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Chapter VII.

For though a man should be by no means greatly advantaged by knowing all in this life that is destined to befall him according to his mind (let us suppose such a case), nevertheless with the officious activity of men he devises means for prying into and gaining an apparent acquaintance with the things that are to happen after a person’s death. Moreover, a good name is more pleasant to the mind8181    Prov. xxii. 1. than oil to the body; and the end of life is better than the birth, and to mourn is more desirable than to revel, and to be with the sorrowing is better than to be with the drunken. For this is the fact, that he who comes to the end of life has no further care about aught around him. And discreet anger is to be preferred to laughter; for by the severe disposition of countenance the soul is kept upright.8282    κατορθοῦται. The souls of the wise, indeed, are sad and downcast, but those of fools are elated, and given loose to merriment. And yet it is far more desirable to receive blame from one wise man, than to become a hearer of a whole chorus of worthless and miserable men in their songs. For the laughter of fools is like the crackling of many thorns burning in a fierce fire. This, too, is misery, yea the greatest of evils, namely oppression;8383    Calumny, συκοφαντία. for it intrigues against the souls of the wise, and attempts to ruin the noble way of life8484    ἔνστασιν. which the good pursue. Moreover, it is right to commend not the man who begins, but the man who finishes a speech;8585    λόγων δέ, etc. But Cod. Medic. reads, λόγον δέ, etc., = it is right to commend a speech not in its beginning, but in its end. and what is moderate ought to approve itself to the mind, and not what is swollen and inflated. Again, one ought certainly to keep wrath in check, and not suffer himself to be carried rashly into anger, the slaves of which are fools. Moreover, they are in error who assert that a better 14manner of life was given to those before us, and they fail to see that wisdom is widely different from mere abundance of possessions, and that it is as much more lustrous8686    φανερωτέρα, for which φανοτέρα is proposed. than these, as silver shines more brightly than its shadow. For the life of man hath its excellence8787    περιγίγνεται. not in the acquisition of perishable riches, but in wisdom. And who shall be able, tell me, to declare the providence of God, which is so great and so beneficent? or who shall be able to recall the things which seem to have been passed by of God? And in the former days of my vanity I considered all things, and saw a righteous man continuing in his righteousness, and ceasing not from it until death, but even suffering injury by reason thereof, and a wicked man perishing with his wickedness. Moreover, it is proper that the righteous man should not seem to be so overmuch, nor exceedingly and above measure wise, that he may not, as in making some slip, seem to sin many times over. And be not thou audacious and precipitate, lest an untimely death surprise thee. It is the greatest of all good to take hold of God, and by abiding in Him to sin in nothing. For to touch things undefiled with an impure hand is abomination. But he who in the fear of God submits himself,8888    ὑπείκων. escapes all that is contrary. Wisdom availeth more in the way of help than a band of the most powerful men in a city, and it often also pardons righteously those who fail in duty. For there is not one that stumbleth not.8989    1 Kings viii. 46; 2 Chron. vi. 36; Prov. xx. 9; 1 John i. 8. Also it becomes thee in no way to attend upon the words of the impious, that thou mayest not become an ear-witness9090    αὐτήκοος . of words spoken against thyself, such as the foolish talk of a wicked servant, and being thus stung in heart, have recourse afterwards thyself to cursing in turn in many actions. And all these things have I known, having received wisdom from God, which afterwards I lost, and was no longer able to be the same.9191    ὅμοιος. For wisdom fled from me to an infinite distance, and into a measureless deep, so that I could no longer get hold of it. Wherefore afterwards I abstained altogether from seeking it; and I no longer thought of considering the follies and the vain counsels of the impious, and their weary, distracted life. And being thus disposed, I was borne on to the things themselves; and being seized with a fatal passion, I knew woman—that she is like a snare or some such other object.9292    The text is evidently corrupt: for τὴν γυναῖκα, γῆν τινά, etc., Cotelerius proposes, τὴν γυναῖκα, σαγήνην τινά, etc.; and Bengel, πάγην τινά, etc. For her heart ensnares those who pass her; and if she but join hand to hand, she holds one as securely as though she dragged him on bound with chains.9393    κατέχει ἢ εἰ. This use of ἢ εἰ is characteristic of Gregory Thaumaturgus. We find it again in his Panegyr. ad Orig., ch. 6, ἢ εἰ καὶ παρὰ πάντας, etc. It may be added, therefore, to the proofs in support of a common authorship for these two writings. And from her you can secure your deliverance only by finding a propitious and watchful superintendent in God;9494    ἐπόπτην. for he who is enslaved by sin cannot (otherwise) escape its grasp. Moreover, among all women I sought for the chastity9595    σωφροσύνην. proper to them, and I found it in none. And verily a person may find one man chaste among a thousand, but a woman never.9696    [Our English version gives no such idea, nor does that of the LXX. The σωφροσύνη of our author is discretion, or perhaps entire balance of mind. Wordsworth gives us the thought better in his verse: “A perfect woman, nobly planned.” It was not in Judaism to give woman her place: the Magnificat of the Virgin celebrated the restoration of her sex.] And this above all things I observed, that men being made by God simple9797    Upright, ἁπλοῖ. in mind, contract9898    ἐπισπῶνται. for themselves manifold reasonings and infinite questionings, and while professing to seek wisdom, waste their life in vain words.

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