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19:1 Was passing through [diērcheto]. Imperfect middle. Now Jesus was inside the Roman Jericho with the procession.
19:2 Chief publican [architelōnēs]. The word occurs nowhere else apparently but the meaning is clear from the other words with [archi-] like [archiereus] (chief priest) [archipoimēn] (chief shepherd). Jericho was an important trading point for balsam and other things and so Zacchaeus was the head of the tax collections in this region, a sort of commissioner of taxes who probably had other publicans serving under him.
19:3 He sought [ezētei]. Imperfect active. He was seeking, conative idea. Jesus who he was [Iēsoun tis estin]. Prolepsis, to see who Jesus was. He had heard so much about him. He wanted to see which one of the crowd was Jesus. For the crowd [apo tou ochlou]. He was short and the crowd was thick and close. Stature [tēi hēlikiāi]. No doubt of that meaning here and possibly so in 2:52. Elsewhere “age” except Lu 12:25; Mt 6:27 where it is probably “stature” also.
19:4 Ran on before [prodramōn eis to emprosthen]. Second aorist active participle of [protrechō] (defective verb). “Before” occurs twice [pro-] and [eis to emprosthen]. Into a sycamore tree [epi sukomorean]. From [sukon], fig, and [moron], mulberry. The fig-mulberry and quite a different tree from the sycamine tree in 17:6, which see. It bore a poor fruit which poor people ate (Am 7:14). It was a wide open tree with low branches so that Zacchaeus could easily climb into it. That way [ekeinēs]. Feminine for [hodos] (way) is understood. Genitive case with [di] in composition [dierchesthai] or as an adverbial use.
19:5 Make haste and come down [speusas katabēthi]. Simultaneous aorist active participle [speusas] with the second aorist active imperative. “Come down in a hurry.”
19:6 He made haste and came down [speusas katebē]. Luke repeats the very words of Jesus with the same idiom. Received him joyfully [hupedexato auton chairōn]. The very verb used of Martha’s welcome to Jesus (10:38). “Joyfully” is the present active participle, “rejoicing” [chairōn].
19:7 Murmured [diegogguzonto]. Imperfect middle of this compound onomatopoetic word [dia-gogguzō]. In Lu 5:30 we have the simple [gogguzō], a late word like the cooing doves or the hum of bees. This compound with [dia-] is still rarer, but more expressive. To lodge [katalusai]. Jesus was the hero of this crowd from Galilee on their way to the passover. But here he had shocked their sensibilities and those of the people of Jericho by inviting himself to be the guest of this chief publican and notorious sinner who had robbed nearly everybody in the city by exorbitant taxes.
19:8 Stood [statheis]. Apparently Jesus and Zacchaeus had come to the house of Zacchaeus and were about to enter when the murmur became such a roar that Zacchaeus turned round and faced the crowd. If I have wrongfully exacted aught of any man [ei tinos ti esukophantēsa]. A most significant admission and confession. It is a condition of the first class [ei] and the aorist active indicative) that assumes it to be true. His own conscience was at work. He may have heard audible murmurs from the crowd. For the verb [sukophantein], see discussion on 3:14, the only two instances in the N.T. He had extorted money wrongfully as they all knew. I return fourfold [apodidōmi tetraploun]. I offer to do it here and now on this spot. This was the Mosaic law (Ex 22:1; Nu 5:6f.). Restitution is good proof of a change of heart. D. L. Moody used to preach it with great power. Without this the offer of Zacchaeus to give half his goods to the poor would be less effective. “It is an odd coincidence, nothing more, that the fig-mulberry (sycamore) should occur in connexion with the fig-shewer (sycophant).”
19:10 The lost [to apolōlos]. The neuter as a collective whole, second perfect active participle of [apollumi], to destroy. See Lu 15 for the idea of the lost.
19:11 He added and spake [prostheis eipen]. Second aorist active participle of [prostithēmi] with [eipen]. It is a Hebrew idiom seen also in Lu 20:1f. he added to send [prosetheto pempsai] and in Ac 12:3 “he added to seize” [prosetheto sullabein]. This undoubted Hebraism occurs in the N.T. in Luke only, probably due to the influence of the LXX on Luke the Greek Christian. To appear [anaphainesthai]. Present passive infinitive of an old verb to be made manifest, to be shown up. In the N.T. only here and Ac 21:3.
19:12 To take to himself a kingdom [labein heautōi basileian]. Second aorist active infinitive of [lambanō] with the dative reflexive [heautōi] where the middle voice could have been used. Apparently this parable has the historical basis of Archelaus who actually went from Jerusalem to Rome on this very errand to get a kingdom in Palestine and to come back to it. This happened while Jesus was a boy in Nazareth and it was a matter of common knowledge.
19:13 Trade ye herewith till I come [pragmateusasthe en hōi erchomai]. First aorist middle imperative of [pragmateuomai], an old verb from [prāgma], business. Here only in the N.T. Westcott and Hort in their text read [pragmateusasthai], first aorist middle infinitive [-ai] and [-e] were pronounced alike). The infinitive makes it indirect discourse, the imperative direct. While I am coming is what [en hōi erchomai] really means.
19:14 His citizens [hoi politai autou]. That actually happened with Archelaus.
19:15 When he was come back again [en tōi epanelthein auton]. “On the coming back again as to him.” Luke’s favourite idiom of the articular infinitive after [en] and with the accusative of general reference. Had given [dedōkei]. Past perfect active indicative without augment of [didōmi]. That he might know [hina gnoi]. Second aorist active subjunctive of [ginoskō]. The optative would be [gnoiē].
19:16 Hath made [prosērgasato]. Only here in the N.T. Note [pros-] in addition, besides, more.
19:17 Have thou authority [isthi exousian echōn]. Periphrastic present active imperative. Keep on having authority.
19:19 Be thou also over [kai su epano ginou]. Present middle imperative. Keep on becoming over. There is no real reason for identifying this parable of the pounds with the parable of the talents in Mt 25. The versatility of Jesus needs to be remembered by those who seek to flatten out everything.
19:20 I kept [eichon]. Imperfect active of [echō]. I kept on keeping. Laid up [apokeimenēn]. Present passive participle agreeing with [hēn] (which), used often as perfect passive of [tithēmi] as here, laid away or off [apo]. It is not the periphrastic construction, but two separate verbs, each with its own force. In a napkin [en soudariōi]. A Latin word sudarium from sudor (sweat) transliterated into Greek, a sweatcloth handkerchief or napkin. Found in papyrus marriage contracts as part of the dowry (second and third centuries A.D., Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 223). Used also for swathing the head of the dead (Joh 11:44; 20:7).
19:21 I feared [ephoboumēn]. Imperfect middle, I continued to fear. Austere [austēros]. Old Greek word from [auō], to dry up. Reproduced in Latin austeros and English austere.It means rough to the taste, stringent. Here only in the N.T. Compare [sklēros] (hard) in Mt 25:24. “Harsh in flavour, then in disposition” (Bruce). Thou layedst not down [ouk ethēkas]. Probably a proverb for a grasping profiteer.
19:22 Thou knewest [ēideis]. Second past perfect of [horaō], to see, used as imperfect of [oida], to know. Either it must be taken as a question as Westcott and Hort do or be understood as sarcasm as the Revised Version has it. The words of the wicked [ponēros] slave are turned to his own condemnation.
19:23 Then wherefore [kai dia ti]. Note this inferential use of [kai-] in that case. Into the bank [epi trapezan]. Literally, upon a table. This old word [trapeza], from [tetrapeza] [tetra], four, [pous], foot). It means then any table (Mr 7:28), food on the table (Ac 16:34), feast or banquet (Ro 11:9), table of the money-changers (Joh 2:15; Mr 11:15; Mt 21:12), or bank as here. Our word bank is from Old English bench.With interest [sun tokōi]. Not usury, but proper and legal interest. Old word from [tiktō], to bring forth. In the N.T. only here and Mt 25:27. Should have required it [an auto epraxa]. Conclusion of second-class condition the condition or apodosis being implied in the participle “coming” [elthōn], and the previous question. On this technical use of [prassō] [epraxa] see Lu 3:13.
19:25 And they said unto him [kai eipan autōi]. Probably the eager audience who had been listening to this wonderful parable interrupted Jesus at this point because of this sudden turn when the one pound is given to the man who has ten pounds. If so, it shows plainly how keenly they followed the story which Jesus was giving because of their excitement about the kingdom (Lu 19:11).
19:26 That hath not [tou mē echontos]. The present tense of [echō] here, that keeps on not having, probably approaches the idea of acquiring or getting, the one who keeps on not acquiring. This is the law of nature and of grace.
19:27 Reign [basileusai]. First aorist active infinitive, ingressive aorist, come to rule. Slay [katasphaxate]. First aorist active imperative of [katasphazō], to slaughter, an old verb, but only here in the N.T.
19:28 Went on before [eporeueto emprosthen]. Imperfect middle. Jesus left the parable to do its work and slowly went on his way up the hill to Jerusalem.
19:29 Unto Bethphage and Bethany [eis Bēthphagē kai Bēthania]. Both indeclinable forms of the Hebrew or Aramaic names. In Mr 11:1 “Bethany” is inflected regularly, which see. Of Olives [Elaiōn]. As in Mr 11:1; Mt 21:1, though some editors take it to be, not the genitive plural of [elaia] (olive tree), but the name of the place Olivet. In the Greek it is just a matter of accent (circumflex or acute) Olivet is correct in Ac 1:12. See on Mt 21:1ff.; Mr 11:1ff. for details.
19:30 Whereon no man ever yet sat [eph’ hon oudeis pōpote anthrōpōn ekathisen]. Plummer holds that this fact indicated to the disciples a royal progress into the city of a piece with the Virgin Birth of Jesus and the burial in a new tomb.
19:32 As he had said unto them [kathōs eipen autois]. Luke alone notes this item.
19:33 As they were loosing [luontōn autōn]. Genitive absolute. The owners thereof [hoi kurioi autou]. The same word [kurios] used of the Lord Jesus in verse 31 (and 34) and which these “owners” would understand. See on Mt 21:3; Mr 11:3 for [kurios] used by Jesus about himself with the expectation that these disciples would recognize him by that title as they did. The word in common use for the Roman emperor and in the LXX to translate the Hebrew Elohim (God).
19:36 They spread [hupestrōnnuon]. Imperfect active describing the continued spreading as they went on. [Hupostrōnnuō] is a late form of the old verb [hupostorennumi]. Here only in the N.T.
19:37 At the descent [pros tēi katabasei]. Epexegetic of “drawing nigh.” They were going by the southern slope of the Mount of Olives. As they turned down to the city, the grand view stirred the crowd to rapturous enthusiasm. This was the first sight of the city on this route which is soon obscured in the descent. The second view bursts out again (verse 41). It was a shout of triumph from the multitude with their long pent-up enthusiasm (verse 11), restrained no longer by the parable of the pounds. For all the mighty works which they had seen [peri pasōn eidon dunameōn]. Neat Greek idiom, incorporation of the antecedent [dunameōn] into the relative clause and attraction of the case of the relative from the accusative [has] to the genitive [hōn]. And note “all.” The climax had come, Lazarus, Bartimaeus, and the rest.
19:38 The king cometh [ho erchomenos, ho basileus]. The Messianic hopes of the people were now all ablaze with expectation of immediate realization. A year ago in Galilee he had frustrated their plans for a revolutionary movement “to take him by force to make him king” (Joh 6:15). The phrase “the coming king” like “the coming prophet” (Joh 6:14; De 18:15) expressed the hope of the long-looked-for Messiah. They are singing from the Hallel in their joy that Jesus at last is making public proclamation of his Messiahship. Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest [en ouranōi eirēnē kai doxa en hupsistois]. This language reminds one strongly of the song of the angels at the birth of Jesus (Lu 2:14). Mr 11:10; Mt 21:9 have “Hosannah in the highest.”
19:39 Some of the Pharisees [tines tōn Pharisaiōn]. Luke seems to imply by “from the multitude” [apo tou ochlou] that these Pharisees were in the procession, perhaps half-hearted followers of the mob. But Joh 12:19 speaks of Pharisees who stood off from the procession and blamed each other for their failure and the triumph of Jesus. These may represent the bolder spirits of their same group who dared to demand of Jesus that he rebuke his disciples.
19:40 If these shall hold their peace [ean houtoi siōpēsousin]. A condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. The use of [ean] rather than [ei] cuts no figure in the case (see Ac 8:31; 1Th 3:8; 1Jo 5:15). The kind of condition is determined by the mode which is here indicative. The future tense by its very nature does approximate the aorist subjunctive, but after all it is the indicative. The stones will cry out [hoi lithoi kraxousin]. A proverb for the impossible happening.
19:41 Wept [eklausen]. Ingressive aorist active indicative, burst into tears. Probably audible weeping.
19:42 If thou hadst known [ei egnōs]. Second aorist active indicative of [ginōskō]. Second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled. Even thou [kai su]. Emphatic position of the subject. But now [nun de]. Aposiopesis. The conclusion is not expressed and the sudden breaking off and change of structure is most impressive. They are hid [ekrubē]. Second aorist passive indicative of [kruptō], common verb, to hide.
19:43 Shall cast up a bank [parembalousin charaka]. Future active indicative of [paremballō], a double compound [para, en, ballō] of long usage, finally in a military sense of line of battle or in camp. Here alone in the N.T. So also the word [charaka] [charax] for bank, stake, palisade, rampart, is here alone in the N.T., though common enough in the old Greek. Compass thee round [perikuklōsousin se]. Future active indicative. Another common compound to make a circle [kuklos] around [peri], though here only in the N.T. Keep thee in [sunexousin se]. Shall hold thee together on every side [pantothen]. See about [sunechō] on 4:38.
19:44 Shall dash to the ground [edaphiousin]. Attic future of [edaphizō], to beat level, to raze to the ground, a rare verb from [edaphos], bottom, base, ground (Ac 22:7), here alone in the N.T. Because [anth’ hōn]. “In return for which things.” Thou knewest not [ouk egnōs]. Applying the very words of the lament in the condition in verse 42. This vivid prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem is used by those who deny predictive prophecy even for Jesus as proof that Luke wrote the Gospel after the destruction of Jerusalem. But it is no proof at all to those who concede to Jesus adequate knowledge of his mission and claims.
19:45 Began to cast out [ērxato ekballein]. So Mr 11:15 whereas Mt 21:12 has simply “he cast out.” See Mark and Matthew for discussion of this second cleansing of the temple at the close of the public ministry in relation to the one at the beginning in Joh 2:14-22. There is nothing gained by accusing John or the Synoptics of a gross chronological blunder. There was abundant time in these three years for all the abuses to be revived.
19:47 He was teaching [ēn didaskōn]. Periphrastic imperfect. Daily [to kath’ hēmeran]. Note the accusative neuter article, “as to the according to the day,” very awkward English surely, but perfectly good Greek. The same idiom occurs in 11:3. Sought [ezētoun]. Imperfect active, conative imperfect, were seeking, trying to seek. The principal men of the people [hoi prōtoi tou laou]. The first men of the people. The position after the verb and apart from the chief priests and the scribes calls special attention to them. Some of these “first men” were chief priests or scribes, but not all of them. The lights and leaders of Jerusalem were bent on the destruction [apolesai] of Jesus. The raising of Lazarus from the dead brought them together for this action (Joh 11:47-53; 12:9-11.
19:48 They could not find [ouch hēuriskon]. Imperfect active. They kept on not finding. What they might do [to ti poiēsōsin]. First aorist active deliberative subjunctive in a direct question retained in the indirect. Note the article [to] (neuter accusative) with the question. Hung upon him [exekremeto autou]. Imperfect middle of [ekkremamai], an old verb [mi] form) to hang from, here only in the N.T. The form is an [omega] form from [ekkremomai], a constant tendency to the [omega] form in the Koinē.It pictures the whole nation (save the leaders in verse 47) hanging upon the words of Jesus as if in suspense in mid-air, rapt attention that angered these same leaders. Tyndale renders it “stuck by him.”
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