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FORMULA CONCORDIÆ.

{Die Concordien-Formel.)

The Formula of Concord. A.D. 1576 (1584).

(THE EPITOME.)

[The Formula of Concord was originally written in the German language, 1576, and published at Dresden, 1580. It was translated into Latin by Lucas Osiander, 1680; but the translation was very defective, and was revised by two of the authors—first by Selnecker for the German-Latin edition of the Book of Concord, 1582, then more fully by Chemnitz, 1583; and in this doubly improved form it became the authorized text, published in the first authentic Latin edition of the Book of Concord, Leipzig, 1584. We give this text, with a new English translation made for this work from the German and Latin compared, and adapted to the style of the age of composition. The Epitome contains, in clear and concise form, all that is necessary for this collection; and hence we omit the lengthy Solid Repetition and Declaration, which merely repeats more fully the same articles, and fortifies them by ample quotations from the Scriptures, the fathers, the older Lutheran symbols, and the private writings of Luther, with an appendix of patristic testimonies for the doctrine of the communicatio idiomatum. See Vol. I. § 45, pp.258 sqq.]

 

EPITOME ARTICULORUM EPITOME OF THE ARTICLES
de quibus touching which
CONTROVERSIÆ CONTROVERSIES

ortæ sunt inter Theologos Augustanæ Confessionis, qui in repetitione sequenti, secundum verbi Dei præscriptum, pie declarati sunt et conciliati.4545The German title of the First Part: 'Summarischer Begriff der Streitigen Artikel zwischen den Theologen Augsburgischer Confession in nachfolgender Wiederholung nach Anleitung Gottes Worts christlich erkläret und verglichen.' The Second Part has the title: 'Gründliche, lautere, richtige und endliche Wiederholung und Erklärung etlicher Artikel Augsburgischer Confession,' etc., or 'Solida, plana ac perspicua Repetitio et Declaratio quorundam Articulorum Aug. Confessionis,' etc.

have arisen among the divines of the Augsburg Confession, which in the following restatement have been in godly wise, according to the express word of God, set forth and reconciled.

De Compendiaria Regula atque Norma, Of the Compendious Rule and Norm,

ad quam omnia dogmata exigenda, et quæ inciderunt certamina, pie declaranda et componenda sunt.

according to which all dogmas ought to be judged, and all controversies which have arisen ought to be piously set forth and settled.

I. Credimus, confitemur et docemus, unicam regulam et normam [die einige Regel und Richtschnur], secundum quam omnia dogmata, I. We believe, confess, and teach that the only rule and norm, according to which all dogmas and all doctors ought to be esteemed
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omnesque Doctores æstimari et judicari oporteat, nullam omnino aliam esse, quam Prophetica et Apostolica scripta cum Veteris, tum Novi Testamenti, sicut scriptum est (Psa. cxix. 105): 'Lucerna pedibus meis verbum tuum, et lumen semitis meis.' Et Divus Paulus inquit (Gal. i. 8): 'Etiamsi Angelus de cœlo aliud prædicet Evangelium, anathema sit.' and judged, is no other whatever than the prophetic and apostolic writings both of the Old and of the New Testament, as it is written (Psalm cxix. 105): 'Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.' And St. Paul saith (Gal. i. 8): 'Though an angel from heaven preach any other gospel unto you, let him be accursed.'
Reliqua vero sive Patrum sive Neotericorum scripta, quocunque veniant nomine, sacris literis nequaquam, sunt æquiparanda, sed universal, illis ita subjicienda sunt, ut alia ratione non recipiantur, nisi testium loco, qui doceant, quod etiam post Apostolorum tempora, et in quibus partibus orbis doctrina illa Prophetarum et Apostolorum sincerior conservata sit.4646'Als Zeugen, welcher Gestalt nach der Apostel Zeit und an welchen Orten solche Lehre de Propheten und Apostel erhalten worden.' But other writings, whether of the fathers or of the moderns, with whatever name they come, are in nowise to be equalled to the Holy Scriptures, but are all to be esteemed inferior to them, so that they be not otherwise received than in the rank of witnesses, to show what doctrine was taught after the Apostles' times also, and in what parts of the world that more sound doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles has been preserved.
II. Et quia statim post Apostolorum tempora, imo etiam cum adhuc superstites essent, falsi doctores et hæretici exorti sunt, contra quos in primitiva Ecclesia Symbola sunt composita, id est, breves et categoricæ Confessiones, quæ unanimem Catholicæ Christianæ fidei Consensum et Confessionem, Orthodoxorum II. And inasmuch as immediately after the times of the Apostles, nay, even while they were yet alive, false teachers and heretics arose, against whom in the primitive Church symbols were composed, that is to say, brief and explicit confessions, which contained the unanimous consent of the Catholic Christian faith, and the confession
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et veræ Ecclesiæ complectebantur (ut sunt Symbolum Apostolicum, Nicænum, et Athanasianum): profitemur publice, nos illa amplecti, et rejicimus omnes hæreses, omniaque dogmata, quæ contra illorum sententiam unquam in Ecclesiam Dei sunt invecta. of the orthodox and true Church (such as are the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian Creeds): we publicly profess that we embrace them, and reject all heresies and all dogmas which have ever been brought into the Church of God contrary to their decision.
III. Quod vero ad schismata in negotiis fidei attinet, quæ in nostra tempora inciderunt, judicamus, unanimem Consensum et Declarationem, Christianæ nostræ fidei et Confessionis, in primis contra Papatum, et hujus falsos ac idolatricos cultus et superstitiones, et alias sectas, esse nostri temporis Symbolum, Augustanam illam, primam, et non mutatam Confessionem, quæ Imperatori Carolo V. Augustæ anno XXX. in magnis Imperii Comitiis exhibita est; similiter et Apologiam [derselben Apologie]; et Articulos Smalcaldicos anno XXXVII. conscriptos [Artikeln so zu Schmalkalden Anno 37 gestellet], et præcipuorum Theologorum illius temporis subscriptione comprobatos. III. And as concerns the schisms in matters of faith, which have come to pass in our times, we judge the unanimous consent and declaration of our Christian faith, especially against the papacy and its idolatrous rites and superstitions, and against other sects, to be the Symbol of our own age, called The First, Unaltered Augsburg Confession, which in the year 1530 was exhibited to the Emperor Charles the Fifth at the Diet of the Empire; and likewise the Apology [of the Augsburg Confession]; and the Smalcald Articles drawn up in the year 1537, and approved by the subscription of the principal divines of that time.
Et quia hæc religionis causa etiam ad Laicos, quos vocant, spectat, eorumque perpetua salus agitur: profitemur publice, nos etiam amplecti Minorem et Majorem D. Lutheri Catechismos And inasmuch as this matter of religion appertains also to the laity, as they are called, and their eternal salvation is at stake, we publicly profess that we also receive Dr. Luther's Smaller and Larger
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[zu dem Kleinen und Grossen Katechismo Doctor Luthers], ut ii Tomis Lutheri sunt inserti: quod eos quasi Laicorum Biblia [Laienbibel] esse censeamus, in quibus omnia illa breviter comprehenduntur, quæ in Sacra Scriptura fusius tractantur, et quorum cognitio homini Christiano ad æternam salutem est necessaria. Catechisms as they are included in Luther's works, because we judge them to be, as it were, the Bible of the laity, in which all those things are briefly comprehended which in the Holy Scripture are treated more at length, and the knowledge of which is necessary to a Christian man for his eternal salvation.
Ad has rationes, paulo ante monstratas, omnis doctrina in religionis negotio conformanda est, et, si quid iis contrarium esse deprehenditur, id rejiciendum atque damnandum est: quippe quod cum unanimi fidei nostræ declaratione pugnet. To these principles, as set forth a little above, every religions doctrine ought to be conformed; and, if any thing is discovered to be contrary to them, that is to be rejected and condemned, as being at variance with the unanimous declaration of our faith.
Hoc modo luculentum discrimen inter sacras Veteris et Novi Testamenti literas, et omnia aliorum scripta retinetur: et sola Sacra Scriptura judex, norma et regula [der einige Richter, Regel und Richtschnur] agnoscitur, ad quam, ceu ad Lydium lapidem [als dem einigen Probierstein], omnia dogmata exigenda sunt et judicanda, an pia, an impia, an vera, an vero falsa sint. In this way a clear distinction is retained between the sacred Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and all other writings; and Holy Scripture alone is acknowledged as the [only] judge, norm, and rule, according to which, as by the [only] touchstone, all doctrines are to be examined and judged, as to whether they be godly or ungodly, true or false.
Cætera autem Symbola, et alia scripta, quorum paulo ante mentionem fecimus, non obtinent autoritatem judicis; hæc enim dignitas solis sacris literis debetur: sed duntaxat pro religione But the other symbols and other writings, of which we made mention a little while ago, do not possess the authority of a judge—for this dignity belongs to Holy Scripture alone; but merely give testimony
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nostra testimonium dicunt eamque explicant, ac ostendunt, quomodo singulis temporibus sacræ literæ in articulis controversis in Ecclesia Dei a Doctoribus, qui tum vixerunt, intellectæ et explicatæ fuerint, et quibus rationibus dogmata cum Sacra Scriptura pugnantia rejecta et condemnata sint.sint. to our religion, and set it forth to show in what manner from time to time the Holy Scriptures have been understood and explained in the Church of God by the doctors who then lived, as respects controverted articles, and by what arguments, dogmas at variance with the Holy Scriptures have been rejected and condemned.
Art. I. Art. I.
DE PECCATO ORIGINIS. CONCERNING ORIGINAL SIN.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
An peccatum originale sit proprie et absque omni discrimine ipsa hominis corrupti natura, substantia et essentia, aut certe principalis et præstantissima pars ipsius substantiæ; utpote ipsa rationalis anima in summo suo gradu et in summis ipsius viribus considerata? An vero inter hominis substantiam, naturam, essentiam, corpus et animam, etiam post lapsum humani generis, et inter originale peccatum aliquod sit discrimen, ita, ut aliud sit ipsa natura, et aliud ipsum peccatum originis, quod in natura corrupta hæret, et naturam etiam depravat? Whether Original Sin is properly and without any distinction the very nature, substance, and essence of corrupt man, or at the least the principal and preeminent part of his substance, namely, the rational soul itself, considered in its highest degree and in its chief powers? Or whether between the substance, nature, essence, body, and soul of man, even after the fall of mankind on the one hand, and Original Sin on the other, there be some distinction, so that the nature itself is one thing, and Original Sin another thing, which adheres in the corrupt nature, and also corrupts the nature?
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Affirmativa. Affirmative.

Sincera doctrina, fides et confessio, cum superiore norma et compendiosa declaratione consentiens.

The pure doctrine, faith and confession, agreeing with our above-stated norm and compendious declaration.

I. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod sit aliquod discrimen inter ipsam hominis naturam, non tantum, quemadmodum initio a Deo purus, et sanctus, et absque peccato homo conditus est, verum etiam, qualem jam post lapsum naturam illam habemus, discrimen, inquam, inter ipsam naturam, quæ etiam post lapsum est permanetque Dei creatura, et inter peccatum originis, et quod tanta sit illa naturæ et peccati originalis differentia, quanta est inter opus Dei, et inter opus Diaboli. I. We believe, teach, and confess that there is a distinction between the nature of man itself, not only as man was created of God in the beginning pure and holy and free from sin, but also as we now possess it after our nature has fallen; a distinction, namely, between the nature itself, which even after the fall is and remains God's creature, and Original Sin; and that this difference between nature and Original Sin is as great as between the work of God and the work of the devil.
II. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod summo studio hoc discrimen sit conservandum propterea quod illud dogma, nullum videlicet inter naturam hominis corrupti et inter peccatum originis esse discrimen, cum præcipuis Fidei nostræ articulis (de creatione, de redemtione, de sanctificatione et resurrectione carnis nostræ) pugnet, neque salvis hisce articulis stare possit. II. We believe, teach, and confess that this distinction should be maintained with the greatest care, because the dogma that there is no distinction between the nature of fallen man and Original Sin is inconsistent with the chief articles of our faith (of Creation, of Redemption, of Sanctification, and the Resurrection of our flesh), and can not be maintained except by impugning these articles.
Deus enim non modo Adami et Hevæ corpus et animam ante lapsum, verum etiam corpora et animas nostras post lapsum creavit; etsi hæc jam aunt corrupta. For God not only created the body and soul of Adam and Eve before the fall, but has also created our bodies and souls since the fall, although these are now corrupt.
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Et sane hodie Dominus animus et corpora nostra creaturas et opus suum esse agnoscit, sicut scriptum est (Job x. 8): 'Manus tuæ fecerunt me, et plasmaverunt me totum in circuitu.' And to-day no less God acknowledges our minds and bodies to be his creatures and work; as it is written (Job x. 8): 'Thy hands have made me and fashioned me together round about.'
Et Filius Dei unione personali illam humanam naturam, sed sine peccato, assumsit, et non alienam, sed nostram carnem sibi adjungens arctissime copulavit, ejusque assumtæ carnis ratione vere frater noster factus est; ut Scriptura testatur (Heb. ii. 14): 'Posteaquam pueri commercium habent cum carne et sanguine, et ipse similiter particeps factus est eorundem.' Item (ii. 16): 'Non Angelos assumit, sed semen Abrahæ assumit, unde et debuit per omnia fratribus assimilari, excepto peccato.' And the Son of God, by a personal union, has assumed this nature, yet without sin; and uniting not other flesh, but our flesh to himself, hath most closely conjoined it, and in respect of this flesh thus assumed he has truly become our brother; as the Scripture bears witness (Heb. ii. 14): 'Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same.' Also (ii. 16): 'For verily he took not on him angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore in all things it behooved him to be made like unto his brethren, yet without sin.'
Eandem humanam nostram naturam (opus videlicet suum) Christus redemit, eandem,(quæ ipsius opus est) sanctificat, eandem a mortuis resuscitat, et ingenti gloria (opus videlicet suum) ornat: peccatum autem originale non creavit, non assumsit, non redemit, non sanctificat, non resuscitabit in electis, neque unquam gloria cælesti ornabit aut salvabit, sed in beata illa resurrectione plane This same human nature of ours (that is his own work) Christ has redeemed, the same (inasmuch as it is his own work) he sanctifies, the same doth he raise from the dead, and with great glory (as being his own work) doth he crown it. But Original Sin he has not created, has not assumed, has not redeemed, doth not sanctify, will not raise again in the elect, nor will ever save and crown with heavenly
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abolitum erit [sondern in der Auferstehung gar vertilget sein wird]. glory, but in that blessed resurrection it shall be utterly abolished and done away.
Ex his, quæ a nobis allata sunt, discrimen inter corruptam naturam, et inter corruptionem, quæ naturæ infixa est, et per quam natura est corrupta, facile agnosci potest. From these considerations which have been advanced by us, the distinction between our corrupt nature and the corruption which is implanted in the nature, and through which the nature is corrupt, can be easily discerned.

III. Vicissim autem credimus, docemus atque confitemur, peccatum originis non esse levem, sed tam profundam humanæ naturæ corruptionem, quæ nihil sanum, nihil incorruptum, in corpore et anima hominis, atque adeo in interioribus et exterioribus viribus ejus reliquit. Sicut Ecclesia canit: 'Lapsus Adæ vi pessima humana tota massa, natura et ipsa essentia corrupta, luce cassa,'4747    'Durch Adam's Fall ist ganz verderbt
   Menschlich Natur und Wesen.'
   The beginning of a hymn by Lazarus Spengler, of Nuremberg (d. 1534), composed in 1525. See Schaff's German Hymn-Book, No. 62.
etc. Hoc quantum sit malum, verbis revera est inexplicabile, neque humanæ rationis acumine indagari, sed duntaxat per verbum Dei revelatum agnosci potest. Et sane affirmamus, quod hanc naturæ corruptionem ab ipsa natura nemo, nisi solus Deus, separare queat; id quod per mortem in beata illa resurrectione

III. But, on the other hand, we believe, teach, and confess that Original Sin is no trivial corruption, but is so profound a corruption of human nature as to leave nothing sound, nothing uncorrupt in the body or soul of man, or in his mental or bodily powers. As reads the hymn of the Church:

'Through Adam's fall is all corrupt,

Nature and essence human.'4848    'Durch Adam's Fall ist ganz verderbt
   Menschlich Natur und Wesen.'
   The beginning of a hymn by Lazarus Spengler, of Nuremberg (d. 1534), composed in 1525. See Schaff's German Hymn-Book, No. 62.

How great this evil is, is in truth not to be set forth in words, nor can it be explored by the subtlety of human reason, but can only be discerned by means of the revealed word of God. And we indeed affirm that no one is able to dissever this corruption of the nature from the nature itself, except God alone, which will fully come to pass by means of death in the resurrection

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plene fiet. Ibi enim ea ipsa natura nostra, quam nunc circumferimus, absque peccato originis, et ab eodem omnino separata et remota resurget, et æterna felicitate fruetur. Sic enim scriptum est (Job xix. 26): 'Pelle mea circumdabor, et in carne mea videbo Deum, quem ego visurus sum mihi, et oculi mei eum conspecturi sunt.' unto blessedness. For then that very same nature of ours, which we now bear about, will rise again free from Original Sin, and wholly severed and disjoined from the same, and will enjoy eternal felicity. For thus it is written (Job xix. 26): 'I shall be compassed again with my skin, and in my flesh shall I see God; whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.'
Negativa. Negative.

Rejectio falsorum dogmatum, quæ commemoratæ sanæ doctrinæ repugnant.

Rejection of false dogmas, which are opposite to the sound doctrine as set forth above.

I. Rejicimus ergo et damnamus dogma illud, quo asseritur, peccatum originale tantummodo reatum et debitum esse, ex alieno delicto, absque ulla naturæ nostræ corruptione, in nos derivatum. I. We therefore reject and condemn that dogma by which it is asserted that Original Sin is merely the liability and debt of another's transgression, transmitted to us apart from any corruption of our nature.
II. Item, concupiscentias pravas non esse peccatum, sed concreatas naturæ conditiones, et proprietates quasdam essentiales: aut defectus illos, et malum ingens a nobis paulo ante commemoratum, non esse peccatum, propter quod homo, Christo non insertus, sit filius iræ. II. Also, that depraved concupiscences are not sin, but certain concreate conditions and essential properties of the nature, or that those defects and that huge evil just set forth by us is not sin on whose account man, if not grafted into Christ, is a child of wrath.
III. Rejicimus etiam Pelagianam hæresin, qua asseritur, hominis naturam post lapsum incorruptam esse, et quidem in spiritualibus III. We also reject the Pelagian heresy, in which it is asserted that the nature of man after the fall is incorrupt, and that, moreover, in
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rebus totam bonam et puram in viribus suis naturalibus mansisse. spiritual things it has remained wholly good and pure in its natural powers.
IV. Item, peccatum, originis externum, levem, et nullius prope momenti esse nævum, aut aspersam quandam maculam, sub qua nihilominus natura bonas suas vires etiam in rebus spiritualibus retinuerit. IV. Also, that Original Sin is an external, trivial, and almost insignificant birth-mark, or a certain stain dashed upon the man, under the which, nevertheless, nature hath retained her powers unimpaired even in spiritual things.
V. Item, peccatum originale tantum esse externum impedimentum bonarum spiritualium virium, et non esse despoliationem et defectum earundem, sicuti cum magnes allii succo illinitur, vis ejus naturalis attrahendi ferrum non tollitur, sed tantum impeditur, aut sicut macula de facie, aut color de pariete abstergi facile potest. V. Also, that Original Sin is only an external impediment of sound spiritual powers, and is not a despoliation and defect thereof, even as, when a magnet is smeared with garlic-juice, its natural power of drawing iron is nor taken away, but is only impeded; or as a stain can be easily wiped off from the face, or paint from a wall.
VI. Item, hominis naturam et essentiam non prorsus esse corruptam: sed aliquid boni adhuc in homine reliquum, etiam in rebus spiritualibus, videlicet, bonitatem, capacitatem, aptitudinem, facultatem, industriam, aut vires, quibus in rebus spiritualibus inchoare aliquid boni, operari, aut cooperari valeat. VI. Also, that man's nature and essence are not utterly corrupt, but that there is something of good still remaining in man, even in spiritual things, to wit, goodness, capacity, aptitude, ability, industry, or the powers by which in spiritual things he has strength to undertake, effect, or co-effect somewhat of good.
VII. Contra autem rejicimus etiam, falsum dogma Manichæorum, cum docetur, peccatum originis tanquam quiddam essentiale atque substantiale a Satana in naturam esse infusum, et cum eadem VII. But, on the other hand, we reject also the false dogma of the Manichæans, where it is taught that Original Sin is, as it were, something essential and substantial, infused by Satan into the nature, and mingled
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permixtum, quemadmodum venenum et vinum miscentur. with the same, as wine and poison are mixed.
VIII. Item, non ipsum animalem hominem, sed aliquid aliud, et peregrinum quiddam, quod sit in homine, peccare, ideoque non ipsam naturam, sed tantummodo peccatum originale, in natura existens, accusari. VIII. Also, that it is not the natural man himself, but something alien and strange, which is in man, that sins, and that therefore not his nature itself, but only Original Sin existing in his nature is liable to arraignment.
IX. Rejicimus etiam atque damnamus, ut Manichæum errorem, quando docetur, originale peccatum proprie, et quidem nullo posito discrimine, esse ipsam hominis corrupti substantiam, naturam et essentiam, ita ut inter naturam corruptam post lapsum, per se ipsam consideratam, et inter peccatum originis nulla prorsus sit differentia, neque ulla distinctio cogitari, aut saltem peccatum illud a natura cogitatione discerni possit. IX. We reject also and condemn, as a Manichæan error, the teaching that Original Sin is properly, and without any distinction, the very substance, nature, and essence of fallen man, so that between his corrupt nature after the fall, considered in itself, and Original Sin there is no difference at all, and that no distinction can be conceived by which Original Sin can be distinguished from man's nature even in thought.
X. D. Lutherus quidem, originis illud malum, peccatum naturæ, personale, essentiale vocat: sed non eam ob causam, quasi natura, persona, aut essentia hominis, absque omni discrimine, sit ipsum peccatum originis: sed ideo ad hunc modum loquitur, ut hujusmodi phrasibus discrimen inter peccatum originale, quod humanæ naturæ infixum est, et inter alia peccata, quæ actualia vocantur, melius intelligi possit. X. Dr. Luther, it is true, calls this original evil a sin of nature, personal, essential; but not for the reason that the nature, person, or essence of man, without any distinction, is itself Original Sin, but he speaks after this manner in order that by phrases of this sort the distinction between Original Sin, which is infixed in human nature, and other sins, which are called actual, may be better understood.
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XI. Peccatum enim originis non est quoddam delictum, quod actu perpetratur, sed intime inhæret infixum ipsi naturæ, substantiæ et essentiæ hominis. Et quidem, si maxime nulla unquam prava cogitatio in corde hominis corrupti exoriretur, si nullum verbum otiosum proferretur, si nullum malum opus aut facinus designaretur: tamen natura nihilominus corrupta est per originate peccatum, quod nobis ratione corrupti seminis agnatum est, quod ipsum etiam scaturigo est omnium aliorum actualium peccatorum, ut sunt pravæ cogitationes, prava colloquia, prave et scelerate facta. Sic enim scriptum legimus (Matt. xv. 19): 'Ex corde oriuntur cogitationes malæ.' Et alibi (Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21): 'Omne figmentum cordis tantummodo malum est, a pueritia.' XI. For Original Sin is not a particular transgression which is perpetrated in act, but intimately inheres, being infixed in the very nature, substance, and essence of man. And, indeed, if no depraved thought at all should ever arise in the heart of fallen man, if no idle word were uttered, if no evil work or deed were perpetrated by him: yet, nevertheless, the nature is corrupted by Original Sin, which is innate in ns by reason of the corrupted seed from which we spring, and is, moreover, a fountain of all other actual sins, such as evil thoughts, evil discoursings, evil and abominable deeds. For thus it is written, as we read in Matthew xv. 19: 'For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts.' And elsewhere (Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21): 'Every imagination of the thought of man's heart is only evil from his youth.'
XII. Est etiam diligenter observanda varia significatio vocabuli 'naturæ' cujus æquivocatione Manichæi abutentes, errorem suum occultant, multosque simplices homines in errorem inducunt. Quandoque enim 'natura' ipsam hominis substantiam significat, ut, cum dicimus: Deus humanam naturam creavit. Interdum vero vocabulum naturæ, intelligitur XII. We must also diligently observe the various significations of the word nature, which equivocal meaning the Manichæans abusing, thereby disguise their error, and lead many simple men astray. For sometimes nature signifies the very substance of man, as when we say: God created human nature. Sometimes, on the other hand, by the word nature there is understood
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ingenium, conditio, defectus, aut vitium alicujus rei, in ipsa natura insitum et inhærens, ut cum dicimus: Serpentis natura est icere, hominis natura est peccare et peccatum. Et in hac posteriore significatione vocabulum (naturæ) non ipsam hominis substantiam, sed aliquid, quod in natura aut substantia fixum inhæret, denotat. the temper, condition, defect, or vice of any thing implanted and inhering in the nature, as when we say: The serpent's nature is to strike, man's nature is to sin and is sin. And in this latter signification the word nature denotes, not the very nature of man, but something which inheres and is fixed in his nature or substance.
XIII. Quod vero ad Latina vocabula substantiæ et accidentis attinet, cum ea non sint Scripturæ Sacræ vocabula, præterea etiam a plebe non intelligantur, abstinendum est ab illis in publicis sacris concionibus, ubi indocta plebs docetur; et hac in re simplicium et rudiorum merito habenda est ratio. XIII. But as respects the Latin words substantia and accidens, since these are not expressions of Holy Scripture, and moreover are not understood by the common people, we ought to abstain from them in public preaching devoted to the instruction of the unlearned multitude, and in this matter account should rightly be taken of the more simple and untaught.
In scholis autem, et apud homines doctos (quibus horum vocabulorum significatio nota est, et qui iisdem recte atque citra abusum uti possunt, proprie discernentes essentiam alicujus rei ab eo, quod aliunde ei accidit et per accidens inhæret) in disputatione de peccato originis retinenda sunt. But in schools and among learned men (to whom the signification of these words is known, and who can use them correctly and without danger of misuse, properly discriminating the essence of any thing from that which has been added to it from without, and inheres in it by way of accident) they are to be retained in the discussion concerning Original Sin.
Nam hisce vocabulis discrimen inter opus Dei, et inter opus Diaboli quam maxime perspicue For by means of these terms the distinction between the work of God and the work of the devil can
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explicari potest. Diabolus enim substantiam nullam creare, sed tantummodo per accidens, permittente Domino, substantiam a Deo creatam depravare potest. be set forth with the greatest clearness. For the devil can not create any substance, but can only, by way of accident, under the permission of the Lord, deprave a substance created by God.
Art. II. Art. II.
DE LIBERO ARBITRIO. OF FREE WILL.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Cum hominis voluntas quadruplicem habeat considerationem [in vier ungleichen Ständen]: primo, ante lapsum; secundo, post lapsum; tertio, post regenerationem y quarto, post resurrectionem carnis: nunc quæstio præcipua est tantum de voluntate et viribus hominis in secundo statu, quasnam vires post lapsum primorum parentum nostrorum, ante regenerationem, ex seipso habeat, in rebus spiritualibus: an propriis viribus, antequam per Spiritum Dei fuerit regeneratus, possit sese ad gratiam Dei applicare et præparare [sich zur Gnade Gottes schicken und bereiten],4949The synergistic term used by Melanchthon in his later period. See Vol. I. pp. 262 and 270. et num gratiam divinam (quæ illi per Spiritum Sanctum in verbo et Sacramentis divinitus institutis offertur) accipere et apprehendere possit, nec ne. Since the will of man is to be considered under a fourfold view [in four dissimilar states]: first, before the fall; secondly, since the fall; thirdly, after regeneration; fourthly, after the resurrection of the body: the chief present inquiry regards the will and powers of man in the second state, what manner of powers since the fall of our first parents he has of himself in spiritual things antecedently to regeneration : whether by his own proper powers, before he has been regenerated by the Spirit of God, he can apply and prepare himself unto the grace of God, and whether he can receive and apprehend the divine grace (which is offered to him through the Holy Ghost in the word and sacraments divinely instituted), or not?
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Affirmativa. Affirmative.

Sincera doctrina de hoc articulo, cum immota regula verbi divini congruens.

The sound doctrine concerning this article, agreeable to the steadfast rule of the divine Word.

I. De hoc negotio hæc est fides, doctrina et confessio nostra: quod videlicet hominis intellectus et ratio in rebus spiritualibus prorsus sint cæca, nihilque propriis viribus intelligere possint. Sicut scriptum est(1 Cor. ii. 14): 'Animalis homo non percipit ea, quæ sunt Spiritus; stultitia illi est, et non potest intelligere, quia de spiritualibus examinatur' [wann er wird von geistlichen Sachen gefraget].5050We usually transfer the Scripture passages from our Authorized English Version. But this would not answer here, nor in several other cases. The German text of the Formula deviates in 1 Cor. ii. 14 from Luther's Version (es muss geistlich gerichtet sein), and the Latin text deviates from the Vulgate and accords with the German. Tyndale (1534) and the Rheims Version (1582) translate ὅτι πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται, 'because he is spiritually examined;' the Authorized Version, 'because they are spiritually discerned.' I. Concerning this matter, the following is our faith, doctrine, and confession, to wit: that the understanding and reason of man in spiritual things are wholly blind, and can understand nothing by their proper powers. As it is written (1 Cor. ii. 14): 'The natural man perceiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because he is examined concerning spiritual things.'5151We usually transfer the Scripture passages from our Authorized English Version. But this would not answer here, nor in several other cases. The German text of the Formula deviates in 1 Cor. ii. 14 from Luther's Version (es muss geistlich gerichtet sein), and the Latin text deviates from the Vulgate and accords with the German. Tyndale (1534) and the Rheims Version (1582) translate ὅτι πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται, 'because he is spiritually examined;' the Authorized Version, 'because they are spiritually discerned.'
II. Credimus, docemus et confitemur etiam, voluntatem hominis nondum renatam, non tantum a Deo esse aversam, verum etiam, inimicam Deo factam, ita, ut tantummodo ea velit et cupiat, iisque delectetur, quæ mala sunt et voluntati divinæ repugnant. Scriptum est enim (Gen. viii. 21): 'Sensus et cogitatio humani cordis in malum prona sunt ab adolescentia sua.' Item (Rom. viii. 7): 'Affectus carnis inimicitia est adversus Deum, neque II. We believe, teach, and confess, moreover, that the yet unregenerate will of man is not only averse from God, but has become even hostile to God, so that it only wishes and desires those things, and is delighted with them, which are evil and opposite to the divine will. For it is written (Gen. viii. 21): 'For the imagination and thought of man's heart are prone to evil from his youth.' Also (Rom. viii. 7): 'The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not
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enim legi subjicitur, ac ne potest id quidem.' subject to the law, neither indeed can be.'
Itaque credimus, quantum abest, ut corpus mortuum seipsum vivificare, atque sibiipsi corporalem vitam restituere possit, tantum abesse, ut homo, qui ratione peccati spiritualiter mortuus est, seipsum in vitam spiritualem revocandi ullam facultatem habeat; sicut scriptum est (Eph. ii. 5): 'Cum essemus mortui in peccatis, convivificavit nos cum Christo,' etc. (2 Cor. iii. 5): 'Itaque etiam ex nobismetipsis, tanquam ex nobis, non sumus idonei, ut aliquid boni [etwas Guts]5252The paraphrastic addition 'good' of the German and Latin text is wanting in the Greek and in Luther's Version. cogitemus; quod vero idonei sumus, id ipsum a Deo est.' Therefore we believe that by how ranch it is impossible that a dead body should vivify itself and restore corporal life to itself, even so impossible is it that man, who by reason of sin is spiritually dead, should have any faculty of recalling himself into spiritual life; as it is written ( Eph. ii. 5): 'Even when we were dead in sins, he hath quickened us together with Christ.' (2 Cor. iii. 5): 'Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing good5353The paraphrastic addition 'good' of the German and Latin text is wanting in the Greek and in Luther's Version. as of ourselves; but that we are sufficient is itself of God.'
III. Conversionem autem hominis operatur Spiritus Sanctus non sine mediis, sed ad eam efficiendam uti solet prædicatione et auscultatione verbi Dei, sicut scriptum est (Rom. i. 16): 'Evangelion est potentia Dei ad salutem omni credenti? Et (Rom. x. 17): 'Fides est ex auditu verbi Dei.' Et sane vult Dominus, ut ipsius verbum audiatur, neque ad illius prædicationem aures obdurentur (Psa. xcv. 8). Huic verbo adest præsens Spiritus Sanctus, et corda hominum aperit, ut, sicut Lydia in Actis III. Nevertheless the Holy Spirit effects the conversion of man not without means, but is wont to use for effecting it preaching and the hearing of the Word of God, as it is written ( Rom. i. 16): 'The gospel is a power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth.' And ( Rom. x. 17): 'Faith cometh by hearing of the Word of God.' And without question it is the will of the Lord that his Word should be heard, and that our ears should not be stopped when it is preached ( Psa. xcv. 8). With this Word is present the Holy Spirit, who opens
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Apostolicis (xvi. 14), diligenter attendant, et ita convertantur, sola gratia et virtute Spiritus Sancti, cujus unius et solius opus est hominis conversio. Si enim Spiritus Sancti gratia absit (Rom. ix. 16), nostrum velle et currere (1 Cor. iii. 7), nostrum plantare, seminare et rigare, prorsus frustranea sunt; si videlicet ille incrementum non largiatur, sicut Christus inquit (John xv. 5): 'Sine me nihil potestis facere.' Et his quidem paucis verbis Christus libero arbitrio omnes vires derogat, omniaque gratiæ divinæ adscribit (1 Cor. i. 29; 2 Cor. xii. 5; Jer. ix. 23): 'Ne quis coram Deo habeat, de quo glorietur.' the hearts of men, in order that, as Lydia did (Acts xvi. 14), they may diligently attend, and thus may be converted by the sole grace and power of the Holy Spirit, whose work, and whose work alone, the conversion of man is. For if the grace of the Holy Spirit is absent, our willing and running, our planting, sowing, and watering, are wholly in vain (Rom. ix. 16; 1 Cor. iii. 7); if, that is, he do not give the increase, as Christ says (John xv. 5): 'Without me ye can do nothing.' And, indeed, in these few words Christ denies to free-will all power whatever, and ascribes all to divine grace, 'that no one may have whereof he may glory before God' (1 Cor. i. 29; 2 Cor. xii. 5; Jer. ix. 23).
Negativa. Negative.
Rejectio contrariæ et falsæ doctrinæ. Rejection of contrary and false doctrine.
Repudiamus igitur et damnamus omnes, quos recitabimus, errores, cum verbi divini regula non congruentes. We repudiate, therefore, and condemn all the errors which we will now recount, as not agreeing with the rule of the divine word:
I. Primo delirum Philosophorum Stoicorum dogma, quemadmodum et Manichæorum furorem, qui docuerunt, omnia, quæ eveniant, necessario fieri, et aliter fieri prorsus non posse, et hominem omnia coactum facere, etiam ea, quæ in rebus externis agat, eumque ad designanda mala I. First, the insane dogma of the Stoic philosophers, as also the madness of the Manichæans, who taught that all things which come to pass take place by necessity, and can not possibly be otherwise; and that man does all things by constraint, even those things which he transacts in outward matters, and that he is
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opera et scelera {qualia sunt libidines vagæ, rapinæ, cædes, furta, et similia) cogi. compelled to the committing of evil works and crimes, such as unlawful lusts, acts, rapine, murders, thefts, and the like.
II. Repudiamus etiam crassum illum Pelagianorum errorem, qui asserere non dubitarunt, quod homo propriis viribus, sine gratia Spiritus Sancti, sese ad Deum convertere, Evangelio credere, legi divinæ ex animo parere, et hac ratione peccatorum remissionem ac vitam æternam ipse promereri valeat. II. We repudiate, also, that gross error of the Pelagians, who have not hesitated to assert that man by his own powers, without the grace of the Holy Spirit, has ability to convert himself to God, to believe the gospel, to obey the divine law from his heart, and in this way to merit of himself the remission of sins and eternal life.
III. Præter hos errores rejicimus et Semipelagianorum falsum dogma, qui docent, hominem propriis viribus inchoare posse suam conversionem: absolvere autem sine Spiritus Sancti gratia non posse. III. Besides these errors, we reject also the false dogma of the Semi-Pelagians, who teach that man by his own powers can commence his conversion, but can not fully accomplish it without the grace of the Holy Spirit.
IV. Item, cum docetur, licet homo non renatus, ratione liberi arbitrii, ante sui regenerationem infirmior quidem sit, quam ut conversionis suæ initium facere, atque propriis viribus sese ad Deum convertere, et legi Dei toto corde parere valeat: tamen, si Spiritus Sanctus prædicatione verbi initium fecerit, suamque gratiam in verbo homini obtulerit, tum hominis voluntatem, propriis et naturalibus suis viribus quodammodo aliquid, licet id modiculum, infirmum et languidum IV. Also the teaching that, although unregenerate man, in respect of free-will, is indeed, antecedently to his regeneration, too infirm to make a beginning of his own conversion, and by his own powers to convert himself to God, and obey the law of God with all his heart; yet if the Holy Spirit, by the preaching of the word, shall have made a beginning, and offered his grace in the word to man, that then man, by his own proper and natural powers, can, as it were, give some assistance and co-operation, though it be but
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admodum sit, conversionem adjuvare, atque cooperari, et seipsam ad gratiam applicare, præparare, eam apprehendere, amplecti, et Evangelio credere posse. slight, infirm, and languid, towards his conversion, and can apply and prepare himself unto grace, apprehend it, embrace it, and believe the gospel.
V. Item, hominem, post regenerationem, legem Dei perfecte observare atque implere posse, eamque impletionem esse nostrum coram Deo justitiam, qua vitam æternam promereamur. V. Also that man, after regeneration, can perfectly observe and fulfill the law of God, and that this fulfilling is our righteousness before God, whereby we merit eternal life.
VI. Rejicimus etiam damnamusque Enthusiastarum5454'Enthusiastæ' vocantur, qui neglecta prædicatione verbi divini cælestes revelationes Spiritus exspectant. errorem, qui fingunt, Deum immediate, absque verbi Dei auditu, et sine Sacramentorum usu, homines ad se trahere, illuminare, justificare et salvare. VI. We also reject and condemn the error of the Enthusiasts,5555Enthusiasts are those who, neglecting the preaching of the divine Word, yet expect celestial revelations of the Spirit. who feign that God immediately, apart from the hearing of the Word of God, and without the use of the sacraments, draws men to himself, enlightens them, justifies and saves them.
VII. Item, Deum in conversione et regeneratione hominis substantiam et essentiam veteris Adami, et præcipue animam rationalem penitus abolere, novamque animas essentiam ex nihilo, in illa conversione et regeneratione creare. VII. Also, that God in the regeneration of man utterly abolishes the substance and essence of the old Adam, and especially the rational soul, and creates from nothing in that conversion and regeneration a new essence of the soul.
VIII. Item, cum hi sermones citra declarationem usurpantur, quod videlicet hominis voluntas, ante conversionem, in ipsa conversione, et post conversionem, Spiritui Sancto repugnet, et quod VIII. Also, when such statements as these are used without explanation, that the will of man, before conversion, in conversion itself, and after conversion, is set against the Holy Ghost, and that the Holy
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Spiritus Sanctus iis detur, qui ex proposito et pertinaciter ipsi resistunt. Nam Deus in conversione ex nolentibus volentes facit, et in volentibus habitat, ut Augustinus loqui solet. Ghost is given to those who of set purpose and obstinately resist him. For God in conversion of unwilling men makes willing men, and dwells in the willing, as Augustine is wont to speak.
Quod vero ad dicta quædam, tum Patrum, tum Neotericorum quorundam Doctorum attinet: Deus trahit, sed volentem trahit: et hominis voluntas in conversione non est otiosa, sed agit aliquid: judicamus hæc formæ sanorum verborum non esse analoga. Afferuntur enim hæc dicta ad confirmandam falsam opinionem, de viribus humani arbitrii in hominis conversione, contra doctrinam, quæ soli gratiæ divinæ id opus attribuit. Ideoque ab ejusmodi sermonibus, quando de conversione hominis ad Deum agitur, abstinendum censemus. But as concerns certain dicta, both of the Fathers and of certain modern doctors, such as the following: God draws, but draws a willing man, and man's will in conversion is not idle, but effects somewhat—we judge that these are not agreeable to the form of sound words. For these dicta are advanced for the confirming of the false opinion of the powers of the human will in the conversion of man, contrary to the doctrine which attributes that work to divine grace alone. And therefore we judge that we ought to abstain from expressions of such sort in treating of the conversion of man to God.
Contra autem recte docetur, quod Dominus in conversione, per Spiritus Sancti tractionem (id est, motum et operationem) ex hominibus repugnantibus et nolentibus volentes homines faciat, et quod post conversionem in quotidianis pœnitentiæ exercitiis hominis renati voluntas non sit otiosa, sed omnibus Spiritus Sancti operibus, quæ ille per nos efficit, etiam cooperetur. But, on the other hand, it is rightly taught that the Lord in conversion, through the drawing (that is, the movement and operation) of the Holy Spirit, of resisting and unwilling makes willing men, and that after conversion, in the daily exercises of penitence the will of man is not idle, but co-operates also with all the works of the Holy Spirit which he effects through us.
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IX. Item, quod D. Lutherus scripsit, hominis voluntatem in conversione pure passive se habere: id recte et dextre est accipiendum, videlicet, respectu divinæ gratiæ in accendendis novis motibus, hoc est, de eo intelligi oportet, quando Spiritus Dei per verbum auditum, aut per usum Sacramentorum hominis voluntatem aggreditur, et conversionem atque regenerationem in homine operatur. Postquam enim Spiritus hoc ipsum jam operatus est atque effecit, hominisque voluntatem sola sua divina virtute et operatione immutavit atque renovavit: tunc revera hominis nova illa voluntas instrumentum est et organon Dei Spiritus Sancti, ut ea non modo gratiam apprehendat, verum etiam in operibus sequentibus Spiritui Sancto cooperetur. IX. Also, whereas Dr. Luther has written that the will of man in conversion is purely passive, that is to be received rightly and fitly, to wit: in respect of divine grace in kindling new motions, that is, it ought to be understood of the moment when the Spirit of God, through the hearing of the Word or through the use of the sacraments, lays hold of the will of man, and works conversion and regeneration in man. For after the Holy Spirit has already wrought and effected this very thing, and has changed and renewed the will of man by his own divine virtue and working alone, then, indeed, this new will of man is the instrument and organ of God the Holy Ghost, so that it not only lays hold of grace, but also co-operates, in the works which follow, with the Holy Spirit.
Relinquuntur igitur ante conversionem hominis duæ tantum efficientes causæ (ad conversionem efficaces), nimirum Spiritus Sanctus, et verbum Dei, quod est instrumentum Spiritus Sancti, quo conversionem hominis efficit.5656Against Melanchthon, who in his later years taught that there are three causes of conversion closely combined, namely, the Holy Spirit (the creative cause), the Word of God (the instrumental cause), and the consenting will of man. See Vol. I. n. 262. Hoc verbum homo certe audire debet, sed tamen ut illud ipsum There are, therefore, left before the conversion of man two efficient causes only (efficacious to conversion), that is to say, the Holy Spirit and the Word of God, which is the instrument of the Holy Spirit whereby he effects the conversion of man.5757Against Melanchthon, who in his later years taught that there are three causes of conversion closely combined, namely, the Holy Spirit (the creative cause), the Word of God (the instrumental cause), and the consenting will of man. See Vol. I. n. 262. This Word man is, without question, bound to hear; but,
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vera fide amplectatur, nequaquam suis viribus propriis, sed sola gratia et operatione Dei Spiritus Sancti obtinere potest. nevertheless, he is in nowise by his own powers able to obtain the benefit of embracing it in true faith, but only by the grace and working of God the Holy Ghost.
Art. III. Art. III.
DE JUSTITIA FIDEI CORAM DEO. OF THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF FAITH BEFORE GOD.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Unanimi consensu {ad normam verbi divini, et sententiam Augustanæ Confessionis) in Ecclesiis nostris docetur, nos peccatores longe miserrimos sola in Christum fide coram Deo justificari et salvari, ita ut Christus solus nostra sit justitia. Hic autem Jesus Christus, Salvator noster, et justitia nostra, verus Deus est et verus homo: etenim divina et humana naturæ in ipso sunt personaliter unitæ. Quæsitum igitur fuit: secundum quam naturam Christus nostra sit justitia? Et hoc occasione duo errores, et quidem inter se pugnantes, Ecclesias quasdam perturbarunt. By unanimous consent (according to the rule of the divine Word and the judgment of the Augsburg Confession), it is taught in our churches that we most wretched sinners are justified before God and saved alone by faith in Christ, so that Christ alone is our righteousness. Now this Jesus Christ, our Saviour and our righteousness, is true God and true man; for the divine and human natures in him are personally united (Jer. xxiii. 6; 1 Cor. i. 30; 2 Cor. v. 21). It has therefore been asked: According to which nature is Christ our righteousness? And by occasion of this, two errors, and these contrary the one to the other, have disturbed certain churches.
Una enim pars sensit, Christum tantummodo secundum divinam naturam, esse nostram justitiam, si videlicet ille per fidem in nobis habitet: etenim omnia For one part has held that Christ is our righteousness only according to the divine nature, if, that is, he dwell by faith in us; for that all the sins of men, compared
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hominum peccata, collata nimirum cum illa per fidem inhabitante Divinitate, esse instar unius guttulæ aquæ, cum magno mari comparatæ. Contra hanc opinionem alii quidam asseruerunt, Christum esse nostram coram Deo justitiam, duntaxat secundum humanam naturam. with that Godhead thus indwelling by faith, are like one drop of water compared with the broad sea. Against this opinion others, indeed, have asserted that Christ is our righteousness before God, only according to his human nature.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera doctrina piarum Ecclesiarum, utrique commemorato errori opposita. The sound doctrine of godly churches opposed to both of the fore-mentioned errors.
I. Ad refellendum utrumque errorem, credimus, docemus et confitemur unanimiter, quod Christus vere sit nostra justitia, sed tamen neque secundum solam divinam naturam, neque secundum solam humanam naturam: sed totus Christus, secundum utramque naturam, in sola videlicet obedientia sua, quam Patri ad mortem usque absolutissimam Deus et homo præstitit, eaque nobis peccatorum omnium remissionem et vitam æternam promeruit. Sicut scriptum est: 'Sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi: ita et per unius obedientiam justi constituentur multi.' (Rom. v. 19). I. To overthrow both errors we unanimously believe, teach, and confess that Christ is truly our righteousness, but yet neither according to the divine nature alone, nor according to the human nature alone, but the whole Christ according to both natures, to wit: in his sole, most absolute obedience which he rendered to the Father even unto death, as God and man, and thereby merited for us the remission of all our sins and eternal life. As it is written: 'As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous' (Rom. v. 19).
II. Credimus igitur, docemus et confitemur, hoc ipsum nostram esse coram Deo justitiam, quod II. We believe, therefore, teach, and confess that this very thing is our righteousness before God, namely,
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Dominus nobis peccata remittit, ex mera gratia, absque ullo respectu præcedentium, præscentium, aut consequentium nostrorum operum, dignitatis, aut rneriti. Ille enim donat atque imputat nobis justitiam obedientiæ Christi; propter eam, justitiam, a Deo in gratiam recipimur, et justi reputamur. that God remits to us oar sins of mere grace, without any respect of our works, going before, present, or following, or of our worthiness or merit. For he bestows and imputes to us the righteousness of the obedience of Christ; for the sake of that righteousness we are received by God into favor and accounted righteous.
III. Credimus etiam, docemus et confitemur, solam fidem esse illud medium et instrumentum, quo Christum Salvatorem, et ita in Christo justitiam illam, quæ coram judicio Dei consistere potest, apprehendimus: propter Christum enim fides illa nobis ad justitiam imputatur (Rom. iv. 5). III. We believe, also, teach, and confess that Faith alone is the means and instrument whereby we lay hold on Christ the Saviour, and so in Christ lay hold oil that righteousness which is able to stand before the judgment of God; for that faith, for Christ's sake, is imputed to us for righteousness (Rom. iv. 5).
IV. Credimus præterea, docemus et confitemur, fidem illam justificantem non esse nudam notitiam historiæ de Christo, sed ingens atque tale Dei donum, quo Christum, Redemtorem nostrum, in verbo Evangelii recte agnoscimus, ipsique confidimus: quod videlicet propter solam ipsius obedientiam, ex gratia, remissionem peccatorum habeamus, sancti et justi coram Deo Patre reputemur, et æternam salutem consequamur. IV. We believe, moreover, teach, and confess that this justifying faith is not a bare knowledge of the history of Christ, but such and so great a gift of God as that by it we rightly recognize Christ our Redeemer in the word of the gospel, and confide in him: to wit, that for his obedience' sake alone we have by grace the remission of sins, are accounted holy and righteous before God the Father, and attain eternal salvation.
V. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, vocabulum 'justificare' V. We believe, teach, and confess that the word justify in this
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phrasi Scripturæ Sacræ, in hoc articulo, idem significare, quod absolvere a peccatis, ut ex dicto Salomonis (Prov. xvii. 15) intelligi potest: 'Qui justificat impium, et qui condemnat justum, abominabilis est uterque apud Deum.' Item (Rom. viii. 33): 'Quis accusabit electos Dei? Deus est qui justificat.' article, conformably to the usage of Holy Scripture, signifies the same as to absolve from sin, as may be understood by the word of Solomon (Prov. xvii. 15): 'He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination to the Lord.' Also (Rom. viii. 33): 'Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth.'
Et, si quando pro vocabulo justificationis vocabula regenerationis et vivificationis usurpantur (quod in Apologia Augustanæ Confessionis factum est), sunt ea in illa superiore significatione accipienda. Nam alias eæ voces de hominis renovatione intelligendæ sunt, quæ a fidei justificatione recte discernitur. And if at any time for the word Justification the words Regeneration and Vivification are used (as is done in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession), these words are to be taken in the above-stated signification. For elsewhere these words are to be understood of the renewing of man, which is rightly distinguished from the justification of faith.
VI. Credimus, docemus et confitemur etiam, etsi vere in Christum credentes et renati multis infirmitatibus et nævis usque ad mortem sunt obnoxii: non tamen illis vel de justitia, quæ per fidem, ipsis imputatur, vel de æterna salute esse dubitandum, quin potius firmiter illis statuendum esse [vor gewiss halten sollen], quod propter Christum, juxta promissionem et immotum verbum Evangelii, Deum sibi placatum habeant. VI. We believe, teach, and confess, moreover, that, although they that truly believe in Christ and are born again are even to the hour of death obnoxious to many infirmities and stains, yet they ought not to doubt either of the righteousness which is imputed to them through faith or concerning their eternal salvation, but rather are they firmly to be convinced that, for Christ's sake, according to the promise and unshaken word of the gospel, they have God reconciled to them.
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VII. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod ad conservandam puram doctrinam de justitia fidei coram Deo, necessarium sit, ut particulæ exclusivæ (quibus Apostolus Paulus Christi meritum ab operibus nostris prorsus separat, solique Christo eam, gloriam tribuit) quam diligentissime retineantur, ut cum Paulus scribit: ex gratia, gratis, sine meritis, absque lege, sine operibus, non ex operibus. Quæ omnia hoc ipsum dicunt: 'Sola fide in Christum justificamur et salvamur' (Eph. ii. 8; Rom. i. 17; ii. 24; iv. 3 sqq.; Gal. iii. 11; Heb. xi.). VII. We believe, teach, and confess that, for the preserving of the pure doctrine of the righteousness of faith before God, it is necessary that the exclusive particles (by which the apostle Paul separates the merit of Christ utterly from our works, and attributes that glory to Christ alone) should be most diligently retained, as when Paul writes: 'Of grace, freely, without our deserts, without law, without works, not of works.' All which expressions amount to this: 'By faith in Christ alone are we justified and saved' (Eph. ii. 8; Rom. i. 17; ii. 24; iv. 3 sqq.; Gal. iii. 11; Heb. xi.).
VIII. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, etsi antecedens contritio et subsequens nova obedientia ad articulum justificationis coram Deo non pertinent: non tamen talem fidem justificantem esse fingendam, quæ una cum malo proposito peccandi, videlicet, et contra conscientiam agendi, esse et stare possit. Sed postquam homo per fidem est justificatus, tum, veram illam et vivam fidem esse per caritatem efficacem (Gal. v. 6), et bona opera semper fidem justificantem sequi, et una cum ea, si modo vera et viva fides est, certissime deprehendi. Fides enim vera nunquam sola est, quin caritatem et spem semper secum habeat. VIII. We believe, teach, and confess that, although antecedent contrition and subsequent new obedience do not appertain to the article of justification before God, yet we are not to imagine any such justifying faith as can exist and abide with a purpose of evil, to wit: of sinning and acting contrary to conscience. But after that man is justified by faith, then that true and living faith works by love (Gal. v. 6), and good works always follow justifying faith, and are most certainly found together with it, provided only it be a true and living faith. For true faith is never alone, but hath always charity and hope in its train.
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Antithesis, seu Negativa. Antithesis, or Negative.
Rejectio contrariæ et falsæ doctrinæ. Rejection of opposite and false doctrine.
Repudiamus ergo et damnamus omnia falsa dogmata, quæ jam recitabimus. We repudiate, therefore, and condemn all the false dogmas, which we will now recount:
I. Christum, esse justitiam nostram solummodo secundum divinam naturam. I. That Christ is our righteousness only according to his divine nature.
II. Christum esse justitiam, nostram tantummodo juxta humanam naturam. II. That Christ is our righteousness only according to his human nature.
III. In dictis Propheticis et Apostolicis, ubi de justificatione fidei agitur, vocabula 'justificare' et 'justificari' non idem, esse ac a peccatis absolvere et absolvi, et remissionem peccatorum consequi: sed nos per caritatem, a Spiritu Sancto infusam, per virtutes et per opera, quæ a caritate promanant, reipsa coram Deo justos fieri. III. That in the prophetic and apostolic declarations, which treat of the righteousness of faith, the words justify and to be justified are not the same as to absolve and be absolved from sins, and to obtain remission of sins, but that we, through love infused by the Holy Ghost, through the virtues and through the works which flow forth from charity, become in very deed righteous before God.
IV. Fidem, non respicere in solam Christi obedientiam, sed in divinam ejus naturam; quatenus videlicet ea in nobis habitet atque efficax sit, ut per eam inhabitationem peccata nostra tegantur. IV. That faith does not have respect to the sole obedience of Christ, but to his divine nature, so far as that dwells and is efficacious in us, so that by that indwelling our sins are covered.
V. Fidem esse talem fiduciam in obedientiam Christi, quæ possit in eo etiam homine permanere et consistere, qui vera pœnitentia careat, et ubi caritas non sequatur, sed qui contra conscientiam in peccatis perseveret. V. That faith is such a confidence in the obedience of Christ as can abide and have a being even in that man who is void of true repentance, and in whom it is not followed by charity, but who contrary to conscience perseveres in sins.
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VI. Non ipsum Deum, sed tantum dona Dei in credentibus habitare. VI. That not God himself dwells, but only the gifts of God dwell in believers.
VII. Fidem ideo salutem nobis conferre, quod novitas illa, quæ in dilectione erga Deum et proximum consistit, per fidem in nobis inchætur. VII. That faith bestows salvation upon us for the reason that that renewal which consists in love towards God and our neighbor, commences in us through faith.
VIII. Fidem in justifications negotio primas quidem partes tenere, sed tamen etiam renovationem et caritatem ad justitiam nostrum coram Deo pertinere, ita ut renovatio et caritas quidem non sit principalis causa nostræ justitiæ: sed tamen justitiam nostrum coram Deo (si absint renovatio et caritas) non esse integram et perfectam. VIII. That faith in the matter of justification holds, indeed, the first place, but that renewal and charity also appertain to our righteousness before God, so that renewal and charity, indeed, are not the principal cause of our righteousness, but yet that our righteousness before God (if renewal and charity be wanting) is not whole and perfect.
IX. Credentes in Christum coram Deo justos esse et salvos, simul per imputatam Christi justitiam, et per inchoatam novam obedientiam, vel, partim quidem per imputationem justitiæ Christi, partim vero per inchoatam novam obedientiam. IX. That believers in Christ are righteous and saved before God, both through the imputed righteousness of Christ and through the new obedience which is begun in them, or partly, indeed, through the imputation of the righteousness of Christ, and partly through the new obedience which is begun in them.
X. Promissionem gratiæ nobis applicari per fidem in corde, et præterea etiam per confessionem, quæ ore fit, et per alias virtutes. X. That the promised grace is appropriated to us by the faith of the heart, and also by the confession of the mouth, and moreover, also, by other virtuous acts.
XI. Fidem non justificare sine bonis operibus, itaque bona opera necessario ad justitiam requiri, et XI. That faith does not justify without good works, that therefore good works are necessarily required
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absque eorum præsentia hominem justificari non posse. for righteousness, and that independently of their being present man can not be justified.
Art. IV. Art. IV.
DE BONIS OPERIBUS. OF GOOD WORKS.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
In doctrina de bonis operibus duæ controversiæ in quibusdam Ecclesiis ortæ sunt. Respecting the doctrine of Good Works, two controversies have arisen in certain churches:
I. Primum schisma inter Theologos quosdam factum est, cum alii assererent, bona opera necessaria esse ad salutem, impossibile esse salvari sine bonis operibus, et neminem unquam sine bonis operibus salvatum esse: alii vero docerent, bona opera ad salutem esse perniciosa. I. The first schism among certain theologians arose when some asserted that good works are necessary to salvation, and that it is impossible to be saved without good works, and that no one was ever saved without good works; while others taught that good works are detrimental to salvation.
II. Alterum schisma inter Theologos nonnullos super vocabulis 'necessarium' et 'liberum' ortum est. Alter a enim pars contendit, vocabulum, 'necessarium' non esse usurpandum de nova obedientia: eam enim non a necessitate quadam et coactione, sed a spontaneo spiritu [aus freiwilligen Geiste] promanare. Altera vero pars vocabulum 'necessarium' prorsus retinendum censuit: propterea, quod illa obedientia non in nostro arbitrio posita et libera sit, sed homines renatos illud obsequium debere præstare. II. The other schism has arisen between certain divines concerning the terms necessary and free. For the one part contends that the term necessary should not be used concerning the new obedience, for that this flows not from any necessity or constraint, but from a voluntary spirit. But the other part judges that the term necessary should by all means be retained, inasmuch as this obedience is not left to our mere will, and therefore is not free, but that regenerate men are bound to render such service.
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Et dum de commemoratis illis vocabulis disputatum est, tandem etiam de reipsa fuit disceptatum. Alii enim contenderunt, Legem apud Christianos prorsus non ease docendam, sed tantummodo doctrina Evangelii homines ad bona opera invitandos esse: alii hanc opinionem impugnarunt. And out of this discussion concerning the aforementioned terms there arose at length a dispute concerning the material fact. For some have contended that the law ought not to be taught at all among Christians, but that men should be invited to good works by the doctrine of the gospel alone. Others have impugned this opinion.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera Ecclesiæ doctrina de hoc controversia. The sound doctrine of the Church concerning this controversy.
Ut hæ controversiæ solide et dextre explicentur atque decidantur, hæc nostra fides, doctrina et confessio est. In order that these controversies may be solidly and judiciously explained and decided, the following is our faith, doctrine, and confession:
I. Quod bona opera veram fidem (si modo ea non sit mortua, sed viva fides) certissime atque indubitato sequantur, tanquam fructus bonæ arboris. I. That good works5858'Good works do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith; insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently known as a tree discerned by the fruit.'—XII. Article of the Church of England. must certainly and without all doubt follow a true faith (provided only it be not a dead but a living faith), as fruits of a good tree.
II. Credimus etiam, docemus et confitemur, quod bona opera penitus excludenda sint, non tantum cum de justificatione fidei agitur, sed etiam cum de salute nostra æterna disputatur, sicut Apostolus perspicuis verbis testatur, cum ait (Rom. iv. 6): 'Sicut et David dicit, beatitudinem hominis, cui Deus accepto fert II. We believe, also, teach, and confess that good works are wholly to be excluded, not only when the righteousness of faith is treated of, but also when the matter of our eternal salvation is discussed, as the apostle bears witness in clear words, when he says (Rom. iv. 6): 'Even as also David describeth the blessedness of the man to whom God imputeth
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justitiam sine operibus. Beati, quorum remissæ sunt iniquitates, et quorum tecta sunt peccata. Beatus vir, cui non imputavit Dominus peccatum, etc. Et alibi (Eph. ii. 8 sq.): 'Gratia.' inquit, 'estis salvati, per fidem, et hoc non ex vobis, Dei enim donum est, non ex operibus, ne quis glorietur.' righteousness without works, saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin.' And elsewhere (Eph. ii. 8 sq.): 'By grace,' saith he, 'are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, for it is the gift of God—not of works, lest any man should boast.'
III. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, omnes quidem homines, præcipue vero eos, qui per Spiritum Sanctum regenerati sunt et renovati, ad bona opera facienda debitores esse. III. We believe, teach, and confess that all men, indeed, but chiefly those who through the Holy Spirit are regenerated and renewed, are debtors to do good works.
IV. Et in hoc sententia vocabula illa 'necessarium,' 'debere,' 'oportere' ['nöthig,' 'sollen,' und 'müssen,'] recte usurpantur, etiam de renatis hominibus, et cum formæ sanorum verborum non pugnant. IV. And in this decision those words—'necessary,' 'ought,' 'it behooves'—are rightly used even of regenerate men, and are not inconsistent with the form of sound words.
V. Sed tamen per vocabula 'necessitas,' 'necessarium,' quando videlicet de renatis est sermo, non intelligenda est coactio, sed tantum debita illa obedientia, quam vere credentes, quatenus renati sunt, non ex coactione, aut compulsu legis, sed libero et spontaneo spiritu præstant, quandoquidem non amplius sub lege sunt, sed sub gratia (Rom. vi. 14; vii. 6; viii. 14). V. But, nevertheless, by the terms necessity, necessary, when we speak of the regenerate, we are not to understand constraint, but only that bounden obedience which true believers, so far as they are regenerate, render, not of constraint or compulsion of the law, but of a free and spontaneous spirit: inasmuch as they are no longer under the law, but under grace (Rom. vi. 14; vii. 6; viii. 14).
VI. Credimus igitur, docemus et confitemur, cum dicitur, renatos VI. We believe, therefore, teach, and confess that when it is said
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bene operari libero et spontaneo spiritu, id non ita accipiendum esse, quod in hominis renati arbitrio relictum sit, bene aut male agere, quando ipsi visum fuerit, ut nihilominus tamen fidem retineat, etiamsi in peccatis ex proposito perseveret. that the regenerate do good works of a free and spontaneous spirit, this is not to be so understood as that it is left to the regenerate man's option to do well or ill whenever it may seem good to him, so that he retains faith, even though of set purpose he persevere in sins.
VII. Hoc tamen non aliter, quam de spiritu hominis jam liberato intelligendum est, sicut hanc rem ipse Christus, ejusque Apostoli declarant (Rom. viii. 15): quod videlicet spiritus hominis liberatus bene operetur, non formidine pœnæ, ut servus, sed justitiæ, amore, qualem obedientiam filii præstare solent. VII. That this, nevertheless, is not to be understood except of the spirit of man when set free, even as Christ himself and his apostles set forth this matter, to wit: that the liberated spirit of man does good works, not, as a slave, from fear of punishment, but from love of righteousness, such as is the obedience which children are wont to render (Rom. viii. 15).
VIII. Hanc vero libertatem spiritus in electis Dei filiis non perfectam, sed multiplici infirmitate adhuc gravatam agnoscimus, quemadmodum D. Paulus super ea re de sua ipsius persona conqueritur (Rom. vii. 14 sqq.; Gal. v. 17). VIII. But we acknowledge that this liberty of spirit in the elect children of God is not perfect, but is as yet weighed down with manifold infirmity, as St. Paul laments concerning himself about this matter (Rom. vii. 14–25; Gal. v. 17).
IX. Illam tamen infirmitatem Dominus electis suis non imputat, idque propter Mediatorem Christum. Sic enim scriptum est (Rom. viii. 1): 'Nihil jam damnationis est his, qui in Christo Jesu sunt.' IX. This infirmity, nevertheless, the Lord, for the sake of Christ the Mediator, does not impute to his elect. For so it is written (Rom. viii. 1): 'There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus.'
X. Credimus præterea, docemus et confitemur, fidem et salutem X. We believe, moreover, teach, and confess that faith and salvation
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in nobis conservari, aut retineri, non per opera, sed tantum per Spiritum Dei, et per fidem (qua scilicet salus custoditur), bona autem opera testimonia esse, quod Spiritus Sanctus præsens sit, atque in nobis habitet. are preserved or retained in us not by works, but only by the spirit of God and by faith (by which, namely, salvation is guarded), and that good works are a testimony that the Holy Spirit is present and dwells in us.
Negativa. Negative.
Falsa doctrina, superiori repugnans. False doctrine opposed to that above stated.
I. Rejicimus igitur et damnamus subsequentes phrases, cum docetur: bona opera necessaria esse ad salutem; neminem unquam sine bonis operibus salvatum; impossibile esse sine bonis operibus salvari.5959Against Major. I. We reject, therefore, and condemn the following phrases, when it is taught: That good works are necessary to salvation; that no one has ever been saved without good works; that it is impossible to be saved without good works.
II. Repudiamus et damnamus nudam hanc, offendiculi plenam, et Christianæ disciplinæ perniciosam phrasin: bona opera noxia esse ad salutem.6060Against Amsdorf. II. We repudiate and condemn this bald phrase, full of offense and pernicious to Christian discipline: That good works are detrimental to salvation.
His enim postremis temporibus non minus necessarium est, ut homines ad recte et pie vivendi rationem bonaque opera invitentur atque moneantur, quam necessarium sit, ut ad declarandam fidem atque gratitudinem suam erga Deum in bonis operibus sese exerceant: quam, necessarium est, cavere, ne bona opera negotio justificationis admisceantur. Non minus enim homines Epicurea persuasione de fide, For in these last times it is not less necessary that men should be admonished to a right and pious manner of living and to good works, and reminded how necessary it is that they should exercise themselves to declare and set forth their faith and gratitude towards God by good works, than it is necessary to beware lest good works be mingled in the matter of justification. For men may incur damnation no less by an Epicurean persuasion concerning
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quam Pharisaica et Papistica fiducia in propria opera et merita damnationem incurrere possunt. faith than by a Pharisaic and Papistic confidence in their own works and merits.
III. Præterea reprobamus atque damnamus dogma illud, quod fides in Christum, non amittatur, et Spiritus Sanctus nihilominus in homine habitet, etiamsi sciens volensque peccet; et quod sancti atque electi [die Heiligen und Auserwählten] Spiritum Sanctum, retineant, tametsi in adulterium, aut in alia scelera prolabantur, et in iis perseverent. III. Moreover, we repudiate and condemn that dogma that faith in Christ is not lost, and that the Holy Spirit, even though a man sin wittingly and willingly, nevertheless dwells in him; and that the holy and elect retain the Holy Spirit, even though they fall into adultery or other crimes, and persevere in the same.
Art. V. Art. V.
DE LEGE ET EVANGELIO. OF THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Quæsitum fuit: an Evangelism proprie sit tantummodo concio de gratia Dei, quæ remissionem peccatorum nobis annunciet: an vero etiam sit concio pœnitentiæ, arguens peccatum incredulitatis, quippe quæ non per Legem, sed per Evangelion duntaxat arguatur. It has been inquired: Whether the gospel is properly only a preaching of the grace of God, which announces to us the remission of sins, or whether it is also a preaching of repentance, rebuking the sin of unbelief, as one which is not rebuked by the Law, but only by the Gospel.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera doctrina, cum norma verbi Dei congruens. Sound doctrine agreeing with the rule of the Word of God.
I. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, discrimen Legis et Evangelii, ut clarissimum quoddam lumen [ein besonder herrlich Licht], I. We believe, teach, and confess that the distinction of the Law and of the Gospel, as a most excellently clear light, is to be retained with
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singulari diligentia in Ecclesia Dei retinendum esse, ut verbum Dei, juxta admonitionem D. Pauli, recte secari queat. special diligence in the Church of God, in order that the Word of God, agreeably to the admonition of St. Paul, may be rightly divided.
II. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, Legem esse proprie doctrinam divinitus revelatam, quæ doceat, quid justum Deoque gratum sit; quæ etiam, quicquid peccatum est, et voluntati divinæ adversatur, redarguat. II. We believe, teach, and confess that the Law is properly a doctrine divinely revealed, which teaches what is just and acceptable to God, and which also denounces whatever is sinful and opposite to the divine will.
III. Quare, quicquid extat in sacris literis, quod peccata arguit, id revera ad Legis concionem pertinet. III. Wherefore, whatever is found in the Holy Scriptures which convicts of sins, that properly belongs to the preaching of the Law.
IV. Evangelion vero proprie doctrinam esse censemus, quæ doceat, quid homo credere debeat, qui Legi Dei non satisfecit, et idcirco per eandem damnatur: videlicet, quod illum credere oporteat, Jesum Christum omnia peccata expiasse, atque pro iis satisfecisse, et remissionem peccatorum, justitiam coram Deo consistentem et vitam æternam, nullo interveniente peccatoris illius merito, impetrasse. IV. The Gospel, on the other hand, we judge to be properly the doctrine which teaches what a man ought to believe who has not satisfied the law of God, and therefore is condemned by the same, to wit: that it behooves him to believe that Jesus Christ has expiated all his sins, and made satisfaction for them, and has obtained remission of sins, righteousness which avails before God, and eternal life without the intervention of any merit of the sinner.
V. Cum autem vocabulum 'Evangelii' non semper in una eademque significatione in Sacra Scriptura usurpetur, unde et dissensio illa primum orta est: credimus, docemus et confitemur, si vocabulum 'Evangelii' de tota Christi doctrina accipiatur, quam V. But inasmuch as the word Gospel is not always used in Holy Scripture in one and the same signification, whence also that dissension first arose, we believe, teach, and confess that if the term Gospel is understood of the whole doctrine of Christ, which he set forth in his
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ipse in Ministerio suo (quemadmodum et ejus Apostoli) professus est {in qua significatione Mark i. 15 et Acts xx. 21 vox illa usurpatur), recte dici et doceri, Evangelium esse concionem de pœnitentia et remissione peccatorum. ministry, as did also his apostles after him (in which signification the word is used in Mark i. 15 and Acts xx. 21), it is rightly said and taught that the Gospel is a preaching of repentance and remission of sins.
VI. Quando vero Lex et Evangelion, sicut et ipse Moises, ut Doctor Legis, et Christus, ut Doctor Evangelii, inter se conferuntur: credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod Evangelion non sit concio pœnitentiæ, arguens peccata: sed quod proprie nihil aliud sit, quam laetissimum quoddam nuncium, et concio plena consolationis, non arguens aut terrens, quandoquidem conscientias contra terrores Legis solatur, easque in meritum solius Christi respicere jubet, et dulcissima prædicatione, de gratia et favore Dei, per meritum Christi impetrato, rursus erigit. VI. But when the Law and the Gospel are compared together, as well as Moses himself, the teacher of the Law, and Christ the teacher of the Gospel, we believe, teach, and confess that the Gospel is not a preaching of repentance, convicting of sins, but that it is properly nothing else than a certain most joyful message and preaching full of consolation, not convicting or terrifying, inasmuch as it comforts the conscience against the terrors of the Law, and bids it look at the merit of Christ alone, and by a most sweet preaching of the grace and favor of God, obtained through Christ, lifts it up again.
VII. Quod vero ad revelationem peccati attinet, sic sese res habent. Velum illud Moisis omnium hominum oculis est obductum, quam diu solam Legis concionem, nihil autem de Christo audiunt. Itaque peccata sua ex Lege non vere agnoscunt: sed aut hypocritæ fiunt, qui justitiæ propriæ opinione turgent, quales VII. But as respects the revelation of sin, the matter stands thus: That veil of Moses is drawn over all men's eyes, so long as they hear only the preaching of the Law, and hear nothing of Christ. Therefore they do not, by the Law, truly come to know their sins, but either become hypocrites, swelling with an opinion of their own righteousness, as were
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olim erant Pharisæi, aut in peccatis suis desperant, quod Judas proditor ille fecit. Eam, ob causam Christus sumsit sibi Legem explicandam spiritualiter (Matt. v. 21 sqq.; Rom. vii. 14), et hoc modo ira Dei de cœlo revelatur super omnes peccatores (Rom. i. 18), ut, vera Legis sententia intellecta, animadvertatur, quanta sit illa ira. Et sic demum peccatores ad Legem remissi vere et recte peccata sua agnoscunt. Talem vero peccatorum agnitionem solus Moises nunquam ex ipsis extorquere potuisset. aforetime the Pharisees, or grow desperate in their sins, as did the traitor Judas. On this account Christ took upon him to explain the Law spiritually (Matt. v. 21 sqq.; Rom. vii. 14), and in this manner is the wrath of God revealed from heaven against all sinners (Rom. i. 18), in order that, by perceiving the true meaning of the Law, it may be understood how great is that wrath. And .thus at length sinners, being remanded to the Law, truly and rightly come to know their own sins. But such an acknowledgment of sins Moses alone could never have extorted from them.
Etsi igitur concio illa de passione et morte Christi Filii Dei, severitatis et terroris plena est, quæ iram Dei adversus peccata ostendit, unde demum homines ad Legem Dei propius adducuntur, postquam velum illud Moisis ablatum est, ut tandem exacte agnoscant, quanta videlicet Dominus in Lege sua a nobis exigat, quorum, nihil nos præstare possumus, ita, ut universam nostram justitiam in solo Christo quærere oporteat: Although, therefore, this preaching of the passion and death of Christ, the Son of God, is full of severity and terror, inasmuch as it sets forth the anger of God against sin, from whence men at length are brought nearer to the Law of God, after that veil of Moses is taken away, that at length they may exactly perceive how great things God exacts from us in his Law, none of which we are able to perform, so that it behooves us to seek the whole of our righteousness in Christ alone:
VIII. Tamen, quam diu nobis Christi passio et mors iram Dei ob oculos ponunt, et hominem perterrefaciunt, tam diu non sunt proprie concio Evangelii, VIII. Nevertheless, so long as the passion and death of Christ place before the eyes the wrath of God and terrify man, so long they are not properly the preaching of the
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sed Legis et Moisis doctrina, et sunt alienum opus Christi, per quod accedit ad proprium suum Officium, quod est, prædicare de gratia Dei, consolari et vivificare. Hæc propria sunt prædicationis Evangelicæ. Gospel, but the teaching of the Law and Moses, and are Christ's strange work, through which he proceeds to his proper office, which is to declare the grace of God, to console and vivify, These things are the peculiar function of the evangelical preaching.
Negativa. Negative.
Contraria et falsa doctrina, quæ rejicitur. Contrary and false doctrine, which is rejected.
Rejicimus igitur, ut falsum et periculosum dogma, cum asseritur: quod Evangelion proprie sit concio pœnitentiæ, arguens, accusans et damnans peccata, quodque non sit tantummodo concio de gratia Dei. Hac enim ratione Evangelion rursus in Legem transformatur, meritum, Christi et sacræ literæ obscurantur, piis mentibus vera et solida consolatio eripitur, et Pontificiis erroribus et superstitionibus fores aperiuntur. We reject, therefore, as a false and perilous dogma, the assertion that the Gospel is properly a preaching of repentance, rebuking, accusing, and condemning sins, and that it is not solely a preaching of the grace of God. For in this way the Gospel is transformed again into Law, the merit of Christ and the Holy Scriptures are obscured, a true and solid consolation is wrested away from godly souls, and the way is opened to the papal errors and superstitions.
Art. VI. Art. VI.
DE TERTIO USU LEGIS. OF THE THIRD USE OF THE LAW.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Cum constet, Legem Dei propter tres causas hominibus datam esse, primo, ut externa quædam disciplina conservetur, et feri atque intractabiles homines quasi repagulis quibusdam cœrceantur, Since it is established that the Law of God was given to men for three causes: first, that a certain external discipline might be preserved, and wild and intractable men might be restrained, as it were,
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secundo, ut per Legem homines ad agnitionem suorum peccatorum adducantur, tertio, ut homines jam renati, quibus tamen omnibus multum adhuc carnis adhæret, eam ipsam ob causam certam aliquam regulam habeant, ad quam totam suam vitam formare possint et debeant, etc., orta est inter paucos quosdam Theologos controversia, super tertio usu Legis: videlicet, an Lex etiam, renatis inculcanda, et ejus observatio apud eos urgenda sit, an non. Alii urgendam Legem censuerunt: alii negarunt. by certain barriers; secondly, that by the Law men might be brought to an acknowledgment of their sins; thirdly, that regenerate men, to all of whom, nevertheless, much of the flesh still cleaves, for that very reason may have some certain rule after which they may and ought to shape their life, etc., a controversy has arisen among some few theologians concerning the third use of the Law, to wit: whether the Law is to be inculcated upon the regenerate also, and its observation urged upon them or not? Some have judged that the Law should be urged, others have denied it.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera et pia doctrina de hac controversia. The sound and godly doctrine concerning this controversy.
I. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, etsi vere in Christum credentes, et sincere ad Deum conversi, a maledictione et coactione Legis per Christum liberati sunt [gefreiet und ledig gemacht], quod ii tamen propterea non sint absque Lege, quippe quos Filius Dei eam ob causam redemit, ut Legem Dei diu noctuque meditentur, atque in ejus observatione sese assidue exerceant (Psa. i. 2; cxix. 1). Etenim ne primi quidem nostri parentes, etiam ante lapsum, prorsus sine Lege vixerunt, quæ certe cordibus I. We believe, teach, and confess that although they who truly believe in Christ, and are sincerely converted to God, are through Christ set free from the curse and constraint of the Law, they are not, nevertheless, on that account without Law, inasmuch as the Son of God redeemed them for the very reason that they might meditate on the Law of God day and night, and continually exercise themselves in the keeping thereof (Psa. i. 2; cxix. 1 sqq.). For not even our first parents, even before the fall, lived
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ipsorum tum inscripta erat, quia Dominus eos ad imaginem suam creaverat (Gen. i. 26 sq.; ii. 16 sqq.; iii. 3). wholly without Law, which was certainly at that time graven on their hearts, because the Lord had created them after his own image (Gen. i. 26 sq.; ii. 16 sqq.; iii. 3).
II. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, concionem Legis non modo apud eos, qui fidem in Christum non habent, et pœnitentiam nondum agunt, sed etiam apud eos, qui vere in Christum credunt, vere ad Deum conversi et renati, et per fidem justificati sunt, sedulo urgendam esse. II. We believe, teach, and confess that the preaching of the Law should be urged not only upon those who have not faith in Christ, and do not yet repent, but also upon those who truly believe in Christ, are truly converted to God, and regenerated and are justified by faith.
III. Etsi enim renati, et spiritu mentis suæ renovati sunt: tamen regeneratio illa et renovatio, in hac vita non est omnibus numeris absoluta, sed duntaxat inchoata. Et credentes illi, spiritu, mentis suæ perpetuo luctantur cum carne, hoc est, cum corrupta natura, quæ in nobis ad mortem usque hæret (Gal. v. 17; Rom. vii. 21, 23). Et propter veterem Adamum, qui adhuc in hominis intellectu, voluntate, et in omnibus viribus ejus infixus residet, opus est, ut homini Lex Dei semper præluceat, ne quid privatæ devotionis affectu in negotio religionis confingat, et cultus divinos verbo Dei non institutos eligat. Item, ne vetus Adam. pro suo ingenio agat, sed potius contra suam voluntatem, non III. For, although they are regenerate and renewed in the spirit of their mind, yet this regeneration and renewal is in this life not absolutely complete, but only begun. And they that believe according to the spirit of their mind have perpetually to struggle with their flesh, that is, with corrupt nature, which inheres in us even till death (Gal. v. 17; Rom. vii. 21, 23). And on account of the old Adam, which still remains fixed in the intellect and will of man and in all his powers, there is need that the law of God should always shine before man, that he may not frame any thing in matter of religion under an impulse of self-devised devotion, and may not choose out ways of honoring God not instituted by the Word of God. Also, lest the old Adam
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modo admonitionibus et minis Legis, verum etiam pænis et plagis coerceatur, ut Spiritui obsequatur, segue ipsi captivum tradat (1 Cor. ix. 27; Rom. vi. 12; Gal. vi. 14; Psa. cxix. 1 sqq.; Heb. xii. 1; xiii. 21). should act according to his own bent, but that he may the rather be constrained against his own will, not only by the admonitions and threats of the Law, but also by punishments and plagues, in order that he may give obedience to the Spirit, and render himself up captive to the same (1 Cor. ix. 27; Rom. vi. 12; Gal. vi. 14; Psa. cxix. 1 sqq.; Heb. xii. 1; xiii. 21).
IV. Jam quod ad discrimen operum Legis et fructuum Spiritus attinet, credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod opera illa, quæ secundum præscriptum Legis fiunt, eatenus opera Legis sint et appellentur, quatenus ea solummodo urgendo, et minis pænarum atque iræ divinæ, ab homine extorquentur. IV. As respects now the distinction between the works of the Law and the fruits of the Spirit, we believe, teach, and confess that those works, which are done according to the commandment of the Law, are and are called works of the Law so far as they are extorted from man only by sharp urgency, and by the threats of punishment and of the divine wrath.
V. Fructus vero Spiritus sunt opera illa, quæ Spiritus Dei, in credentibus habitans, per homines renatos operatur, et quæ a credentibus fiunt, quatenus renati sunt, ita quidem sponte ac libere, quasi nullum præceptum unquam accepissent, nullas minas audivissent, nullamque remunerationem expectarent. Et hoc modo filii Dei in Lege vivunt, et secundum normam Legis divinæ vitam suam instituunt; hanc vivendi rationem V. But the fruits of the Spirit are those works which the Spirit of God, dwelling in believers, effects through regenerate men, and which are done by believers so far as they are regenerate, and therefore freely and spontaneously, as if they had never received any precept, had never heard any threats, and expected no remuneration. And in this way do the children of God live in the Law, and fashion their life according to the rule of the divine Law, which way of living
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D. Paulus vocare solet in suis Epistolis Legem Christi et Legem mentis (Rom. vii. 25; viii. 2, 7; Gal. vi. 2). St. Paul is wont to call in his epistles the Law of Christ and the Law of the mind (Rom. vii. 25; viii. 2, 7; Gal. vi. 2).
VI. Ad hunc modum una eademque Lex est manetque, immota videlicet Dei voluntas, sive pœnitentibus sive impœnitentibus, renatis aut non renatis proponatur. Discrimen autem, quo ad obedientiam, duntaxat in hominibus est: quorum alii non renati Legi obedientiam, qualemcunque a Lege requisitam præstant, sed coacti et inviti id faciunt {sicut etiam renati faciunt, quatenus adhuc carnales sunt): credentes vero in Christum, quatenus renati sunt, absque coactione, libero et spontaneo spiritu, talem obedientiam præstant, qualem alias nullæ quantumvis severissimæ Legis comminationes extorquere possent. VI. After this manner the Law is and remains one and the same, to wit: the unchangeable will of God, whether it be set forth before the penitent or the impenitent, the regenerate or the unregenerate. But the distinction, as to obedience, is only in men, of whom some, not being regenerate, render to the Law a certain manner of obedience required by the Law, but do this constrainedly and unwillingly (as also the regenerate do, so far as they are yet carnal); but believers in Christ, so far as they are regenerate, do without compulsion, with a free and unconstrained mind, render such an obedience as otherwise no threatenings of the Law, however grievous, would be able to extort.
Negativa. Negative.
Falsæ doctrinæ rejectio. Rejection of false doctrine.
Repudiamus itaque ut perniciosum et falsum dogma, quod Christianæ disciplinæ et veræ pietati adversatur, cum docetur, quod Lex Dei {eo modo, quo supra dictum est) non sit piis et vere credentibus, sed tantum impiis, infidelibus et non agentibus pœnitentiam, We repudiate, therefore, as a false and pernicious dogma, contrary to Christian discipline and true piety, the teaching that the Law of God (in such wise as is described above) is not to be set forth before the godly and true believers, but only before the ungodly, unbelievers, and
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proponenda, atque apud hos solos sit urgenda. impenitent, and to be urged upon these alone.
Art. VII. Art. VII.
>DE CŒNA DOMINI. OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.
Etsi Cingliani Doctores non in eorum Theologorum numero, qui Augustanam Confessionem agnoscunt et profitentur [Augsburgische Confessionsverwandte], habendi sunt, quippe qui tum, cum illa Confessio exhiberetur, ab eis secessionem fecerunt: tamen cum nunc sese in eorum cœtum callide ingerant, erroremque suum sub prætextu piæ illius Confessionis quam latissime spargere conentur, etiam de hac controversia Ecclesiam Dei erudiendam judicavimus. Although the Zwinglian doctors are not to be reckoned as in the number of those theologians who acknowledge and profess the Augsburg Confession, inasmuch as, when that Confession was set forth, they seceded from them; yet, since they are at this present craftily intruding themselves into their company, and endeavoring to disseminate their error as widely as possible, under cover of that godly Confession, we have judged that the Church of God ought to be instructed concerning this controversy also.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Quæ est inter nos et Sacramentarios in hoc articulo. Which exists between us and the Sacramentarians in this article.
Quæritur, an in Sacra Cœna verum corpus et verus sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Christi vere et substantialiter sint præsentia, atque cum pane et vino distribuantur, et ore sumantur, ab omnibus illis, qui hoc Sacramento utuntur, sive digni sint, sive indigni, boni aut mali, fideles aut infideles, ita tamen, ut fideles It is asked whether in the Holy Supper the true body and true blood of our Lord Jesus Christ are truly and substantially present, and are distributed with the bread and wine, and are taken with the mouth by all those who use this sacrament, be they worthy or unworthy, good or bad, believers or unbelievers, in such wise, nevertheless, as that believers
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e Cœna Domini consolationem et vitam percipiant, infideles autem eam ad judicium sumant. Cingliani hanc præsentiam et dispensationem corporis et sanguinis Christi in Sacra Cœna negant: nos vero eandem asseveramus. derive consolation and life from the Supper of the Lord, but unbelievers take it unto condemnation? The Zwinglians deny this presence and dispensation of the body and blood of Christ in the Holy Supper, but we affirm the same.
Ad solidam hujus controversiæ explicationem primum sciendum est, duo esse Sacramentariorum genera. Quidam enim sunt Sacramentarii crassi admodum: hi perspicuis et claris verbis id aperte profitentur, quod corde sentiunt, quod videlicet in Cœna Domini nihil amplius quam panis et vinum sint præsentia, ibique distribuantur et ore percipiantur. Alii autem sunt versuti et callidi, et quidem omnium nocentissimi Sacramentarii: hi de negotio Cœnæ Dominicæ loquentes, ex parte nostris verbis splendide admodum utuntur, et præ se ferunt, quod et ipsi veram præsentiam veri, substantialis atque vivi corporis et sanguinis Christi in Sacra Cœna credant, eam tamen præsentiam et manducationem dicunt esse spiritualem, quæ fiat fide. Et hi posteriores Sacramentarii sub his splendidis verbis eandem crassam, quam priores habent, opinionem occultant et retinent: For a solid explication of this controversy, it is first to be understood that there are two sorts of sacramentarians. For some are exceedingly gross sacramentarians; these in perspicuous and plain words openly profess that which they think in their heart, to wit: that in the Lord's Supper there is nothing more present than bread and wine, which alone are there distributed and received with the mouth. But others are astute and crafty, and thereby the most harmful of all the sacramentarians; these, when talking of the Lord's Supper, make in part an exceedingly high-sounding use of our mode of speaking, declaring that they too believe in a true presence of the true, substantial, and living body and blood of Christ in the Holy Supper, which presence and manducation, nevertheless, they say to be spiritual, such as takes place by faith. And yet these latter sacramentarians, under these high-sounding phrases, hide and hold
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quod videlicet præter panem et vinum nihil amplius in Cœna Domini sit præsens, et ore sumatur. Vocabulum enim (spiritualiter) nihil aliud ipsis significat, quam Spiritum Christi, seu virtutem, absentis corporis Christi, ejusque rneritum, quod præsens sit: ipsum vero Christi corpus nullo prorsus modo esse præsens, sed tantummodo id sursum in supremo cœlo contineri sentiunt, et affirmant, oportere nos cogitationibus fidei sursum assurgere, inque cælum ascendere, et ibidem (nulla autem ratione cum pane et vino Sacræ Cœnæ) illud corpus et sanguinem Christi quærendum esse. fast the same gross opinion which the former have, to wit: that, besides the bread and wine, there is nothing more present or taken with the mouth in the Lord's Supper. For the term (spiritualiter) signifies nothing more to them than the Spirit of Christ or the virtue of the absent body of Christ and his merit, which is present; but they think that the body of Christ itself is in no way whatever present, but is contained above in the highest heaven, and they affirm that it behooves us by the meditations of faith to rise on high and ascend into heaven, and that this body and blood of Christ are to be sought there, and in nowise in union with the bread and wine of the Holy Supper.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Confessio sinceræ doctrinæ, de Cœna Domini, contra Sacramentarios. Confession of the sound doctrine of the Supper of the Lord against the Sacramentarians.
I. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod in Cœna Domini corpus et sanguis Christi vere et substantialiter sint præsentia, et quod una cum pane et vino vere distribuantur atque sumantur. I. We believe, teach, and confess that in the Lord's Supper the body and blood of Christ are truly and substantially present, and that they are truly distributed and taken together with the bread and wine.
II. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, verba Testamenti Christi non aliter accipienda esse, quam sicut verba ipsa ad literam sonant: ita, ne panis absens Christi corpus, et vinum II. We believe, teach, and confess that the words of the Testament of Christ are not to be otherwise received than as the words themselves literally sound, so that the bread does not signify the absent
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absentem Christi sanguinem significent, sed ut propter sacramentalem unionem, panis et vinum vere sint corpus et sanguis Christi. body of Christ and the wine the absent blood of Christ, but that on account of the sacramental union the bread and wine are truly the body and blood of Christ.
III. Jam quod ad Consecrationem attinet, credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod nullum opus humanum, neque ulla Ministri Ecclesiæ pronunciatio præsentiæ corporis et sanguinis Christi in Cœna causa sit, sed quod hoc soli omnipotenti virtuti Domini nostri Jesu Christi sit tribuendum. III. Moreover, as concerns the consecration, we believe, teach, and confess that no human work, nor any utterance of the minister of the Church, is the cause of the presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Supper, but that this is to be attributed to the omnipotent power of our Lord Jesus Christ alone.
IV. Interim tamen unanimi consensu credimus, docemus et confitemur, in usu Cœnæ Dominicæ verba institutionis Christi nequaquam omittenda, sed publice recitanda esse, sicut scriptum est (1 Cor. x. 16): 'Calix benedictionis, cui benedicimus, nonne communicatio sanguinis Christi est?' etc. Illa autem benedictio fit per recitationem verborum Christi. IV. Nevertheless, we believe, teach, and confess, by unanimous consent, that in the use of the Lord's Supper the words of the institution of Christ are by no means to be omitted, but are to be publicly recited, as it is written (1 Cor. x. 16): 'The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?' etc. And this benediction takes place by the recitation of the words of Christ.
V. Fundamenta autem, quibus in hoc negotio contra Sacramentarios nitimur, hæc sunt, quæ etiam D. Lutherus in majore sua de Cœna Domini Confessione posuit: V. Now the foundations on which we rest in this controversy with the sacramentarians are the following, which, moreover, Dr. Luther has laid in his Larger Confession concerning the Supper of the Lord:
Primum fundamentum est articulus fidei nostræ Christianæ, videlicet Jesu Christus est verus, The first foundation is an article of our Christian faith, to wit: Jesus Christ is true, essential, natural,
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essentialis, naturalis, perfectus Deus et homo in unitate personæ, inseparabilis et indivisus. perfect God and man in unity of person, inseparable and undivided.
Secundum, quod dextera Dei ubique est: ad eam autem Christus, ratione humanitatis suæ, vere et reipsa, collocatus est, ideoque præsens gubernat, in manu sua, et. sub pedibus suis, ut Scriptura loquitur (Eph. i. 22), habet omnia, qua, in cœlo sunt et in terra. Ad eam Dei dexteram nullus alius homo, ac ne Angelus quidem, sed solus Mariæ Filius collocatus est, unde et ea, quæ diximus, præstare potest. Secondly: that the right hand of God is every where, and that Christ, in respect of his humanity, is truly and in very deed seated thereat, and therefore as present governs, and has in his hand and under his feet, as the Scripture saith (Eph. i. 22), all things which are in heaven and on earth. At this right hand of God no other man, nor even any angel, but the Son of Mary alone, is seated, whence also he is able to effect those things which we have said.
Tertium, quod verbum Dei non est falsum, aut mendax. Thirdly: that the Word of God is not false or deceiving.
Quartum, quod Deus varios modos novit, et in sua potestate habet, quibus alicubi esse potest, neque ad unicum illum alligatus est, quem Philosophi localem aut circumscriptum appellare solent. Fourthly: that God knows and has in his power various modes in which he can be any where, and is not confined to that single one which philosophers are wont to call local or circumscribed.
VI. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, corpus et sanguinem Christi non tantum spiritualiter per fidem, sed etiam ore, non tamen Capernaitice, sed supernaturali et cælesti modo, ratione sacramentalis unionis, cum pane et vino sumi. Hoc enim verba Christi perspicue testantur, quibus præcipit, accipere, edere, bibere: idque ab Apostolis factum VI. We believe, teach, and confess that the body and blood of Christ are taken with the bread and wine, not only spiritually through faith, but also by the mouth, nevertheless not Capernaitically, but after a spiritual and heavenly manner, by reason of the sacramental union. For to this the words of Christ clearly bear witness, in which he enjoins us to
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esse, Scriptura commemorat, dicens (Mark xiv. 28): 'Et biberunt ex eo omnes.' Et Paulus inquit (1 Cor. x. 16): 'Panis, quem frangimus, est communicatio corporis Christi;' hoc est, qui hunc panem edit, corpus Christi edit. Idem magno consensu præcipui ex antiquissimis Ecclesiæ, Doctoribus, Chrysostomus, Cyprianus, Leo Primus, Gregorius, Ambrosius, Augustinus, testantur. take, to eat, to drink; and that this was done by the Apostles the Scripture makes mention, saying (Mark xiv. 23): 'And they all drank of it.' And Paul says: 'The bread which we break is the communion of the body of Christ;' that is, he that eats this bread eats the body of Christ. To the same with great consent do the chief of the most ancient doctors of the Church, Chrysostom, Cyprian, Leo the First, Gregory, Ambrose, Augustine, bear witness.
VII. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod non tantum vere in Christum credentes, et qui digne ad Cœnam Domini accedunt, verum etiam indigni et infideles verum corpus et sanguinem Christi sumant: ita tamen, ut nec consolationem, nec vitam inde percipiant, sed potius, ut illis sumtio ea ad judicium et damnationem cedat, si non convertantur et pœnitentiam agant (1 Cor. xi. 27, 29). VII. We believe, teach, and confess that not only true believers in Christ, and such as worthily approach the Supper of the Lord, but also the unworthy and unbelieving receive the true body and blood of Christ; in such wise, nevertheless, that they derive thence neither consolation nor life, but rather so as that receiving turns to their judgment and condemnation, unless they be converted and repent (1 Cor. xi. 27, 29).
Etsi enim Christum, ut Salvatorem, a se repellunt, tamen eundem, licet maxime inviti, ut severum Judicem, admittere coguntur. Is vero non minus præsens judicium suum in convivis illis impœnitentibus exercet, quam præsens consolationem et vitam in cordibus vere credentium et dignorum convivarum operatur. For although they repel from them Christ as a Saviour, nevertheless they are compelled, though extremely unwilling, to admit him as a stern Judge. And he no less present exercises his judgment over these impenitent guests than as present he works consolation and life in the hearts of true believers and worthy guests.
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VIII. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, unum tantum genus esse indignorum convivarum: ii sunt soli illi, qui non credunt. De his scriptum est (John iii. 18): 'Qui non credit, jam judicatus est.' Et hoc judicium indigno Sacræ Cœnæ usu cumulatur et aggravatur [gehäufet, grösser und schwerer wird] (1 Cor. xi. 29). VIII. We believe, teach, and confess that there is one kind only of unworthy guests: they are those only who do not believe. Of these it is written (John iii. 18): 'He that believeth not is condemned already.' And this judgment is enhanced and aggravated by an unworthy use of the holy Supper (1 Cor. xi. 29).
IX. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod nullus vere credentium, quam diu vivam fidem retinet, Sacram Domini Cœnam ad judicium sumat, quantacunque fidei imbecillitate laboret. Cœna. enim Domini inprimis propter infirmos in fide, pœnitentes tamen, instituta est, ut ex ea veram consolationem et imbecillis fidei suæ confirmationem percipiant (Matt. ix. 12; xi. 5, 28). IX. We believe, teach, and confess that no true believer, so long as he retains a living faith, receives the holy Supper of the Lord unto condemnation, however much weakness of faith he may labor under. For the Lord's Supper has been chiefly instituted for the sake of the weak in faith, who nevertheless are penitent, that from it they may derive true consolation and a strengthening of their weak faith (Matt. ix. 12; xi. 5, 28).
X. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, totam dignitatem, convivarum cælestis hujus Cœnæ in sola sacratissima obedientia et absolutissimo Christi merito consistere. Illud autem nobis vera fide applicamus, et de applicatione hujus meriti per Sacramentum certi reddimur, atque in animis nostris confirmamur. Nequaquam autem dignitas illa ex X. We believe, teach, and confess that the whole worthiness of the guests at this heavenly Supper consists alone in the most holy obedience and most perfect merit of Christ. And this we apply to ourselves by true faith, and are rendered certain of the application of this merit, and are confirmed in our minds by the sacrament. But in no way does that worthiness depend
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virtutibus nostris, aut ex internis vel externis nostris præparationibus pendet. upon our virtues, or upon our inward or outward preparations.
Negativa. Negative.
Contrariæ et damnatæ Sacramentariorum doctrinæ rejectio. Rejection of the contrary and condemned doctrine of the Sacramentarians.
Rejicimus atque damnamus unanimi consensu omnes erroneos, quos jam recitabimus, articulos, ut qui commemoratæ piæ doctrinæ, simplicitati fidei et sinceræ confessioni de Cœna Domini repugnant. We reject and condemn, by unanimous consent, all the erroneous articles which we will now recount, as being opposite to the above-stated godly doctrine, to the simplicity of faith, and to the sound confession concerning the Supper of the Lord:
I. Papisticam Transsubstantiationem; cum videlicet in Papatu docetur, panem et vinum in Sacra Cœna substantiam atque naturalem suam essentiam amittere, et ita annihilari, atque elementa illa ita in Christi corpus transmutari, ut præter externas species nihil de iis reliquum maneat. I. The papistical transubstantiation, when, to wit, in the Papal Church it is taught that the bread and wine in the holy Supper lose their substance and natural essence, and are thus annihilated, and those elements so transmuted into the body of Christ, that, except the outward species, nothing remains of them.
II. Papisticum Missæ sacrificium, quod pro peccatis vivorum et mortuorum offertur. II. The papistical sacrifice of the Mass, which is offered for the sins of the living and the dead.
III. Sacrilegium, quo Laicis una tantum pars Sacramenti datur, cum nimirum, contra expressa verba Testamenti Christi, calice illis interdicitur, atque ita sanguine Christi spoliantur. III. The sacrilege whereby one part of the sacrament only is given to the laity, the cup being forbidden them, against the express words of the Testament of Christ, and they are thus despoiled of the blood of Christ.
IV. Dogma, quo docetur, quod IV. The dogma whereby it is
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verba Testamenti Jesu Christi non simpliciter intelligenda et fide amplectenda sint, uti sonant; ea enim obscura esse, ideoque verum eorum sensum ex aliis Scripturæ locis petendum esse. taught that the words of the Testament of Jesus Christ are not to be understood and embraced by faith in simplicity as they sound, on the ground that they are obscure, and that therefore their true sense is to be sought from other places of Scripture.
V. Corpus Christi in Sacra Cœna non ore una cum pane sumi: sed tantum panem et vinum ore accipi: corpus vero Christi spiritualiter duntaxat, fide nimirum, sumi. V. That the body of Christ in the holy Supper is not received by the mouth together with the bread, but that only bread and wine are received by the mouth, while the body of Christ is taken only spiritually, to wit, by faith.
VI. Panem et vinum in Cœna Domini tantummodo symbola seu tesseras esse, quibus Christiani mutuo sese agnoscant. VI. That the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are only symbols or tokens whereby Christians mutually recognize each other.
VII. Panem et vinum tantum esse figuras, similitudines et typos corporis et sanguinis Christi, longissimo intervallo a nobis absentis. VII. That the bread and wine are only figures, similitudes, and types of the body and blood of Christ, who himself is very far distant from us.
VIII. Panem et vinum tantummodo signa, memoriæ conservandæ gratia, instituta esse, quæ sigillorum et pignorum rationem habeant, quibus nobis confirmetur, quod fides, cum in cælum illa ascendit et evehitur, ibi tam vere corporis et sanguinis Christi particeps fiat, quam vere nos in Sacra Cœna panem manducamus et vinum bibimus. VIII. That the bread and wine are only signs, instituted for a memorial, and having the character of seals and pledges, by which it is made sure to us that faith, when she ascends and is transported into heaven, there as truly becomes participant of the body and blood of Christ, as we do truly in the holy Supper eat the bread and drink the wine.
IX. Fidem nostram de salute IX. That our faith concerning
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certam reddi et confirmari in Cœna Domini, non nisi signis illis externis, pane et vino: nequaquam autem, vere præsentibus vero corpore et sanguine Christi. our salvation is rendered certain and confirmed in the Supper of the Lord only by those external signs, bread and wine, but in nowise by the true body and blood of Christ truly present.
X. In Sacra Cœna duntaxat virtutem, operationem et meritum absentis corporis et sanguinis Christi dispensari. X. That in the holy Supper, only the virtue, operation, and merit of the absent body of Christ are dispensed.
XI. Christi corpus ita cœlo inclusum esse, ut nullo prorsus modo, simul, eodem tempore, pluribus aut omnibus locis in terris præsens esse possit, ubi Cœna Domini celebratur. XL That Christ's body is so confined in heaven that it can in no mode whatever be likewise at one and the same time in many places, or in all the places where the Lord's Supper is celebrated.
XII. Christum substantialem corporis et sanguinis sui præsentiam neque promittere neque exhibere potuisse, quandoquidem id proprietas humanæ ipsius naturæ assumtæ nequaquam ferre aut admittere possit. XII. That Christ could neither promise nor impart the substantial presence of his body and blood, inasmuch as the essential property of the human nature itself which he had assumed could by no means bear or admit of this.
XIII. Deum ne quidem universa sua omnipotentia {horrendum dictu et auditu) efficere posse, ut corpus Christi, uno eodemque tempore in pluribus, quam uno tantum loco, substantialiter præsens sit. XIII. That God, even with all his omnipotence (a thing fearful to say and fearful to hear), can not effect that the body of Christ should be substantially present at one and the same time in more places than one.
XIV. Non omnipotens illud verbum Testamenti Christi, sed fidem præsentiæ corporis et sanguinis Christi in Sacra Cœna causam esse. XIV. That not that omnipotent word of the Testament of Christ, but faith is the cause of the presence of the body and blood of Christ in the holy Supper.
XV. Fideles corpus et sanguinem XV. That the faithful ought not
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Christi non in pane et vino Cœnæ Dominicæ quærere, sed oculos in cælum attollere, et ibi corpus Christi quærere debere. to seek the body and blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper, but to lift their eyes to heaven, and there seek the body of Christ.
XVI. Infideles et impœnitentes Christianos in Cœna Domini non verum corpus et sanguinem Christi, sed panem tantum et vinum sumere. XVI. That unbelieving and impenitent Christians in the Lord's Supper do not receive the true body and blood of Christ, but only bread and wine.
XVII. Dignitatem convivarum in hoc cælesti Cœna non ex sola vera in Christum fide, sed etiam ex præparatione hominum externa pendere. XVII. That the worthiness of the guests at this heavenly Supper does not depend alone upon true faith in Christ, but upon the outward preparation of men.
XVIII. Eos etiam, qui veram et vivam in Christum fidem habent, eamque retinent, nihilominus hoc sacramentum ad judicium sumere posse, propterea quod in externa sua conversatione adhuc imperfecti sint. XVIII. That even those who have and hold fast a true and living faith in Christ are capable of taking this sacrament to their condemnation, inasmuch as in their external course of life they are yet imperfect.
XIX. Externa visibilia elementa panis et vini in sacramento adoranda esse. XIX. That the external, visible elements of bread and wine in the sacrament are to be adored.
XX. Præter hæc justo Dei judicio relinquimus omnes curiosas, sannis virulentis tinctas, et blasphemas quæstiones, quæ honeste, pie, et sine gravi offensione recitari nequeunt, aliosque sermones, quando de supernaturali et cælesti mysterio hujus sacramenti crasse, carnaliter, Capernaitice, et plane abominandis modis, blaspheme, et maximo cum Ecclesiæ offendiculo, XX. Over and above these, we leave to the just judgment of God all curious and blasphemous questions imbued with virulent poison of mockeries, such as can not be set forth without grave offense to seemliness and piety, and other pratings, wherein the Sacramentarians speak of the supernatural and heavenly mystery of this sacrament grossly, carnally, Capernaitically, and in utterly abominable fashion,
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Sacramentarii loquuntur. blasphemously, and to the most grievous offense of the Church.
XXI. Prorsus etiam rejicimus atque damnamus Capernaiticam manducationem corporis Christi, quam nobis Sacramentarii contra suæ conscientiæ testimonium, post tot nostras protestationes, malitiose affingunt, ut doctrinam nostram apud auditores suos in odium adducant, quasi videlicet doceamus, corpus Christi dentibus laniari, et instar alterius cujusdam cibi, in corpore humano digeri. Credimus autem et asserimus, secundum clara verba Testamenti Christi, veram, sed supernaturalem manducationem corporis Christi, quemadmodum etiam vere, supernaturaliter tamen, sanguinem Christi bibi docemus. Hæc autem humanis sensibus aut ratione nemo comprehendere potest, quare in hoc negotio, sicut et in aliis fidei articulis, intellectum nostrum in obedientiam, Christi captivare oportet. Hoc enim mysterium in solo Dei verbo revelatur, et sola fide comprehenditur. XXI. We also utterly reject and condemn the Capernaitic manducation of the body of Christ, which, after so many protestations on our part, the Sacramentarians maliciously feign against us, contrary to the testimony of their own conscience, in order that they may bring our doctrine into discredit with their hearers, as if, forsooth, we taught that the body of Christ is torn by the teeth and digested in the human body like any other food. But we believe and assert, according to the plain words of the Testament of Christ, a true but supernatural manducation of the body of Christ, even as also we teach that the blood of Christ is truly, but nevertheless supernaturally, drunk. But these things no one is able with human senses or reason to comprehend; wherefore in this matter, as also in other articles of the faith, it behooves that our understanding be brought into captivity to the obedience of Christ. For this mystery is revealed in the Word of God alone, and is comprehended by faith alone.
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Art. VIII. Art. VIII.
DE PERSONA CHRISTI. OF THE PERSON OF CHRIST.
Ex controversia superiore de Cœna Domini inter sinceros Theologos Augustanæ Confessionis, et Calvinistas, qui alios etiam quosdam Theologos perturbarunt, dissensio orta est de persona Christi, de duabus in Christo naturis, et de ipsarum proprietatibus. From the abovementioned controversy concerning the Lord's Supper between the sincere divines of the Augsburg Confession and the Calvinists, who had, moreover, unsettled certain other theologians, there has arisen a dissension concerning the person of Christ, concerning the two natures in Christ, and concerning the attributes of these.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Principalis hujus dissidii quæstio fuit, an divina et humana natura et utriusque proprietates propter unionem personalem, realiter, hoc est, vere et reipsa in persona Christi invicem communicent, et quousque illa communicatio extendatur? The principal question of this controversy has been whether the divine and the human nature in the attributes of each are in mutual communication really, that is, truly and in very fact and deed, in the person of Christ, and how far that communication extends.
Sacramentarii affirmarunt, divinam et humanam naturas in Christo eo modo personaliter unitas esse, ut neutra alteri quicquam realiter, hoc est, vere et reipsa, quod cujusque naturæ proprium sit, communicet: sed nomina tantum nuda communicari. Unio {inquiunt illi) facit tantum nomina communia, ut videlicet Deus dicatur homo, et homo Deus appelletur, ita tamen, The Sacramentarians have affirmed that the divine and human natures are in such wise personally united in Christ that neither communicates to the other really, that is, truly and in very deed, any thing which is proper to either nature, but that bare names only are communicated. The union, say they, makes only the names common, so that, to wit, God is termed man, and man is called God, yet
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ut Deus nihil cum humanitate commune habeat, et vicissim humanitas nihil cum Divinitate, quo ad ipsius majestatem et proprietates, realiter, hoc est, revera et reipsa commune habeat. Contrariam vero huic dogmati sententiam D. Lutherus, et qui cum ipso faciunt, adversus Sacramentarios propugnarunt. so that God has nothing common with humanity, and on the other hand humanity has nothing really, that is, in very deed and very fact, common with Divinity, as to the majesty and attributes thereof. But Dr. Luther and those who hold with him have firmly maintained against the Sacramentarians the opinion contrary to this dogma.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera doctrina Ecclesiæ Dei de Persona Christi. The sound doctrine of the Church of God touching the Person of Christ.
Ad explicandam hanc controversiam et juxta analogiam fidei nostræ Christianæ decidendam, fidem, doctrinam et confessionem nostram piam perspicue profitemur, videlicet: For the better setting forth of this controversy, and deciding it according to the analogy of our Christian faith, we distinctly profess our godly faith, doctrine, and confession in the terms following, to wit:
I. Quod divina et humana natura in Christo personaliter unitæ sint, ita prorsus, ut non sint duo Christi, unus Filius Dei, alter Filius hominis, sed ut unus et idem sit Dei et hominis Filius (Luke i. 35; Rom. ix. 5). I. That the divine and the human nature in Christ are personally united, and so completely that there are not two Christs—one the Son of God, the other the Son of man—but that one and the same is Son of God and Son of Man (Luke i. 35; Rom.ix.5).
II. Credimus, docemus et confitemur, divinam et humanam naturas, non in unam substantiam commixtas, nec unam in alteram mutatam esse, sed utramque naturam retinere suas proprietates essentiales, ut guæ alterius II. We believe, teach, and confess that the divine and human natures are not mingled into one substance, nor one changed into the other, but that each nature retains its own essential attributes, as being such as can not become
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naturæ proprietates fieri nequeant. the attributes of the other nature.
III. Proprietates divinæ naturæ sunt: esse omnipotentem, æternam., infinitam, et secundum naturæ naturalisque suæ essentiæ proprietatem, per se, ubique præsentem esse, omnia novisse, etc. Hæc omnia neque sunt, neque unquam fiunt humanæ naturæ proprietates. III. The attributes of the divine nature are: To be omnipotent, eternal, infinite, and, by attribute of nature and of its natural essence, to be every where present, to know all things, etc. All these things neither are nor ever become the attributes of the human nature.
IV. Humanæ autem naturæ proprietates sunt: corpoream esse creaturam, constare came et sanguine, esse finitam et circumscriptam, pati, mori, ascendere, descendere, de loco ad locum moveri, esurire, sitire, algere, æstu affligi, et si quæ sunt similia. Hæc neque sunt, neque unquam fiunt proprietates divinæ naturæ. IV. The attributes of the human nature are: To be a corporeal creature, to consist of flesh and blood, to be finite and circumscribed, to suffer, to die, to ascend, to descend, to move from place to place, to hunger, to thirst, to suffer with cold, to be overcome by heat, and the like. These neither are nor ever become attributes of the divine nature.
V. Cum vero divina et humana naturæ personaliter, hoc est, ad constituendum unum ὑφιστάμενον, sint unitæ, credimus, docemus et confitemur, unionem illam hypostaticam non esse talem copulationem, aut combinationem, cujus ratione neutra natura cum altera personaliter, hoc est, propter unionem personalem, quicquam commune habeat, qualis combinatio fit, cum duo asseres conglutinantur, ubi neuter alteri quicquam confert, aut aliquid ab altero accipit: quin potius hic summa communio est, quam Deus cum V. And inasmuch as the divine and human natures are personally united, that is, so as to constitute one ὑφιστάμενον, we believe, teach, and confess that this hypostatic union is not such a conjunction or combination as that thereby neither nature had any thing personally—that is, on account of the personal union—common with the other, such as the combination that takes place when two boards are glued together, where neither confers any thing on the other nor receives any thing from the other. But, rather, here is the highest communion which God
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assumto homine vere habet, et expersonali unione, et summa ac ineffabili communione, quæ inde consequitur, totum illud promanat, quicquid humani de Deo, et quicquid divini de homine Christo dicitur et creditur. Et hanc unionem atque communionem naturarum antiquissimi Ecclesiæ Doctores similitudine ferri candentis, itemque unione corporis et animæ in homine, declararunt. truly has with the man assumed, and from the personal union and highest and ineffable communion, which thence follows, flows all of human that is said and believed of God, and all of divine that is said and believed of the man Christ. And this union and communion of the natures the most ancient doctors of the Church have illustrated by the similitude of glowing iron, and also of the union of body and soul in man.
VI. Hinc etiam credimus, docemus atque confitemur, quod Deus sit homo, et homo sit Deus, id quod nequaquam ita se haberet, si divina et humana natura prorsus inter se nihil revera et reipsa communicarent. VI. Hence also we believe, teach, and confess that God is man and man is God, which would by no means be the truth if the divine and the human nature had no mutual intercommunication in very deed and truth.
Quomodo enim homo, Mariæ Filius, Deus aut Filius Dei altissimi vere appellari posset, aut esset, si ipsius humanitas cum Filio Dei non esset personaliter unita, atque ita realiter, hoc est, vere et reipsa, nihil prorsus, excepto solo nudo nomine, cum ipso commune haberet? For how could a man, the son of Mary, be truly called God or the Son of God Most High, if his humanity were not personally united with the Son of God, and so had nothing really that is, in very deed and truth, common with him, the bare name alone excepted?
VII. Eam ob causam credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod virgo Maria non nudum aut merum hominem duntaxat, sed verum Dei Filium conceperit et genuerit: unde recte Mater Dei et appellatur et revera est. VII. For this reason we believe, teach, and confess that the Virgin Mary did not conceive and bear a mere mail and no more, but the true Son of God; whence she is both rightly called and in very deed is the Mother of God.
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VIII. Inde porro credimus, docemus et confitemur, quod non nudus homo tantum pro nobis passus, mortuus et sepultus sit, ad inferos descendant, a mortuis resurrexit, ad cœlos ascenderit, et ad majestatem et omnipotentem Dei virtutem evectus fuerit: sed talis homo, cujus humana natura cum Filio Dei tam arctam ineffabilemque unionem et communicationem habet, ut cum eo una sit facta persona. VIII. Therefore, furthermore, we believe, teach, and confess that it is not a mere man only that has suffered, died and been buried for us, that has descended into Hell, has risen from the dead, has ascended into heaven, and has been raised to the majesty and omnipotent power of God; but a man, such that his human nature has with the Son of God a union and communication so strict and ineffable that he has become one person with him.
IX. Quapropter vere Filius Dei pro nobis est passus, sed secundum proprietatem humanæ naturæ, quam in unitatem divinæ suæ personæ assumsit, sibique eam propriam fecit, ut videlicet pati et, Pontifex noster summus, reconciliationis nostræ cum Deo causa esse posset. Sic enim scriptum est (1 Cor. ii. 8): 'Dominum gloriæ crucifixerunt.' Et (Acts xx. 28): 'Sanguine Dei redempti sumus.' IX. Wherefore the Son of God has truly suffered for us, but according to the attribute of human nature, which he assumed into the unity of his divine person and made it proper to himself, so that he might be able to suffer and to become our great high-priest, the cause of our reconciliation with God. For so is it written (1 Cor. ii. 8): 'They crucified the Lord of glory.' And (Acts xx. 28): 'We are redeemed by the blood of God.'
X. Ex eodem etiam fundamento credimus, docemus, et confitemur, Filium hominis ad dextram omnipotentis majestatis et virtutis Dei realiter, hoc est, vere et reipsa, secundum humanam suam naturam, esse exaltatum, cum homo ille in Deum assumtus fuerit, quamprimum in utero matris a Spiritu Sancto eat conceptus, ejusque humanitas X. On the same ground, also, we believe, teach, and confess that the Son of Man is really, that is, truly and in very deed, according to his human nature, exalted to the right hand of the omnipotent majesty and power of God, since that man was assumed into God when he was conceived by the Holy Ghost in the womb of his mother, and his humanity
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jam tum cum Filio Dei altissimi personaliter fuerit unita. was then personally united with the Son of God Most High.
XI. Eamque majestatem, ratione unionis personalis, semper Christus habuit, sed in statu suæ humiliationis sese exinanivit, qua de causa revera ætate, sapientia, et gratia apud Deum atque homines profecit. Quare majestatem illam non semper, sed quoties ipsi visum fuit, execruit, donec formam servi, non autem naturam humanam, post resurrectionem plene et prorsus deponeret, et in plenariam usurpationem, manifestationem et declarationem divinæ majestatis collocaretur, et hoc modo in gloriam suam ingrederetur (Phil. ii. 6 sqq.). Itaque jam non tantum ut Deus, verum etiam ut homo, omnia novit, omnia potest, omnibus creaturis præsens est, et omnia, quæ in cælis, in terris, et sub terra sunt, sub pedibus suis, et in manu sua habet. Hæc ita se habere, Christus ipse testatur, inquiens (Matt. xxviii. 18; John xiii. 3): 'Mihi data est omnis potestas in cœlo et in terra.' Et Paulus (Eph. iv. 10) ait: 'Ascendit super omnes cœlos, ut omnia impleat. Hanc suam potestatem ubique præsens exercere potest, neque quicquam illi aut impossibile est, aut ignotum. XI. And that majesty, in virtue of the personal union, Christ has always had, but in the state of his humiliation he divested himself of it, for which cause he truly grew in age, wisdom, and favor with God and men. Wherefore he did not always make use of that majesty, but as often as seemed good to him, until after the resurrection, he fully and forever laid aside the form of a servant, but not the human nature, and was established in the plenary use, manifestation, and revelation of the divine majesty, and in this manner entered into his glory (Phil. ii. 6 sqq.). Therefore now not only as God, but also as man, he knows all things, can do all things, is present to all creatures, has under his feet and in his hand all things which are in heaven, in the earth, and under the earth. That this is so, Christ himself bears witness, saying (Matt, xxviii. 18; John xiii. 3): 'All power in heaven and in earth is given unto me.' And Paul saith (Eph. iv. 10): 'He ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things.' This his power, being every where present, he can exercise, nor is anything to him either impossible or unknown.
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XII. Inde adeo, et quidem facillime, corpus suum verum et sanguinem suum in Sacra Cœna præsens distribuere potest. Id vero non fit secundum modum et proprietatem humanæ naturæ, sed secundum modum et proprietatem dextræ Dei, ut Lutherus secundum analogiam fidei nostræ Christianæ, in Catechesi comprehensæ, loqui solet. Et hæc Christi in Sacra Cœna præsentia neque physica aut terrena est, neque Capernaitica: interim tamen verissima et quidem substantialis est. Sic enim verba Testamenti Christi sonant: Hoc est, est, est corpus meum, etc. XII. Hence also, and indeed most easily, can he, being present, impart his true body and his blood in the Holy Supper. Now this is not done according to the mode and attribute of human nature, but according to the mode and attribute of the right hand of God, as Luther, according to the analogy of our Christian faith, as contained in the Catechism, is wont to speak. And this presence of Christ in the Holy Supper is neither physical or earthly, nor Capernaitic; nevertheless it is most true and indeed substantial. For so read the words of the Testament of Christ: 'This is, is, is my body,' etc.
Hac nostra fide, doctrina et confessione persona Christi non solvitur, quod olim Nestorius fecit. Is enim veram communicationem idiomatum seu proprietatum utriusque naturæ. in Christo negavit, et hac ratione Christi personam solvit: quam rem D. Lutherus in libello suo de Conciliis perspicue declaravit. Neque hac pia nostra doctrina duæ in Christo naturæ, earumque proprietates confunduntur, aut in unam essentiam commiscentur (in quo errore Eutyches fuit), neque humana natura in persona Christi negatur, aut aboletur, neque altera natura in By this our faith, doctrine, and confession, the person of Christ is not severed, as of old Nestorius severed it. For he denied a true communication of the idiomata or attributes of both natures in Christ, and in this way separated the person of Christ: which thing Dr. Luther has perspicuously set forth in his book on the Councils. Nor by this godly doctrine of ours are the two natures in Christ and their attributes confounded, or mingled into one essence (as Eutyches erroneously taught), nor is the human nature in the person of Christ denied or abolished, nor the one nature changed into the other; but Christ
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alteram mutatur: sed Christus verus Deus et homo in una indivisa persona est, permanetque in omnem æternitatem. Hoc post illud Trinitatis summum est mysterium, ut Apostolus (1 Tim. iii. 16) testatur, in quo solo tota nostra consolatio, vita et salus posita est. is and abides to all eternity true God and man in one undivided person. Next to the mystery of the Trinity this is the chiefest mystery, as the Apostle bears witness (1 Tim. iii. 16); on which alone all our consolation, life, and salvation depend.
Negativa. Negative.
Contrariæ et falsæ doctrinæ de persona Christi rejectio. Rejection of contrary and false doctrine touching the person of Christ.
Repudiamus igitur atque damnamus omnes erroneos, quos jam recitabimus, articulos, eo quod Verbo Dei et sinceræ fidei nostræ Christianæ repugnent, cum videlicet sequentes errores docentur: We repudiate, therefore, and condemn all the erroneous articles which we will now recount, inasmuch as they are opposed to the Word of God and to our sound Christian faith—the errors following, to wit:
I. Quod Deus et homo in Christo non constituant unam personam, sed quod alius sit Dei Filius, et alius hominis Filius, ut Nestorius deliravit. I. That God and man do not constitute one person in Christ, but that the Son of God is one and the Son of Man another, as Nestorius insanely feigned.
II. Quod divina et humana naturæ in unam essentiam commixtæ sint, et humana natura in Deitatem mutata sit, ut Eutyches furenter dixit. II. That the divine and human natures are commingled into one essence, and the human nature is changed into Deity, as Eutyches has madly affirmed.
III. Quod Christus non sit verus, naturalis et æternus Deus, ut Arius blasphemavit. III. That Christ is not true, natural, and eternal God, as Arius blasphemously declared.
IV. Quod Christus non veram humanam naturam anima rationali et corpore constantem habuerit, ut Marcion finxit. IV. That Christ did not have a true human nature, consisting of a rational soul and of a body, as Marcion feigned.
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V. Quod unio personalis faciat tantum communia nomina et communes titulos. V. That the personal union makes only common names and common titles.
VI. Quod phrasis tantum et modus quidam loquendi sit, cum dicitur: Deus est homo, et homo ed Deus; siquidem Divinitas nihil cum humanitate, et humanitas nihil cum Deitate realiter, hoc est, vere et reipsa, commune habeat. VI. That it is only a phrase, and a certain mode of speaking, when it is said: God is man, and man is God; since divinity has nothing really, that is, truly and in deed, common with humanity, and humanity nothing common with Deity.
VII. Quod tantum, sit verbalis, sine re ipsa, idiomatum communicatio, cum dicitur: Filium Dei pro peccatis mundi mortuum esse: Filium hominis omnipotentem factum esse. VII. That it is only a verbal communicatio idiomatum, without any corresponding fact, when it is said: The Son of God has died for the sins of the world; the Son of man has become omnipotent.
VIII. Quod humana in Christo natura, eo modo, quo est Divinitas, facta sit essentia quædam infinita, et ex hoc essentiali, communicata, in humanam naturam effusa, et a Deo separata virtute et proprietate, eo modo, quo divina natura, ubique præsens sit. VIII. That the human nature in Christ has become a certain infinite essence, in the same way in which the divinity is one, and that from this essential, communicated virtue and property, effused into human nature and separate from God, it is every where present in like mode and manner with the divine nature.
IX. Quod humana natura divinæ, ratione substantiæ, atque essentiæ suæ, vel proprietatum divinarum essentialium, exæquata sit. IX. That the human nature has been made equal to the divine, in respect of its substance and essence, or of the essential divine attributes.
X. Quod humana natura in Christo in omnia loca cœli et terræ localiter expansa sit; quod X. That the human nature in Christ is locally spread out into all places of heaven and earth; some
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ne quidem divinæ naturae, est tribuendum. thing that is not to be attributed even to the divine nature.
XI. Quod Christo impossibile sit, propter humanæ naturæ proprietatem, ut simul in pluribus, quam in uno loco, nedum ubique, suo cum corpore esse possit. XI. That it is impossible for Christ, on account of the propriety of his human nature, to be in more places than one, not to say every where, with his body.
XII. Quod sola humanitas pro nobis passa sit, nosque redemerit, et quod Filius Dei in passions nullam prorsus cum humanitate (reipsa) communicationem habuerit, perinde ac si id negotium nihil ad ipsum pertinuisset. XII. That the humanity alone suffered for us and redeemed us; and that the Son of God in the passion had no communication at all (in very deed) with the humanity, even as if that matter had in nowise appertained to him.
XIII. Quod Filius Dei tantummodo Divinitate sua nobis in terris, in verbo, sacramentis, in omnibus denique ærumnis nostris, præsens sit, et quod hæc præsentia prorsus ad humanitatem nihil pertineat. Christo enim, postquam, nos passione et morte sua redemerit, secundum humanitatem suam nihil amplius nobiscum in terris esse negotii. XIII. That the Son of God is present to us on earth in the word, the sacraments, and in all our troubles, only by his divinity, and that this presence appertains nothing at all to the humanity. For that Christ, after he had redeemed us by his passion and death, had no longer, according to his humanity, any concern with us on earth.
XIV. Quod Filius Dei, qui humanam naturam assumsit, jam post depositam servi formam, non omnia opera omnipotentiæ suæ, in et cum humanitate sua, et per eam, efficiat, sed tantum aliqua, et quidem in eo tantum loco, ubi humana natura est localiter. XIV. That the Son of God, who assumed human nature, henceforth, after having laid aside the form of a servant, does not accomplish all the works of his omnipotence in and with his humanity, and by means of it, but only some of them, and these only in that place where the human nature locally is.
XV. Quod secundum humanitatem, omnipotentiæ aliarumque XV. That, according to the humanity, he is not at all capable of
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proprietatum divinæ naturæ prorsus non sit capax. Idque asserere audent contra expressum testimonium Christi (Matt. xxviii. 18): 'Mihi data est omnis potestas in cœlo et in terra.' Et contradicunt Paulo, qui ait (Col. ii. 9): 'In ipso inhabitat tota Divinitatis plenitudo corporaliter.' omnipotence and other properties of the divine nature. And this they dare to assert against the express testimony of Christ (Matt. xxviii. 18): 'All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.' And they contradict Paul, who says (Col. ii. 9): 'In him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily.'
XVI. Quod Christo secundum humanitatem data quidem sit maxima potestas in cœlo et in terra, videlicet major et amplior, quam omnes angeli et creaturæ acceperint: sed tamen ita, ut cum omnipotentia Dei nullam habeat communicationem, neque omnipotentia illi data sit. Itaque mediam quandam potentiam, inter omnipotentiam Dei, et inter aliarum creaturarum potentiam., fingunt, datam Christo secundum humanam ejus naturam per exaltationem; quæ minor quidem sit, quam Dei omnipotentia, major tamen omnium aliarum. creaturarum potestate. XVI. That to Christ, according to the humanity, there is given, indeed, the greatest power in heaven and in earth; that is, a power greater and more ample than all angels and creatures have received, but in such wise, nevertheless, that it has no communication with the omnipotence of God, nor that omnipotence has been given to him. And so they feign a certain middle power between the omnipotence of God and the power of other creatures, given to Christ according to his human nature by exaltation; which is less, indeed, than the omnipotence of God, yet greater than the power of all other creatures.
XVII. Quod Christo secundum spiritum suum humanum certi limites positi sint, quantum videlicet ipsum scire oporteat, et quod non plus sciat, quam ipsi conveniat, et ad executionem sui officii, Judicis nimirum, necessario requiratur. XVII. That to Christ, according to his human spirit, certain limits are appointed as to how much it behooves him to know, and that he knows no more than is suitable for him, and is necessarily required for the execution of his office, to wit, as Judge.
XVIII. Quod Christus ne hodie XVIII. That Christ has not even
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quidem perfectam habeat cognitionem Dei, et omnium ipsius operum y cum tamen de Christo scriptum sit (Col. ii. 3): 'In ipso omnes thesauros sapientiæ et scientiæ absconditos esse.' now a perfect knowledge of God and of all his works. Whereas it is written of Christ (Col. ii. 3): 'In him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.'
XIX. Quod Christo secundum humanitatis suæ spiritum impossibile sit scire, quid ab æterno fuerit, quid jam nunc ubique fiat, et quid in omnem æternitatem sit futurum. XIX. That to Christ, according to his human spirit, it is impossible to know what has been from all eternity, what now takes place every where, and what will be to all eternity.
XX. Rejicimus etiam damnamusque, quod dictum Christi (Matt. xxviii. 18): 'Mihi data est omnis potestas in cœlo et in terra;' horribili et blasphema interpretatione a quibusdam depravatur in hanc sententiam: quod Christo secundum divinam suam naturam in resurrectione et ascensione ad cœlos iterum restituta fuerit omnis potestas in cœlo et in terra, perinde quasi, dum in statu humiliationis erat, eam potestatem, etiam secundum, Divinitatem, deposuisset et exuisset. Hac enim doctrina non modo verba Testamenti Christi falsa explicatione pervertuntur: verum etiam dudum damnatæ Arianæ hæresi via de novo sternitur, ut tandem æterna Christi Divinitas negetur, et Christus totus, quantus est, una cum salute nostra amittatur, nisi huic impiæ XX. We also reject and condemn the way in which the saying of Christ (Matt. xxviii. 18), 'All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth,' is by some, through a horrible and blasphemous interpretation, corruptly wrested to this effect: That to Christ, according to his divine nature, there was restored again at the resurrection and ascension all power in heaven and on earth; as if, forsooth, while he was in the state of humiliation he had laid aside and put off that power even according to the divine nature. For by this doctrine not only are the words of the Testament of Christ perverted by a false interpretation, but also away is prepared anew for the long-since condemned Arian heresy; so that at length the eternal divinity of Christ will be denied, and all there is of Christ, together with our salvation,
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doctrinæ ex solidis Verbi Dei et fidei nostræ Catholicæ fundamentis constanter contradicatur. will be lost, unless this ungodly doctrine be steadfastly contradicted according to the solid grounds of the Word of God and of our Catholic faith.
Art. IX. Art. IX.
DE DESCENSU CHRISTI AD INFEROS. OF THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO HELL.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Disceptatum fuit super hoc articulo inter quosdam theologos, qui Augustanam Confessionem profitentur: quando et quomodo Dominus noster Jesus Christus, ut testatur fides nostra Catholica, ad inferos descenderit, an id ante, vel post mortem ejus factum sit. Præterea quæsitum fuit, num anima tantum, an divinitate sola, an vero anima et corpore descenderit, idque an spiritualiter, an vero corporaliter sit factum. Disputatum etiam est, num hic articulus ad passionem, an verum ad gloriosam victoriam et triumphum Christi sit referendus. There has been a dispute touching this article among certain divines who profess the Augsburg Confession: when and how our Lord Jesus Christ, as our Catholic faith attests, descended into hell? whether this came to pass before or after his death? Moreover, it has been asked whether he descended in soul only or in divinity only, or indeed in soul and body, and whether this came to pass spiritually or corporally? It has also been disputed whether this article is to be referred to the passion, or to the glorious victory and triumph of Christ.
Cum autem hic fidei nostræ articulus, sicut et præcedens, neque sensibus neque ratione nostra comprehendi queat, sola autem fide acceptandus sit: unanimi consensu consulimus, de hac re non esse disputandum, sed quam simplicissime hunc articulum credendum et docendum esse. Atque Now, inasmuch as this article of our faith, as also the foregoing, can be comprehended neither by our senses nor by our reason, but is to be received by faith alone, we have by unanimous consent agreed that this matter should not be disputed about, but should be believed and taught as simply as possible. And
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in hoc negotio sequamur piam D. Lutheri doctrinam, qui: hunc articulum in concione, Torgæ habita {Anno, etc. XXXIII.), pie admodum explicuit, omnes inutiles et curiosas quæstiones præcidit, atque ad piam fidei simplicitatem omnes Christianos adhortatus est. in this respect let us follow the godly teaching of Dr. Luther, who, in his discourse held at Torgau in the year 1533, unfolded this article in a most godly wise, cutting short all curious questions, and exhorting all Christians to the pious simplicity of faith.
Satis enim nobis esse debet, si sciamus, Christum ad inferos descendisse, infernum omnibus credentibus destruxisse, nosque per ipsum e potestate mortis et Satanæ, ab æterna damnatione, atque adeo e faucibus inferni ereptos. Quo autem modo hæc effecta fuerint, non curiose scrutemur, sed hujus rei cognitionem alteri seculo reservemus, ubi non modo hoc mysterium, sed alia multa, in hoc vita simpliciter a nobis credita, revelabuntur, quæ captum cæcæ nostra rationis excedunt. For it ought to be enough for us to know that Christ descended into hell, that he destroyed hell for all believers, and that we through him have been snatched from the power of death and Satan, from eternal damnation, and even from the jaws of hell. But in what way these things have been brought to pass let us not curiously inquire, but let us reserve the knowledge of this thing to another world, where not only this mystery, but many other things also which in this life have been simply believed by us, shall be revealed, things which exceed the reach of our blind reason.
Art. X. Art. X.
DE CEREMONIIS ECCLESIASTICIS, OF ECCLESIASTICAL CEREMONIES,
Quæ vulgo Adiaphora seu res mediæ et indifferentes vocantur. Which are commonly called Adiaphora, or things indifferent.
Orta est etiam inter theologos Augustanæ Confessionis controversia de ceremoniis seu ritibus Ecclesiasticis, qui in Verbo Dei neque præcepti sunt, neque There has also arisen among the divines of the Augsburg Confession a controversy touching ecclesiastical ceremonies or rites, which are neither enjoined nor forbidden in the
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prohibiti, sed ordinis tantum et decori gratia in Ecclesiam sunt introducti. Word of God, but have been introduced into the Church merely for the sake of order and seemliness.
Status Controversiæ. Statement of the Controversy.
Quæsitum fuit, num persecutionis tempore, et in casu confessionis (etiamsi adversarii nobiscum in doctrina consentire nolint) nihilominus salva conscientia aliquæ abrogatæ ceremoniæ, quæ per se indifferentes, et a Deo neque mandatæ neque prohibitæ sint, postulantibus id et urgentibus adversariis, iterum in usum revocari possint, et an hoc modo cum Pontificiis in ejusmodi ceremoniis et adiaphoris conformari recte queamus. Una pars hoc fieri posse affirmavit, altera vero negavit. It has been asked whether in time of persecution and a case of confession (even though our adversaries will not agree with us in doctrine), nevertheless with a safe conscience, certain ceremonies already abrogated, which are of themselves indifferent, and neither commanded nor forbidden by God, may, on the urgent demand of our adversaries, again be re-established in use, and whether we can in this way rightly conform with the Papists in ceremonies and adiaphora of this sort. The one part has affirmed that this might be done, the other has denied it.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera doctrina et confessio de hoc Articulo. Sound doctrine and confession touching this Article.
I. Ad hanc controversiam dirimendam unanimi consensu credimus, docemus, et confitemur, quod ceremoniæ sive ritus Ecclesiastici {qui Verbo Dei neque præcepti sunt, neque prohibiti, sed tantum decori et ordinis causa instituti} non sint per se cultus divinus, aut aliqua saltem pars cultus divini. Scriptum est enim (Matt. xv. 9): 'Frustra I. For the better taking away of this controversy we believe, teach, and confess, with unanimous consent, that ceremonies or ecclesiastical rites (such as in the Word of God are neither commanded nor forbidden, but have only been instituted for the sake of order and seemliness) are of themselves neither divine worship, nor even any part of divine worship. For it is written
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colunt me, docentes doctrinas, mandata hominum.' (Matt. xv. 9): 'In vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.'
II. Credimus, docemus, et confitemur, Ecclesiæ Dei, ubivis terrarum, et quocunque tempore, licere, pro re nata, ceremonias tales mutare, juxta eam rationem, quæ Ecclesiæ Dei utilissima, et ad ædificationem ejusdem maxime accommodata judicatur. II. We believe, teach, and confess that it is permitted to the Church of God any where on earth, and at whatever time, agreeably to occasion, to change such ceremonies, in such manner as is judged most useful to the Church of God and most suited to her edification.
III. Ea tamen in re omnem levitatem fugiendam et offendicula cavenda, in primis vero infirmorum in fide rationem habendam, et iis parcendum esse censemus. III. We judge, nevertheless, that in this matter all levity should be avoided and matters of offense be guarded against, and that especially account should be taken of the weak in the faith, and forbearance shown towards them (1 Cor. viii. 9; Rom. xiv. 13).
IV. Credimus, docemus, et confitemur, quod temporibus persecutionum, quando perspicua et constans confessio a nobis exigitur, hostibus Evangelii in rebus adiaphoris non sit cedendum. Sic enim Apostolus inquit (Gal. v. 1): 'Qua libertate Christus nos liberavit, in ea state, et nolite iterum jugo servitutis subjici.' Et alibi (2 Cor. vi. 14): 'Nolite jugum ducere cum infidelibus,' etc. 'Quæ enim est societas luci ad tenebras?' etc. Item (Gal. ii. 5): 'Quibus neque ad horam cessimus subjectione, ut veritas Evangelii permaneret apud vos. In IV. We believe, teach, and confess that in times of persecution, when a clear and steadfast confession is required of us, we ought not to yield to the enemies of the Gospel in things indifferent. For thus speaks the Apostle (Gal. v. 1): 'Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.' And elsewhere (2 Cor. vi. 14): 'Be not unequally yoked together with unbelievers,' etc. 'For what concord hath light with darkness?' Also (Gal. ii. 5): 'To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that
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tali enim rerum statu non agitur jam amplius de adiaphoris, sed de veritate Evangelii, et de libertate Christiana sarta tectaque conservanda, et quomodo cavendum sit, ne manifeste idololatria confirmetur, et infirmi in fide offendantur. In hujusmodi rebus nostrum certe non est, aliquid adversariis largiri: sed officium nostrum requirit, ut piam et ingenuam confessionem edamus, et ea patienter feramus, quæ Dominus nobis ferenda imposuerit, et hostibus Verbi Dei in nos permiserit. the truth of the Gospel might remain with you.' For in such a state of things it is no longer a question of adiaphora, but of the restoration and maintenance of the truth of the Gospel and of Christian liberty, and of how care may be taken lest idolatry be manifestly strengthened and the weak in the faith be caused to stumble. In matters of this sort it is certainly not our part to concede any thing to our adversaries, but our duty requires that we should show forth a godly and frank confession, and patiently bear those things which the Lord may have laid upon us to bear, and may have suffered our enemies to do against us.
V. Credimus, docemus, et confitemur, quod Ecclesia alia aliam damnare non debeat, propterea, quod hæc vel illa plus minusve externarum ceremoniarum, quas Dominus non instituit, observet; si modo in doctrina ejusque articulis omnibus, et in vero Sacramentorum usu sit inter eas consensus. Hoc enim vetus et verum dictum est: Dissonantia jejunii non dissolvit consonantiam fidei. V. We believe, teach, and confess that one Church ought not to condemn another because it observes more or less of external ceremonies, which the Lord has not instituted, provided only there be consent between them in doctrine and all the articles thereof, and in the true use of the sacraments. For so runneth the old and true saying: 'Dissimilarity of fasting does not destroy similarity of faith.'
Negativa. Negative.
Falsæ doctrinæ de hoc Articulo rejectio. Rejection of false doctrine touching this Article.
Repudiamus atque damnamus hæc falsa et Verbo Dei contraria dogmata: We repudiate and condemn the following false dogmas as repugnant to the Word of God:
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I. Quod humanæ traditiones et constitutiones, in Ecclesiasticis rebus, per se, pro cultu Dei, aut certe pro parte divini cultus sint habendæ. I. That human traditions and constitutions in things ecclesiastical are of themselves to be accounted as divine worship, or at least as a part of divine worship.
II. Quando ejusmodi ceremoniæ et constitutiones Ecclesiæ Dei coactione quadam tanquam necessariæ obtruduntur, et quidem contra libertatem Christianam, quam Ecclesia Christi in rebus ejusmodi externis habet. II. When ceremonies and constitutions of this kind are by a sort of coercion obtruded upon the Church as necessary, and that contrary to the Christian liberty which the Church of Christ has in external matters of this sort.
III. Cum asseritur, quod tempore persecutionis, quando clara confessio requiritur, hostibus Evangelii in observatione ejusmodi rerum adiaphorarum gratificari, et cum ipsis pacisci et consentire liceat: quæ res cum detrimento veritatis cælestis conjuncta est. III. When it is asserted that in time of persecution, when a clear confession is required, it is permitted to gratify the enemies of the Gospel in the observation of adiaphora of this sort, and to covenant and agree with them, which thing is attended with detriment of the heavenly truth.
IV. Cum externæ ceremoniæ, quæ indifferentes sunt, ea opinione abrogantur, quasi Ecclesiæ Dei liberum non sit, pro re nata, ut judicaverit ad ædificationem utile esse, hanc vel illam ceremoniam, ratione libertatis Christianæ, usurpare. IV. When external ceremonies, which are indifferent, are abrogated under the opinion that it is not free to the Church of God, as occasion demands, to use this or that ceremony by the privilege of its Christian liberty as it shall judge to be useful to edification.
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Art. XI. Art. XI.
DE ÆTERNA PRÆDESTINATIONE ET ELECTIONE DEI. OF THE ETERNAL PREDESTINATION AND ELECTION OF GOD.
De hoc articulo non quidem publice mota est controversia inter Augustanæ Confessionis Theologos: sed tamen cum hic articulus magnam piis mentibus consolationem adferat, si recte et dextre explicetur, visum est eundem in hoc scripto declarare, ne forte temporis progressu disputationes aliquæ cum offendiculo conjunctæ de hoc re exoriantur. Touching this article there has not, indeed, arisen any public controversy among the divines of the Augsburg Confession; but nevertheless, inasmuch as this article brings great consolation to pious minds, if it be rightly and skillfully expounded, it has seemed good to set forth the same in this writing, lest perchance, in process of time, certain disputations leading to offense should arise thereupon.
Affirmativa. Affirmative.
Sincera doctrina de hoc Articulo. Sound doctrine touching this Article.
I. Primum omnium est, quod accurate observari oportet, discrimen esse inter præscientiam [Vorsehung], et prædestinationem, sive æternam electionem [ewige Wahl] Dei. I. First of all, it ought to be most accurately observed that there is a distinction between the foreknowledge and the predestination or eternal election of God.
II. Præscientia enim Dei nihil aliud est, quam quod Deus omnia noverit, antequam fiant, sicut scriptum est (Dan. ii. 28): 'Est Deus in cœlo, revelans mysteria, qui indicavit tibi Rex Nabuchodonosor, quæ ventura sunt in novissimis temporibus.' II. For the foreknowledge of God is nothing else than this, that God knows all things before they come to pass, as it is written (Dan. ii. 28): 'There is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days.'
III. Hæc præscientia simul ad bonos et malos pertinet, sed interim non est causa mali, neque est causa peccati, quae, hominem III. This foreknowledge of God extends both to good and evil men; but nevertheless it is not the cause of evil, nor is it the cause of sin,
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ad scelus impellat. Peccatum enim, ex diabolo, et ex hominis prava et mala voluntate oritur. Neque hæc Dei præscientia causa est, quod homines pereant; hoc enim sibi ipsis imputare debent: sed præscientia Dei disponit [ordnet] malum, et metas illi constituit, quousque progredi et quam diu durare debeat, idque eo dirigit, ut, licet per se malum sit, nihilominus electis Dei ad salutem cedat. impelling man to crime. For sin arises from the devil, and from the depraved and evil will of man. Nor is this foreknowledge of God the cause why men perish, for this they ought to impute to themselves. But the foreknowledge of God disposes evil and sets bounds to it, how far it may proceed and how long endure, and directs it in such wise that, though it be of itself evil, it nevertheless turns to the salvation of the elect of God.
IV. Prædestinatio vero, seu æterna Dei electio, tantum ad bonos et dilectos filios Dei pertinet; et hæc est causa ipsorum salutis. Etenim eorum salutem procurat, et ea, quæ ad ipsam pertinent, disponit. Super hanc Dei prædestinationem salus nostra ita fundata est, ut inferorum portæ eam evertere nequeant (John x. 28; Matt. xvi. 18). IV. But the predestination or eternal election of God extends only to the good and beloved children of God, and this is the cause of their salvation. For it procures their salvation, and appoints those things which pertain to it. Upon this predestination of God our salvation is so founded that the gates of hell can not prevail against it (John x. 28; Matt. xvi. 18).
V. Hæc Dei prædestinatio non in arcano Dei consilio est scrutanda, sed in Verbo Dei, in quo revelatur quærenda est. V. This predestination of God is not to be searched out in the hidden counsel of God, but is to be sought in the Word of God, in which it is revealed.
VI. Verbum autem Dei deducit nos ad Christum, is est liber ille vitæ, in quo omnes inscripti et electi sunt, qui salutem æternam consequuntur. Sic enim scriptum est (Eph. i. 4): 'Elegit nos in Christo, ante mundi constitutionem.' VI. But the Word of God leads us to Christ, he is that book of life in which all are inscribed and elected who attain eternal salvation. For thus it is written (Eph. i. 4): 'He hath chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the world.'
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VII. Christus vero omnes peccatores ad se vocat, et promittit illis levationem, et serio vult [ist ihm Ernst], ut omnes homines ad se veniant, et sibi consuli et subveniri sinant. His sese Redemptorem in verbo offert, et vult, ut verbum audiatur, et ut aures non obdurentur, nec verbum negligatur et contemnatur. Et promittit se largiturum virtutem et operationem Spiritus Sancti et auxilium divinum, ut in fide constantes permaneamus, et vitam æternam consequamur. VII. But Christ calls all sinners to him, and promises to give them rest. And he earnestly wishes that all men may come to him, and suffer themselves to be cared for and succored. To these he offers himself in the Word as a Redeemer, and wishes that the Word may be heard, and that their ears may not be hardened, nor the Word be neglected and contemned. And he promises that he will bestow the virtue and operation of the Holy Spirit and divine aid, to the end that we may abide steadfast in the faith and attain eternal life.
VIII. De nostra igitur electione ad vitam æternam neque ex rationis nostræ judicio, neque ex lege Dei judicandum est, ne vel dissolutæ et Epicureæ vitæ nos tradamus, vel in desperationem incidamus. Qui enim rationis suæ judicium in hoc negotio sequuntur, in horum cordibus hæ perniciosæ cogitationes (quibus ægerrime resistere possunt) excitantur: Si (inquiunt) Deus me ad æternam salutem elegit, non potero damnari, quicquid etiam designavero. Contra vero, si non sum electus ad vitam æternam, nihil plane mihi profuerit, quantumcunque boni fecero, omnes enim conatus mei irriti erunt [es ist doch alles umsonst]. VIII. Therefore we are to judge neither by the judgment of our own reason nor by the law of God, concerning our election to eternal life, lest we either give ourselves over to a dissolute and Epicurean life or fall into desperation. For they who follow the judgment of their own reason in this matter, in their hearts arise these mischievous thoughts, which it is hard indeed for them to resist: If (say they) God has elected me to eternal salvation, I can not be damned, let me do what evil I will. But, on the other hand, if I am not elected to eternal life, all the good that I may do will advantage me nothing at all, for all my endeavors will be in vain.
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IX. Vera igitur sententia de prædestinatione ex Evangelio Christi discenda est. In eo enim perspicue docetur, quod Deus omnes sub incredulitatem concluserit, ut omnium misereatur, et quod nolit quenquam perire, sed potius ut omnes convertantur, et in Christum credant (Rom. xi. 32; Ezek. xviii. 23; xxxiii. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 9; 1 John ii. 2). IX. The true opinion, therefore, concerning predestination is to be learned from the Gospel of Christ. For in it is clearly taught that 'God hath concluded all under unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all;' and that 'he is not willing that any should perish, but rather that all should be converted and believe in Christ' (Rom. xi. 32; Ezek. xviii. 23; xxxiii. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 9; 1 John ii. 2).
X. Qui igitur voluntatem Dei revelatam inquirunt, eoque ordine progrediuntur, quem D. Paulus in Epistola ad Romanos secutus est {qui hominem prius deducit ad pœnitentiam, ad agnitionem peccatorum, ad fidem in Christum, ad obedientiam mandatorum Dei, quam de æternæ prædestinationis mysterio loquatur), iis doctrina de prædestinatione Dei salutaris est, et maximam consolationem affert. X. Whoever, therefore, inquire into the revealed will of God, and proceed in that order which St. Paul has followed in the Epistle to the Romans (who first leads man to repentance, to the acknowledgment of his sins, to obedience to the commandments of God, before he speaks of the mystery of eternal predestination), to them the doctrine of the predestination of God is salutary, and affords very great consolation.
XI. Quod vero scriptum est (Matt. xxii. 14), 'Multos quidem vocatos, paucos vero electos esse;' non ita accipiendum est, quasi Deus nolit, ut omnes salventur; sed damnationis impiorum causa est, quod Verbum Dei aut prorsus non audiant, sed contumaciter contemnant, aures obdurent, et cor indurent, et hoc modo Spiritui Sancto viam ordinariam XI. But as to the declaration (Matt. xxii. 14), 'Many are called, but few are chosen,' it is not to be so understood as if God were unwilling that all should be saved, but the cause of the damnation of the ungodly is that they either do not hear the Word of God at all, but contumaciously contemn it, stop their ears, and harden their hearts, and in this way foreclose to the
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præcludant, ut opus suum in eis efficere nequeat, aut certe quod verbum auditum flocci pendant [in Wind schlagen], atque abjiciant. Quod igitur pereunt, neque Deus, neque ipsius electio, sed malitia eorum in culpa est (2 Pet. ii. 1 sqq.; Luke ii. 49, 52; Heb. xii. 25 sqq.). Spirit of God his ordinary way, so that he can not accomplish his work in them, or at least when they have heard the Word, make it of no account, and cast it away. Neither God nor his election, but their own wickedness, is to blame if they perish (2 Pet. ii. 1 sqq.; Luke ii. 49, 52; Heb. xii. 25 sqq.).
XII. Huc usque homo plus in meditatione articuli de æterna Dei electione tuto progredi potest, quatenus videlicet ea in Verbo Dei est revelata. Verbum Dei enim nobis Christum, librum vitæ, proponit: is nobis per Evangelii prædicationem aperitur et evolvitur, sicut scriptum est (Rom. viii. 30): 'Quos elegit, hos vocavit.' In Christo igitur electio æterna Dei Patris est quærenda. Is in æterno suo consilio decrevit, quod præter eos, qui Filium ejus Jesum Christum agnoscunt et in eum vere credunt, neminem salvum facere velit. Reliquæ cogitationes ex animis piorum penitus excutiendæ sunt, qui non a Deo, sed ex afflatu Satanæ proficiscuntur, quibus humani generis hostis hoc agit, ut dulcissimam illam consolationem vel enervet, vel penitus e medio tollat, quam ex saluberrima hac doctrina haurire possumus, qua videlicet certi XII. So far, therefore, may a godly man proceed with safety in meditation upon the article of the eternal election of God, even as far, that is, as it is revealed in the Word of God. For the Word of God proposes to us Christ, the Book of Life which through the preaching of the Gospel is opened and spread out before us, as it is written (Rom. viii. 30): 'Whom he did predestinate, them he also called.' In Christ, therefore, is the eternal election of God the Father to be sought. He in his eternal counsel has decreed that besides those who acknowledge his Son Jesus Christ, and truly believe on him, he will save no one. Other surmisings should be wholly dismissed from the minds of the godly, because they are not of God, but of the inspiration of Satan, whereby the enemy of mankind is endeavoring either to weaken or wholly to take away that most sweet consolation which we may draw from this most wholesome doctrine:
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reddimur, quod mera gratia, sine ullo nostro merito, in Christo ad vitam æternam electi simus, et quod nemo ex ipsius manibus rapere nos possit. Et hanc clementissimam electionem non nudis verbis, sed interposito jurejurando Dominus contestando confirmavit, et venerabilibus Sacramentis nobis obsignavit, quorum in summis tentationibus meminisse, et ex iis consolationem petere debemus, ut ignita Diaboli tela extinguamus. inasmuch as by it we are rendered certain that by mere grace, without any merit of our own, we are chosen in Christ to eternal life, and that no one can pluck us out of his hands. And this most merciful election the Lord hath attested and confirmed, not by mere words, but by the mediation of an oath, and hath sealed to us by the holy sacraments, which we ought to call to mind in our deepest temptations, and seek consolation from them, that we may quench all the fiery darts of the Devil.
XIII. Interim tamen summo studio in eo elaboremus, ut ad normam voluntatis divinæ vitam nostram instituamus, et vocationem nostram [ut D. Petrus (2 Pet. i. 20) loquitur] firmam faciamus, neque a Dei revelato verbo latum unguem recedamus; illud enim nunquam nos fallet. XIII. Yet none the less ought we to take the utmost pains to fashion our life agreeably to the norm of the divine will, and to make our calling and election sure, as St. Peter says (2 Pet. i. 10), nor to recede a hairbreadth from the revealed Word of God; for that will never fail us.
XIV. Hac brevi explicatione æternæ electionis divinæ honos suus Deo plene et in solidum tribuitur: quod videlicet, secundum voluntatis suæ propositum, mera misericordia, sine ullo nostro merito salvos nos faciat. Neque tamen hac doctrina, vel gravioribus illis animi perturbationibus, et pusillanimitati, vel Epicurismo [zur Kleinmüthigkeit oder rohem, wildem Leben] ansa præbetur. XIV. This brief explication of the eternal election of God, attributes fully and completely to God his own proper honor, showing that he saves us according to the purpose of his own will, of mere compassion, without any merit of our own. While by this doctrine no handle is given to vehement disturbances of mind and faint-heartedness, nor to Epicureanism.
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Negativa. Negative.
Falsæ doctrinæ de hoc Articulo rejectio. Rejection of false doctrine touching this Article.
Credimus igitur et sentimus, quando doctrina de electione Dei ad vitam æternam eo modo proponitur, ut perturbatæ piæ mentes ex ea consolationem nullam capere queant, sed potius per eam in animi angustias [Kleinmüthigkeit] aut desperationem conjiciantur, aut impœnitentes in dissoluta sua vita confirmentur, quod articulus hic non ad normam verbi et voluntatis Dei, sed juxta humanæ rationis judicium, et quidem impulsu Satanæ, male et perperam tractetur. 'Quæcunque enim scripta sunt' [inquit (Rom. xv. 4) apostolus] 'ad nostram doctrinam scripta sunt, ut per patientiam et consolationem Scripturarum spem habeamus? Rejicimus itaque omnes, quos jam enumerabimus, errores. We believe, therefore, and judge that when the doctrine of God's election of men to eternal life is so propounded that godly minds can derive no consolation from it under anxiety, but are by it the rather thrown into distress of mind or desperation, or the impenitent are confirmed in their dissolute life, that this article is not then handled agreeably to the rule of the word and will of God, but according to the judgment of human reason, and that badly and falsely by the instigation of Satan. 'For whatsoever things were written aforetime' [says the apostle (Romans xv. 4)] 'were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope.' We therefore reject all the errors which we will now enumerate:
I. Quod Deus nolit, ut omnes homines pœnitentiam agant, et Evangelio credant. I. That God is unwilling that all men should repent and believe the Gospel.
II. Quando Deus nos ad se vocat, quod non serio hoc velit, ut omnes homines ad ipsum veniant. II. That when God calls us to him, he does not earnestly wish that all men should come to him.
III. Quod nolit Deus, ut omnes salventur, sed quod quidam, non ratione peccatorum suorum, verum. solo Dei consilio, proposito et voluntate, ad exitium III. That God is not willing that all men should be saved, but that some men are destined to destruction, not on account of their sins, but by the mere counsel, purpose,
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destinati sint, ut prorsus salutem consequi non possint. and will of God, so that they can not in any wise attain to salvation.
IV. Quod non sola Dei misericordia et sanctissimum Christi meritum, sed etiam in nobis ipsis aliqua causa sit electionis divinæ, cujus causæ ratione Deus nos ad vitam æternam elegerit. IV. That the mercy of God and the most holy merit of Christ is not the sole cause of the divine election, but that there is also some cause in us, on account of which cause God has chosen us to eternal life.
Hæc dogmata omnia falsa sunt, horrenda et blasphema, iisque piis mentibus omnis prorsus consolatio eripitur, quam ex Evangelio et sacramentorum usu capere deberent, et idcirco in Ecclesia Dei nequaquam sunt ferenda. All these dogmas are false, horrid, and blasphemous, and by them all consolation is utterly taken away from godly minds, such as they ought to receive from the Gospel and the use of the sacraments, and therefore they are by no means to be borne with in the Church of God.
Hæc brevis est et simplicissima articulorum controversorum explicatio, de quibus inter theologos Augustanæ Confessionis aliquandiu disceptatum et discrepantibus inter se sententiis disputatum est. Et ex hac declaratione homo pius, quamtumvis simplex, secundum analogiam Verbi Dei et Catechismi simplicem doctrinam deprehendere potest, quid verum sit, quid falsum. Non enim tantummodo sincera doctrina diserte est recitata, verum etiam contraria et falsa doctrina repudiata est et rejecta, et controversiæ illæ, offendiculorum plenæ, solide sunt decisæ atque dijudicatæ [und also die eingefallene ärgerlichen Spaltungen gründlich entschieden seind]. This is a brief and most simple explication of the controverted articles, touching which there has been, for some time, discussion among the divines of the Augsburg Confession, and touching which they have disputed among themselves with varying opinions. And from this statement and exposition a man, however unlearned, is able, according to the analogy of the Word of God, and according to the simple doctrine of the Catechism, to discover what is true and what is false. For not only has the genuine doctrine been distinctly set forth, but also the contrary and false doctrine has been repudiated and rejected, and controversies full of occasions of offense have been solidly decided and settled.
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Faxit Deus omnipotens, Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, ut per gratiam Spiritus Sancti omnes in ipso consentientes et concordes simus, atque in consensu pio, qui ipsi probetur, constanter perseveremus. Amen. May Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, grant that by the grace of the Holy Spirit we may all be harmonious and of one accord in him, and may steadfastly persevere in a godly agreement, which may be approved by him. Amen.
Art. XII. Art. XII.
DE ALIIS HÆRESIBUS ET SECTIS. OF OTHER HERESIES AND SECTS,
[Von anderen Rotten und Secten],  
quæ nunquam Augustanam Confessionem sunt amplexæ. which have never embraced the Augsburg Confession.
Ne tacita cogitatione hæreses illæ et sectæ nobis tribuantur, propterea, quod earum in commemorata declaratione expressam mentionem non fecimus: visum est, articulos earum ad calcem {ut dicitur) hujus scripti nude recitare, in quibus nostri temporis hæretici a veritate dissentiunt, et sinceræ nostræ, religioni et confessioni contrarium docent. Lest such heresies and sects should tacitly be attributed to us, for the reason that we have not made express mention of them in the statement given above, it has seemed good simply to recite this document at the end of their articles of belief, wherein the heretics of our time dissent from the truth, and teach contrary to our sound confession and doctrine.
Errores Anabaptistarum. Errors of the Anabaptists.
Anabaptistæ in multas sectas [viel Haufen] sunt divisi, quarum aliæ plures, aliæ pauciores errores defendunt: generatim [ingemein] tamen omnes talem doctrinam profitentur, quæ neque in Ecclesia, neque in politia [noch in der Polizei und weltlichem Regiment], neque in œconomia [Haushaltung] tolerari potest. The Anabaptists are divided into many sects, of which some maintain more, some fewer errors. Nevertheless, in a general way, they all profess such a doctrine as can be tolerated neither in the Church, nor by the police and in the commonwealth, nor in daily [domestic and social] life
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Articuli Anabaptistici, qui in Ecclesia ferri non possunt. Anabaptist Articles which can not be endured in the Church.
I. Quod Christus carnem et sanguinem suum, non e Maria virgine assumserit, sed e cœlo attulerit. I. First, that Christ did not assume his flesh and blood of the Virgin Mary, but brought them from heaven.
II. Quod Christus non sit verus Deus, sed tantummodo cæteris sanctis sit superior, quia plura Spiritus Sancti dona acceperit, quam alius quispiam homo sanctus. II. That Christ is not true God, but is merely superior to other saints, because he has received more gifts of the Holy Spirit than any other holy man whatsoever.
III. Quod justitia nostra coram Deo, non in solo Christi merito, sed in renovatione atque adeo in nostra propria probitate, in qua ambulemus, consistat. Ea vero Anabaptistarum justitia magna ex parte electitia et humanitus excogitata quadam sanctimonia constat, et revera nil aliud est, quam novus quidam monachatus. III. That our righteousness before God does not consist in the merit of Christ alone, but in our renewal, and thus in our own uprightness in which we walk. Now this righteousness of the Anabaptists consists in great part in a certain arbitrary and humanly devised sanctimony, and in truth is nothing else than some new sort of monkery.
IV. Quod infantes non baptizati coram Deo non sint peccatores, sed justi et innocentes, et in illa sua innocentia, cum usum rationis nondum habeant, sine baptismo {quo videlicet, ipsorum opinione, non egeant) salutem consequantur. Et hoc modo rejiciunt totam de peccato originali doctrinam, reliqua etiam, quæ ex ea dependent. IV. That infants not baptized are not sinners before God, but just and innocent, and in this their innocence, when they have not as yet the use of reason, may, without baptism (of which, to wit, in the opinion of the Anabaptists, they have no need), attain unto salvation. And in this way they reject the whole doctrine of original sin, and all the consequences that follow therefrom.
V. Quod infantes baptizandi non sint, donec usum rationis V. That infants ought not to be baptized until they attain the use
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consequantur, et fidem suam ipsi profiteri possint. of reason, and are able themselves to profess their faith.
VI. Quod Christianorum liberi eam ob causam, quia parentibus Christianis et fidelibus orti sunt (etiam præter et ante susceptum baptismum), revera sancti, et in filiorum Dei numero sint habendi. Qua de causa etiam neque Pædobaptismum magnifaciunt, neque id operam dant, ut infantes baptizentur, quod cum expressis verbis promissionis divinæ (Gen. xvii. 7 sqq. ) pugnat: ea enim tantum ad eos pertinet, qui fœdus Dei observant, illudque non contemnunt. VI. That the children of Christians, ou the ground that they are sprung of Christian and believing parents (even apart from and before the receiving of baptism), are in very deed holy, and to be accounted as belonging to the children of God, for which reason they neither make much account of the baptism of children, nor take care to have their children baptized, which conflicts with the express words of the divine promise (Gen. xvii. 7 sqq.): for this only holds good to those who observe the covenant of God, and do not contemn it.
VII. Quod ea non sit vera et Christiana Ecclesia, in qua aliqui adhuc peccatores reperiuntur. VII. That that is not a true Christian Church in which any sinners are yet found.
VIII. Quod conciones non sint audiendæ ullæ in iis templis, in quibus aliquando Missæ Pontificiæ sunt celebratæ. VIII. That we ought not to listen to any sermons in those churches in which the Papist masses have ever been celebrated.
IX. Quod homo pius nihil prorsus commercii habere debeat cum Ecclesiæ ministris, qui Evangelion Christi juxta Augustanæ Confessionis sententiam docent, et Anabaptistarum conciones ac errores reprehendunt, et quod ejusmodi Ecclesiæ ministris neque servire, neque operam locare liceat, sed quod iidem ut perversores IX. That a godly man ought to have no dealings at all with the ministers of the Church who teach the Gospel of Christ according to the tenor of the Augsburg Confession, and rebuke the preachings and errors of the Anabaptists; and that it is not lawful either to serve or to do any work for such ministers of the Church, but that they are to be
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verbi divini vitandi et fugiendi sint. avoided and shunned as perverters of the divine Word.
Articuli Anabaptistici, qui in Politia [in der Polizei] sunt intolerabiles. Anabaptist Articles which are intolerable in the Commonwealth.
I. Quod Magistratus officium non sit, sub Novo Testamento, genus vitas, quod Deo placeat. I. That the office of the magistrate is not, under the New Testament, a condition of life that pleases God.
II. Quod homo Christianus salva et illæsa conscientia officio Magistratus fungi non possit. II. That a Christian man can not discharge the office of a magistrate with a safe and quiet conscience.
III. Quod homo Christianus illæsa conscientia officium Magistratus, rebus ita ferentibus, adversus improbos administrare et exequi, et subditi potestatem illam, quam Magistratus a Deo accepit, ad defensionem implorare non possint. III. That a Christian man can not with a safe conscience administer and execute the office of a magistrate, if matters so require, against the wicked, nor subjects implore for their defense that power which the magistrate has received of God.
IV. Quod homo Christianus sana conscientia jusjurandum præstare, et juramento interposito obedientiam et fidem suo Principi aut Magistratui promittere nequeat. IV. That a Christian man can not with a safe conscience take an oath, nor swear obedience and fidelity to his prince or magistrate.
V. Quod Magistratus, sub Novo Testamento, bona conscientia homines facinorosos capitali supplicio afficere non possit. V. That the magistrate, under the New Testament, can not with a good conscience punish criminals with death.
Articuli Anabaptistici, qui in Œconomia [Haushaltung] ferri non possunt. Anabaptist Articles which can not be tolerated in daily life.
I. Quod homo pius non possit conscientia salva proprium tenere I. That a godly man can not with safe conscience hold or possess
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et possidere, sed quod is, quicquid omnino facultatum habeat, id totum in commune conferre [in die Gemein zu geben] debeat. any property, but that whatever means he may possess, he is bound to bestow them all as common good.
II. Quod homo Christianus illæsa conscientia neque cauponariam, neque mercaturam exercere, aut arma conficere possit [kein Gastgeber, Kaufmann oder Messerschmidt sein könne]. II. That a Christian man can not with a safe conscience either keep an inn, or carry on trade, or forge weapons.
III. Quod conjugibus, propter diversam religionem, divortium facere, et cum alia persona, quæ in religione non dissentiat, matrimonium contrahere liceat. III. That it is permitted married people who think differently in religion to divorce themselves, and to contract matrimony with some other persons who agree with them in religion.
Errores Schwencofeldianorum. Errors of the Schwenkfeldians.
I. Quod omnes illi, qui Christum, secundum carnem, creaturam esse dicunt, non habeant veram regnantis cælestis Regis agnitionem. I. That all those who affirm Christ, according to the flesh, to be a creature, have no true knowledge of the heavenly king and his reign.
II. Quod caro Christi per exaltationem eo modo omnes proprietates divinas acceperet, ut Christus, quatenus homo est, potentia, virtute, majestate, gloria, Patri et τῷ Λόγῳ, per omnia, in gradu et statu essentiæ, omnino æqualis sit, ita, ut jam utriusque in Christo naturæ una sit essentia, eædem proprietates, eadem voluntas eademque gloria; et quod caro Christi ad Sacrosanctæ Trinitatis essentiam pertineat. II. That the flesh of Christ through its exaltation has in such wise received all the divine attributes, that Christ, as he is man, is altogether like to the Father and to the Word [Logos] in power, might, majesty, in all things, in grade and state of essence, so that henceforth there is one essence of both natures in Christ, and the same attributes, the same will, and the same glory; and that the flesh of Christ pertains to the essence of the Blessed Trinity.
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III. Quod ministerium verbi, prædicatum et auditu perceptum verbum, non sit instrumentum illud, per quod Deus Spiritus Sanctus homines doceat, salutaremque Christi agnitionem largiatur, et conversionem, veram pœnitentiam, fidem et novam obedientiam in ipsis efficiat. III. That the ministry of the Word, the Word preached and heard, is not that instrument whereby God the Holy Ghost teaches men, and bestows the salutary knowledge of Christ, and effects conversion, true repentance, faith, and new obedience in them.
IV. Quod aqua Baptismi non sit medium, per quod Dominus adoptionem in filiis Dei obsignet, et regenerationem efficiat. IV. That the water of baptism is not a means whereby the Lord seals adoption in the children of God and effects regeneration.
V. Quod panis et vinum in Sacra Cœna non sint organa, per quæ et cum quibus Christus corpus et sanguinem suum distribuat. V. That the bread and wine in the Holy Supper are not organs by which and with which Christ dispenses his body and blood.
VI. Quod homo pius, vere per Spiritum Dei regeneratus, legem Dei in hac vita perfecte servare et implere valeat. VI. That a godly man, truly regenerated by the Spirit of God, has power perfectly to keep and fulfill the law of God in this life.
VII. Quod non sit vera Ecclesia Christi, in qua non vigeat publica excommunicatio, et solennis aliquis excommunicationis modus, seu, ut vulgo dicitur, processus ordinarius. VII. That that is no true Church of Christ in which there is not in full force public excommunication, and some formal mode, or, as is commonly said, ordinary process of excommunication.
VIII. Quod is Ecclesiæ minister alios homines cum fructu docere, aut vera Sacramenta dispensare non possit, qui ipse non sit vere renovatus, renatus et vere justus. VIII. That a minister of the Church who is not truly renewed, regenerate, and truly righteous, can not fruitfully teach men, or dispense true sacraments.
Error Novorum Arianorum. Error of the New Arians.
Quod Christies non sit verus, substantialis, naturalis Deus That Christ is not true, substantial, natural God, of the same essence
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[wahrhaftiger, wesentlicher, natürlicher Gott], ejusdem cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto essentiæ; sed divina tantum majestate ita cum Patre ornatus, ut Patre sit inferior. with the Father and the Holy Ghost; but that he has merely been in such-wise adorned with divine majesty with the Father, as that he is nevertheless inferior to the Fa­ther.
Error Antitrinitariorum. Error of the Antitrinitarians.
Hæc prorsus nova est hæresis, quæ antehac Ecclesiis Christi ignota fuit, eorum videlicet, qui opinantur, docent et profitentur, non esse unicam tantum divinam et æternam Patris, Filii, et Spiritus Sancti essentiam: sed quemadmodum Pater, Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus tres sunt distinctæ persona, ita unamquamque personam habere distinctam, et a reliquis personis Divinitatis separatam essentiam. Et horum alii sentiunt, quod singulæ personæ in singulis essentiis æquali sint potestate, sapientia, majestate, et gloria: sicut alias tres numero differentes homines, ratione essentiæ suæ, sunt a se invicem disjuncti et separati. Alii sentiunt tres illas personas et essentias ita inæquales esse, ratione essentiæ et proprietatum, ut solus Deus Pater verus sit Deus. This is a heresy entirely new, which hitherto has been unknown to the churches of Christ—the heresy, namely, of such as imagine, teach, and profess that there is not one sole divine and eternal essence only of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; but as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are three distinct persons, so each person has a distinct essence, separate from the other persons of the God­head. And some of these may think that the separate persons, in their separate essences, are of equal power, wisdom, majesty, and glory, as, for instance, three men, differing numerically in respect of their essence, are mutually separate and disjoined. Others think that these three persons and essences are so unequal in respect of essence and attributes, as that God the Father alone is true God.
Hos, atque his similes errores omnes, ut eos etiam, qui ab his dependent, et ex his consequuntur, rejicimus atque damnamus: All these errors, and the errors like to these, and also those which depend on these and follow from them, we reject and condemn as
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utpote, qui falsi sint atque hæretici [als unrecht, falsch, ketzerisch], et qui Verbo Dei, tribus approbatis Symbolis [den dreien Symbolis],6161That is, the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian Creeds, which are incorporated in the Lutheran Book of Concord. Augustanæ Confessioni, ejusdem Apologiæ, Smalcaldicis Articulis, et Catechismis Lutheri repugnent: quos etiam errores omnes pii summi atqueinfimi cavere et vitare debent, nisi æternæ suæ salutis jacturam facere velint [so lieb ihnen ihrer Seelen Heil und Seligkeit ist]. being false and heretical, and as being inconsistent with the Word of God, with the three approved Symbols,6262That is, the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian Creeds, which are incorporated in the Lutheran Book of Concord the Augsburg Confession, with the Apology of the same, the Smalcald Articles, and the Catechisms of Luther; which errors also all the godly, high and low alike, ought to beware of and avoid, unless they wish to hazard their own eternal salvation.
Quod autem hæc sit omnium nostrum fides, doctrina et confessio (de qua in novissimo illo die Judici Domino nostro Jesu Christo rationem reddere parati sumus), et quod contra hanc doctrinam nihil vel occulte vel aperte dicere aut scribere, sed per gratiam Dei in ea constanter perseverare velimus: in ejus rei fidem, re bene meditata, in vero Dei timore et invocatione nominis ejus [wohlbedächtig in wahrer Furcht und Anrufung Gottes] hanc epitomen propriis manibus subscripsimus.6363The list of subscribers is added to the Preface of the Book of Concord, and embraces eighty-six names, headed by three Electors—John of the Palatinate, Augustus of Saxony, and John George of Brandenburg. Now that this is the faith, doctrine, and confession of us all (concerning which we are prepared to render account at the last day to our Lord Jesus Christ the Judge), and that against this doctrine we are minded to speak or. write nothing either hiddenly or openly, but by the grace of God steadfastly to persevere therein: in attestation of this thing, having well advised of the matter, in the true fear ofGod and calling upon his name, we have with our own hands subscribed this Epitome.6464The list of subscribers is added to the Preface of the Book of Concord, and embraces eighty-six names, headed by three Electors—John of the Palatinate, Augustus of Saxony, and John George of Brandenburg.

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