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24:1 At early dawn [orthrou batheos]. Genitive of time. Literally, at deep dawn. The adjective [bathus] (deep) was often used of time. This very idiom occurs in Aristophanes, Plato, et cetera. Joh 20:1 adds “while it was yet dark.” That is, when they started, for the sun was risen when they arrived (Mr 16:2). Which they had prepared [ha hētoimasan]. Mr 16:1 notes that they bought other spices after the sabbath was over besides those which they already had (Lu 23:56).
24:3 Of the Lord Jesus [tou kuriou Iēsou]. The Western family of documents does not have these words and Westcott and Hort bracket them as Western non-interpolations. There are numerous instances of this shorter Western text in this chapter. For a discussion of the subject see my Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, pp. 225-237. This precise combination (the Lord Jesus) is common in the Acts, but nowhere else in the Gospels.
24:4 While they were perplexed thereabout [en tōi aporeisthai autas peri toutou]. Luke’s common Hebraistic idiom, [en] with the articular infinitive (present passive [aporeisthai] from [aporeō], to lose one’s way) and the accusative of general reference. Two men [andres duo]. Men, not women. Mr 16:5 speaks of a young man [neaniskon] while Mt 28:5 has “an angel.” We need not try to reconcile these varying accounts which agree in the main thing. The angel looked like a man and some remembered two. In verse 23 Cleopas and his companion call them “angels.” Stood by [epestēsan]. Second aorist active indicative of [ephistēmi]. This common verb usually means to step up suddenly, to burst upon one. In dazzling apparel [en esthēti astraptousēi]. This is the correct text. This common simplex verb occurs only twice in the N.T., here and Lu 17:24 (the Transfiguration). It has the same root as [astrapē] (lightning). The “men” had the garments of “angels.”
24:5 As they were affrighted [emphobōn genomenōn autōn]. Genitive absolute with second aorist middle of [ginomai], to become. Hence, when they became affrighted. They had utterly forgotten the prediction of Jesus that he would rise on the third day.
24:6 He is not here, but is risen [ouk estin hōde, alla ēgerthē]. Another Western non-interpolation according to Westcott and Hort. The words are genuine at any rate in Mr 16:6; Mt 28:7. The third day rise again [tēi tritēi hēmerāi anastēnai]. See 9:22; 18:32, 33 where Jesus plainly foretold this fact. And yet they had forgotten it, for it ran counter to all their ideas and hopes.
24:9 From the tomb [apo tou mnēmeiou]. Some documents omit these words. This word for tomb is like our “memorial” from [mimnēskō], to remind. Told [apēggeilan]. It was a wonderful proclamation. Luke does not separate the story of Mary Magdalene from that of the other women as John does (Joh 20:2-18).
24:11 As idle talk [hōs lēros]. Old word for nonsense, only here in the N.T. Medical writers used it for the wild talk of those in delirium or hysteria. Disbelieved (ēpistoun). Imperfect active of [apisteō], old verb from [apistos], without confidence or faith in. They kept on distrusting the story of the women.
24:12 This entire 9 is a Western non-interpolation. This incident is given in complete form in Joh 18:2-10 and most of the words in this 9 are there also. It is of a piece with many items in this chapter about which it is not easy to reach a final conclusion. Stooping and looking in [parakupsas]. First aorist active participle of [parakuptō], to stoop besides and peer into. Old verb used also in Joh 20:5,11; Jas 1:25; 1Pe 1:12. By themselves [mona]. Without the body. To his home [pros hauton]. Literally, “to himself.”
24:13 Were going [ēsan poreuomenoi]. Periphrastic imperfect middle of [poreuomai]. Sixty stadia [stadious hexēkonta]. About seven miles.
24:14 They communed [hōmiloun]. Imperfect active of [homileō], old and common verb (from [homilos], in company with). In the N.T. only here (and verse 15) and Ac 20:11; 24:26. Our word homiletics is derived from this word for preaching was at first largely conversational in style and not declamatory.
24:15 While they communed and questioned together [en tōi homilein autous kai sunzētein]. Same idiom as in verse 14, which see. Note [sunzētein]; each questioned the other. Jesus himself [autos Iēsous]. In actual person. Went with them [suneporeueto autois]. Imperfect middle, was going along with them.
24:16 Were holden that they should not know him [ekratounto tou mē epignōnai auton]. Imperfect passive of [krateō], continued being held, with the ablative case of the articular infinitive, “from recognizing him,” from knowing him fully [epi-gnōnai], ingressive aorist of [epiginōsko]. The [mē] is a redundant negative after the negative idea in [ekratounto].
24:17 That you have with another [hous antiballete pros allēlous]. [Anti-ballō] is an old verb and means to throw in turn, back and forth like a ball, from one to another, a beautiful picture of conversation as a game of words. Only here in the N.T. They stood still [estathēsan]. First aorist passive of [histēmi], intransitive. They stopped. Looking sad [skuthrōpoi]. This is the correct text. It is an old adjective from [skuthros], gloomy and [ops], countenance. Only here in the N.T.
24:18 Dost thou alone sojourn? [su monos paroikeis;]. [Monos] is predicate adjective. “Hast thou been dwelling alone (all by thyself)?” And not know? [kai ouk egnōs;]. Second aorist active indicative and difficult to put into English as the aorist often is. The verb [paroikeō] means to dwell beside one, then as a stranger like [paroikoi] (Eph 2:19). In Jerusalem everybody was talking about Jesus.
24:21 But we hoped [hēmeis de ēlpizomen]. Imperfect active, we were hoping. Note emphasis in [hēmeis] (we). Redeem [lutrousthai]. From the bondage of Rome, no doubt. Yea and beside all this [alla ge kai sun pāsin toutois]. Particles pile up to express their emotions. Yea [alla] here affirmative, as in verse 22, not adversative) at least [ge] also [kai] together with all these things [sun pāsin toutois]. Like Pelion on Ossa with them in their perplexity. Now the third day [tritēn tautēn hēmeran agei]. A difficult idiom for the English. “One is keeping this a third day.” And he is still dead and we are still without hope.
24:22 Amazed us [exestēsan hēmas]. First aorist active (transitive) indicative with accusative [hēmas] of [existēmi]. The second aorist active is intransitive. Early [orthrinai]. A poetic and late form for [orthrios]. In the N.T. only here and Re 24:22. Predicate adjective agreeing with the women.
24:23 Had seen [heōrakenai]. Perfect active infinitive in indirect assertion after [legousai]. Same construction for [zēin] after [legousin]. But all this was too indirect and uncertain (women and angels) for Cleopas and his companion.
24:25 Foolish men [anoētoi]. Literally without sense [nous], not understanding. Common word. Slow of heart [bradeis tēi kardiāi]. Slow in heart (locative case). Old word for one dull, slow to comprehend or to act. All that [pāsin hois]. Relative attracted from the accusative [ha] to the case of the antecedent [pāsin] (dative). They could only understand part of the prophecies, not all.
24:26 Behooved it not? [ouchi edei;]. Was it not necessary? The very things about the death of Jesus that disturbed them so were the strongest proof that he was the Messiah of the Old Testament.
24:27 Interpreted [diērmēneusen]. First aorist active (constative aorist) indicative of [diermēneuō] (Margin has the imperfect [diērmēneuen], intensive compound [dia] of [hermēneuō], the old verb to interpret from [hermēneus], interpreter, and that from [Hermēs], the messenger of the gods as the people of Lystra took Paul to be (Ac 14:12). But what wonderful exegesis the two disciples were now hearing! Concerning himself [peri heauton]. Jesus found himself in the Old Testament, a thing that some modern scholars do not seem able to do.
24:28 Made as though [prosepoiēsato]. First aorist active middle (Some MSS. have [prosepoieito] imperfect) indicative of [prospoieō], old verb to conform oneself to, to pretend. Only here in the N.T. Of course he would have gone on if the disciples had not urged him to stay.
24:29 Constrained [parebiasanto]. Strong verb [parabiazomai], to compel by use of force (Polybius and LXX). In the N.T. only here and Ac 16:15. It was here compulsion of courteous words. Is far spent [kekliken]. Perfect active indicative of [klinō]. The day “has turned” toward setting.
24:30 When he had sat down [en tōi kataklithēnai auton]. Luke’s common idiom as in verses 4, 15. Note first aorist passive infinitive (on the reclining as to him). Gave [epedidou]. Imperfect, inchoative idea, began to give to them, in contrast with the preceding aorist (punctiliar) participles.
24:31 Were opened [diēnoichthēsan]. Ingressive first aorist passive indicative of [dianoigō]. Knew [epegnōsan]. Effective first aorist active indicative fully recognized him. Same word in verse 16. Vanished [aphantos egeneto]. Became invisible or unmanifested. [Aphantos] from [a] privative and [phainomai], to appear. Old word, only here in the N.T.
24:32 Was not our heart burning? [Ouchi hē kardia hemōn kaiomenē ēn;]. Periphrastic imperfect middle. Spake [elalei]. Imperfect active, was speaking. This common verb [laleō] is onomatopoetic, to utter a sound, [la-la] and was used of birds, children chattering, and then for conversation, for preaching, for any public speech. Opened [diēnoigen]. Imperfect active indicative of the same verb used of the eyes in verse 31.
24:33 That very hour [autēi tēi hōrāi]. Locative case and common Lukan idiom, at the hour itself. They could not wait. Gathered [ēthroismenous]. Perfect passive participle of [athroizō], old verb from [athroos] (copulative [a] and [throos], crowd). Only here in the N.T.
24:34 Saying [legontas]. Accusative present active participle agreeing with “the eleven and those with them” in verse 33. Indeed [ontōs]. Really, because “he has appeared to Simon” [ōpthē Simōni]. First aorist passive indicative of [horaō]. This is the crucial evidence that turned the scales with the disciples and explains “indeed.” Paul also mentions it (1Co 15:5).
24:35 Rehearsed [exēgounto]. Imperfect middle indicative of [exēgeomai], verb to lead out, to rehearse. Our word exegesis comes from this verb. Their story was now confirmatory, not revolutionary. The women were right then after all. Of them [autois]. To them, dative case. They did not recognize Jesus in his exegesis, but did in the breaking of bread. One is reminded of that saying in the Logia of Jesus: “Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me, cleave the wood and there am I.”
24:36 He himself stood [autos estē]. He himself stepped and stood. Some documents do not have “Peace be unto you.”
24:37 Terrified [ptoēthentes]. First aorist passive participle of [ptoeō], old verb and in the N.T. only here and Lu 21:9 which see. Affrighted [emphoboi genomenoi]. Late adjective from [en] and [phobos] (fear). Both these terms of fear are strong. Supposed [edokoun]. Imperfect active of [dokeō], kept on thinking so.
24:38 Why are ye troubled? [ti tetaragmenoi este;]. Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of [tarassō], old verb, to agitate, to stir up, to get excited.
24:39 Myself [autos]. Jesus is patient with his proof. They were convinced before he came into the room, but that psychological shock had unnerved them all. Handle [psēlaphēsate]. This very word is used in 1Jo 1:1 as proof of the actual human body of Jesus. It is an old verb for touching with the hand. Flesh and bones [sarka kai ostea]. At least this proves that he is not just a ghost and that Jesus had a real human body against the Docetic Gnostics who denied it. But clearly we are not to understand that our resurrection bodies will have “flesh and bones.” Jesus was in a transition state and had not yet been glorified. The mystery remains unsolved, but it was proof to the disciples of the identity of the Risen Christ with Jesus of Nazareth.
24:40 Another Western non-interpolation according to Westcott and Hort. It is genuine in Joh 20:20).
24:41 Disbelieved for joy [apistountōn autōn apo tēs charas]. Genitive absolute and a quite understandable attitude. They were slowly reconvinced, but it was after all too good to be true. Anything to eat [brōsimon]. Only here in the N.T., though an old word from [bibrōskō], to eat.
24:42 A piece of broiled fish [ichthuos optou meros]. [Optos] is a verbal from [optaō], to cook, to roast, to broil. Common word, but only here in the N.T. The best old documents omit “and a honeycomb” [kai apo melissiou kēriou].
24:44 While I was yet with you [eti ōn sun humin]. Literally, Being yet with you. The participle [ōn] takes the time of the principal verb.
24:45 Opened he their mind [diēnoixen autōn ton noun]. The same verb as that in verses 31, 32 about the eyes and the Scriptures. Jesus had all these years been trying to open their minds that they might understand the Scriptures about the Messiah and now at last he makes one more effort in the light of the Cross and the Resurrection. They can now see better the will and way of God, but they will still need the power of the Holy Spirit before they will fully know the mind of Christ.
24:46 It is written [gegraptai]. Perfect passive indicative of [graphō], to write, the usual phrase for quoting Scripture. Jesus now finds in the Old Testament his suffering, his resurrection, and the preaching of repentance and forgiveness of sins to all nations. Note the infinitives [pathein, anastēnai, kēruchthēnai].
24:47 Beginning [arxamenoi]. Aorist middle participle of [archō], but the nominative plural with no syntactical connection (an anacoluthon).
24:49 Until ye be clothed [heōs hou endusēsthe]. First aorist middle subjunctive of [enduō] or [endunō]. It is an old verb for putting on a garment. It is here the indirect middle, put on yourselves power from on high as a garment. They are to wait till this experience comes to them. This is “the promise of the Father.” It is an old metaphor in Homer, Aristophanes, Plutarch, and Paul uses it often.
24:50 Over against Bethany [heōs pros Bēthanian]. That is on Olivet. On this blessed spot near where he had delivered the great Eschatological Discourse he could see Bethany and Jerusalem.
24:51 He parted from them [diestē ap’ autōn]. Second aorist active (intransitive) indicative of [diistēmi]. He stood apart [dia] and he was gone. Some manuscripts do not have the words “and was carried into heaven.” But we know that Jesus was taken up into heaven on a cloud (Ac 1:9).
24:52 Worshipped him [proskunēsantes auton]. Here again we have one of Westcott and Hort’s Western non-interpolations that may be genuine or not. With great joy [meta charas megalēs]. Now that the Ascension has come they are no longer in despair. Joy becomes the note of victory as it is today. No other note can win victories for Christ. The bells rang in heaven to greet the return of Jesus there, but he set the carillon of joy to ringing on earth in human hearts in all lands and for all time.
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