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10:1 Desire [eudokia]. No papyri examples of this word, though [eudokēsis] occurs, only in LXX and N.T., but no example for “desire” unless this is one, though the verb [eudokeō] is common in Polybius, Diodorus, Dion, Hal. It means will, pleasure, satisfaction (Mt 11:26; 2Th 1:11; Php 1:15; 2:13; Eph 1:5,9). Supplication [deēsis]. Late word from [deomai], to want, to beg, to pray. In the papyri. See Lu 1:13. It is noteworthy that, immediately after the discussion of the rejection of Christ by the Jews, Paul prays so earnestly for the Jews “that they may be saved” [eis sōtērian], literally “unto salvation.” Clearly Paul did not feel that the case was hopeless for them in spite of their conduct. Bengel says: Non orasset Paul si absolute reprobati essent (Paul would not have prayed if they had been absolutely reprobate). Paul leaves God’s problem to him and pours out his prayer for the Jews in accordance with his strong words in 9:1-5.
10:2 A zeal for God [zēlon theou]. Objective genitive like Php 3:9, “through faith in Christ” [dia pisteōs Christou]. But not according to knowledge [all’ ou kat’ epignōsin]. They had knowledge of God and so were superior to the Gentiles in privilege (2:9-11), but they sought God in an external way by rules and rites and missed him (9:30-33). They became zealous for the letter and the form instead of for God himself.
10:3 Being ignorant of God’s righteousness [agnoountes tēn tou theou dikaiosunēn]. A blunt thing to say, but true as Paul has shown in 2:1-3:20. They did not understand the God-kind of righteousness by faith (1:17). They misconceived it (2:4). They did not subject themselves [ouch hupetagēsan]. Second aorist passive indicative of [hupotassō], common Koinē verb, to put oneself under orders, to obey, here the passive in sense of the middle (Jas 4:7) like [apekrithēn], I answered.
10:4 The end of the law [telos nomou]. Christ put a stop to the law as a means of salvation (6:14; 9:31; Eph 2:15; Col 2:14) as in Lu 16:16. Christ is the goal or aim of the law (Gal 3:24). Christ is the fulfilment of the law (Mt 5:17; Ro 13:10; 1Ti 1:5). But here (Denney) Paul’s main idea is that Christ ended the law as a method of salvation for “every one that believeth” whether Jew or Gentile. Christ wrote finis on law as a means of grace.
10:5 Thereby [en autēi]. That is by or in “the righteousness that is from law.” He stands or falls with it. The quotation is from Le 18:5.
10:6 Saith thus [houtōs legei]. Paul personifies “the from faith righteousness” [hē ek pisteōs dikaiosunē]. A free reproduction from De 30:11-14. Paul takes various phrases from the LXX and uses them for “his inspired conviction and experiences of the gospel” (Denney). He does not quote Moses as saying this or meaning this. Say not in thy heart [mē eipēis en tēi kardiāi sou]. Second aorist active subjunctive with [mē] like De 8:17. To say in the heart is to think (Mt 3:9). That is, to bring Christ down [tout’ estin Christon katagagein]. Second aorist active infinitive of the common verb [katagō], to bring or lead down. It is dependent on the preceding verb [anabēsetai] (shall ascend). [Tout’ estin] (that is) is what is called Midrash or interpretation as in 9:8. It occurs three times here (verses 6-8). Paul applies the words of Moses to Christ. There is no need for one to go to heaven to bring Christ down to earth. The Incarnation is already a glorious fact. Today some men scout the idea of the Deity and Incarnation of Christ.
10:7 Into the abyss [eis tēn abusson]. See Lu 8:31 for this old Greek word [a] privative and [bussos] bottomless like sea (Ps 106:26), our abyss. In Re 9:1 it is the place of torment. Paul seems to refer to Hades or Sheol (Ac 2:27,31), the other world to which Christ went after death. To bring Christ up [Christon anagagein]. Second aorist active infinitive of [anagō] and dependent on [katabēsetai] (shall descend). Christ has already risen from the dead. The deity and resurrection of Christ are precisely the two chief points of attack today on the part of sceptics.
10:8 But what saith it? [alla ti legei?]. That is “the from faith righteousness.” The word of faith [to rēma tēs pisteōs]. The gospel message concerning faith (objective genitive). Only here. In contrast to the law. Which we preach [ho kērussomen]. The living voice brings home to every one the faith kind of righteousness. Paul seizes upon the words of Moses with the orator’s instinct and with rhetorical skill (Sanday and Headlam) applies them to the facts about the gospel message about the Incarnation and Resurrection of Christ.
10:9 If thou shalt confess [ean homologēsēis]. Third class condition [ean] and first aorist active subjunctive of [homologeō]. With thy mouth Jesus as Lord [en tōi stomati sou Kurion Iēsoun]. This is the reading of nearly all the MSS. But B 71 Clem of Alex. read [to rēma en tōi stomati sou hoti Kurios Iēsous] (the word in thy mouth that Jesus is Lord). The idea is the same, the confession of Jesus as Lord as in 1Co 12:3; Php 2:11. No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ, for [Kurios] in the LXX is used of God. No Gentile would do it who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as [Kurios]. The word [Kurios] was and is the touchstone of faith. And shalt believe [kai pisteusēis]. Same construction. Faith precedes confession, of course.
10:10 Man believeth [pisteuetai]. Impersonal construction, “it is believed” (present passive indicative of [pisteuō]. The order is reversed in this verse and the true order (faith, then confession). Confession is made [homologeitai]. Impersonal construction again, “it is confessed,” “man confesses.” Both [kardiāi] (heart) and [stomati] (mouth) are in the instrumental case.
10:12 Distinction [diastolē]. See on this word 3:22. Here it is followed by the ablative case [Ioudaiou te kai Hellēnos] (between Jew and Greek). Lord of all [Kurios pantōn]. See Ga 3:28. Rich [ploutōn]. Present active participle of [plouteō]. See Eph 3:8 “the unsearchable riches of Christ.”
10:14 How then shall they call? [pōs oun epikalesōntai?]. Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist middle) of [epikaleomai] (see verses 12, 13). The antecedent of [eis hon] (in whom) is not expressed. How shall they believe? [pos pisteusōsin?]. Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active of [pisteuō] just used). Each time Paul picks up the preceding verb and challenges that. Here again the antecedent [eis touton] before [hon] is not expressed. How shall they hear? [pos akousōsin?]. Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist active of [akouō]. Without a preacher? [chōris kērussontos?]. Preposition [chōris] with ablative singular masculine present active participle of [kērussō], “without one preaching.” How shall they preach? [pōs kēruxōsin?]. Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active [kērussō], to preach). Except they be sent? [ean mē apostalōsin?]. Second aorist passive deliberative subjunctive of [apostellō], to send, from which verb [apostolos] apostle comes. Negative condition of third class. In graphic style Paul has made a powerful plea for missions. It is just as true today as then.
10:15 How beautiful [Hōs hōraioi]. A quotation from Isa 52:7 more like the Hebrew than the LXX, picturing the messengers of the restoration from the Jewish captivity. Paul assumes that the missionaries [apostoloi] have been sent as implied in verse 14.
10:16 But they did not all hearken [ou pantes hupēkousan]. They heard, but did not heed. Some disbelieve now (3:3) as they did then. On obedience and disobedience see 5:19; 1Th 2:13; Ga 3:2. He quotes Isa 53:1 to show how Isaiah felt. Report [akoēi]. Literally, “hearing” (Mt 14:1; Mr 13:7).
10:17 By the word of Christ [dia rēmatos Christou]. “By the word about Christ” (objective genitive).
10:18 Did they not hear? [mē ouk ēkousan?]. Rather, “Did they fail to hear?” (expecting the negative answer [mē], while [ouk] blends with the verb). See on 1Co 9:5 for this construction. Yea, verily [menounge]. Triple particle [men, oun, ge] as in 9:20. Sound [phthoggos]. Vibration of a musical string. See on 1Co 14:7. Only two N.T. examples. The world [tēs oikoumenēs]. The inhabited earth as in Lu 2:1.
10:19 Did Israel not know? [mē Israel ouk egnō?]. “Did Israel fail to know?” See above. First [prōtos]. Moses first before any one else. LXX quotation De 32:21. See on 1Co 10:22 for [parazēlōsō] (I will provoke you to jealousy). With that which is no nation [ep’ ouk ethnei]. The Jews had worshipped “no-gods” and now God shows favours to a “no-nation” (people). Will I anger you [parorgiō humas]. Future active (Attic future) of [parorgizō], rare word, to rouse to wrath.
10:20 Is very bold [apotolmāi]. Present active indicative of [apotolmaō], old word, to assume boldness [apo], off) and only here in N.T. Isaiah “breaks out boldly” (Gifford). Paul cites Isa 65:1 in support of his own courage against the prejudice of the Jews. See 9:30-33 for illustration of this point. I was found [heurethēn]. First aorist passive indicative of [heuriskō].
10:21 All the day long [holēn tēn hēmeran]. Accusative of extent of time. He quotes Isa 65:2. Did I spread out [exepetasa]. First aorist active indicative of [ekpetannumi], old verb, to stretch out, bold metaphor, only here in N.T. Unto a disobedient and a gainsaying people [pros laon apeithounta kai antilegonta]. “Unto a people disobeying and talking back.” The two things usually go together. Contrary and contradictory (Lu 13:34f.).
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