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APPENDIX I.

Encyclical Letter of our Most Holy Lord Leo XIII., by Divine Providence Pope, concerning the Christian Constitution of States. A.D. 1885.

[The Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII., De Civitatum Constitutione Christiana, which is called from the first two words, Immortale Dei, was issued Nov. 1, 1885, during the Cultur-conflict ( Culturkampf ) in Germany, as a mild interpretation of the Syllabus of his predecessor, 1864 (pp. 213–233), which was understood to be an attack upon modern civilization and civil and religious liberty. The Encyclical is addressed "to all the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and Bishops of the Catholic World, in the grace and communion of the Apostolic See," and partakes of that infallibility which the Vatican Decree of 1870 claims for all the official or ex cathedra deliverances of the Pope on matters of faith and morals.

The Latin text of this document is taken from Acta Leonis Papæ XIII. (1879–1885), Parisiis, 1885, pp. 283–321, the translation from the "Tablet," London, Nov. 14, 1885, as revised by authority.]

 

Immortale Dei miserentis opus, quod est Ecclesia, quamquam per se et natura sua salutem spectat animarum adipiscendamque in cælis felicitatem, tamen in ipso etiam rerum mortalium genere tot ac tantas ultro parit utilitates, ut plures majoresve non posset, si in primis et maxime esset ad tuendam hujus vitæ, quæ in terris agitur, prosperitatem institutum.

That imperishable work of a merciful God, the Church, though she looks essentially, and from the very nature of her being, to the salvation of souls and the winning for them of happiness in heaven, nevertheless she also secures even in the mere order of perishable things advantages so many and so great that she could not do more even if she had been founded primarily and specially to secure prosperity in this life which is spent upon earth.

Revera quacumque Ecclesia vestigium posuit, continuo rerum faciem immutavit, popularesque mores sicut virtutibus antea ignotis, ita et nova urbanitate imbuit; quam quotquot accepere populi, mansuetudine, æquitate, rerum gestarum gloria excelluerunt.—

In truth wherever the Church has set her foot she has at once changed the aspect of affairs, colored the manners of the people as with new virtues so also with a refinement unknown before: and all nations who have received her have been distinguished for their

 

[Note.—For another translation with notes, Ryan and Millar, Church and State, pp. 1–61.—Ed.]

 

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Sed vetus tamen illa est atque antiqua vituperatio, quod Ecclesiam aiunt esse cum rationibus reipublicæ dissidentem, nec quicquam posse ad ea vel commoda vel ornamenta conferre, quæ suo jure suaque sponte omnis bene constituta civitas appetit. Sub ipsis Eccelesiæ primordiis non dissimili opinionis iniquitate agitari christianos, et in odium invidiamque vocari solitos hac etiam de caussa accepimus, quod hostes imperii dicerentur; quo tempore malorum culpam, quibus esset perculsa respublica, vulgo libebat in Christianum conferre nomen, cum revera ultor scelerum Deus pœnas a sontibus justas exigeret. Ejus atrocitas calumniæ non sine caussa ingenium armavit stilumque acuit Augustini: qui præsertim in Civitate Dei virtutem christianæ sapientiæ, qua parte necessitudinem habet cum republica, tanto in lumine collocavit, ut non tam pro christianis sui temporis dixisse caussam quam de criminibus falsis perpetuum triumphum egisse videatur. gentleness, their justice, and the glory of their deeds. But it is an old and time-worn accusation that the Church is incompatible with the welfare of the commonwealth, and incapable of contributing to those things, whether useful or ornamental, which every well constituted State rightly and naturally desires. We know that on this ground, in the very beginnings of the Church, Christians, from the same perversity of view, were persecuted and constantly held up to hatred and contempt, so that they were styled the enemies of the Empire. And at that time it was generally popular to attribute to Christianity the responsibility for the evils with which the State was stricken, when in reality God, the avenger of crimes, was requiring a just punishment from the guilty. The wickedness of this calumny, not without cause, armed the genius and sharpened the pen of Angustin, who, especially in his De Civitate Dei, set forth so clearly the efficacy of Christian wisdom and the way in which it is bound up with the well-being of States, that he seems not only to have pleaded the cause of the Christians in his own time, but to have triumphantly refuted these false charges forever.

Similium tamen querelarum

But this unhappy inclination to

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atque insimulationum funesta libido non quievit, ac permultis sane placuit civilem vivendi disciplinam aliunde petere, quam ex doctrinis quas Ecclesia catholica probat. Immo postremo hoc tempore novum, ut appellant, jus, quod inquiunt esse velut quoddam adulti jam sæculi incrementum, progrediente libertate partum, valere ac dominari passim cœpit.—Sed quantumvis multa multi periclitati sunt, constat, repertam nunquam esse præstantiorem constituendæ temperandæque civitatis rationem, quam quæ ab evangelica doctrina sponte efflorescit.Maximi igitur momenti atque admodum muneri nostro apostolico consentaneum esse arbitramur, novas de re publica opiniones cum doctrina christiana conferre: quo modo erroris dubitationisque caussas ereptum iri, emergente veritate, confidimus, ita ut videre quisque facile queat summa illa præcepta vivendi quæ sequi et quibus parere debeat. charges and false accusations was not laid to rest, and many have thought well to seek a system of civil life apart from the doctrines which the Church approves. And now in these last times "The new Law," as they call it, has begun to prevail, which they describe as the outcome of a world now fully developed, and born of a growing liberty. But although many hazardous schemes have been propounded by many, it is clear that never has any better method been found for establishing and ruling the State than that which is the natural result of the teaching of the Gospel. We deem it therefore of the greatest moment, and especially suitable to our apostolic office, to compare the new opinions concerning the State with Christian doctrine, by which method we trust that, truth being thus presented, the causes of error and doubt will be removed, so that every man may easily discern those supreme commandments of conduct which he ought to follow and obey.

Non est magni negotii statuere, qualem sit speciem formamque habitura civitas, gubernante christiana philosophia rempublicam.—Insitum homini natura est, ut in civili societate vivat: is enim necessarium

It is not a very difficult matter to set forth what form and appearance the State would have if Christian philosophy governed the commonwealth. Man has a natural instinct for civil society; for since

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vitæ cultum et paratum, itemque ingenii atque animi perfectionem cum in solitudine adipisci non possit, provisum divinitus est, ut ad conjunctionem congregationemque hominum nasceretur cum domesticam, tum etiam civilem, quæ suppeditare vitæ sufficientiam perfectam sola potest. Quoniam vero non potest societas ulla consistere, nisi si aliquis omnibus præsit, efficaci similique movens singulos ad commune propositum impulsione, efficitur, civili hominum communitati necessariam esse auctoritatem, qua regatur: quæ, non secus ac societas, a natura proptereaque a Deo ipso oriatur auctore. he cannot attain in solitude the necessary means of civilized life, it is a divine provision that he comes into existence adapted for taking part in that union and assembling of men, both in the Family and in the State, which alone can supply adequate facilities for the perfecting of life. But since no society can hold together unless some person is over all, impelling individuals by effectual and similar motives to pursue the common end, it results that an authority to rule is indispensable to a civilized community, which authority, no less than society itself, is based upon nature, and therefore has God himself for its author.

Ex quo illud consequitur, potestatem publicam per se ipsam non esse nisi a Deo. Solus enim Deus est verissimus maximusque rerum dominus, cui subesse et servire omnia, quæcumque, necesse est: ita ut quicumque jus imperandi habent, non id aliunde accipiant, nisi ab illo summo omnium principe Deo. Non est potestas nisi a Deo.336336    Rom. xiii. 3. Jus autem imperii per se non est cum ulla reipublicæ forma necessario copulatum aliam sibi vel aliam assumere recte potest, modo utilitatis bonique communis reapse efficientem. Sed in quolibet genere

And thence it follows that by its very nature there can be no public power except from God alone. For God alone is the most true and supreme Lord of the world to whom all things whatsoever must necessarily be subservient and obey, so that whoever possesses the right of governing can receive it from no other source than from that Supreme Governor of all, God. "There is no power except from God".337337    Rom. xiii. 3. But the right of ruling is not necessarily conjoined with any special form of commonwealth, but may rightly assume this or that

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reipublicæ omnino principes debent summum mundi gubernatorem Deum intueri, eumque sibimetipsis in administranda civitate tanquam exemplum legemque proponere. form, provided that it really promotes utility and the common good. But whatever be the kind of commonwealth, rulers ought to keep in view God, the Supreme Governor of the world, and to set him before themselves as an example and a law in the administration of the State.

Deus enim, sicut in rebus, quæ sunt quæque cernuntur, caussas genuit secundarias, in quibus perspici aliqua ratione posset natura actioque divina, quæque ad eum finem, quo hæc rerum spectat universitas, conducerent: ita in societate civili voluit esse principatum, quem qui gererent, in imaginem quamdam divinæ in genus humanum potestatis divinæque providentiæ referrent. Debet igitur imperium justum esse, neque herile, sed quasi paternum, quia Dei justissima in homines potestas est et cum paterna bonitate conjuncta: gerendum vero est ad utilitatem, civium, quia qui præsunt cæteris, hac una de caussa præsunt, ut civitatis utilitatem tueantur. Neque ullo pacto committendum unius ut, vel paucorum commodo serviat civilis auctoritas, cum ad commune omnium bonum constituta sit. Quod si, qui præsunt, delabantur in dominatum injustum, si importunitate superbiave peccaverint, si male populo consuluerint,

For as God, in things which are and which are seen, has produced secondary causes, whererein the Divine nature and course of action can be perceived, and which conduce to that end to which the universe is directed, so he has willed that in civil society there should be a governing power, and that they who hold it should bear a certain resemblance to the power and providence of God over the human race. The rule of the government, therefore, should be just, and not that of a master but rather that of a father, because the power of God over men is most just and allied with a father's goodness. Moreover, it is to be carried on with a view to the advantage of the citizens, because they who are over others are over them for this cause alone, that they may see to the interests of the State. And in no way is it to be allowed that the civil authority should be subservient merely to the advantage of one or of a few, since it was established for the common

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sciant sibi rationem aliquando Deo esse reddendam, idque tanto severius, quanto vel sanctiore in munere versati sint, vel gradum dignitatis altiorem obtinuerint. Potentes potenter tormenta patientur. 338338    Sap. (Wisd.) vi. 7. good of all. But if they who are over the State should lapse into unjust rule; if they should err through arrogance or pride; if their measures should be injurious to the people, let them know that hereafter an account must be rendered to God, and that with a strictness proportioned to the sacredness of their office or the eminence of their dignity, "The mighty shall be mightily tormented."339339    Sap. (Wisd.) vi. 7.

Ita sane majestatem imperii reverentia civium honesta et libens comitabitur. Etenim cum semel in animum induxerint, pellere qui imperant auctoritate a Deo data, illa quidem officia justa ac debita esse sentient, dicto audientes esse principibus, eisdemque obsequium ac fidem præstare cum quadam similitudine pietatis, quæ liberorum est erga parentes. Omnis anima potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit. 340340    Rom. xiii. 1.

Thus truly the majesty of rule will be attended with an honorable and willing regard on the part of the citizens; for when once they are assured that they who rule are strong only with the authority given by God, they will feel that it is their just and proper duty to be obedient to their rulers, and pay to them respect and fidelity with somewhat of the same affection as that of children to their parents. "Let every soul be subject to higher powers."341341    Rom. xiii. 1.

Spernere quippe potestatem legitimam, quavis eam in persona constiterit, non magis licet, quam divinæ voluntati resistere: cui si qui resistant, in interitum ruunt voluntarium. Qui resistit potestati Dei ordinationi resistit; qui autem resistunt, ipsi sibi damnationem acquirunt. 342342    Rom. xiii. 2. Quapropter obedientiam

For to contemn lawful authority, in whatever person it is vested, is as unlawful as it is to resist the Divine will; and whoever resists that, rushes voluntarily to his destruction. "He who resists the power, resists the ordinance of God; and they who resist purchase to themselves judgment."343343    Rom. xiii. 2. Wherefore

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abjicere, et, per vim multitudinis rem ad seditionem vocare est crimen majestatis, neque humanæ tantum, sed etiam divinæ. to cast away obedience, and by popular violence to incite to sedition, is treason, not only against man, but against God.

Hac ratione constitutam civitatem, perspicuum est, omnino debere plurimis maximisque officiis, quæ ipsam jungunt Deo, religione publica satisfacere.—Natura et ratio, quæ jubet singulos sancte religioseque Deum colere, quod in ejus potestate sumus, et quod ab eo profecti ad eumdem reverti debemus, eadem lege adstringit civilem communitatem. Homines enim communi societate conjuncti nihilo sunt minus in Dei potestate, quam singuli; neque minorem quam singuli gratiam Deo societas debet, quo auctore coaluit, cujus nutu conservatur, cujus beneficio innumerabilem bonorum, quibus affluit, copiam accepit. Quapropter sicut nemini licet sua adversus Deum officia negligere, officiumque est maximum amplecti et animo et moribus religionem, nec quam quisque maluerit, sed quam Deus jusserit, quamque certis minimeque dubitandis indiciis unam ex omnibus veram esse constiterit: eodem modo civitates non possunt, citra scelus, gerere se tanquam si Deus omnino non esset, aut curam religionis velut alienam nihilque profuturam abjicere,

It is clear that a State constituted on this basis is altogether bound to satisfy, by the public profession of religion, the very many and great duties which bring it into relation with God. Nature and reason which commands every man individually to serve God holily and religiously, because we belong to him, and coming from him must return to him, binds by the same law the civil community. For men living together in society are no less under the power of God than are individuals; and society owes as much gratitude as individuals do to God, who is its author, its preserver, and the beneficent source of the innumerable blessings which it has received. And therefore as it is not lawful for anybody to neglect his duties towards God, and as it is the first duty to embrace religion in mind and in conduct—and that not the one that each may prefer, but that which God has enjoined, which he has proved to be the only true one by certain and indubitable evidence—in the same manner States cannot, without crime, act as though God did not exist, or cast off the

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aut asciscere de pluribus generibus indifferenter quod libeat: omninoque debent eum in colendo numine morem usurpare modumque, quo coli se Deus ipse demonstravit velle. care of religion as alien to them or useless, or out of several kinds of religion adopt indifferently which they please; but they are absolutely bound, in the worship of the Deity, to adopt that use and manner in which God himself has shown that he wills to be adored.

Sanctum igitur oportet apud principes esse Dei nomen, ponendumque in præcipuis illorum officiis religionem gratia complecti, benevolentia tueri, auctoritate nutuque legum tegere, nec quippiam instituere aut decernere quod sit ejus incolumitati contrarium. Id et civibus debent, quibus præsunt. Nati enim susceptique omnes homines sumus ad summum quoddam et ultimum bonorum, quo sunt omnia consilia referenda extra hanc fragilitatem brevitatemque vitæ in cælis collocatum. Quoniam autem hinc pendet hominum undique expleta ac perfecta felicitas, idcirco assequi eum, qui commemoratus est, finem tanti interest singulorum ut pluris interesse non possit. Civilem igitur societatem, communi utilitati natam, in tuenda prosperitate reipublicæ necesse est sic consulere civibus, ut obtinendo adipiscendoque summo illi atque incommutabili bono quod sponte appetunt, non modo nihil importet

Therefore among rulers the name of God must be holy, and it must be reckoned among the first of their duties to favor religion, protect it, and cover it with the authority of the laws, and not to institute or decree anything which is incompatible with its security. They owe this also to the citizens over whom they rule. For all of us men are born and brought up for a certain supreme and final good in heaven, beyond this frail and short life, and to this end every aim is to be referred. And because upon it depends the full and perfect happiness of men, therefore, to attain this end which has been mentioned, is of as much interest as is conceivable to every individual man. Civil society, therefore, which came into existence only for the common good, must, in its defence of the State's well-being, so consult the good of its citizens as not only to offer no hindrance, but to afford every possible assistance to them in the winning and gaining of that

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unquam incommodi, sed omnes quascumque possit, opportunitates afferat. Quarum præcipua est, ut detur opera religioni sancte inviolateque servandæ cujus officia hominem Deo conjungunt. chief good which they naturally desire, and for which nothing can be taken in exchange. The chief assistance is, that attention should be paid to the holy and inviolate preservation of religion, by the duties of which man is united to God.

Vera autem religio quæ sit, non difficulter videt qui judicium prudens sincerumque adhibuerit: argumentis enim permultis atque illustribus, veritate nimirum vaticiniorum, prodigiorum frequentia, celerrima fidei vel per medios hostes hac maxima impedimenta propagatione, martyrum testimonio, aliisque similibus liquet, eam esse unice veram, quam Jesus Christus et instituit ipsemet et Ecclesiæ suæ tuendam propagandamque demandavit.

Now which is the true religion may be easily discovered by any one who will view the matter with a careful and unbiassed judgment; for there are proofs of great number and splendor, as, for example, the truth of prophecy, the abundance of miracles, the extremely rapid spread of the faith, even in the midst of its enemies and in spite of the greatest hindrances, the testimony of the martyrs, and the like, from which it is evident that that is the only true religion which Jesus Christ instituted himself and then intrusted to his Church to defend and to spread.

Nam unigenitus Dei filius societatem in terris constituit, quæ Ecclesia dicitur, cui excelsum divinumque munus in omnes sæculorum ætates continuandum transmisit, quod ipse a Patre acceperat. Sicut misit me Pater, et ego mitto vos. 344344    John xx. 21. Ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem sæculi. 345345    Matt. xxviii. 20. Igitur, sicut Jesus Christies in terras venit

For the only-begotten Son of God set up a society on earth which is called the Church, and to it he transferred that most glorious and divine office, which he had received from his Father, to be perpetuated forever. "As the Father hath sent me, even so I send you."346346    John xx. 21. "Behold I am with you all days even to the consummation of the world."347347    Matt. xxviii. 20. Therefore as Jesus Christ

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ut homines vitam habeant et abundantius habeant, 348348    John x. 10. eodem modo Ecclesia propositum habet, tanquam finem, salutem animarum sempiternam: ob eamque rem talis est natura sua, ut porrigat sese ad totius complexum gentis humanæ, nullis nec locorum nec temporum limitibus circumscripta. Prædicate Evangelium omni creaturæ. 349349    Mark xvi. 15. came into the world "that men might have life and have it more abundantly,"350350    John x. 10. so also the Church has for its aim and end the eternal salvation of souls: and for this cause it is so constituted as to embrace the whole human race without any limit or circumscription either of time or place. "Preach ye the Gospel to every creature."351351    Mark xvi. 15.

Tam ingenti hominum multitudini Deus ipse magistratus assignavit qui cum potestate præessent: unumque omnium principem, et maximum certissimumque veritatis magistrum esse voluit, cui claves regni cælorum commisit. Tibi dabo claves regni cælorum.352352    Matt. xvi. 19. Pasce agnos … pasce oves:353353     John xxi. 16, 17. ego rogavi pro te, ut non deficiat fides tua.354354    Luke xxii 32. Hæc societas, quamvis ex hominibus constet non secus ac civilis communitas, tamen propter finem sibi constitutum, atque instrumenta quibus ad finem contendii, supernaturalis est et spiritualis; atque idcirco distinguitur ac differt a societate civili: et, quod plurimum interest, societas est genere et jure perfecta, cum adjumenta ad incolumitatem actionemque suam necessaria, voluntate beneficioque conditoris sui, omnia in se et per se ipsa possideat. Sicut

Over this immense multitude of men God himself has set rulers with power to govern them; and he has willed that one should be head of them all, and the chief and unerring teacher of truth, and to him he has given the keys of the kingdom of heaven. "To thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven."355355    Matt. xvi. 19. "Feed my lambs, feed my sheep."356356     John xxi. 16, 17. "I have prayed for thee that thy faith may not fail."357357    Luke xxii 32. This society, though it be composed of men just as civil society is, yet because of the end that it has in view, and the means by which it tends to it, it is supernatural and spiritual; and, therefore, is distinguished from civil society and differs from it; and—a fact of the highest moment—is a society perfect in its kind and in its rights, possessing in and by itself, by the will and beneficence of its founder, all the appliances

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finis, quo tendit Ecclesia, longe nobilissimus est, ita ejus potestas est omnium præstantissima, neque imperio civili potest haberi inferior, aut eidem esse ullo modo obnoxia. that are necessary for its preservation and action. Just as the end at which the Church aims is by far the noblest of ends, so its power is the most exalted of all powers, and cannot be held to be either inferior to the civil power or in any way subject to it.

Revera Jesus Christus Apostolis suis libera mandata dedit in sacra, adjuncta tum ferendarum legum veri nominis facultate, tum gemina, quæ hinc consequitur, judicandi puniendique potestate: Data est mihi omnis potestas in cælo et in terra: euntes ergo docete omnes gentes … docentes eos servare omnia quæcumque mandavi vobis. 358358    Matt. xxviii. 18-20. Et alibi: Si non audierit eos, dic Ecclesiæ. 359359    Matt. xviii. 17. Atque iterum: In promptis habentes ulcisci omnem inobedientiam. 360360    2 Cor. x. 6. Rursus: Durius agam secundum potestatem, quam Dominus dedit mihi in ædificationem et non in destructionem. 361361    2 Cor. xiii. 10.

In truth Jesus Christ gave his Apostles unfettered commissions over all sacred things, with the power of establishing laws properly so-called, and the double right of judging and punishing which follows from it: "All power has been given to me in heaven and on earth; going therefore teach all nations … teaching them to keep whatsoever I have commanded you."362362    Matt. xxviii. 18-20. And in another place he says: "If he will not hear, tell it to the Church;"363363    Matt. xviii. 17. and again: "Ready to punish all disobedience;"364364    2 Cor. x. 6. and once more: "I shall act with more severity, according to the powers which our Lord has given me unto edification and not unto destruction."365365    2 Cor. xiii. 10.

Itaque dux hominibus esse ad cælestia, non civitas, sed Ecclesia debet: eidemque hoc est munus assignatum a Deo, ut de iis, quæ religionem attingunt, videat ipsa et statuat: ut doceat omnes gentes: ut christiani nominis fines, quoad potest, late proferat; brevi ut rem

So then it is not the State but the Church that ought to be men's guide to heaven; and it is to her that God has assigned the office of watching and legislating for all that concerns religion, of teaching all nations; of extending, as far as may be, the borders of Christianity;

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christianam libere expediteque judicio suo administret. and, in a word, of administering its affairs without let or hindrance according to her own judgment.

Hanc vero auctoritatem in se ipsa absolutam planeque sui juris, quæ ab assentatrice principum philosophia jamdiu oppugnatur, Ecclesia sibi asserere itemque publice exercere numquam desiit, primis omnium pro ea propugnantibus Apostolis, qui cum disseminare Evangelium a principibus synagogæ prohiberentur, constanter respondebant; Obedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus. 366366    Acts v. 29. Eamdem sancti Ecclesiæ Patres rationum momentis tueri pro opportunitate studuerunt: romanique pontificis invicta animi constantia adversus oppugnatores indicare nunquam prætermiserunt.

Now this authority, which pertains absolutely to the Church herself, and is part of her manifest rights, and which has long been opposed by a philosophy subservient to princes, she has never ceased to claim for herself and to exercise publicly; the Apostles themselves being the first of all to maintain it, when, being forbidden by the leaders of the synagogue to preach the Gospel, they boldly answered, "We must obey God rather than men."367367    Acts v. 29. This same authority the holy fathers of the Church have been careful to maintain by weighty reasonings as occasions have arisen; and the Roman pontiffs have never ceased to defend it with inflexible constancy.

Quin etiam et opinione et re eamdem probârunt ipsi viri principes rerumque publicarum gubernatores, ut qui paciscendo transigendis negotiis, mittendis vicissimque accipiendis legatis, atque aliorum mutatione officiorum, agere cum Ecclesia tamquam cum suprema potestate legitima consueverunt.—Neque profecto sine singulari providentis Dei consilio

Nay, more, princes and civil governors themselves have approved it in theory and in fact; for in the making of compacts, in the transaction of business, in sending and receiving embassies, and in the interchange of other offices, it has been their custom to act with the Church as with a supreme and legitimate power. And we may be sure that it is not without the singular

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factum esse censendum est, ut hæc ipsa potestas principatu civili, velut optima libertatis suæ tutela muniretur. providence of God that this power of the Church was defended by the civil power as the best defence of its own liberty.

Itaque Deus humani generis procurationem inter duas potestates partitus est; scilicet ecclesiasticam et civilem, alteram quidem divinis, alteram humanis rebus præpositam. Utraque est in suo genere maxima: habet utraque certos, quibus contineatur, terminos, eosque sua cujusque natura caussaque proxima definitos; unde aliquis velut orbis circumscribitur, in quo sua cujusque actio jure proprio versetur. Sed quia utriusque imperium est in eosdem, eum usu venire possit, ut res una atque eadem, quamquam aliter atque aliter, sed tamen eadem res ad utriusque jus judiciumque pertineat, debet providentissimus Deus, a quo sunt ambæ constituæ, utriusque itinera recto atque ordine composuisse. Quæ autem sunt, a Deo ordinatæ sunt. 368368    Rom. xiii. 1.

God, then, has divided the charge of the human race between two powers, viz., the ecclesiastical and the civil, the one being set over divine, and the other over human things. Each is supreme in its own kind: each has certain limits within which it is restricted, and those limits defined by the nature and proximate cause of each: so that there is, as we may say, a world marked off as a field for the proper action of each. But forasmuch as each has dominion over the same subjects, since it might come to pass that one and the same thing, though in different ways, still one and the same, might pertain to the right and the tribunal of both, therefore God, who foreseeth all things, and who has established both powers, must needs have arranged the course of each in right relation to one another, and in due order, "For the powers that are are ordained by God."369369    Rom. xiii. 1.

Quod ni ita esset, funestarum sæpe contentionum concertationumque caussæ nascerentur; nec raro sollicitus animi, velut in via ancipiti, hærere homo deberet, anxius

If this were not so, causes of rivalries and dangerous disputes would be constantly arising; and man would often have to stop in anxiety and doubt, like a traveller with

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quid facto opus esset, contraria jubentibus binis potestatibus quarum recusare imperium, salvo officio, non potest. Atqui maxime istud repugnat de sapientia cogitare et bonitate Dei, qui vel in rebus physicis, quamquam sunt longe inferioris ordinis, tamen naturales vires caussasque invicem conciliavit moderata ratione et quodam velut concentu mirabili, ita ut nulla earum impediat cæteras, cunctæque simul illæ, quo mundus spectat, convenientur aptissimeque conspirent. two roads before him, not knowing what he ought to do, with two powers commanding contrary things, whose authority, however, he cannot refuse without neglect of duty. But it would be most repugnant so to think of the wisdom and goodness of God, who, even in physical things, though they are of a far lower order, has yet so attempered and combined together the forces and causes of nature in an orderly manner and with a sort of wonderful harmony, that none of them is a hindrance to the rest, and all of them most fitly and aptly combine for the great end of the universe.

Itaque inter utramque potestatem quædam intercedat necesse est ordinata colligatio: quæ quidem conjunctioni non immerito comparatur, per quam anima et corpus in homine copulantur. Qualis autem et quanta ea sit, aliter judicari non potest, nisi respiciendo, uti diximus, ad utriusque naturam, habendaque ratione excellentiæ et nobilitatis caussarum; cum alteri proxime maximeque propositum sit rerum mortalium curare commoda, alteri cælestia ac sempiterna bona comparare.—Quidquid igitur est in rebus humanis quoquo modo sacrum, quidquid ad salutem animorum cultumve Dei pertinet, sive tale illud sit natura

So then there must needs be a certain orderly connection between these two powers, which may not unfairly be compared to the union with which soul and body are united in man. What the nature of that union is, and what its extent, cannot otherwise be determined than, as we have said, by having regard to the nature of each power, and by taking account of the relative excellence and nobility of their ends; for one of them has for its proximate and chief aim the care of the goods of this world, the other the attainment of the goods of heaven that are eternal. Whatsoever, therefore, in human affairs is in any manner sacred; whatsoever

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sua, sive rursus tale intelligatur propter caussam ad quam refertur, id est omne in potestate arbitrioque Ecclesiæ: cætera vero, quæ civile et politicum genus complectitur, rectum est civili auctoritati esse subjecta, cum Jesus Christus jusserit, quæ Cæsaris sint, reddi Cæsari, quæ Dei, Deo. 370370    [Comp. Matt. xxii. 21.] pertains to the salvation of souls or the worship of God, whether it be so in its own nature, or on the other hand is held to be so for the sake of the end to which it is referred, all this is in the power and subject to the free disposition of the Church; but all other things which are embraced in the civil and political order are rightly subject to the civil authority, since Jesus Christ has commanded that what is Cæsar's is to be paid to Cæsar, and what is God's to God.371371    [Comp. Matt. xxii. 21.]

Incidunt autem quandoque tempora, cum alius quoque concordiæ modus ad tranquillam libertatem valet, nimirum si qui principes rerum publicarum et Pontifex Romanus de re aliqua separata in idem placitum concenserint. Quibus Ecclesia temporibus maternæ pietatis eximia documenta præbet, cum facilitatis indulgentiæque tantum adhibere soleat, quantum maxima potest.

Sometimes, however, circumstances arise when another method of concord is available for peace and liberty; we mean when princes and the Roman Pontiff come to an understanding concerning any particular matter. In such circumstances the Church gives singular proof of her maternal goodwill, and is accustomed to exhibit the highest possible degree of generosity and indulgence.

Ejusmodi est, quam summatim attigimus, civilis hominum societatis christiana temperatio, et hæc non temere neque ad libidinem ficta, sed ex maximis ducta verissimisque principiis, quæ ipsa naturali ratione confirmantur.

Such then, as we have indicated in brief, is the Christian order of civil society; no rash or merely fanciful fiction, but deduced from principles of the highest truth and moment, which are confirmed by the natural reason itself.

Talis autem conformatio reipublicæ nihil habet, quod possit aut

Now such a constitution of the State contains nothing that can be

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minus videri dignum amplitudine principum, aut parum decorum: tantumque abest, ut jura majestatis imminuat, ut potius stabiliora atque augustiora faciat. Immo, si altius consideretur, habet illa conformatio perfectionem quamdam magnam, qua carent cæteri rerum publicarum modi: ex eâque fructus essent sane excellentes et varii consecuturi, si modo suum partes singulæ gradum tenerent, atque illud integre efficerent cui unaquæque præposita est, officium et munus.—Revera in ea, quam ante diximus, constitutione reipublicæ, sunt quidem divina atque humana convenienti ordine partita: incolumia civium jura, eademque divinarum, naturalium humanarumque legum patrocinio defensa: officiorum singulorum cum sapienter constituta descriptio, tum opportune sancita custodia. Singuli homines in hoc ad sempiternam illam civitatem dubio laboriosoque curriculo sibi sciunt præsto esse, quos tuto sequantur ad ingrediendum duces, ad perveniendum adjutores: pariterque intelligunt, sibi alios esse ad securitatem, ad fortunas, ad commoda cætera, quibus communis hæc vita constat, vel parienda vel conservanda datos. thought either unworthy of the majesty of princes or unbecoming; and so far is it from lessening the imperial rights that it rather adds stability and grandeur to them. For, if it be more deeply considered, such a constitution has a great perfection which all others lack, and from it various excellent fruits would accrue if each party would only keep its own place and discharge with integrity that office and work to which it was appointed. For in truth in this constitution of the State, which we have above described, divine and human affairs are properly divided; the rights of citizens are completely defended by divine, natural, and human law; and the limitations of the several offices are at once wisely laid down, and the keeping of them most opportunely secured. All men know that in their doubtful and laborious journey to the everlasting city they have at hand guides to teach them how to set forth, helpers whom they may safely follow to show them how to reach their journey's end; and at the same time they know that they have others whose business it is to take care of their security and their fortunes, to obtain for them, or to secure to them, all those other goods which are essential to the life of a community.
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Societas domestica eam, quam par est, firmitudinem adipiscitur ex unius atque individui sanctitate conjugii: jura officiaque inter conjuges sapienti justitia et æquitate reguntur: debitum conservatur mulieri decus: auctoritas viri ad exemplum est auctoritatis Dei conformata: temperata patria potestas convenienter dignitati uxoris prolisque: denique liberorum tuitioni, oommodis, institutioni optime consulitur.

Domestic society obtains that firmness and solidity which it requires in the sanctity of marriage, one and indissoluble; the rights and duties of husband and wife are ordered with wise justice and equity; the due honor is secured to the woman; the authority of the man is conformed to the example of the authority of God; the authority of the father is tempered as becomes the dignity of the wife and offspring, and the best possible provision is made for the guardianship, the true good, and the education of the children.

In genere rerum politico et civili, leges spectant commune bonum, neque voluntati judicioque fallaci multitudinis, sed veritate justitiaque diriguntur: auctoritas principum sanctitudinem quamdam induit humana majorem, contineturque ne declinet a justitia, neu modum in imperando transiliat: obedientia civium habet honestatem dignitatemque comitem, quia non est hominis ad hominem servitus, sed obtemperatio voluntati Dei, regnum per homines exercentis. Quo cognito as persuaso, omnino ad justitiam, pertinere illa intelliguntur, vereri majestatem principum, subesse constanter et fideliter protestati publicæ, nihil seditiose facere,

In the domain of political and civil affairs the laws aim at the common good, and are not guided by the deceptive wishes and judgments of the multitude, but by truth and justice. The authority of the rulers puts on a certain garb of sanctity greater than what pertains to man, and it is restrained from declining from justice, and passing over just limits in the exercise of power. The obedience of citizens is accompanied by honour and dignity because it is not the servitude of men to men, but obedience to the will of God exercising his sovereignty by means of men. And this being recognized and admitted, it is understood that it is a matter of justice to respect

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sanctam servare disciplinam civitatis. the majesty of rulers, to obey public authority constantly and faithfully, to do nothing seditiously, and to keep the civil order of the State intact.

Similiter ponitur in officiis caritas mutua, benignitas, liberalitas: non distrahitur in contrarias partes, pugnantibus inter se præceptis, civis idem, et Christianus: denique amplissima bona, quibus mortalem quoque hominum vitam Christiana religio sua sponte explet, communitati societatique civili omnia quæruntur: ita ut illud appareat verissime dictum: "Pendet a religione, qua Deus colitur, rei publicæ status: multaque inter hunc et illam cognatio et familiaritas intercedit." 372372    Sacr. Imp. ad Cyrillum Alexandr. et Episcopos. metrop.—Conf. Labbeum Collect. Conc., T. iii.

In the same way mutual charity and kindness and liberality become public duties. The man who is at once a citizen and a Christian is no longer the victim of contending parties and incompatible obligations; and, finally, those very abundant good things with which the Christian religion of its own accord fills up even the mortal life of men, are all acquired for the community and civil society, so that it appears to be said with the fullest truth: "The state of the commonwealth depends on the religion with which God is worshipped, and between the one and the other there is a close relation and connection."373373    Sacr. Imp. ad Cyrillum Alexandr. et Episcopos. metrop.—Conf. Labbeum Collect. Conc., T. iii.

Eorum vim bonorun mirabiliter, uti solet, persecutus est Augustinus pluribus locis, maxime vero ubi Ecclesiam Catholicam appellat iis verbis: "Tu pueriliter pueros, fortiter juvenes, quiete senes, prout cujusque non corporis tantum, sed et animi ætas est, exerces ac doces. Tu feminas viris suis non ad explendam libidinem, sed ad propagandam prolem, et ad rei familiaris

Admirably, according to his wont, did Augustin in many places dilate on the power of those good things, but especially when he addresses the Catholic Church in these words: "Thou trainest and teachest children in childlike wise, the young with vigor, the old with gentleness, according as is not only the age of the body, but also of the mind of each. Women thou subjectest

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societatem, casta et fideli obedientia subjicis. Tu viros conjugibus, non ad illudendum imbeciliorum sexum, sed sinceri amoris legibus præficis. Tu parentibus filios libera quadam servitute subjungis, parentes filiis pia dominatione præponis.… Tu cives civibus, tu gentes gentibus, et prorsus homines primorum parentum recordatione, non societate tantum, sed quadam etiam fraternitate conjungis. Doces reges prospicere populis, mones populos se subdere regibus. Quibus honor debeatur, quibus affectus, quibus reverentia, quibus timor, quibus consolatio, quibus admonitio, quibus cohortatio, quibus disciplina, quibus objurgatio, quibus supplicium, sedulo doces; ostendens quemadmodum et non omnibus omnia, et omnibus caritas, et nulli debeatur injuria." 374374    De Moribus Cath., cap. xxx. n. 63. to their husbands in chaste and faithful obedience, not for the satisfaction of lust, but for the propagation of offspring and the formation of the family. Thou settest husbands over their spouses, not that they may trifle with the weaker sex, but in accordance with the laws of true affection. Thou subjectest sons to their parents in a kind of free servitude, and settest parents over their sons in a benignant rule.… Thou joinest together, not merely in society, but in a kind of fraternity, citizens with citizens, peoples with peoples, and in fact the whole race of men by a remembrance of their parentage. Thou teachest kings to look for the interests of their peoples. Thou admonishest peoples to submit themselves to their kings. With all care thou teachest to whom honor is due, to whom affection, to whom reverence, to whom fear, to whom consolation, to whom admonition, to whom exhortation, to whom discipline, to whom reproach, to whom punishment, showing how all things are not due to all, yet charity is, and wrong to none."375375    De Moribus Cath., cap. xxx. n. 63.

Idemque alio loco male sapientes reprehendens politicos philosophos: "Qui doctrinam Christi adversam dicunt esse reipublicæ,

And in another place, speaking in blame of certain political pseudo-philosophers, he observes: "Let those who say that the doctrine

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dent exercitum talem, quales doctrina Christi esse milites jussit, dent tales provinciales, tales maritos, tales conjuges, tales parentes, tales filios, tales dominos, tales servos, tales reges, tales judices, tales denique debitorum ipsius fisci redditores et exactores, quales esse præcipit doctrina Christiana, et audeant eam dicere adversam esse reipublicæ; immo vero non dubitent eam confitere magnam, si obtemperetur, salutem esse reipublicæ." 376376    Epist. cxxxviii (al. 5) ad Marcellinum, cap. ii. n. 51. of Christ is hurtful to the State produce an army of soldiers such as the doctrine of Christ has commanded them to be, such governors of provinces, such husbands, such wives, such parents, such sons, such masters, such slaves, such kings, such judges, and such payers and collectors of taxes due, as the Christian doctrine would have them. And then let them dare to say that such a state of things is hurtful to the State. Nay, they could not hesitate to confess that this doctrine, if it be obeyed, is a great safety to the State."377377    Epist. cxxxviii (al. 5) ad Marcellinum, cap. ii. n. 51.

Fuit aliquando tempus, cum evangelica philosophia gubernaret civitates: quo tempore Christianæ sapientiæ vis illa et divina virtus in leges, instituta, mores populorum, in omnes reipublicæ ordines rationesque penetraverat: cum religio per Jesum Christum instituta in eo, quo æquum erat, dignitatis gradu firmiter collocata, gratia principum legitimaque magistratuum tutela ubique floreret: cum sacerdotium atque imperium concordia et amica officiorum vicissitudo auspicato conjungeret. Eoque modo composita civitas fructus tulit omni opinione majores, quorum viget memoria et vigebit innumerabilibus rerum

There was once a time when the philosophy of the Gospel governed States; when the power and divine virtue of Christian wisdom had penetrated into the laws, institutions, and manners of peoples—indeed into all the ranks and relations of the State; when the religion instituted by Jesus Christ, firmly established in that degree of dignity which was befitting, flourished everywhere, in the favor of rulers and under the due protection of magistrates; when the priesthood and the government were happily united by concord and a friendly interchange of offices. And the State composed in that fashion produced, in the opinion of all, more excellent fruits,

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gestarum consignata monumentis, quæ nulla adversariorum arte corrumpi aut obscurari possunt. the memory of which still flourishes, and will flourish, attested by innumerable monuments which can neither be destroyed nor obscured by any art of the adversary.

Quod Europa Christiana barbaras gentes edomuit, easque a ferocitate ad mansuetudinem, a superstitione ad veritatem traduxit: quod Mahumetanorum incursiones victrix propulsavit: quod civilis cultus principatum retinuit, et ad omne decus humanitatis ducem se magistramque præbere cæteris consuevit: quod germanam libertatem eamque multiplicem gratificata populis est: quod complura ad miseriarum solatium sapientissime instituit, sine controversia magnam debet gratiam religioni, quam ad tantas res suscipiendas habuit auspicem, ad perficiendas adjutricem.

If Christian Europe subdued barbarous peoples, and transferred them from a savage to a civilized state, from superstition to the truth; if she victoriously repelled the invasions of the Mohammedans; if civilization retained the chief power, and accustomed herself to afford others a leader and mistress in everything that adorns humanity; if she has granted to the peoples true and manifold liberty; if she has most wisely established many institutions for the solace of wretchedness, beyond controversy it is very greatly due to religion, under whose auspices such great undertakings were commenced, and with whose aid they were perfected?

Mansissent profecto eadem bona, si utriusque potestatis concordia mansisset: majoraque expectari jure poterant, si auctoritati, si magisterio, si consiliis Ecclesiæ majore esset cum fide perseverantiaque obtemperatum. Illud enim perpetuæ legis instar habendum est, quod Ivo Carnutensis ad Paschalem II pontificem maximum præscripsit: "Cum regnum et sacerdotium inter se conveniunt, bene

No doubt the same excellent state of things would have continued, if the agreement of the two powers had continued, and greater things might rightfully have been expected, if men had obeyed the authority, the teaching office, and the counsels of the Church with more fidelity and perseverance. For that is to be regarded as a perpetual law which Ivo of Chartres wrote to pope Paschal II.: "When kingship and

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regitur mundus, floret et fructificat Ecolesia. Cum vero inter se discordant, non tantum parvæ res non crescunt, sed etiam magnæ res miserabiliter dilabuntur." 378378    Ep. ccxxxviii. priesthood are agreed, the world is well ruled, the Church flourishes and bears fruit. But when they are at variance, not only do little things not grow, but even great things fall into miserable ruin and decay."379379    Ep. ccxxxviii.

Sed perniciosa illa ac deploranda rerum novarum studia, quæ sæculo ævi excitata sunt, cum primum religionem Christianam miscuissent, mox naturali quodam itinere ad philosophiam, a philosophia ad omnes civilis communitatis ordines pervenerunt. Ex hoc velut fonte repetenda illa recentiora effrenatæ libertatis capita, nimirum in maximis perturbationibus superiore sæculo excogitata in medioque proposita, perinde ac principia et fundamenta novi juris, quod et fuit antea ignotum, et a jure non solum Christiano, sed etiam naturali plus una ex parte discrepat.

But that dreadful and deplorable zeal for revolution which was aroused in the sixteenth century, after throwing the Christian religion into confusion, by a certain natural course proceeded to philosophy, and from philosophy pervaded all ranks of the community. From this spring, as it were, came those more recent propositions of unbridled liberty which were first thought out and then openly proclaimed in the terrible disturbances in the present century as the principles and foundations of the new law, which was unknown before, and is out of harmony, not only with Christian, but, in more than one respect, with natural law.

Eorum principiorum illud est maximum, omnes homines, quemadmodum genere naturaque similes intelliguntur, ita reapse esse in actione vitæ inter se pares: unumquemque ita esse sui juris, ut nullo modo sit alterius auctoritati obnoxius: cogitare de re qualibet quæ velit, agere quod lubeat, libere posse: imperandi aliis

Of those principles this is the chief: that as all men are understood to be alike in birth and nature, so they are in reality equal throughout the whole course of their lives: that each is so completely his own master as not to be subject in any way to the authority of another; that he is free to think what he likes on every subject, and to do what he

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jus esse in nemine. His informata disciplinis societate, principatus non est nisi populi voluntas, qui, ut in sui ipsius unice est potestate, ita sibimetipsi solus imperat: deligit autem, quibus se committat, ita tamen ut imperii non tam jus, quam munus in eos transferat, idque suo nomine exercendum. In silentio jacet dominatio divina, non secus ad vel Deus aut nullus esset, aut humani generis societatem nihil curaret: vel homines sive singuli sive societati nihil Deo deberent, vel principatus cogitari posset ullus, cujus non in Deo ipso causa et vis et auctoritas tota resideat. pleases; and that the right of ruling over others exists in no one. In a society founded upon these principles, the ruling power is only the will of the people, which as it is under its own power alone, so it is alone its own proper sovereign, but chooses to whom it may intrust itself, only in such a way that it transfers, not so much the right, as the function of government, and that to be exercised in its name. God is passed over in silence, as if either there were no God, or as if he cared nothing for human society, or as if men, whether as individuals or in society, owed nothing to God, or as if there could be any government whose whole cause and power and authority did not reside in God himself.

Quo modo, ut perspicitur, est republica nihil aliud nisi magistra et gubernatrix sui multitudo: cumque populus omnium jurium omnisque potestatis fontem in se ipso continere dicatur, consequens erit, ut nulla ratione officii obligatam Deo se civitas putet; ut religionem publice profiteatur nullam; nec debeat ex pluribus quæ vera sola sit, quærere, nec unam quamdam cæteris anteponere, nec uni maxime favere, sed singulis generibus æquabilitatem juris tribuere ad eum finem, dum disciplina

In this way, as it is clear, a State is nothing else but a mob which is mistress and directress of itself. And since the people is said to contain in itself the fountain of all rights and all power, it will follow that the State deems itself bound by no kind of duty towards God; that no religion should be publicly professed; nor ought there to be an inquiry which of many is alone true; nor ought one to be preferred to the rest; nor ought one to be specially favored, but to each alike equal rights ought

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reipublicæ ne quid ab illis detrimenti capiat. Consentaneum erit, judicio singulorum permittere omnem de religione quæstionem; licere cuique aut sequi quam ipse malit, aut omnino nullam, si nullam probet. to be assigned, provided only that the social order incurs no injury from them. It is a part of this theory that all questions concerning religion are to be referred to private judgment; that every one is allowed to follow which he prefers, or none at all, if he approves of none.

Hinc profecto illa nascuntur; exlex uniuscujusque conscientiæ judicium; liberrimæ de Deo colendo, de non colendo, sententiæ infinita tum cogitandi, tum cogitata publicandi licentia.

Hence these consequences naturally arise; the judgment of every man's conscience is above law; opinions are as free as possible concerning worshipping or not worshipping God; and there is unbounded license of thinking and publishing the results of thought.

His autem positis, quæ maxime probantur hoc tempore, fundamentis reipublicæ, facile apparet, quem in locum quamque iniquum compellatur Ecclesia. Nam ubi cum ejusmodi doctrinis actio rerum consentiat, nomini Catholico par cum societatibus ab eo alienis vel etiam inferior locus in civitate tribuitur: legum ecclesiasticarum nulla habetur ratio: Ecclesia, quæ jussu mandatoque Jesu Christi docere omnes gentes debet, publicam populi institutionem jubetur nihil attingere.

These foundations of the State being admitted, which at this time are in such general favor, it easily appears into how unfavorable a position the Church is driven. For when the conduct of affairs is in accordance with the doctrines of this kind, to the Catholic name is assigned an equal position with, or even an inferior position to, that of alien societies in the State; no regard is paid to ecclesiastical laws; and the Church, which by the command and mandate of Jesus Christ ought to teach all nations, finds itself forbidden in any way to interfere in the instruction of the people.

De ipsis rebus, quæ sunt mixti juris, per se statuunt gubernatores rei civilis arbitratu suo, in

Concerning those things which are of mixed jurisdiction, the rulers of the civil power lay down the law

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eoque genere sanctissimas Ecclesiæ leges superbe contemnunt. Quare ad jurisdictionem suam trahunt matrimonia Christianorum, decernendo etiam de maritali vinculo, de unitate, de stabilitate conjugii: movent possessiones clericorum, quod res suas Ecclesiam tenere posse negant. Ad summam, sic agunt cum Ecclesia, ut societatis perfectæ genere et juribus opinione detractis, plane similem habeant cæterarum communitatum, quas respublica continet: ob eamque rem si quid illa juris, si quid possidet facultatis ad agendum legitimæ, possidere dicitur concessu beneficioque principum civitatis. at their own pleasure, and in this manner haughtily set aside the most sacred laws of the Church. Wherefore they bring under their own jurisdiction the marriages of Christians, deciding even concerning the marriage bond, concerning the unity, and the stability of marriage. They take possession of the goods of the clergy because they deny that the Church can hold property. To sum up, they so deal with the Church, that, having stripped her in their own opinion both of the nature and the rights of a perfect society, they clearly hold her to be like other associations which the State contains, and on that account, if she possesses any legitimate means of acting, she is said to possess it by the concession and gift of the rulers of the State.

Si qua vero in republica suum Ecclesia jus, ipsis civilibus legibus probantibus, teneat, publiceque inter utramque potestatem pactio aliqua facta sit, principio clamant, dissociari Ecclesiæ rationes a reipublicæ rationibus opportere; idque eo consilio, ut facere contra interpositam fidem impune liceat, omniumque rerum habere, remotis impedimentis, arbitrium.

But if in any State the Church retains her own right with the approval of the civil laws themselves, and any agreement has been publicly made between the two powers, they begin by crying out that the interests of the Church must be severed from those of the State, and they do this with the intent that it may be possible to act against their pledged faith with impunity, and have the disposal of everything without anything to stand in their way.

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Id vero cum patienter ferre Ecclesia non possit, neque enim potest officia deserere sanctissima et maxima, omninoque postulet, ut obligata sibi fides integre religioseque salvatur, sæpe sacram inter ac civilem potestatem dimicationes nascuntur, quarum ille ferme est exitus, alteram, ut quæ minus est opibus humanis valida, alteri ut valiodori succumbere.

But when the Church cannot bear that patiently, nor indeed is able to desert its greatest and most sacred duties, and, above all, requires that faith be wholly and entirely observed with it, contests often arise between the sacred and the civil power, of which the result is commonly that the one which is the weaker in human resources yields to the stronger.

Ita Ecclesiam, in hoc rerum publicarum statu, qui nunc a plerisque adamatur, mos et voluntas est, aut prorsus de medio pellere, aut vinctam adstrictamque imperio tenere. Quæ publice aguntur, eo consilio magnam partem aguntur. Leges, administratio civitatum, expers religionis adolescentium institutio, spoliatio excidiumque ordinum religiosorum, eversio principatus civilis pontificum Romanorum, huc spectant omnia, incidere nervos institutorum Christianorum, Ecclesiæque Catholicæ et libertatem in angustum deducere, et jura cætera comminuere.

So it is the custom and the wish in constitutions of this kind, which are now admired by many, either to expel the Church altogether, or to keep it bound and restricted as to its rule. Public acts in a great measure are framed with this design. Laws, the administration of states, the teaching of youth unaccompanied by religion, the spoliation and destruction of religious orders, the overturning of the civil principality of the Roman pontiffs, all have regard to this end; to emasculate Christian institutes, to narrow the liberty of the Catholic Church, and to diminish her other rights.

Ejusmodi de regenda civitate sententias ipsa naturalis ratio convincit, a veritate dissidere plurimum.—Quidquid enim potestatis usquam est, a Deo tanquam maximo augustissimoque fonte proficisci, ipsa natura testatur.

Natural reason itself convinces us that such opinions about the ruling of a state are very widely removed from the truth. Nature herself bears witness that all power of whatever kind ultimately emanates from God as its greatest and most

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Imperium autem populare, quod nullo ad Deum respectu, in multitudine inesse naturâ dicitur, si præclare ad suppeditandum valet blandimenta et flammas multarum cupiditatum, nulla quidem nititur ratione probabili, neque satis habere virium potest ad securitatem publicam quietamque ordinis constantiam. Revera his doctrinis res inclinavere usque eo, ut hæc a pluribus tamquam lex in civili prudentia sanciatur, seditiones posse jure conflari. Valet enim opinio, nihilo principes pluris esse, quam delectos quosdam qui voluntatem popularem exequantur: ex quo fit, quod necesse est ut omnia sint pariter cum populi arbitrio mutabilia, et timor aliquis turbarum semper impendeat. august fountain. Popular rule, however, which is said to be naturally in the multitude, without any regard to God, though it may excellently avail to supply the fire and attractiveness to many forms of covetousness, yet rests on no probable reason, nor can have sufficient strength to insure public security and the quiet permanence of order. Verily, things under the auspices of these doctrines have come to such a pass that many sanction this as a law in civil jurisprudence, that sedition may be raised lawfully. For the idea prevails that princes are really nothing but delegates to carry out the popular will; from which it follows of necessity that all things are equally liable to change at the people's will, and a certain fear of public disturbance is forever hanging over our heads.

De religione autem putare, nihil inter formas dispares et contrarias interesse, hunc plane habet exitum, nolle ullam probare judicio, nolle usu. Atqui istud ab atheismo, si nomine aliquid differt, re nihil differt. Quibus enim Deum esse persuasum est, ii, modo constare sibi, nec esse perabsurdi velint, necessario intelligunt, usitatas in cultu divino rationes, quarum tanta est differentiæ maximisque etiam de rebus

But to think with regard to religion that there is no difference between unlike and contrary forms, clearly will have this issue—an unwillingness to test any one form in theory and practice. This, if it differs from atheism in name, is in fact the same thing. Men who really believe in the existence of God, if they are to be consistent and not supremely ridiculous, will of necessity understand that different methods of divine worship involving

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dissimilitudo et pugna, æque probabiles, æque bonas, æque Deo acceptas esse omnes non posse. dissimilarity and conflict, even on the most important points, cannot be all equally probable, equally good, and equally accepted by God.

Sic illa quidlibet sentiendi litterarumque formis quidlibet exprimendi facultas, omni moderatione posthabita, non quoddam est propria vi sua bonum, quo societas humana jure lætetur: sed multorum malorum fons et origo.—Libertas, ut quæ virtus est hominem perficiens, debet in eo quod verum sit, quodque bonum, versari: boni autem verique ratio mutari ad hominis arbitrium non potest, sed manet semper eadem, neque minus est quam ipsa rerum natura, incommutabilis. Si mens adsentiatur opinionibus falsis, si malum voluntas adsumat et ad id se applicet, perfectionem sui neutra consequitur, sed excidunt dignitate naturali et in corruptum ambæ delabuntur. Quæcumque sunt igitur virtuti veritatique contraria, ea in luce atque in oculis hominum ponere non est æquum; gratia tutelave legum defendere, multo minus. Sola bene acta vita via est in cælum, quo tendimus universi: ob eamque rem aberrat civitas a regula et præscriptione naturæ, si licentiam opinionum praveque factorum

And thus that faculty of thinking whatever you like and expressing whatever you like to think in writing, without any thought of moderation, is not of its own nature a good in which human society can rightly rejoice, but on the contrary a fount and origin of many ills. Liberty, as being a virtue perfecting man, must have for its sphere the good and the true; but the true and the good cannot be changed at the pleasure of man, but remains ever the same, and is not less unchangeable than nature herself. If the mind assent to false opinions, if the will choose for itself evil, and apply itself thereto, neither attains its perfection, but both fall from their natural dignity, and both lapse by degrees into corruption. Whatever things, therefore, are contrary to virtue and truth, these it is no right to place in the light before the eyes of men, far less to defend by the favor and protection of the laws. A well-spent life is the only path to that heaven wither we all direct our steps; and on this account the State departs from the law and the ruling of nature if it allows license

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in tantum lascivire sinat, in impune liceat mentes a veritate, animos a virtute deducere. Ecclesiam vero, quam Deus ipse constituit ah actione vitæ excludere, a legibus, ab institutione adolescentium, a societate domestica, magnus et perniciosus est error. of opinion and of evil doing to run riot to such a degree as to lead minds astray with impunity from the truth, and hearts from the practice of virtue. But to exclude the Church which God himself has constituted from the business of life, from the laws, from the teaching of youth, from domestic society, is a great and pernicious error.

Bene morata civitas esse, sublata religione, non potest: jamque plus fortasse quam oporteret, est cognitum, qualis in se sit et quorsum pertineat, illa de vita et moribus philosophia, quam civilem nominant. Vera est magistra virtutis et morum custos Ecclesia Christi: ea est, quæ incolumia tuetur principia unde officia ducuntur, propositisque causis ad honesti vivendum efficacissimis, jubet non solum fugere prave facta, sed regere motus animi rationi contrarios etiam sine affectu.

A State cannot be well regulated when religion is taken away; and by this time more perhaps is known than need be of that philosophy of life and morals which men call civil—what its nature is, and what its results are. The Church of Christ is the true teacher of virtue and guardian of morals; it is she who keeps in safety the principles of duty, and by proposing most efficacious reasons for an honest life, bids us not only fly from wicked deeds, but rule the motions of the mind which are contrary to reason even though no act should follow.

Ecclesiam vero in suorum officiorum munere potestati civili velle esse subjectam, magna quidem injuria, magna temeritas est. Hoc facto perturbatur ordo, quia quæ naturalia sunt præponuntur iis quæ sunt supra naturam: tollitur aut certe magnopere minuitur frequentia bonorum, quibus, si nulla re impediretur, communem

To wish the Church in the discharge of her offices to be subject to the civil power is great rashness, great injustice. If this were done order would be disturbed, since things natural would thus be put before those which are above nature; a multitude of benefits, with which, if there were nothing to hinder her, the Church would enrich the life of

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vitam Ecclesia compleret: prætereaque via ad inimicitias munitur et certamina, quæ, quanquam utrique reipublicæ perniciem afferant, nimis sæpe eventus demonstravit. the community, either disappears or at all events is considerably diminished, and besides, a way is opened to enmities and conflicts—and how great the evils are that they have brought on both governments (the ecclesiastical and the civil) the course of history has too frequently shown.

Hujusmodi doctrinas, quæ nec humanæ rationi probantur, et plurimum habent in civilem disciplinam momenti, Romani pontifices decessores nostri, cum probe intelligerent quid a se postularet apostolicum munus, impune abire nequaquam passi sunt. Sic Gregorius XVI per Encyclicas litteras hoc initio Mirari vos, die xv Augusti anno MDCCCXXXII, magna sententiarum gravitate ea perculit, quæ jam prædicabantur, in cultu divino nullum adhibere delectum oportere: integrum singulis esse, quod malint, de religione judicare: solam cuique suam esse conscientiam judicem: præterea edere quæ quisque senserit, itemque res moliri novas in civitate licere. De rationibus rei sacræ reique civilis distrahendis sic idem pontifex: "Neque lætiora et religioni et principatui ominari possemus ex eorum votis, qui Ecclesiam a regno separari, mutuamque imperii cum sacerdotio

Such doctrines, which are not approved by human reason, and are of the greatest gravity as regards civil discipline, the Roman pontiffs, our predecessors—well understanding what the apostolic office required of them—by no means suffered to go without condemnation. Thus Gregory XVI., by Encyclical Letter beginning Mirari vos, of August 15, 1832, inveighed with weighty words against those doctrines which were already being preached, namely, that in divine worship no preference should be made; and that it was left to individuals to judge of religion according to their personal preferences, that each man's conscience was to himself his sole sufficient guide, and that it was lawful to promulgate whatsoever each man might think, and to make a revolution in the State. Concerning the reasons for the separation of Church and State, the same pontiff speaks thus: "Nor can we hope happier results either

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concordiam abrumpi discupiunt. Constat quippe pertimesci ab impudentissimæ libertatis amatoribus concordiam illam, quæ semper rei et sacræ et civili fausta, extitit et salutaris." for religion or government from the wishes of those who are eagerly desirous that the Church should be separated from the State, and the mutual good understanding of the sovereign secular power and the sacerdotal authority be broken up. It is evident that these lovers of most shameless liberty dread that concord which has always been fortunate and wholesome, both for sacred and civil interests."

Non absimili modo Pius IX., ut sese opportunitas dedit, ex opinionibus falsis, quæ maxime valere cœpissent, plures notavit, easdemque postea in unum cogi jussit, ut scilicet in tanta errorum colluvione haberent Catholici homines, quod sine offensione sequerentur. 380380     Earum nonnullas indicare sufficiat.
    Prop. XIX.—Ecclesia non est vera perfectaque societas plane libera, nec pollet suis propriis et constantibus juribus sibi a divino suo fundatore collatis, sed civilis potestatis est definire quæ sint Ecclesiæ jura ac limites, intra quos eadem jura exercere queat.

    Prop. XXXIX.—Reipublicæ status utpote omnium jurium origo et fons, jure quodam pollet nullis circumscripto limitibus.

    Prop. LV.—Ecclesia a statu, statusque ab Ecclesia sejungendus est.

    Prop. LXXIX.— … Falsum est, civilem cujusque cultus libertatem, itemque plenam potestatem omnibus attributam quaslibet opioniones cogitationesque palam publiceque manifestandi, conducere ad populorum mores animosque facilius corrumpendos, ac indifferentismi pestem propagandam.

To the like effect Pius IX., as opportunity offered, noted many false opinions which had begun to be of great strength, and afterwards ordered them to be collected together in order that in so great a conflux of errors Catholics might have something which they might follow without stumbling.

Ex iis autem pontificum præscriptis illa omnino intelligi necesse est, ortum publicæ potestatis a Deo ipso, non a multitudine repeti oportere: seditionum licentiam cum ratione pugnare: officia

From these decisions of the popes it is clearly to be understood that the origin of public power is to be sought from God himself and not from the multitude; that free play for sedition is repugnant to reason;

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religionis nullo loco numerare, vel uno modo esse in disparibus generibus affectos, nefas esse privatis hominibus, nefas civitatibus: immoderatam sentiendi sensusque palam jactandi potestatem non esse in civium juribus neque in rebus gratia patrocinioque dignis ulla ratione ponendam.—Similiter intelligi debet, Ecclesiam societatem esse, non minus quam ipsum civitatem, genere et jure perfectam: neque debere, qui summam imperii teneant, committere ut sibi servire aut subesse Ecclesiam cogant, aut minus esse sinant ad suas res agendas liberam, aut quicquam de ceteris juribus detrahant, quæ in ipsam a Jesu Christo collata sunt. that it is a crime for private individuals and a crime for States to make no account of the duties of religion, or to treat different kinds of religion in the same way; that the uncontrolled power of thinking and publicly proclaiming one's thoughts has no place among the rights of citizens, and cannot in any way be reckoned among those things which are worthy of favor or defense. Similarly it ought to be understood that the Church is a society, no less than the State itself, perfect in kind and right, and that those who exercise sovereignty ought not to act so as to compel the Church to be their slave or subject, or suffer her to have less than liberty to transact her own affairs, or detract aught from the other rights which have been conferred upon her by Jesus Christ.

In negotiis autem mixti juris, maxime esse secundum naturam itemque secundum Dei consilia non secessionem alterius potestatis ab altera, multoque minus contentionem, sed plane concordiam, eamque cum caussis proximis cengruentem, quæ caussæ utramque societatem genuerunt.

That in matters, however, of mixed jurisdiction, it is in the highest degree in accordance with nature and also with the counsels of God—not that one power should secede from the other, still less come into conflict, but that that harmony and concord should be preserved which is most akin to the proximate cause and end of both societies.

Hæc quidem sunt, quæ de constituendis temperandisque civitatibus

These, then, are the things taught by the Catholic Church concerning

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ab Ecclesia Catholica præcipiuntur.—Quibus tamen dictis decretisque si recte dijudicare velit, nulla per se reprehenditur ex variis reipublicæ formis, ut quæ nihil habent, quod doctrinæ Catholicæ repugnet, eædemque possunt, si sapienter adhibeantur et juste, in optimo statu tueri civitatem.—Immo neque illud per se reprehenditur, participem plus minus esse populum reipublicæ: quod ipsum certis in temporibus certisque legibus potest non solum ad utilitatem, sed etiam ad officium pertinere civium.—Insuper neque caussa justa nascitur, ut Ecclesiam quisquam criminetur, aut esse in lenitate facilitateque plus æquo restrictam, aut ei, quæ germana et legitima sit, libertati inimicam.—Revera si divina cultus varia genera eodem jure esse quo veram religionem, Ecclesia judicat non licere, non ideo tamen eos damnat rerum publicarum moderatores, qui magni alicujus aut adipiscendi boni, aut prohibendi caussa mali, moribus atque usu patienter ferunt, ut ea habeant singula in civitatem locum.—Atque illud quoque magnopere cavere Ecclesia solet ut ad amplexandam fidem Catholicam nemo invitus cogatur, quia quod sapienter Augustinus monet, credere the constitution and government of States. Concerning these sayings and decrees, if a man will only judge dispassionately, no form of government is, per se, condemned so long as it has nothing repugnant to Catholic doctrine, and is able, if wisely and justly administered, to preserve the State in the best condition. Nor is it, per se, to be condemned whether the people have a greater or less share in the government; for at certain times and with the guarantee of certain laws, such participation may appertain, not only to the usefulness, but even to the duty of the citizens. Moreover, there is no just cause why any one should condemn the Church as being too restricted in gentleness, or inimical to that liberty which is natural and legitimate. In truth, though the Church judges it not lawful that the various kinds of divine worship should have the same right as the true religion, still it does not therefore condemn those governors of States who, for the sake of acquiring some great good, or preventing some great ill, patiently bear with manners and customs so that each kind of religion has its place in the State. Indeed, the Church is wont diligently to take heed that no one be compelled against his will to embrace the Catholic
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non potest homo nisi volens. 381381    Tract. xxvi., in Joan. n. 2. faith, for, as Augustin wisely observes, "no one can believe if he is not willing."382382    Tract. xxvi., in Joan. n. 2.

Simili ratione nec potest Ecclesia libertatem probare eam, quæ fastidium gignat sanctissimarum Dei legum, debitamque potestati legitimæ obedientiam exuat. Est enim licentia verius, quam libertas rectissimeque ab Augustino libertas perditionis, 383383    Epist. cv. ad Donatistas. cap. ii. n. 9. a Petro Apostolo velamen malitiæ 384384    1 Peter ii. 16. appellatur: immo, cum sit præter rationem, vera servitus est: qui, enim, facit peccatum, servus est peccati. 385385    John viii. 34. Contra illa germana est atque expetenda libertas quæ, si privatim spectetur, erroribus et cupiditatibus teterrimis dominis hominem servire non sinit: si publice, civibus sapienter præest, facultatem augendorum commodorum large ministrat: remque publicam ab alieno arbitrio defendit.—Atqui honestam hanc et homine dignam libertatem, Ecclesia probat omnium maxime, eamque ut tueretur in populis firmam atque integram eniti et contendere nunquam destitit.

For a similar reason the Church cannot approve of that liberty which generates a contempt of the most sacred laws of God and puts away the obedience due to legitimate power. For this is license rather than liberty, and is most correctly called by Augustin "the liberty of perdition;"386386    Epist. cv. ad Donatistas. cap. ii. n. 9. by the Apostle Peter, "a cloak for malice,"387387    1 Peter ii. 16. indeed, since it is contrary to reason, it is a true servitude, for "Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin."388388    John viii. 34. On the other hand, that is the genuine and desirable liberty which, if it be considered in relation to the individual, suffers not men to be the slaves of errors and evil desires, the worst of masters; and, in relation to the State, presides wisely over the citizens, greatly facilitates the increase of public advantages, and defends the public interest from alien rule. This blameless liberty, worthy of man, the Church approves above all, and has never ceased striving and contending to keep sound and whole among the people.

Revera quæ res in civitate plurimum ad communem salutem possunt: quæ sunt contra licentiam

In very truth whatever things in the State chiefly avail for the common safety; whatever have been

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principum populo male consulentium utiliter institutæ: quæ summam, rempublicam vetant in municipalem, vel domesticam rem importunius invadere: quæ valent ad decus, ad personam hominis, ad æquabilitatem juris in singulis civibus conservandam, earum rerum omnium Ecclesiam Catholicam vel inventricem, vel auspicem, vel custodem semper fuisse superiorum ætatum monumenta testantur. usefully instituted against the license of princes who have not their people's good at heart; whatever forbid the intervention of the supreme authority in municipal or domestic affairs; whatever avail to preserve the dignity of man and his personal rights, or to maintain the equality of rights in individual citizens, of all these things the monuments of former ages declare the Catholic Church to have been either the author, the promoter, or the perpetual guardian.

Sibi igitur perpetuo consentiens, si ex altera parte libertatem respuit immodicam quæ et privatis et populis in licentiam vel in servitutem cadit, ex altera volens et libens amplectitur res meliores, quas dies afferat, si vere prosperitatem contineant hujus vitæ, quæ quoddam est velut stadium ad alteram eamque perpetuo mansuram.

Ever therefore consistent with herself, if on the one hand she rejects immoderate liberty, which both in the case of individuals and peoples results in license or in servitude; on the other she willingly and with pleasure embraces those happier circumstances which the age brings if they truly contain the prosperity of this life, which is, as it were, a stage in the journey to that other which is to endure everlastingly.

Ergo quod inquiunt Ecclesiam recentiori civitatem invidere disciplinæ, et quæcumque horum temporum ingenium peperit, omnia promiscue repudiare, inanis est et jejuna calumnia. Insaniam quidem repudiat opinionum: improbat nefaria seditionum studia illumque nominatim habitum animorum,

Therefore when men say that the Church views with disfavor all modern statecraft, and repudiates without distinction all modern progress, it is an empty and contemptible calumny. She does, indeed, repudiate the madness of opinion; she reprobates the wicked plans of sedition, and especially that habit of

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morum, in quo initia perspiciuntur voluntarii discessus a Deo: sed quia omne, quod verum est, a Deo proficisci necesse est, quidquid, indagando, veri attingatur, agnoscit Ecclesia velut quoddam divinæ mentis vestigium. Cumque nihil sit in rerum natura veri, quod doctrinis divinitus traditis fidem abroget, multa quæ adrogent, omnisque possit inventio veri ad Deum ipsum vel cognoscendum vel laudandum impellere, idcirco quidquid accedat ad scientiarum fines proferendos, gaudente et libente Ecclesia semper accedet: eademque studiose, ut solet, sicut alias disciplinas, ita illas etiam fovebit ac provehet, quæ positæ sunt in explicatione naturæ. Quibus in studiis, non adversatur Ecclesia si quid mens repererit novi: non repugnat quin plura quærantur ad decus commoditatemque vitæ: immo inertiæ desidiæque inimica, magnopere vult ut hominum ingenia uberes ferant exercitatione et cultura fructus: incitamenta præbet ad omne genus artium atque operam: omniaque harum rerum studia ad honestatem salutemque virtute sua dirigens impedire nititur, quominus a Deo bonisque cælestibus sua hominem intelligentia atque industria deflectat. mind in which the beginnings of a voluntary departing from God are visible; but since every true thing must necessarily proceed from God, whatever of truth is by search attained, the Church acknowledges as a certain token of the divine mind. And since there is no truth in the world which can take away belief in the doctrines divinely handed down and many things which confirm it, and since every finding of truth may impel man to the knowledge or praise of God himself, therefore whatever may happen to extend the range of knowledge, the Church will always willingly and joyfully accept; and she will, as is her wont in the case of other studies, steadily encourage and promote those also which are concerned with the investigation of nature. If the mind finds anything new in them, the Church offers no opposition; she fights, not against the search after more things for the grace and convenience of life—nay, a very foe to inertness and sloth, she earnestly wishes that the talents of men should, by being cultivated and exercised, bear still richer fruits; she offers inducements to every sort of art and craft, and directing by her own innate worth all the pursuits of these things to virtue and salvation, she strives to save man's own intelligence
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Sed hæc tametsi plena rationis et consilii, nimis probantur hoc tempore, cum civitates non modo recusant sese ad Christianæ sapientiæ referre formam, sed etiam videntur quotidie longius ab ea velle discedere.

and industry from turning him away from God and the good things of heaven.

But these things, although full of reasonableness and foresight, are not so well approved of in these days, when States not only refuse to defer to the laws of Christian wisdom, but seem even to wish to depart each day farther from them.

Nihilominus quia in lucem prolata veritas solet sua sponte late fluere, hominumque mentes sensim pervadere, idcirco nos conscientia maximi sanctissimique officii, hoc est apostolica, qua fungimur ad gentes universas, legatione permoti, ea quæ vera sunt, libere, ut debemus, eloquimur; non quod non perspectam habeamus rationem temporum, aut repudianda ætatis nostræ honesta atque utilia incrementa putemus, sed quod rerum publicarum tutiora ab offensionibus itinera ac firmiora fundamenta vellemus: idque incolumi populorum germana libertate; in hominibus enim mater et custos optima libertatis veritas est: Veritas liberabit vos. 389389    John viii. 32.

Nevertheless, because truth brought to light is wont of its own accord to spread widely, and by degrees to pervade the minds of men, we, therefore, moved by the consciousness of our exalted and most sacred office, that is our apostolic commission to all nations, speak the truth freely as we ought to speak: not that we have no perception of the spirit of the times, or that we think the honest and useful improvements of our age are to be repudiated, but because we would wish the highways of public affairs to be safer from attacks, and their foundations more stable, and that without detriment to the true freedom of the peoples; for amongst men the mother and best guardian of liberty is truth: "The truth shall make you free."390390    John viii. 32.

Itaque in tam difficili rerum cursu Catholici homines, si nos, ut oportet, audierint, facile videbunt

Therefore at so critical a juncture of events, Catholic men, if, as it behooves them, they will listen to us,

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quæ sua cujusque sint tam in opinionibus, quam in factis officia.—Et in opinando quidem, quæcumque pontifices Romani tradiderint vel tradituri sunt, singula necesse est et tenere judicio stabili comprehensa, et palam, quoties res postulaverit, profiteri, ac nominatim de iis, quas libertates vocant novissimo tempore quæsitas, oportet Apostolicæ Sedis stare judicio, et quod ipsa senserit, idem sentire singulos. Cavendum, ne quem fallat honesta illarum species: cogitandumque quibus ortæ initiis, et quibus passim sustententur atque alantur studiis. Satis jam est experiendo cognitum, quarum illæ rerum effectrices sint in civitate eos quippe passim genuere fructus, quorum probos viros et sapientes jure pœniteat. will easily see what are their own and each other's duties in matters of opinion as well as of action. And as regards opinion, it is necessary both to hold all things whatsoever the Roman pontiffs have delivered, or shall hereafter deliver, with firm grasp and clear apprehension, and also as often as occasion demands openly to profess the same. And, to give an instance, concerning those things which are called recently acquired liberties, it is proper to stand by the judgment of the Apostolic See, and for every one to hold what she holds. Take care lest any man be deceived by the honest outward appearance of these things; and think of the beginnings from which they are sprung; and by what desires they are sustained and fed in divers places. It is now sufficiently known by experience what they produce in the State; for in many a place they have borne fruit, over which wise and good men justly grieve.

Si talis alicubi aut reapse sit, aut fingatur cogitatione civitas quæ Christianum nomen insectetur proferre et tyrannice, cum eaque conferatur genus id reipublicæ recens, de quo loquimur, poterit hoc videri tolerabilius. Principia tamen, quibus nititur, sunt profecto ejusmodi, sicut ante diximus, ut

If there were in any place a State, either actual or hypothetical, that wantonly and tyrannically waged war upon the Christian name, and if such a modern kind of State as we are speaking of were compared with it, it is possible that this might be considered more tolerable; yet the principles

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per se ipsa probari nemini debeant. upon which it rests are absolutely such that, of themselves, they ought to be approved by no men.

Potest tamen aut in privatis domesticisque rebus, aut in publicis actio versari. Privatim quidem primum officium est, præceptis evangelicis diligentissime conformare vitam et mores, nec recusare si quid Christiana virtus exigat ad patiendum tolerandumque paulo difficilius. Debent præterea singuli Ecclesiam sic diligere, ut communem matrem: ejusque et jura salva velle: conarique ut ab iis in quos quisque aliquid auctoritate potest, pari pietate colatur atque ametur.

Now the field of human conduct may lie either in private and domestic or in public affairs. In private life the first duty is to conform one's life and manners to the precepts of the Gospel, and not to refuse if Christian virtue requires of us to bear something more difficult than usual. Moreover, individuals are bound to love the Church as their common mother; to keep her laws obediently; to give her the service of due honor, and wish her rights respected, and endeavor to have her fostered and beloved with like piety by those over whom they may exercise authority.

Illud etiam publicæ salutis interest, ad rerum urbanarum administrationem conferre sapienter operam: in eaque studere maxime et efficere, ut adolescentibus ad religionem, ad probos mores informandis ea ratione, qua æquum est Christianis, publice consultum sit: quibus ex rebus magnopere pendet singularum salus civitatum.

It is also of great importance to the public welfare diligently and wisely to give attention to education and culture; to bestow careful attention upon them, and to take effectual care that public provision be made for the training of youth in religion and morality, as Christians are bound to provide; for upon these things depend very much the welfare of every State.

Item Catholicorum hominum operam ex hoc tanquam angustiore campo longius excurrere, ipsamque summam rempublicam complecti,

And further, to speak generally, it is useful and honorable for the attention of Catholic men to pass beyond this narrower field, and to embrace

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generatim utile est atque honestum. Generatim eo dicimus quia hæc præcepta nostra gentes universas attingunt. Ceterim potest alicubi accidere, ut, maximis justissimisque de causis, rempublicam capessere, in muneribusque politicis versari, nequaquam expediat. Sed generatim, ut diximus, nullam velle rerum publicarum partem attingere tam esset in vitio, quam nihil ad communem utilitatem afferre studii, nihil operæ: eo vel magis quod Catholici homines ipsius, quam profitentur admonitione doctrinæ, ad rem integre et ex fide gerendam impelluntur. Contra ipsis otiosis, facile habenas accepturi suntii quorum opiniones spem salutis haud sane magnam afferant. Idque esset etiam cum pernicie conjunctum Christiani nominis: propterea quod plurimum possent qui male essent in Ecclesiam animati: minimum qui bene. every branch of public administration. Generally, we say, because these our precepts reach unto all the nations. But it may happen in some particular place, for the most urgent and just reasons, that it is by no means expedient to engage in public affairs, or to take an active part in political functions. But generally, as we have said, to wish to take no part in public affairs would be wrong in proportion as it contributed neither thought nor work to the common weal; and the more so on this account, because Catholic men are bound by the admonitions of the doctrine which they profess, to do what has to be done with integrity and with faith. If, on the contrary, they are idle, those whose opinions assuredly do not give any great hope of safety will easily get possession of the reins of government. This would be attended with danger to the Christian name, because they who are badly disposed towards the Church would become most powerful; and those least powerful who are well disposed.

Quamobrem perspicuum est, ad rempublicam adeundi causam esse justam Catholicis: non enim adeunt, neque adire debent ob eam causam, ut probent quod est hoc tempore in rerum publicarum rationibus non honestum; sed ut

Wherefore it is evident there is just cause for Catholics to undertake the conduct of public affairs; for they do not assume these responsibilities in order to approve of what is not lawful in the methods of government at this time; but in

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has ipsas rationes, quoad fieri potest, in bonum publicum transferant sincerum atque verum, destinatum animo habentes, sapientiam virtutemque Catholicæ religionis, tanquam saluberrimum succum ac sanguinem, in omnes reipublicæ venas inducere. order that they may turn these very methods, as far as may be, to the unmixed and true public good, holding this purpose in their minds, to infuse into all the veins of the commonwealth the most healthy sap and blood as it were—the wisdom and virtue of the Catholic religion.

Haud aliter actum in primis Ecclesiæ ætatibus. Mores enim et studia ethnicorum quam longissime a studiis abhorrebant moribusque evangelicis: Christianos tamen cernere erat in media superstitione incorruptos semperque suî similes animose, quacumque daretur aditus, inferre sese. Fideles in exemplum principibus, obedientesque, quoad fas esset, imperio legum, fundebant mirificum splendorem sanctitatis usquequaque, prodesse studebant fratribus, vocare ceteros ad sapientiam Christi, cedere tamen loco atque emori fortiter parati, si honores, si magistratus, si imperia retinere, incolumi virtute nequivissent.

Such was the course adopted in the first ages of the Church. For the ways and aspirations of the heathen were as widely divergent as possible from the ways and aspirations of the Gospel; yet Christians were seen to be incorrupt in the midst of superstition, and always true to themselves, entering with spirit every walk in life which was open to them. Models of fidelity to their princes, obedient, where lawful, to the sovereign power, they exhibited the wonderful splendor of holiness everywhere; they sought the good of their neighbor, and to call others to the wisdom of Christ; bravely prepared to renounce public life, and even to die, if it was impossible for them to retain their offices, or magistracies, or commands with unsullied virtue.

Qua ratione celeriter instituta Christiana non modo in privatas domos, sed in castra, in curiam, in ipsam regiam invexere. "Hesterni sumus, et vestra omnia implevimus,

And thus Christian customs soon found their way, not only into private houses, but into the camp, the senate, and even the imperial palace. "We are of yesterday

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urbes, insulas, castella, municipia, conciliabula, castra ipsa, tribus, decurias, palatium, senatum, forum,"391391    Tertull. Apol. n. 17. ita ut fides Christiana, cum evangelium publice profiteri lege licuit, non in cunis vagiens, sed adulta et jam satis firma in magna civitatum parte apparuit. and we have filled all that you have, cities, great tenements, military stations, municipalities, councils, the very camps, the rank and file of the army, the officerships, the palace, the senate, the forum,"392392    Tertull. Apol. n. 17. so that the Christian faith, as soon as it was lawful to profess the Gospel publicly, was manifest at once in a great part of the empire, no longer as a babe crying in its cradle, but grown up to robust manhood.

Jamvero his temporibus consentaneum est, hæc majorum exempla renovari.—Catholicos quidem, quotquot digni sunt eo nomine, primum omnium necesse est amantissimos Ecclesiæ filios et esse et videri velle: quæ res nequeant cum hac laude consistere, eas sine cunctatione respuere: institutis populorum, quantum honeste fieri potest, ad veritatis justitiæque patrocinium uti: elaborare, ut constitutum naturæ Deique lege modum libertas agendi ne transiliat: dare operam ut ad eam, quam diximus, Christianam similitudinem et formam omnis respublica traducatur.

Now in these times it is desirable to renew these examples of our forefathers. Catholics indeed, as many as are worthy of the name, must before all things be, and be willing to be seen to be, most loving sons of the Church; whatsoever is inconsistent with this good report, they must without hesitation reject; they must use popular institutions as far as honestly can be to the advantage of truth and justice; they must take care that liberty of action shall not transgress the bounds ordained by the law of nature and God; and so work that the whole of public life shall be transformed into what we have called a Christian image and likeness.

Harum rerum adipiscendarum ratio constitui uno certoque modo haud commode potest cum debeat singulis locis temporibusque, quæ

The means to these ends can scarcely be laid down upon one uniform plan, since they must suit places and times very different from

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sunt multum inter se disparia, convenire. Nihilominus conservanda in primis est voluntatum concordia, quærendaque agendorum similitudo. Atque optime utrumque impetrabitur, si prescripta Sedis Apostolicæ legem vitæ singuli putent, atque Episcopis obtemperent, quos Spiritus Sanctus posuit regere Ecclesiam Dei. 393393    Acts xx. 28. each other. Nevertheless, in the first place, let concord of wills be preserved and unity of aim be maintained. And each will be best attained if all consider the admonitions of the Apostolic See a law of conduct, and obey the bishops whom "the Holy Spirit has placed to rule the Church of God."394394    Acts xx. 28.

Defensio quidem Catholici nominis necessario postulat ut in profitendis doctrinis, quæ ab Ecclesia traduntur una sit omnium sententia, et summa constantia, et hac ex parte cavendum ne quis opinionibus falsis aut ullo modo conniveat, aut mollius resistat, quam veritas patiatur. De iis quæ sunt opinabilia, licebit cum moderatione studioque indagandæ veritatis disputare, procul tamen suspicionibus injuriosis, criminationibusque mutuis.—Quam ob rem ne animorum conjunctio criminandi temeritate dirimatur, sic intelligant universi: integritatem professionis Catholicæ consistere nequaquam posse cum opinionibus ad naturalismum vel rationalismum accedentibus, quarum summa est tollere funditus instituta Christiana, hominisque stabilire in societate principatum posthabito Deo.

The defence of the Catholic name, indeed, of necessity demands that in the profession of doctrines which are handed down by the Church the opinion of all shall be one, and their constancy perfect, and under this head care must be taken that no one connives in any degree at false opinions or resists with less vigor than truth requires. Concerning those things which are matters of opinion, it will be lawful to hold different views with moderation and with a desire of investigating the truth, without injurious suspicions and mutual incriminations. For which purpose, lest unity of spirit be broken by temerity of accusation, let all understand that integrity of the Catholic profession can by no means be reconciled with any opinions approaching naturalism or rationalism, whose sum total is the uprooting of Christian institutions altogether, and the establishment of the

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  supremacy of man upon the dethronement of God.

Pariter non licere aliam officii formam privatim sequi, aliam publice, ita scilicet ut Ecclesiæ auctoritas in vita privata observetur, in publica respuatur. Hoc enim esset honesta et turpia conjungere, hominemque secum facere digladiantem, cum contra debeat sibi semper constare, neque ulla in re ullove in genere vitæ a virtute Christiana deficere.

Likewise it is unlawful to follow one line of duty in private and another in public, so that the authority of the Church shall be observed in private, and spurned in public. For this would be to join together things honest and disgraceful, and to make a man play a game of fence with himself, when on the contrary he ought always to be consistent, and never in any the least thing or any rank of life decline from Christian virtue.

Verum si quæratur de rationibus mere politicis, de optimo genere reipublicæ, de ordinandis alia vel alia ratione civitatibus, utique de his rebus potest honesta esse dissensio. Quorum igitur cognita ceteroqui pietas est, animusque decreta Sedis Apostolicæ obedienter accipero paratus, iis vitio verti dissentaneum de rebus, quas diximus sententiam, justitia non patitur: multoque est major injuria, si in crimen violatæ suspectæve fidei Catholicæ, quod non semel factum dolemus, adducantur.

But if it be a question of principles merely political, concerning the best form of government, of civil regulations of one kind or another, concerning these things, of course, there is room for disagreement without harm. Those whose piety, therefore, is known on other accounts, and whose minds are ready to accept the decrees of the Apostolic See, justice will not allow to be reproached because they differ on these subjects; and much greater is the injury if they are charged with having violated the Catholic faith, or being of doubtful orthodoxy—a thing we have had to deplore more than once.

Omninoque istud præceptum teneant qui cogitationes suas solent mandare litteris, maximeque ephemeridum

And let all hold this precept absolutely who are wont to commit their thoughts to writing, especially

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auctores. In hac quidem de rebus maximis contentione nihil est intestinis concertationibus, vel partium studiis relinquendum loci, sed conspirantibus animis studiisque id debent universi contendere, quod est commune omnium propositum, religionem remque publicam conservare. Si quid igitur dissidiorum antea fuit, oportet voluntaria quadam oblivione conterere: si quid temere, si quid injuria actum, ad quoscumque demum ea culpa pertineat, compensandum est caritate mutua, et præcipuo quodam omnium in Apostolicam Sedem obsequio redimendum. journalists and writers for the press. In this contention for the highest things no room should be left for intestine conflicts or the greed of parties, but let all, uniting together, seek the common object of all, the preservation of religion and the commonwealth. If, therefore, there have been dissensions, let them be obliterated in willing forgetfulness; if there has been anything rash, anything injurious, to whomsoever this fault belongs let reparation be made by mutual charity, and especially by obedience to the Apostolic See.

Hac via duas res præclarissimas Catholici consecuturi sunt: alteram, ut adjutores sese impertiant Ecclesiæ in conservanda propagandaque sapientia Christiana: alteram ut beneficio maximo afficiant societatem civilem, cujus malarum doctrinarum cupiditatumque caussa, magnopere periclitatur salus.

In this way Catholics will obtain two things that are most excellent: one that they will make themselves helps to the Church in preserving and propagating Christian knowledge; the other that they will benefit civil society, whose safety is gravely compromised by evil doctrines and inordinate cupidity.

Hæc quidem, Venerabiles Fratres, habuimus, quæ universis Catholici orbis gentibus traderemus de civitatum constitutione Christiana, officiisque civium singulorum.

These then, Venerable Brethren, are the teachings that we have had to transmit to all nations of the Catholic world concerning the Christian constitution of States and the duties of individual citizens.

Ceterum implorare summis precibus

But it behooves us to implore

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oportet cæleste presidium, orandusque Deus, ut hæc, quæ ad ipsius gloriam communemque humani generis salutem cupimus et conamur, optatos ad exitus idem ipse perducat, cujus est illustrare hominum mentes, permovere voluntates. Divinorum autem beneficiorum auspicium, et paternæ benevolentiæ Nostræ testem vobis, Venerabiles Fratres, et clero populoque universo vestræ fidei vigilantiæque commisso apostolicam benedictionem peramanter in Domino impertimus. with most earnest prayers the protection of Heaven, and to beseech almighty God, whose alone it is to enlighten the minds of men and move their wills, himself to bring these our longing and efforts for his glory and for man's salvation to the issue that we hope for. As a pledge of the divine favors, and in witness of our paternal benevolence to you, Venerable Brethren, to the clergy, and to all the people committed to your faith and vigilance, we lovingly bestow in the Lord the apostolic benediction.

Datum Romæ apud S. Petrum die 1 novembris anno MDCCCLXXXV, pontificatus nostri anno octavo.

Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, on the first day of November, in the year of our Lord MDCCCLXXXV, of our pontificate the eight.

LEO PP. XIII. LEO PP. XIII.

 

NOTE.

The Encyclical of 1888.

In a more recent Encyclical, "Libertas præstantissimum naturæ donum," issued June 20, 1888, Leo XIII.—one of the wisest, most moderate, and most liberal popes of modern times—reiterates the same doctrine on civil government, liberty, and the relation of Church and State, even more strongly than in the bull of 1885. He begins by praising liberty as the most excellent gift of nature, which belongs only to intellectual or rational beings, but he makes true liberty to consist in submission to the will of God, as expressed in an infallible Church with an infallible head. He severely condemns what he calls 601the modern liberties (1) of worship, (2) of speech and of the press, (3) of teaching, and (4) of conscience, because they tacitly assume the absence of truth as the law of our reason, and of authority as the law of our will. He first misstates the liberal theory, which he seems to know only in the form of infidel radicalism, and then denounces it.

In the same document the pope incidentally calls the separation of Church and State "a pernicious maxim."395395    " Perniciosa sententia de rationibus ecclesiæ a republica disparandis. " And he concludes: "From what has been said, it follows that it is in no way lawful to demand to defend, or to grant, promiscuous freedom of thought, of speech, of writing, or of religion, as if they were so many rights which nature had given to man."

Cardinal Manning, in a preface to the English translation of this Encyclical,396396    Published in London, Burns & Oates, and in New York by the Cath. Pub. Society. The Latin text is printed in Acta Sanctæ Sedis, ed. by Pennachi and Piazzesi, vol. xx., Rom. (S. C. De Propaganda Fidei), pp. 593–613. fully approves of its sentiments, and predicts that "the pontificate of Leo XIII. will be known in history as the time when, upon a world torn and tossed by anti-Christian and anti-social revolutions, the abundant seeds of divine truths sown broadcast revived the conscience of Christendom." He also predicts that the two Encyclical letters of 1885 and 1888 "will be recorded as the pronouncements which have vindicated the political order of society from confusion, and the liberty of men from the license of liberalism."

But we venture to say that Pope Pius IX. (by the Syllabus of 1864) and Pope Leo XIII. (by these two Encyclicals) have seriously injured the cause of the Roman Church by placing her in open antagonism to the irresistible progress of history, which is a progress of liberty. By declaring the separation of Church and State "a pernicious maxim," Leo XIII. has unwisely as well as unjustly condemned the Constitution of the United States, which makes such separation the law of the land, not from indifference or hostility to religion, but from respect for religion, and which secures to the Roman Catholic Church 602a greater amount of liberty and prosperity than she enjoys in Italy or Spain or Austria or France or Mexico or Brazil. American Roman Catholics generally are well satisfied with the freedom they enjoy. The highest American dignitary of that Church, Cardinal Gibbons, of Baltimore, who attended the centennial celebration of the Constitution at Philadelphia, September, 1887, said in his letter of acceptance: "The Constitution of the United States is worthy of being written in letters of gold. It is a charter by which the liberties of sixty millions of people are secured, and by which, under Providence, the temporal happiness of countless millions yet unborn will be perpetuated."

The crowning feature of the American Constitution is contained in the First Amendment, which forbids Congress to establish any Church as a state religion, and to prohibit the free exercise of religion. This is the magna charta of religious liberty within the jurisdiction of the United States.


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