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515Chapter XXXIX.

But as Celsus makes a jest also of the serpent, as counteracting the injunctions given by God to the man, taking the narrative to be an old wife’s fable,38553855    “μῦθόν τιναπαραπλήσιον τοῖς παραδιδομένοις ταῖς γραυσίν. and has purposely neither mentioned the paradise38563856    παράδεισος. of God, nor stated that God is said to have planted it in Eden towards the east, and that there afterwards sprang up from the earth every tree that was beautiful to the sight, and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the paradise, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the other statements which follow, which might of themselves lead a candid reader to see that all these things had not inappropriately an allegorical meaning, let us contrast with this the words of Socrates regarding Eros in the Symposium of Plato, and which are put in the mouth of Socrates as being more appropriate than what was said regarding him by all the others at the Symposium.  The words of Plato are as follow:  “When Aphrodite was born, the gods held a banquet, and there was present, along with the others, Porus the son of Metis.  And after they had dined, Penia38573857    Penia, poverty; Porus, abundance. came to beg for something (seeing there was an entertainment), and she stood at the gate.  Porus meantime, having become intoxicated with the nectar (for there was then no wine), went into the garden of Zeus, and, being heavy with liquor, lay down to sleep.  Penia accordingly formed a secret plot, with a view of freeing herself from her condition of poverty,38583858    διὰ τὴν αὑτῆς ἀπορίαν. to get a child by Porus, and accordingly lay down beside him, and became pregnant with Eros.  And on this account Eros has become the follower and attendant of Aphrodite, having been begotten on her birthday feast,38593859    ἐν τοῖς ἐκείνης γενεθλίοις. and being at the same time by nature a lover of the beautiful, because Aphrodite too is beautiful.  Seeing, then, that Eros is the son of Porus and Penia, the following is his condition.38603860    ἐν τοιαῦτῃ τύχῃ καθέστηκε.  In the first place, he is always poor, and far from being delicate and beautiful, as most persons imagine; but is withered, and sunburnt,38613861    σκληρὸς καὶ αὐχμηρός. and unshod, and without a home, sleeping always upon the ground, and without a covering; lying in the open air beside gates, and on public roads; possessing the nature of his mother, and dwelling continually with indigence.38623862    ἐνδείᾳ.  But, on the other hand, in conformity with the character of his father, he is given to plotting against the beautiful and the good, being courageous, and hasty, and vehement;38633863    σύντονος. a keen38643864    δεινός. hunter, perpetually devising contrivances; both much given to forethought, and also fertile in resources;38653865    καὶ φρονήσεως ἐπιθυμητὴς καὶ πόριμος. acting like a philosopher throughout the whole of his life; a terrible38663866    δεινὸς γόης. sorcerer, and dealer in drugs, and a sophist as well; neither immortal by nature nor yet mortal, but on the same day, at one time he flourishes and lives when he has plenty, and again at another time dies, and once more is recalled to life through possessing the nature of his father.  But the supplies furnished to him are always gradually disappearing, so that he is never at any time in want, nor yet rich; and, on the other hand, he occupies an intermediate position between wisdom and ignorance.”38673867    [Plato, Symposion, xxiii. p. 203.  S.]  Now, if those who read these words were to imitate the malignity of Celsus—which be it far from Christians to do!—they would ridicule the myth, and would turn this great Plato into a subject of jest; but if, on investigating in a philosophic spirit what is conveyed in the dress of a myth, they should be able to discover the meaning of Plato, (they will admire)38683868    Boherellus, quem Ruæus sequitur, in notis; “Ante voces:  τίνα τρόπον, videtur deesse:  θαυμάσονται, aut quid simile.”—Lommatzsch. the manner in which he was able to conceal, on account of the multitude, in the form of this myth, the great ideas which presented themselves to him, and to speak in a befitting manner to those who know how to ascertain from the myths the true meaning of him who wove them together.  Now I have brought forward this myth occurring in the writings of Plato, because of the mention in it of the garden of Zeus, which appears to bear some resemblance to the paradise of God, and of the comparison between Penia and the serpent, and the plot against Porus by Penia, which may be compared with the plot of the serpent against the man.  It is not very clear, indeed, whether Plato fell in with these stories by chance, or whether, as some think, meeting during his visit to Egypt with certain individuals who philosophized on the Jewish mysteries, and learning some things from them, he may have preserved a few of their ideas, and thrown others aside, being careful not to offend the Greeks by a complete adoption of all the points of the philosophy of the Jews, who were in bad repute with the multitude, on account of the foreign character of their laws and their peculiar polity.  The present, however, is not the proper time for explaining either the myth of Plato, or the story of the serpent and the paradise of God, and all that is related to have taken place in it, as in our exposition of the book of Genesis we have especially occupied ourselves as we best could with these matters.


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