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Chapter VI.—This Liberty Vindicated in Respect of Its Original Creation; Suitable Also for Exhibiting the Goodness and the Purpose of God.  Reward and Punishment Impossible If Man Were Good or Evil Through Necessity and Not Choice.

But although we shall be understood, from our argument, to be only so affirming man’s unshackled power over his will, that what happens to him should be laid to his own charge, and not to God’s, yet that you may not object, even now, that he ought not to have been so constituted, since his liberty and power of will might turn out to be injurious, I will first of all maintain that he was rightly so constituted, that I may with the greater confidence commend both his actual constitution, and the additional fact of its being worthy of the Divine Being; the cause which led to man’s being created with such a constitution being shown to be the better one. Moreover, man thus constituted will be protected by both the goodness of God and by His purpose,27712771    Ratio, or, “His reason.” We have used both words, which are equally suitable to the Divine Being, as seemed most convenient. both of which are always found in concert in our God. For His purpose is no purpose without goodness; nor is His goodness goodness without a purpose, except forsooth in the case of Marcion’s god, who is purposelessly27722772    Irrationaliter, or, “irrationally.” good, as we have shown.27732773    See above, book i. chap. xxiii. p. 288. Well, then, it was proper that God should be known; it was no doubt27742774    Utique. a good and reasonable27752775    Rationale, or, “consistent with His purpose.” thing. Proper also was it that there should be something worthy of knowing God.  What could be found so worthy as the image and likeness of God? This also was undoubtedly good and reasonable. Therefore it was proper that (he who is) the image and likeness of God should be formed with a free will and a mastery of him302self;27762776    Suæ potestatis. so that this very thing—namely, freedom of will and self-command—might be reckoned as the image and likeness of God in him. For this purpose such an essence27772777    Substantia. was adapted27782778    Accommodata. to man as suited this character,27792779    Status. even the afflatus of the Deity, Himself free and uncontrolled.27802780    Suæ potestatis. But if you will take some other view of the case,27812781    Sed et alias. how came it to pass27822782    Quale erat. that man, when in possession of the whole world, did not above all things reign in self-possession27832783    Animi sui possessione.—a master over others, a slave to himself?  The goodness of God, then, you can learn from His gracious gift27842784    Dignatione. to man, and His purpose from His disposal of all things.27852785    Ex dispositione. The same as the “universa disponendo” above. At present, let God’s goodness alone occupy our attention, that which gave so large a gift to man, even the liberty of his will.  God’s purpose claims some other opportunity of treatment, offering as it does instruction of like import. Now, God alone is good by nature. For He, who has that which is without beginning, has it not by creation,27862786    Institutione. but by nature. Man, however, who exists entirely by creation, having a beginning, along with that beginning obtained the form in which he exists; and thus he is not by nature disposed to good, but by creation, not having it as his own attribute to be good, because, (as we have said,) it is not by nature, but by creation, that he is disposed to good, according to the appointment of his good Creator, even the Author of all good. In order, therefore, that man might have a goodness of his own,27872787    Bonum jam suum, not bonitatem. bestowed27882788    Emancipatum. on him by God, and there might be henceforth in man a property, and in a certain sense a natural attribute of goodness, there was assigned to him in the constitution of his nature, as a formal witness27892789    Libripens. The language here is full of legal technicalities, derived from the Roman usage in conveyance of property. “Libripens quasi arbiter mancipationis” (Rigalt.). of the goodness which God bestowed upon him, freedom and power of the will, such as should cause good to be performed spontaneously by man, as a property of his own, on the ground that no less than this27902790    Quoniam (with a subj.) et hoc. would be required in the matter of a goodness which was to be voluntarily exercised by him, that is to say, by the liberty of his will, without either favour or servility to the constitution of his nature, so that man should be good27912791    Bonus consisteret. just up to this point,27922792    Ita demum. if he should display his goodness in accordance with his natural constitution indeed, but still as the result of his will, as a property of his nature; and, by a similar exercise of volition,27932793    Proinde. should show himself to be too strong27942794    Fortior. in defence against evil also (for even this God, of course, foresaw), being free, and master of himself; because, if he were wanting in this prerogative of self-mastery, so as to perform even good by necessity and not will, he would, in the helplessness of his servitude, become subject to the usurpation of evil, a slave as much to evil as to good. Entire freedom of will, therefore, was conferred upon him in both tendencies; so that, as master of himself, he might constantly encounter good by spontaneous observance of it, and evil by its spontaneous avoidance; because, were man even otherwise circumstanced, it was yet his bounden duty, in the judgment of God, to do justice according to the motions27952795    Meritis. of his will regarded, of course, as free.  But the reward neither of good nor of evil could be paid to the man who should be found to have been either good or evil through necessity and not choice. In this really lay27962796    Constituta est. the law which did not exclude, but rather prove, human liberty by a spontaneous rendering of obedience, or a spontaneous commission of iniquity; so patent was the liberty of man’s will for either issue. Since, therefore, both the goodness and purpose of God are27972797    Our author’s word invenitur (in the singular) combines the bonitas and ratio in one view. discovered in the gift to man of freedom in his will, it is not right, after ignoring the original definition of goodness and purpose which it was necessary to determine previous to any discussion of the subject, on subsequent facts to presume to say that God ought not in such a way to have formed man, because the issue was other than what was assumed to be27982798    The verb is subj., “deceret.” proper for God. We ought rather,27992799    Sed, with oportet understood. after duly considering that it behoved God so to create man, to leave this consideration unimpaired, and to survey the other aspects of the case. It is, no doubt, an easy process for persons who take offence at the fall of man, before they have looked into the facts of his creation, to impute the blame of what happened to the Creator, without any examination of His purpose. To conclude:  the goodness of God, then fully considered from the beginning of His works, will be enough to convince us that nothing evil could 303possibly have come forth from God; and the liberty of man will, after a second thought,28002800    Recogitata. [Again, a noble Theodicy.] show us that it alone is chargeable with the fault which itself committed.

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