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22:1 The Passover [pascha] Both names (unleavened bread and passover) are used here as in Mr 14:1. Strictly speaking the passover was Nisan 14 and the unleavened bread 15-21). This is the only place in the N.T. where the expression “the feast of unleavened bread” (common in LXX, Ex. 23:15, etc.) occurs, for Mr 14:1 has just “the unleavened bread.” Mt 26:17 uses unleavened bread and passover interchangeably. Drew nigh [ēggizen]. Imperfect active. Mr 14:1; Mt 26:2 mention “after two days” definitely.
22:2 Sought [ezētoun]. Imperfect active of [zēteō], were seeking, conative imperfect. How they might put him to death [to pōs anelōsin auton]. Second aorist active deliberative subjunctive (retained in indirect question) of [anaireō], to take up, to make away with, to slay. Common in Old Greek. Luke uses it so here and in 23:32 and eighteen times in the Acts, a favourite word with him. Note the accusative neuter singular article [to] with the whole clause, “as to the how, etc.” For they feared [ephobounto gar]. Imperfect middle describing the delay of the “how.” The triumphal entry and the temple speeches of Jesus had revealed his tremendous power with the people, especially the crowds from Galilee at the feast. They were afraid to go on with their plan to kill him at the feast.
22:3 Satan entered into Judas [eisēlthen eis Ioudan]. Ingressive aorist active indicative. Satan was now renewing his attack on Jesus suspended temporarily (Lu 4:13) “until a good chance.” He had come back by the use of Simon Peter (Mr 8:33; Mt 16:23). The conflict went on and Jesus won ultimate victory (Lu 10:18). Now Satan uses Judas and has success with him for Judas allowed him to come again and again (Joh 13:27). Judas evidently opened the door to his heart and let Satan in. Then Satan took charge and he became a devil as Jesus said (Joh 6:70). This surrender to Satan in no way relieves Judas of his moral responsibility.
22:4 Went away [apelthōn]. Second aorist active participle of [aperchomai]. He went off under the impulse of Satan and after the indignation over the rebuke of Jesus at the feast in Simon’s house (Joh 12:4-6). Captains [stratēgois]. Leaders of the temple guards (Ac 4:1), the full title, “captains of the temple,” occurs in verse 52. How he might deliver him unto them [to pōs autois paradōi auton]. The same construction as in verse 2, the article [to] with the indirect question and deliberative subjunctive second aorist active [paradōi].
22:5 Were glad [echarēsan]. Second aorist passive indicative of [chairō] as in Mr 14:11. Ingressive aorist, a natural exultation that one of the Twelve had offered to do this thing. Covenanted [sunethento]. Second aorist indicative middle of [suntithēmi]. An old verb to put together and in the middle with one another. In the N.T. outside of Joh 9:22 only in Luke (here and Ac 23:20; 24:9). Luke only mentions “money” [argurion], but not “thirty pieces” (Mt 26:15).
22:6 Consented [exōmologēsen]. Old verb, but the ancients usually used the simple form for promise or consent rather than the compound. This is the only instance of this sense in the N.T. It is from [homologos] [homos], same, and [legō], to say), to say the same thing with another and so agree. Opportunity [eukarian]. From [eukairos] [eu, kairos], a good chance. Old word, but in the N.T. only here and parallel passage Mt 26:16. In the absence of the multitude [ater ochlou]. [Ater] is an old preposition, common in the poets, but rare in prose. Also in verse 35. It means “without,” “apart from,” like [chōris]. The point of Judas was just this. He would get Jesus into the hands of the Sanhedrin during the feast in spite of the crowd. It was necessary to avoid tumult (Mt 26:5) because of the popularity of Jesus.
22:7 The day of unleavened bread came [ēlthen hē hēmera tōn azumōn]. The day itself came, not simply was drawing nigh (verse 1. Must be sacrificed [edei thuesthai]. This was Nisan 14 which began at sunset. Luke is a Gentile and this fact must be borne in mind. The lamb must be slain by the head of the family (Ex 12:6). The controversy about the day when Christ ate the last passover meal has already been discussed (Mt 26:17; Mr 14:12). The Synoptics clearly present this as a fact. Jesus was then crucified on Friday at the passover or Thursday (our time) at the regular hour 6 P.M. (beginning of Friday). The five passages in John (13:1f.; 13:27; 18:28; 19:14; 19:31) rightly interpreted teach the same thing as shown in my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ (pp.279–284).
22:8 Peter and John [Petron kai Iōanēn]. Mr 14:13 has only “two” while Mt 26:17 makes the disciples take the initiative. The word passover in this context is used either of the meal, the feast day, the whole period (including the unleavened bread). “Eat the passover” can refer to the meal as here or to the whole period of celebration (Joh 18:28).
22:9 Where wilt thou that we make ready? [Pou theleis hetoimasōmen;]. Deliberative first aorist active subjunctive without [hina] after [theleis], perhaps originally two separate questions.
22:10 When you are entered [eiselthontōn humōn]. Genitive absolute. Meet you [sunantēsei humin]. An old verb [sunantaō] (from [sun], with, and [antaō], to face, [anti] with associative instrumental [humin]. See on Mr 14:13 about the “man bearing a pitcher of water.”
22:11 Goodman of the house [oikodespotēi]. Master of the house as in Mr 14:14; Mt 10:25. A late word for the earlier [despotēs oikou]. I shall eat [phagō]. Second aorist futuristic (or deliberative) subjunctive as in Mr 14:14.
22:12 And he [k’akeinos]. [Kai] and [ekeinos] [crasis] where Mr 14:15 has [kai autos]. Literally, And that one. See on Mark for rest of the verse.
22:13 He had said [eirēkei]. Past perfect active indicative of [eipon] where Mr 14:16 has [eipen] (second aorist).
22:14 Sat down [anepesen]. Reclined, fell back (or up). Second aorist active of [anapiptō].
22:15 With desire I have desired [epithumiāi epethumēsa]. A Hebraism common in the LXX. Associative instrumental case of substantive and first aorist active indicative of same like a cognate accusative. Peculiar to Luke is all this verse. See this idiom in Joh 3:29; Ac 4:17. Before I suffer [pro tou me pathein]. Preposition [pro] with articular infinitive and accusative of general reference, “before the suffering as to me.” [Pathein] is second aorist active infinitive of [paschō].
22:16 Until it be fulfilled [heōs hotou plērōthēi]. First aorist passive subjunctive of [plēroō] with [heōs] [hotou], the usual construction about the future. It seems like a Messianic banquet that Jesus has in mind (cf. 14:15).
22:17 He received a cup [dexamenos potērion]. This cup is a diminutive of [potēr]. It seems that this is still one of the four cups passed during the passover meal, though which one is uncertain. It is apparently just before the formal introduction of the Lord’s Supper, though he gave thanks here also [eucharistēsas]. It is from this verb [eucharisteō] (see also verse 19) that our word Eucharist comes. It is a common verb for giving thanks and was used also for “saying grace” as we call it.
22:18 The fruit of the vine [tou genēmatos tēs ampelou]. So Mr 14:25; Mt 26:29 and not [oinos] though it was wine undoubtedly. But the language allows anything that is “the fruit of the vine.” Come [elthēi]. Second aorist active subjunctive with [heōs] as in verse 16. Here it is the consummation of the kingdom that Jesus has in mind, for the kingdom had already come.
22:19 Which is given for you [to huper humōn didomenon]. Some MSS. omit these verses though probably genuine. The correct text in 1Co 11:24 has “which is for you,” not “which is broken for you.” It is curious to find the word “broken” here preserved and justified so often, even by Easton in his commentary on Luke, p. 320). In remembrance of me [eis tēn emēn anamnēsin]. Objective use of the possessive pronoun [emēn], not the subjective. This do [touto poieite]. Present active indicative, repetition, keep on doing this.
22:20 After the supper [meta to deipnēsai]. Preposition [meta] and the accusative articular infinitive. The textual situation here is confusing, chiefly because of the two cups (verses 17, 20). Some of the documents omit the latter part of verse 19 and all of verse 20). It is possible, of course, that this part crept into the text of Luke from 1Co 11:24f. But, if this part is omitted, Luke would then have the order reversed, the cup before the bread. So there are difficulties whichever turn one takes here with Luke’s text whether one cup or two cups. The New Covenant [he kainē diathēkē]. See on Mt 26:28; Mr 14:24 for “covenant.” Westcott and Hort reject “new” there, but accept it here and in 1Co 11:25. See on Lu 5:38 for difference between [kainē] and [nea]. ”The ratification of a covenant was commonly associated with the shedding of blood; and what was written in blood was believed to be indelible” (Plummer). Poured out [ekchunnomenon]. Same word in Mr 14:24; Mt 26:28 translated “shed.” Late form present passive participle of [ekchunnō] of [ekcheō], to pour out.
22:21 That betrayeth [tou paradidontos]. Present active participle, actually engaged in doing it. The hand of Judas was resting on the table at the moment. It should be noted that Luke narrates the institution of the Lord’s Supper before the exposure of Judas as the traitor while Mark and Matthew reverse this order.
22:22 As it hath been determined [kata to hōrismenon]. Perfect passive participle of [horizō], to limit or define, mark off the border, our “horizon.” But this fact does not absolve Judas of his guilt as the “woe” here makes plain.
22:23 Which of them it was [to tis ara eiē ex autōn]. Note the article [to] with the indirect question as in verses 2, 4. The optative [eiē] here is changed from the present active indicative [estin], though it was not always done, for see [dokei] in verse 24 where the present indicative is retained. They all had their hands on the table. Whose hand was it?
22:24 Contention [philoneikia]. An old word from [philoneikos], fond of strife, eagerness to contend. Only here in the N.T. Greatest [meizōn]. Common use of the comparative as superlative.
22:25 Have lordship over [kurieuousin]. From [kurios]. Common verb, to lord it over. Benefactors [euergetai]. From [eu] and [ergon]. Doer of good. Old word. Here only in the N.T. Latin Benefactor is exact equivalent.
22:26 Become [ginesthō]. Present middle imperative of [ginomai]. Act so. True greatness is in service, not in rank.
22:27 But I [Egō de]. Jesus dares to cite his own conduct, though their leader, to prove his point and to put a stop to their jealous contention for the chief place at this very feast, a wrangling that kept up till Jesus had to arise and give them the object lesson of humility by washing their feet (Joh 13:1-20).
22:28 In my temptations [en tois peirasmois mou]. Probably “trials” is better here as in Jas 1:2 though temptations clearly in Jas 1:13ff. This is the tragedy of the situation when Jesus is facing the Cross with the traitor at the table and the rest chiefly concerned about their own primacy and dignity.
22:29 And I appoint unto you [k’agō diatithēmai humin]. They had on the whole been loyal and so Jesus passes on to them [diathēmai] verb from which [diathēkē] comes).
22:30 And ye shall sit [kathēsesthe]. But Westcott and Hort read in the text [kathēsthe] (present middle subjunctive with [hina]. The picture seems to be that given in Mt 19:28 when Jesus replied to Peter’s inquiry. It is not clear how literally this imagery is to be taken. But there is the promise of honour for the loyal among these in the end.
22:31 Asked to have you [exēitēsato]. First aorist indirect middle indicative of [exaiteō], an old verb to beg something of one and (middle) for oneself. Only here in the N.T. The verb is used either in the good or the bad sense, but it does not mean here “obtained by asking” as margin in Revised Version has it. That he might sift you [tou siniasai]. Genitive articular infinitive of purpose. First aorist active infinitive of [siniazō], to shake a sieve, to sift, from [sinion], a winnowing fan. Later word. Here only in the N.T.
22:32 That thy faith fail not [hina mē eklipēi he pistis mou]. Second aorist active subjunctive of purpose with [hina] after [edeēthēn] (I prayed) of [ekleipō], old verb. Our word eclipse is this word. Evidently Jesus could not keep Satan from attacking Peter. He had already captured Judas. Did he not repeatedly attack Jesus? But he could and did pray for Peter’s faith and his praying won in the end, though Peter stumbled and fell. And do thou [kai su]. The words single out Peter sharply. Once thou hast turned again [pote epistrepsas]. First aorist active participle of [epistrephō], common verb to turn to, to return. But the use of this word implied that Peter would fall though he would come back and “strengthen thy brethren.”
22:33 To prison and to death [eis phulakēn kai eis thanaton]. Evidently Peter was not flattered by the need of Christ’s earnest prayers for his welfare and loyalty. Hence this loud boast.
22:34 Until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me [heōs tris me aparnēsēi eidenai]. “Thrice” is in all four Gospels here for they all give this warning to Peter (Mr 14:30; Mt 26:34; Lu 22:34; Joh 18:38). Peter will even deny knowing Jesus [eidenai].
22:35 Without purse [ater ballantiou]. Money bag or purse. Old word, but in the N.T. only in Luke (10:4; 12:33; 22:35ff.). Wallet [pēras]. See on Mt 10:10). Lacked ye anything [mē tinos husterēsate;]. Answer No expected [outhenos] below). Ablative case after [hustereō].
22:36 Buy a sword [agorasatō machairan]. This is for defence clearly. The reference is to the special mission in Galilee (Lu 9:1-6; Mr 6:6-13; Mt 9:35-11:1. They are to expect persecution and bitter hostility (Joh 15:18-21). Jesus does not mean that his disciples are to repel force by force, but that they are to be ready to defend his cause against attack. Changed conditions bring changed needs. This language can be misunderstood as it was then.
22:38 Lord, behold, here are two swords [kurie idou machairai hōde duo]. They took his words literally. And before this very night is over Peter will use one of these very swords to try to cut off the head of Malchus only to be sternly rebuked by Jesus (Mr 14:47; Mt 26:51f.; Lu 22:50f.; Joh 18:10f.). Then Jesus will say: “For all that take the sword shall perish with the sword” (Mt 26:52). Clearly Jesus did not mean his language even about the sword to be pressed too literally. So he said: “It is enough” [Hikanon estin]. It is with sad irony and sorrow that Jesus thus dismisses the subject. They were in no humour now to understand the various sides of this complicated problem. Every preacher and teacher understands this mood, not of impatience, but of closing the subject for the present.
22:39 As his custom was [kata to ethos]. According to the custom (of him). It was because Judas knew the habit of Jesus of going to Gethsemane at night that he undertook to betray him without waiting for the crowd to go home after the feast.
22:40 At the place [epi tou topou]. The place of secret prayer which was dear to Jesus. Pray that ye enter not into temptation [proseuchesthe mē eiselthein eis peirasmon]. “Keep on praying not to enter (ingressive aorist infinitive, not even once) into temptation.” It is real “temptation” here, not just “trial.” Jesus knew the power of temptation and the need of prayer. These words throw a light on the meaning of his language in Mt 6:13. Jesus repeats this warning in verse 46.
22:41 About a stone’s throw [hōsei lithou bolēn]. Accusative of extent of space. Luke does not tell of leaving eight disciples by the entrance to Gethsemane nor about taking Peter, James, and John further in with him. Kneeled down [theis ta gonata]. Second aorist active participle from [tithēmi]. Mr 14:35 says “fell on the ground” and Mt 26:39 “fell on his face.” All could be true at different moments. Prayed [prosēucheto]. Imperfect middle, was praying, kept on praying.
22:42 If thou be willing [ei boulei]. This condition is in the first petition at the start. Be done [ginesthō]. Present middle imperative, keep on being done, the Father’s will.
22:43 An angel [aggelos]. The angels visited Jesus at the close of the three temptations at the beginning of his ministry (Mt 4:11). Here the angel comes during the conflict.
22:44 In an agony [en agōniāi]. It was conflict, contest from [agōn]. An old word, but only here in the N.T. Satan pressed Jesus harder than ever before. As it were great drops of blood [hōsei thromboi haimatos]. Thick, clotted blood. An old word [thromboi] common in medical works, but here only in the N.T. This passage (verses 43, 44) is absent from some ancient documents. Aristotle speaks of a bloody sweat as does Theophrastus.
22:45 Sleeping for sorrow [koimōmenous apo tēs lupēs]. Luke does not tell of the three turnings of Jesus to the trusted three for human sympathy.
22:47 Went before them [proērcheto]. Imperfect middle. Judas was leading the band for he knew the place well (Joh 18:2).
22:48 With a kiss [philēmati]. Instrumental case. Jesus challenges the act of Judas openly and calls it betrayal, but it did not stop him.
22:49 What would follow [to esomenon]. Article and the future middle participle of [eimi], to be. Shall we smite with a sword? [ei pataxomen en machairēi;]. Note [ei] in a direct question like the Hebrew. Luke alone gives this question. Instrumental use of [en]. They had the two swords already mentioned (22:38).
22:50 His right ear [to ous autou to dexion]. Mark 14:47; Mt 26:51 do not mention “right,” but Luke the Physician does. Joh 18:10 follows Luke in this item and also adds the names of Peter and of Malchus since probably both were dead by that time and Peter would not be involved in trouble.
22:51 Suffer us thus far [eāte heōs toutou]. Present active imperative of [eaō], to allow. But the meaning is not clear. If addressed to Peter and the other disciples it means that they are to suffer this much of violence against Jesus. This is probably the idea. If it is addressed to the crowd, it means that they are to excuse Peter for his rash act. He touched his ear and healed him [hapsamenos tou otiou iasato auton]. Whether Jesus picked up the piece of the ear and put it back is not said. He could have healed the wound without that. This miracle of surgery is given alone by Luke.
22:52 As against a robber? [hōs epi lēistēn;]. They were treating Jesus as if he were a bandit like Barabbas.
22:53 But this is your hour [all’ hautē estin humōn hē hōra]. So Jesus surrenders. The moral value of his atoning sacrifice on the Cross consists in the voluntariness of his death. He makes it clear that they have taken undue advantage of him in this hour of secret prayer and had failed to seize him in public in the temple. But “the power of darkness” [hē exousia tou skotous], had its turn. A better day will come. The might, authority of darkness.
22:54 Into the high priest’s house [eis tēn oikian tou archiereōs]. Luke alone mentions “the house.” Though it is implied in Mr 14:53; Mt 26:57. Followed [ēkolouthei]. Imperfect, was following, as Mt 26:58; Joh 18:15. Curiously Mr 14:54 has the aorist.
22:55 When they had kindled a fire [periapsantōn pur]. Genitive absolute, first aorist active participle of [periaptō], an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Kindle around, make a good fire that blazes all over. It was April and cool at night. The servants made the fire. And had sat down together [kai sunkathisantōn]. Genitive absolute again. Note [sun-] (together), all had taken seats around the fire. Peter sat in the midst of them [ekathēto ho Petros mesos autōn]. Imperfect tense, he was sitting, and note [mesos], nominative predicate adjective with the genitive, like Joh 1:26, good Greek idiom.
22:56 In the light [pros to phōs]. Facing [pros] the light, for the fire gave light as well as heat. Mr 14:65 has “warming himself in the light,” John (Joh 18:18,25) “warming himself.” Looking steadfastly [atenisasa]. Favourite word in Luke (4:20, etc.) for gazing steadily at one. This man also [kai houtos]. As if pointing to Peter and talking about him. The other Gospels (Mr 14:67; Mt 26:69; Joh 18:25) make a direct address to Peter. Both could be true, as she turned to Peter.
22:57 I know him not [ouk oida auton]. Just as Jesus had predicted that he would do (Lu 22:34).
22:58 After a little while another [meta brachu heteros]. Mt 26:71 makes it after Peter had gone out into the porch and mentions a maid as speaking as does Mr 14:69, while here the “other” [heteros] is a man (masculine gender). It is almost impossible to co-ordinate the three denials in the four accounts unless we conceive of several joining in when one led off. This time Peter’s denial is very blunt, “I am not.”
22:59 After the space of about one hour [diastasēs hōsei hōras mias]. Genitive absolute with second aorist active participle feminine singular of [diistēmi]. This classical verb in the N.T. is used only by Luke (22:59; 24:51; Ac 27:28). It means standing in two or apart, about an hour intervening. Confidently affirmed [diischurizeto]. Imperfect middle, he kept affirming strongly. An old verb [dia, ischurizomai], to make oneself strong, to make emphatic declaration. In the N.T. only here and Ac 12:15. For he is a Galilean [kai gar Galilaios estin]. Mt 26:73 makes it plain that it was his speech that gave him away, which see.
22:60 I know not what thou sayest [ouk oida ho legeis]. Each denial tangles Peter more and more. While he yet spake [eti lalountos autou]. Genitive absolute. Peter could hear the crowing all right.
22:61 The Lord turned [strapheis ho kurios]. Second aorist passive participle of [strephō], coming verb. Graphic picture drawn by Luke alone. Looked upon Peter [eneblepsen tōi Petrōi]. Ingressive aorist active indicative of [enblepō], an old and vivid verb, to glance at. Remembered [hupemnēsthē]. First aorist passive indicative of [hupomimnēskō], common verb to remind one of something [hupo] giving a suggestion or hint). The cock crowing and the look brought swiftly back to Peter’s mind the prophecy of Jesus and his sad denials. The mystery is how he had forgotten that warning.
22:62 And he went out and wept bitterly [kai exelthōn exō eklausen pikrōs]. A few old Latin documents omit this verse which is genuine in Mt 26:75. It may be an insertion here from there, but the evidence for the rejection is too slight. It is the ingressive aorist [eklausen], he burst into tears. “Bitter” is a common expression for tears in all languages and in all hearts.
22:63 That held [hoi sunechontes]. See on 8:45; 19:43 for this verb [sunechō]. Here alone in the N.T. for holding a prisoner (holding together). The servants or soldiers, not the Sanhedrin. Mocked [enepaizon]. Imperfect active, were mocking, inchoative, began to mock, to play like boys. And beat him [derontes]. Present active participle of [derō], to flay, tan, or hide. Literally, “beating.”
22:64 Blindfolded [perikalupsantes]. First aorist active participle of [perikaluptō], old verb, to put a veil around. In the N.T. only here and Mr 14:65. See Mr 14:65; Mt 26:67f. for further discussion.
22:65 Many other things [hetera polla]. These are just samples.
22:66 As soon as it was day [hōs egeneto hēmera]. Mr 15:1 (Mt 27:1) has “morning.” The assembly of the people [to presbuterion tou laou]. The technical word for “the eldership” (from [presbuteros], an old man or elder) or group of the elders composing the Sanhedrin. The word occurs in the LXX for the Sanhedrin. In the N.T. occurs only here and Ac 22:5 of the Sanhedrin. In 1Ti 4:14 Paul uses it of the elders in a church (or churches). The Sanhedrin was composed of the elders and scribes and chief priests (Mr 15:1) and all three groups are at this meeting. Luke’s language (both chief priests and scribes, [te . . . kai] seems to apply the word [presbuterion] to the whole Sanhedrin. Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes) were nearly equally represented. Into their council [eis to sunedrion autōn]. The place of the gathering is not given, but Jesus was led into the council chamber.
22:67 If thou art the Christ [Ei su ei ho Christos]. The Messiah, they mean. The condition is the first class, assuming it to be true. If I tell you [Ean humin eipō]. Condition of the third class, undetermined, but with likelihood of being determined. This is the second appearance of Jesus before the Sanhedrin merely mentioned by Mr 15:1; Mt 27:1 who give in detail the first appearance and trial. Luke merely gives this so-called ratification meeting after daybreak to give the appearance of legality to their vote of condemnation already taken (Mr 14:64; Mt 26:66). Ye will not believe (ou mē pisteusēte]. Double negative with the aorist subjunctive, strongest possible negative. So as to verse 68.
22:69 The Son of man [ho huios tou anthrōpou]. Jesus really answers their demand about “the Messiah” by asserting that he is “the Son of man” and they so understand him. He makes claims of equality with God also which they take up.
22:70 Art thou the Son of God? [Su oun ei ho huios tou theou;]. Note how these three epithets are used as practical equivalents. They ask about “the Messiah.” Jesus affirms that he is the Son of Man and will sit at the right hand of the power of God. They take this to be a claim to be the Son of God (both humanity and deity). Jesus accepts the challenge and admits that he claims to be all three (Messiah, the Son of man, the Son of God). Ye say [Humeis legete]. Just a Greek idiom for “Yes” (compare “I am” in Mr 14:62 with “Thou has said” in Mt 26:64).
22:71 For we ourselves have heard [autoi gar ēkousamen]. They were right if Jesus is not what he claimed to be. They were eternally wrong for he is the Christ, the Son of man, the Son of God. They made their choice and must face Christ as Judge.
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