the giants Bephaim, and more of the work of later Roman builders, are still to be seen in good state of preservation. Bozrah at one time had 17 bishops under its archbishop.
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BRACE'LET . An ornament (chain or clasp) worn on the arm by

Bracelets. (British Museum. From Ayre.)

  1. Gold Egyptian Bracelets. 2. Silver Bracelet. 3. Bronze, with Bell attached, taken from Mummy of a Girl. 4. Iron, with Cornelian Setting. 5. Bracelet of Cowries.

both sexes. Gen 24:30. Among Eastern princesses it is a badge of royalty, and was probably regarded as such in the time of David. 2 Sam 1:10. The royal bracelet was of much richer materials, and was worn above the elbow;

Assyrian Bracelets. (From Nineveh Marbles. Ayre.)

the common bracelet was worn on the wrist. Eze 16:11.

BRAM'BLE . See Thorns.

BRANCH . This word is often figuratively used by the sacred writers. Ps 80:15; John 15:5-6. It is also one of the titles of the Messiah. Isa 11:1 comp. with Isa 53:2; Zech 3:8 and Zech 6:12. The family of Jesse is represented under the figure of the stock of a tree firmly rooted, and the coming of Christ from the seed of David is represented as the shooting forth of a branch, which is here called, by way of distinction and eminence, "THE BRANCH;" for Christ, even in his common nature, far surpassed all the house of David in the dignity, power, and glory of both his person and office.

BRASS, This compound metal was probably unknown in ancient times, but bronze, a mixture of tin and copper, may sometimes be referred to under this name. That which is called brass in most passages of the sacred writings was doubtless what we call copper. Gen 4:22; Deut 8:9. It was used for a variety of purposes about the temple, and also for fetters, Jud 16:21; 2 Kgs 25:7; armor, 1 Sam 17:5-6; and musical instruments. 1 Chr 15:19 ,1 Cor 13:1. The words brass, brazen, etc., occurring under the words Armor, Altar, Book, etc., are used in conformity with the common English translation of the Bible, and not with technical accuracy.

BRA'ZEN SEA . See Laver.

BRAZEN SERPENT . See Serpent.

BREAD . The bread of the Jews was generally made of wheat. Barley and other grains were sometimes used. Jud 7:13.

The materials were prepared as in modern days. See Mill, Sieve. The kneading of the dough was performed in kneading-troughs. Gen 18:6; Ex. 12:34; Jer 7:18, or wooden bowls such as the Arabians use at this day for a like purpose, although some suppose that the kneading was done upon a circular piece of leather such as is now used in Persia, and which would be more properly called a kneading-bag, as it draws up like a knapsack. Either of the utensils would be easily transported. Very simple leaven was used in the dough. The loaves were shaped like a plate, and when leavened were ordinarily of the thickness of one's little finger. See Table. These cakes were generally baked in either public or private ovens. The fuel was wood or dried flower-stalks or grass. Other modes of baking were, however, used; as by spreading the dough upon heated stones or throwing it into the embers of the fire. A pan likewise seems to have been used at other times. 2 Sam 13:9. The unleavened bread was very thin, and was broken, not cut. Lam 4:4

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; Matt 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19. The term bread is often used for food or provisions in general. Bread-corn, Isa 28:28, is used for wheat, barley, or any other grain from which bread was made. The figurative expressions bread of sorrows, Ps 127:2, and bread of tears, Ps 80:5, may denote that the suffering of sorrow and the shedding of tears had become as much a part of the portion of every day as one's daily bread. So the bread of wickedness, Prov 4:17, and bread of deceit, Prov 20:17, denote not only a living or estate obtained by fraud and sin, but that to do wickedly is as much the portion of a wicked man's life as to eat his daily bread.

BREAK'FAST . See Meals.

BREAST'PLATE . 1. A part of the official dress of the Jewish high priest. Ex 28:15. It was a piece of embroidered work, about 10 inches square and made double, with a front and lining, so as to answer for a pouch or bag. It was adorned with twelve precious stones. See High Priest.

The two upper corners were fastened to the ephod, from which it was not to be loosed, Ex 28:28, and the two lower corners to the girdle. The rings, chains, and other fastenings were of gold or rich lace. It was called the memorial, Ex 28:12, 1 Chr 2:29, inasmuch as it reminded the priest of his representative character in relation to the twelve tribes; and it is also called the breastplate of judgment, Ex 28:15, perhaps because it was worn by him who was instrumentally the fountain of justice and judgment to the Jewish Church. Others think it is because the Urim and Thummim were annexed to it. See Urim and Thummim. 2. The breastplate was also that article of ancient armor which protected the breast. Eph 6:14. See Armor. Its figurative use in the passage above cited, and also in Isa 69:17, is sufficiently obvious.

BREECH'ES, a kind of drawers, reaching from the loins to the thighs, worn by the priests. Ex 28:42.

BRETH'REN OF THE LORD . See Brother.

BRICK, Gen 11:3, was a building material among the Jews, but the size of their bricks was much larger than that of ours. Bricks found among the ruins of Babylon are a foot square, and resemble tile rather than brick. They were usually hardened by the heat of the sun, although kilns were not unknown. 2 Sam 12:3; Jer 43:9; Nah 3:14.

Egyptian Brick stamped witli the oval of Thothmes III. (British Museum. Ayre.)

In lower Egypt many pictures on the walls represent the Jews making bricks under the lash of the Egyptian taskmasters, in confirmation

Assyrian Brick from Nimroud, inscribed with Shalmaneser's Name and Title. (Ayre.)

of the account in the book of Exodus 1:11; Exodus 5:7-14.

Jews and Captives making Bricks in Egypt.

BRIDE, BRIDE 'GROOM, BRIDE-CHAMBER . See Marriage .

BRIDLE . See Harness.

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BRI'ERS . See Thistle.

BRIG'ANDINE . Supposed to be the same with the habergeon and coat of mail. Jer 46:4. See Armor.

BRIM'STONE . Ps 11:6. Sulphur, a well-known mineral substance, exceedingly inflammable, and which when burning emits a suffocating smell. We are told that the cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone. There is nothing incredible in this, even if we suppose only natural agencies were employed. Like many other travellers, the writer has pieces of pure sulphur and of asphalt or mineral pitch, both found in that vicinity in abundance and highly inflammable. Volcanic action might easily have filled the air with inflammable substances, falling down in streams of liquid fire upon those devoted cities.

This word is often figuratively employed. Job 18:15; Isa 34:9; Rev 21:8. Whether the word is used literally or not in the passages which describe the future sufferings of the wicked, we may be sure that it expresses terrible punishment.

BROTHER, BRETH'REN, a term which properly denotes the nearest consanguinity — that is, male children of the same parents, as in Gen 4:2 and Gen 42:13, but sometimes persons of more remote kindred or of the same nation, Gen 13:8; Esth 10:3; Acts 7:25, 2 Kgs 18:37 and Acts 13:26, or even those who are closely united in affection. 2 Sam 1:26. In the N. T. the term is more frequently applied to the spiritual relationship which the true followers of Christ sustain to him and to each other. Matt 12:50; Rom 14:10; 2 Thess 2:13.

"The Brethren of the Lord." — The N. T. repeatedly speaks of brethren (and also of sisters) of Jesus, and names four of them — James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas. There are three theories about the degree of this relationship. 1. The simplest explanation is that they were the full brothers of Jesus, or younger children of Joseph and Mary. This is the natural deduction from the context. Matt 1:25; Matt 13:55. But the feeling of reverence for the virgin mother, the value placed upon celibacy in the early Church, the instinctive shrinking from regarding Mary as an ordinary woman, bearing children in sorrow, and that, too, after the Holy Ghost had overshadowed her and she had given birth to the Messiah, — have suggested to the Roman and Greek Churches and to many Protestants two other theories. 2. That they were the children of Joseph by a former marriage. So taught Epiphanius and the ancient Greek Church. 3. That they were the children of Mary, the wife of Alpheus, the supposed sister of the Virgin Mary, and hence that they were Christ's cousins, and among the apostles. So St. Jerome and the Roman Church. Lange has modified this view by supposing that Alpheus was the brother of Joseph, and that because he died early they were adopted by Joseph into his family, which is extremely improbable. The strongest objection to 1 is that Jesus commended his mother to John. John 19:26. 2 is not open to any grave objection. 3 is beset with difficulties: (1.) It does violence to the natural and usual meaning of the word "brother," while the N. T. has a special term for "cousins." Col 4:10; Luke 1:36. (2.) It assumes that two sisters had the same name, Mary. (3.) It fails to explain how these brethren could also be apostles, while we are told that they did not believe in Jesus before the resurrection and treated him rather disrespectfully. John 7:5. (4.) It is probable that Salome, and not Mary, was the sister of our Lord's mother. John 19:25. The natural view furnishes an argument in favor of the historical character of the Gospels.

BUCK'LER . See Armor.

BUILD'INGS . See Dwellings.

BUK'KI (wasting). 1. The Danite chief chosen of the Lord to represent his tribe in the division of the Land of Promise. Num 34:22. 2. One of the high-priestly line. 1 Chr 6:5, Jer 25:51; Ezr 7:4. Probably he was never the high priest.

BUKKI'AH (wasting from Jehovah), the chief of the sixth division of singers. 1 Chr 25:4, 2 Kgs 11:13.

BUL . See Month.

BULLS . Cattle, being often left to roam for years at pleasure, became half wild. In the rich pastures of Bashan the bulls were strong and ferocious. Ps 22:12. In Deut 14:5 and Isa 51:20

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there is a Hebrew word translated "wild bull" which is believed to mean the oryx (Oryx leucoryx), a large and powerful antelope still found on the borders of Palestine. Its chief means of defence are its sharp horns, often more than 3 feet in length, which gracefully curve over its back, but which in conflict, by bending the neck, are thrown forward. When entangled "in a net" these horns would be a great disadvantage.

BULRUSH, RUSH, a large sedge (Cypress papyrus) still found upon Lake Merom and the northern shores of the Sea of Galilee. It was formerly abundant in Egypt, but has now disappeared. Upon the upper Nile it is still found, and it is used by the modern Abyssinians for constructing boats. Ex 2:3-5; Isa 18:2.

The bulrush grows in shallow water or mire. Job 8:11. It has an unbranching straight, triangular culm, terminating in a large head (umbel) of small and somewhat drooping stems, as shown in the cut, bearing the chaffy fruit on their extremities. The stalk is usually about 10 feet high and 2 or 3 inches in diameter at the base. An area of papyrus surmounted by its beautiful tufted plumes is a fine sight.

From this plant paper was first made and derived its name. See Book.

BUL'WARK . See War.

BU'NAH (discretion), one of Judah's descendants. 1 Chr 2:25.

BUN'NI (built). Jud 9:4.

  1. One who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:16.

  2. A Levite. Neh 11:15.

Bunni is said to have been the Jewish name of Nicodemus. — Kaeuld.

BUR'DEN . This word, when it is used in connection with some city or nation (as the burden of Moab, the burden of Nineveh, etc.), expresses the disastrous and calamitous import of the prophecy. The burden of the desert of the sea (Babylon), the burden of the valley of vision (Jerusalem), and similar expressions, are explained by their subject or connection. The phrase is frequently used by Isaiah. Isa 13:1; Isa 15:1. etc.

BURIAL, BURY . Gen 23:4; Matt 26:12. It was customary among the Jews, and ancients generally, for the children or near kindred to close the eyes of the dying. Gen 46:4. A loud and general wailing followed the decease, John 11:19, 1 Chr 24:31, 1 Sam 15:33, and continued many days after burial. The body of the deceased was washed and laid out. Acts 9:37. It was wrapped in folds of linen cloth, and the head bound around with a napkin. It is said that Lazarus was bound "hand and foot with grave clothes," John 11:44, and it is supposed by many that each limb had its separate wrapper, as it was customary in Egypt to wrap even each finger in a separate cloth or band, so that hundreds of yards of cloth are often unwound from one of their mummies. When thus bound around, it was placed on a bier, in readiness to be borne to the grave. See Bier, Embalm.

The climate, and the uncleanness which was contracted, under the law, from contact with a dead body, or even by coming into the same apartment with it, would naturally lead to the custom of early interments. In Persia, we are told, it is not customary to keep the dead over two or three hours, and the European Jews universally bury their dead early. There were many exceptions in this respect, however. The practice of embalming was not general among the Jews, though spices, etc., were used in their burials. 2 Chr 16:14; John 19:40. Jacob and Joseph, whose bodies were embalmed, both died in Egypt, where the art of embalming was very skilfully practised. In Jacob's case we are told that Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm

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his father, and then he was placed in a coffin in Egypt, and thence his body was carried to Machpelah, in Canaan, and buried. Gen 50:2, 1 Kgs 15:7, Jud 4:12. Coffins were used in Egypt and Babylon, but are unknown in the East even at the present day except when a body is to be conveyed to a distant place. See Embalm.

All civilized nations have agreed in attending with some solemnity to the burial of their dead. Among the Jews the bier was followed to the grave by the nearest relations and other friends. 2 Sam 3:31; Luke 7:12. Other persons attended, and sometimes mourners (or rather wailers by profession) were employed to attend the body. Jer 9:17; Eze 24:17; Am 5:16; Matt 9:23. This is the custom now in many Eastern nations.

Certain places were appropriated by the Jews to the purpose of burying the dead, and they were both public and private. Gen 23:4; Gen 50:13; Jud 8:32; Jud 16:31; 2 Sam 2:32; 2 Sam 21:14; 2 Kgs 23:6; Jer 26:23. They were usually selected in gardens, 2 Kgs 21:18, Acts 11:26; John 19:41; or fields. Gen 23:11; or caves in the sides of the mountains, 2 Kgs 23:16-17; or in rocks, Isa 22:16; and to be unburied was regarded as exceedingly disgraceful. 1 Sam 17:44-46; 2 Kgs 9:10; Ps 141:7; Jer 8:2 and Gen 22:19. The grave was called the house or home of the dead. Job 30:23; Eccl 12:5. The burial places were usually in retired situations, and hence were the resort of demoniacs. Matt 8:28, and were usually without the city walls. Kings and prophets alone, it would seem, were buried within the walls. Josh 24:30, 1 Sam 15:33; 1 Sam 25:1; 1 Sam 28:3; 2 Kgs 21:18; 2 Chr 16:14; 2 Chr 24:16; 2 Chr 33:20; Neh 3:16. Though solitary, they were selected with reference to shade, prospect, etc. Gen 23:17; Gen 35:8; 1 Sam 31:13.

The desire to be buried with one's kindred was very strong, 2 Sam 19:37; and it is remarkable that the Jews, as a people, in all their dispersions and sufferings, retain an ardent desire to be buried in their own land, especially around Jerusalem.

It was not unusual for a single family to have near their dwelling-house a small building without door or window, built of stone or other durable material, which was called the sepulchral house or family mansion for the dead. The following description of the tombs of the Judges is taken from Baedeker's Palestine and Syria, p. 238: On the western side of the rock there is a small fore-court, leading to a vestibule, from which is entered the tomb-chamber. The portal was once capable of being closed from within. On the left side of the chamber are 7 shaft-tombs, above which, at irregular distances, are 3 vaulted niche-tombs, and at the back of these again there are several shaft-tombs. In the western wall is a niche. Adjoining this first chamber on the east and south are 2 others, on about the same level, and 2 on a lower level. They have tombs on three sides. A passage with 3 tombs descends from the first to the north-eastern chamber, which contains 13 tombs. The other side-chamber contains no tomb.

The sepulchres of the Jews were sometimes expensively built and adorned or garnished, and were whitened at short intervals, so as to make them conspicuous, that they might be avoided, as contact with them occasioned ceremonial uncleanness. Hence the

Plan of Tombs of the Judges. (After de Sauley.)

force of our Lord's reproof. Matt 23:27. Sometimes titles or inscriptions were placed on them. 2 Kgs 23:17. To build a sepulchre for a man was an

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expression of respect and honor. Matt 23:20; Luke 11:48. The most famous sepulchres in Palestine are the Machpelah, the burial-place of the patriarchs, under the great mosque of Hebron, to which, however, no stranger is admitted; the sepulchre of Joseph, near Jacob's well, in

Tomb of the Judges. (From Photograph by Good.)

Samaria; the tombs of the kings and the tombs of the Judges, near Jerusalem:and the supposed sepulchre of Christ, in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, in Jerusalem.

BURNING BUSH . See Moses and Shittim-wood.

BURNT- OFF'ERING . See Sacrifice.

BUSH . Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37. In these passages reference is made to that section of Scripture in which the account of the burning bush is to be found, and not to the bush itself.

BUSH'EL . See Measures.

BUT'LER, an honorable officer of the king's household, called ''cupbearer" Neh 1:11, it being his duty to fill and bear the cup or drinking-vessel to the king. The chief butler had the charge and oversight of the rest. Gen 40:1-13.

BUT'TER . As this word is used in the Scriptures, it probably means sour or coagulated milk, which, when mingled with water, is still regarded as a very agreeable and refreshing beverage by Eastern nations. Gen 18:8. Their butter, such as it was, might have been sometimes clarified and preserved in jars, as at the present day in Asia, and when poured out resembles rich oil.

The figurative expression in Job 29:6, "I washed my steps with butter," denotes primarily the abundance with which the patriarch was blessed; but it is also supposed by some to refer to the great quantities of cream which his herds produced, and which were trodden into butter. This fanciful interpretation aside, the passage seems to be self-explanatory, the figurative allusion to butter having the same force and effect as that to oil.

The place of butter as a general article of food in the East was supplied in some measure by the vegetable oil which was so abundant.

Butter was made by pouring the milk into a goat-skin, and then shaking or treading it to and fro in a uniform direction until the separation of the butter took place. The butter mentioned in Jud 5:25 was probably cream, or a preparation of which cream was a component part. It is not improbable that the bottle of milk in the passage cited was no other than a skin which had been used as a churn, and that the refreshment was butter-milk, presented in the richest vessel that was at hand. Butter-milk is still esteemed a most refreshing beverage by the Arabs. Butter and honey were used together, and were esteemed among the choicest productions of the land. And travellers tell us that the Arabs now use cream or new butter mixed with honey as a principal delicacy.

BUZ (contempt), a territory:perhaps named from Buz, and probably in northern Arabia. Jer 25:23; Gen 22:21.

BUZ (contempt). 1. A son of Abraham's brother Nahor. Gen 22:21. 2. A Gadite. 1 Chr 5:14.

BU'ZI (contempt), the father of Ezekiel the prophet. Eze 1:3.

BUZ'ITE, THE . Elihu is so called. Job 32:2, 1 Chr 24:6; probably because he was the descendant of Buz. Gen 22:21.

BYTHIN'IA . See Bithynia.

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