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12:1 In the meantime [en hois]. It is a classic idiom to start a sentence or even a paragraph as here with a relative, “in which things or circumstances,” without any expressed antecedent other than the incidents in 11:53f. In 12:3 Luke actually begins the sentence with two relatives [anth’ hōn hosa] (wherefore whatsoever). Many thousands [muriadōn]. Genitive absolute with [episunachtheisōn] (first aorist passive participle feminine plural because of [muriadōn], a double compound late verb, [episunagō], to gather together unto. The word “myriads” is probably hyperbolical as in Ac 21:20, but in the sense of ten thousand, as in Ac 19:19, it means a very large crowd apparently drawn together by the violent attacks of the rabbis against Jesus. Insomuch that they trode one upon another [hōste katapatein allēlous]. The imagination must complete the picture of this jam. Unto his disciples first of all [pros tous mathētas autou prōton]. This long discourse in Lu 12 is really a series of separate talks to various groups in the vast crowds around Jesus. This particular talk goes through verse 12. Beware of [prosechete heautois apo]. Put your mind [noun] understood) for yourselves (dative) and avoid [apo] with the ablative). The leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy [tēs zumēs hētis estin hupocrisis tōn Pharisaiōn]. In Mr 8:15 Jesus had coupled the lesson of the Pharisees with that of Herod, in Mt 16:6 with that of the Sadducees also. He had long ago called the Pharisees hypocrites (Mt 6:2,5,16). The occasion was ripe here for this crisp saying. In Mt 13:33 leaven does not have an evil sense as here, which see. See Mt 23:13 for hypocrites. Hypocrisy was the leading Pharisaic vice (Bruce) and was a mark of sanctity to hide an evil heart.
12:2 Covered up [sugkekalummenon estin]. Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of [sugkaluptō], an old verb, but here only in the N.T., to cover up on all sides and so completely. Verses 2-9 here are parallel with Mt 10:26-33 spoken to the Twelve on their tour of Galilee, illustrating again how often Jesus repeated his sayings unless we prefer to say that he never did so and that the Gospels have hopelessly jumbled them as to time and place. See the passage in Matthew for discussion of details.
12:4 Unto you my friends [humin tois philois]. As opposed to the Pharisees and lawyers in 11:43, 46, 53. Be not afraid of [mē phobēthēte apo]. First aorist passive subjunctive with [mē], ingressive aorist, do not become afraid of, with [apo] and the ablative like the Hebrew min and the English “be afraid of,” a translation Hebraism as in Mt 10:28 (Moulton, Prolegomena, p. 102). Have no more that they can do [mē echontōn perissoteron ti poiēsai]. Luke often uses the infinitive thus with [echō], a classic idiom (7:40, 42; 12:4,50; 14:14; Ac 4:14, etc.).
12:5 Whom ye shall fear [tina phobēthēte]. First aorist passive subjunctive deliberative retained in the indirect question. [Tina] is the accusative, the direct object of this transitive passive verb (note [apo] in verse 4). Fear him who [phobēthēte ton]. First aorist passive imperative, differing from the preceding form only in the accent and governing the accusative also. After he hath killed [meta to apokteinai]. Preposition [meta] with the articular infinitive. Literally, “After the killing” (first aorist active infinitive of the common verb [apokteinō], to kill. Into hell[eis tēn geennan]. See on Mt 5:22. Gehenna is a transliteration of Ge-Hinnom, Valley of Hinnon where the children were thrown on to the red-hot arms of Molech. Josiah (2Ki 23:10) abolished these abominations and then it was a place for all kinds of refuse which burned ceaselessly and became a symbol of punishment in the other world. This one fear [touton phobēthēte]. As above.
12:6 Is forgotten [estin epilelēsmenon]. Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of [epilanthanomai], common verb to forget. See Mt 10:29 for a different construction.
12:7 Numbered [ērithmēntai]. Perfect passive indicative. Periphrastic form in Mt 10:30 which see for details about sparrows, etc.
12:8 Everyone who shall confess me [pas hos an homologēsei en emoi]. Just like Mt 10:32 except the use of [an] here which adds nothing. The Hebraistic use of [en] after [homologeō] both here and in Matthew is admitted by even Moulton (Prolegomena, p. 104). The Son of man [ho huios tou anthrōpou]. Here Mt 10:32 has [k’agō] (I also) as the equivalent.
12:9 Shall be denied [aparnēthēsetai]. First future passive of the compound verb [aparneomai]. Here Mt 10:33 has [arnēsomai] simply. Instead of “in the presence of the angels of God” [emprosthen tōn aggelōn tou theou] Mt 10:33 has “before my Father who is in heaven.”
12:10 But unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit [tōi de eis to hagion pneuma blasphēmēsanti]. This unpardonable sin is given by Mr 3:28f.; Mt 12:31f. immediately after the charge that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Luke here separates it from the same charge made in Judea (11:15-20). As frequently said, there is no sound reason for saying that Jesus only spoke his memorable sayings once. Luke apparently finds a different environment here. Note the use of [eis] here in the sense of “against.”
12:11 Be not anxious [mē merimnēsēte]. First aorist active subjunctive with [mē] in prohibition. Do not become anxious. See a similar command to the Twelve on their Galilean tour (Mt 10:19f.) and in the great discourse on the Mount of Olives at the end (Mr 13:11; Lu 21:14f.), given twice by Luke as we see. How or what ye shall answer [pōs ē ti apologēsēsthe]. Indirect question and retaining the deliberative subjunctive [apologēsēsthe] and also [eipēte] (say).
12:12 What ye ought to say [hā dei eipein]. Literally, what things it is necessary [dei] to say. This is no excuse for neglect in pulpit preparation. It is simply a word for courage in a crisis to play the man for Christ and to trust the issue with God without fear.
12:13 Bid my brother [eipe tōi adelphōi mou]. This volunteer from the crowd draws attention to the multitude (verses 13-21). He does not ask for arbitration and there is no evidence that his brother was willing for that. He wants a decision by Jesus against his brother. The law (De 21:17) was two-thirds to the elder, one-third to the younger.
12:14 A judge or a divider [kritēn ē meristēn]. Jesus repudiates the position of judge or arbiter in this family fuss. The language reminds one of Ex 2:14. Jesus is rendering unto Caesar the things of Caesar (Lu 20:25) and shows that his kingdom is not of this world (Joh 18:36). The word for divider or arbiter [meristēs] is a late word from [merizomai] (verse 13) and occurs here only in the N.T.
12:15 From all covetousness [apo pasēs pleonexias]. Ablative case. From every kind of greedy desire for more [pleon], more, [hexia], from [echō], to have) an old word which we have robbed of its sinful aspects and refined to mean business thrift. In the abundance of the things which he possesseth [en tōi perisseuein tini ek tōn huparchontōn autōi]. A rather awkward Lukan idiom: “In the abounding (articular infinitive) to one out of the things belonging (articular participle) to him.”
12:16 A parable unto them [parabolēn pros autous]. The multitude of verses 13, 15. A short and pungent parable suggested by the covetousness of the man of verse 13. Brought forth plentifully [euphorēsen]. Late word from [euphoros] (bearing well), in medical writers and Josephus, here only in the N.T.
12:17 Reasoned within himself [dielogizeto en hautōi]. Imperfect middle, picturing his continued cogitations over his perplexity. Where to bestow [pou sunaxō]. Future indicative deliberative, where I shall gather together. My fruits [tous karpous mou]. So it is with the rich fool: my fruits, my barns, my corn, my goods, just like Nabal whose very name means fool (1Sa 25:11), whether a direct reference to him or not.
12:18 I will pull down [kathelō]. Future active of [kathaireō], an old verb, the usual future being [kathairēsō]. This second form from the second aorist [katheilon] (from obsolete [helō] like [aphelei] in Re 22:19. My barns [mou tas apothēkas]. From [apotithēmi], to lay by, to treasure. So a granary or storehouse, an old word, six times in the N.T. (Mt 3:12; 6:26; 13:30; Lu 3:17; 12:18,24). All my corn [panta ton siton]. Better grain (wheat, barley), not maize or Indian corn. My goods [ta agatha mou]. Like the English, my good things. So the English speak of goods (freight) train.
12:19 Laid up for many years [keimena eis etē polla]. Not in D and some other Latin MSS. The man’s apostrophe to his “soul” [psuchē] is thoroughly Epicurean, for his soul feeds on his goods. The asyndeton here (take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry) shows his eagerness. Note difference in tenses [anapauou], keep on resting, [phage], eat at once, [pie], drink thy fill, [euphrainou], keep on being merry), first and last presents, the other two aorists.
12:20 Thou foolish one [aphrōn]. Fool, for lack of sense [a] privative and [phrēn], sense) as in 11:40; 2Co 11:19. Old word, used by Socrates in Xenophon. Nominative form as vocative. Is thy soul required of thee [tēn psuchēn sou aitousin apo sou]. Plural active present, not passive: “They are demanding thy soul from thee.” The impersonal plural (aitousin) is common enough (Lu 6:38; 12:11; 16:9; 23:31). The rabbis used “they” to avoid saying “God.”
12:22 Unto his disciples [pros tous mathētas autou]. So Jesus turns from the crowd to the disciples (verses 22-40, when Peter interrupts the discourse). From here to the end of the chapter Luke gives material that appears in Matthew, but not in one connection as here. In Matthew part of it is in the charge to the Twelve on their tour in Galilee, part in the eschatological discourse on the Mount of Olives. None of it is in Mark. Hence Q or the Logia seems to be the source of it. The question recurs again whether Jesus repeated on other occasions what is given here or whether Luke has here put together separate discourses as Matthew is held by many to have done in the Sermon on the Mount. We have no way of deciding these points. We can only say again that Jesus would naturally repeat his favourite sayings like other popular preachers and teachers. So Lu 12:22-31 corresponds to Mt 6:25-33, which see for detailed discussion. The parable of the rich fool was spoken to the crowd, but this exhortation to freedom from care (22-31) is to the disciples. So the language in Lu 12:22 is precisely that in Mt 6:25. See there for [mē merimnāte] (stop being anxious) and the deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question [phagēte, endusēsthe]. So verse 23 here is the same in Mt 6:25 except that there it is a question with [ouch] expecting the affirmative answer, whereas here it is given as a reason [gar], for) for the preceding command.
12:24 The ravens [tous korakas]. Nowhere else in the N.T. The name includes the whole crow group of birds (rooks and jackdaws). Like the vultures they are scavengers. Mt 6:26 has simply “the birds” [ta peteina]. Storechamber (tameion). Not in Mt 6:26. Means secret chamber in Lu 12:3. Of how much more [posōi māllon]. Mt 6:26 has question, [ouch māllon].
12:25 A cubit [pēchun]. Mt 6:27 has [pēchun hena] (one cubit, though [hena] is sometimes merely the indefinite article. Stature[hēlikian] as in Matthew, which see.
12:26 Not able to do even that which is least [oude elachiston dunasthe]. Negative [oude] in the condition of the first class. Elative superlative, very small. This verse not in Matthew and omitted in D. Verse 27 as in Mt 6:28, save that the verbs for toil and spin are plural in Matthew and singular here (neuter plural subject, [ta krina].
12:28 Clothe [amphiazei]. Late Greek verb in the Koinē (papyri) for the older form [amphiennumi] (Mt 6:30). See Matthew for discussion of details. Matthew has “the grass of the field” instead of “the grass in the field” as here.
12:29 Seek not ye [humeis mē zēteite]. Note emphatic position of “ye” [humeis]. Stop seeking [mē] and present imperative active). Mt 6:31 has: “Do not become anxious” [mē merimnēsēte], [mē] and ingressive subjunctive occur as direct questions (What are we to eat? What are we to drink? What are we to put on?) whereas here they are in the indirect form as in verse 22 save that the problem of clothing is not here mentioned: Neither be ye of doubtful mind [kai mē meteōrizesthe]. [Mē] and present passive imperative (stop being anxious) of [meteōrizō]. An old verb from [meteōros] in midair, high (our meteor), to lift up on high, then to lift oneself up with hopes (false sometimes), to be buoyed up, to be tossed like a ship at sea, to be anxious, to be in doubt as in late writers (Polybius, Josephus). This last meaning is probably true here. In the LXX and Philo, but here only in the N.T.
12:31 See Mt 6:33 for this verse. Luke does not have “first” nor “his righteousness” nor “all.”
12:32 Little flock [to mikron poimnion]. Vocative with the article as used in Hebrew and often in the Koinē and so in the N.T. See both [pater] and [ho patēr] in the vocative in Lu 10:21. See Robertson, Grammar, pp. 465f. [Poimnion] (flock) is a contraction from [poimenion] from [poimēn] (shepherd) instead of the usual [poimnē] (flock). So it is not a diminutive and [mikron] is not superfluous, though it is pathetic. For it is your Father’s good pleasure [hoti eudokēsen ho patēr humōn]. First aorist active indicative of [eudokeō]. Timeless aorist as in Lu 3:22. This verse has no parallel in Matthew.
12:33 Sell that ye have [Pōlēsate ta huparchonta humōn]. Not in Matthew. Did Jesus mean this literally and always? Luke has been charged with Ebionism, but Jesus does not condemn property as inherently sinful. “The attempt to keep the letter of the rule here given (Ac 2:44, 45) had disastrous effects on the church of Jerusalem, which speedily became a church of paupers, constantly in need of alms (Ro 15:25,26; 1Co 16:3; 2Co 8:4; 9:1)” (Plummer). Purses which wax not old [ballantia mē palaioumena]. So already [ballantion] in Lu 10:4. Late verb [palaioō] from [palaios], old, to make old, declare old as in Heb 8:13, is passive to become old as here and Heb 1:11. That faileth not [anekleipton]. Verbal from [a] privative and [ekleipō], to fail. Late word in Diodorus and Plutarch. Only here in the N.T. or LXX, but in papyri. “I prefer to believe that even Luke sees in the words not a mechanical rule, but a law for the spirit” (Bruce). Draweth near [eggizei]. Instead of Mt 6:19 “dig through and steal.” Destroyeth [diaphtheirei]. Instead of “doth consume” in Mt 6:19.
12:35 Be girded about [estōsan periezōsmenai]. Periphrastic perfect passive imperative third plural of the verb [perizōnnumi] or [perizōnnuō] (later form), an old verb, to gird around, to fasten the garments with a girdle. The long garments of the orientals made speed difficult. It was important to use the girdle before starting. Cf. 17:8; Ac 12:8. Burning [kaiomenoi]. Periphrastic present middle imperative, already burning and continuously burning. The same point of the Parable of the Ten Virgins (Mt 25:1-13) is found here in condensed form. This verse introduces the parable of the waiting servants (Lu 12:35-40).
12:36 When he shall return from the marriage feast [pote analusēi ek tōn gamōn]. The interrogative conjunction [pote] and the deliberative aorist subjunctive retained in the indirect question. The verb [analuō], very common Greek verb, but only twice in the N.T. (here and Php 1:23). The figure is breaking up a camp or loosening the mooring of a ship, to depart. Perhaps here the figure is from the standpoint of the wedding feast (plural as used of a single wedding feast in Lu 14:8), departing from there. See on Mt 22:2. When he cometh and knocketh [elthontos kai krousantos]. Genitive absolute of the aorist active participle without [autou] and in spite of [autoi] (dative) being used after [anoixōsin] (first aorist active subjunctive of [anoigō].
12:37 He shall gird himself [perizōsetai]. Direct future middle. Jesus did this (Joh 13:4), not out of gratitude, but to give the apostles an object lesson in humility. See the usual course in Lu 17:7-10 with also the direct middle (verse 8) of [perisōnnuō].
12:38 And if [k’an = kai + ean]. Repeated. [Elthēi] and [heurēi], both second aorist subjunctive with [ean], condition of the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being determined. Blessed [makarioi]. Beatitude here as in verse 37.
12:39 The thief [ho kleptēs]. The change here almost makes a new parable to illustrate the other, the parable of the housebreaking (verses 39, 40) to illustrate the parable of the waiting servants (35-38). This same language appears in Mt 24:43f. “The Master returning from a wedding is replaced by a thief whose study it is to come to the house he means to plunder at an unexpected time” (Bruce). The parallel in Mt 24:43-51 with Lu 12:39-46 does not have the interruption by Peter. He would have watched [egrēgorēsen an]. Apodosis of second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled, made plain by use of [an] with aorist indicative which is not repeated with [ouk aphēken] (first aorist active indicative of [aphiēmi], [k] aorist), though it is sometimes repeated (Mt 24:43).
12:40 Be ye [ginesthe]. Present middle imperative, keep on becoming. Cometh [erchetai]. Futuristic present indicative. See Mt 24:43-51 for details in the comparison with Luke.
12:41 Peter said [Eipen de ho Petros]. This whole paragraph from verse 22-40 had been addressed directly to the disciples. Hence it is not surprising to find Peter putting in a question. This incident confirms also the impression that Luke is giving actual historical data in the environment of these discourses. He is certain that the Twelve are meant, but he desires to know if others are included, for he had spoken to the multitude in verses 13-21. Recall Mr 13:37. This interruption is somewhat like that on the Mount of Transfiguration (Lu 9:33) and is characteristic of Peter. Was it the magnificent promise in verse 37 that stirred Peter’s impulsiveness? It is certainly more than a literary device of Luke. Peter’s question draws out a parabolic reply by Jesus (42-48).
12:42 Who then [tis ara]. Jesus introduces this parable of the wise steward (42-48) by a rhetorical question that answers itself. Peter is this wise steward, each of the Twelve is, anyone is who acts thus. The faithful and wise steward [ho pistos oikonomos ho phronimos]. The faithful steward, the wise one. A steward is house manager [oikos, nemō], to manage). Each man is a steward in his own responsibilities. Household [therapeias]. Literally, service from [therapeuō]. medical service as in Lu 9:11, by metonymy household (a body of those domestics who serve). Their portion of food [to sitometrion]. Late word from [sitometreō] (Ge 47:12) for the Attic [ton siton metreō], to measure the food, the rations. Here only in the N.T. or anywhere else till Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 158) found it in an Egyptian papyrus and then an inscription in Lycia (Light from the Ancient East, p. 104).
12:45 Shall say [eipēi]. Second aorist subjunctive, with [ean], condition of the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being determined. Delayeth [chronizei]. From [chronos], time, spends time, lingers. Shall begin [arxētai]. First aorist middle subjunctive with [ean] and the same condition as [eipēi], above. The menservants [tous paidas] and the maidservants [kai tas paidiskas]. [Paidiskē] is a diminutive of [pais] for a young female slave and occurs in the papyri, orginally just a damsel. Here [pais] can mean slave also though strictly just a boy.
12:46 Shall cut him asunder [dichotomēsei]. An old and somewhat rare word from [dichotomos] and that from [dicha] and [temnō], to cut, to cut in two. Used literally here. In the N.T. only here and Mt 24:51. With the unfaithful [meta tōn apistōn]. Not here “the unbelieving” though that is a common meaning of [apistos] [a] privative and [pistos], from [peithō], but the unreliable, the untrustworthy. Here Mt 24:51 has “with the hypocrites,” the same point. The parallel with Mt 24:43-51 ends here. Mt 24:51 adds the saying about the wailing and the gnashing of teeth. Clearly there Luke places the parable of the wise steward in this context while Matthew has it in the great eschatological discourse. Once again we must either think that Jesus repeated the parable or that one of the writers has misplaced it. Luke alone preserves what he gives in verses 47, 48.
12:47 Which knew [ho gnous]. Articular participle (second aorist active, punctiliar and timeless). The one who knows. So as to [mē hetoimasas ē poiēsas] (does not make ready or do). Shall be beaten with many stripes [darēsetai pollas]. Second future passive of [derō], to skin, to beat, to flay (see on Mt 21:35; Mr 12:3,5). The passive voice retains here the accusative [pollas] (supply [plēgas], present in Lu 10:30). The same explanation applies to [oligas] in verse 48.
12:48 To whomsoever much is given [panti de hōi edothē polu]. Here is inverse attraction from [hoi] to [panti] (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 767f.). Note [par’ autou] (from him) without any regard to [panti]. They commit [parethento]. Second aorist middle indicative, timeless or gnomic aorist. Note the impersonal plural after the passive voice just before.
12:49 I came to cast fire [Pur ēlthon balein]. Suddenly Jesus lets the volcano in his own heart burst forth. The fire was already burning. “Christ came to set the world on fire, and the conflagration had already begun” (Plummer). The very passion in Christ’s heart would set his friends on fire and his foes in opposition as we have just seen (Lu 11:53f.). It is like the saying of Jesus that he came to bring not peace, but a sword, to bring cleavage among men (Mt 10:34-36). And what will I, if it is already kindled? [kai ti thelō ei ēdē anēphthē;]. It is not clear what this passage means. Probably [ti] is be taken in the sense of “how” [pōs]. How I wish. Then [ei] can be taken as equal to [hoti]. How I wish that it were already kindled. [Anēphthē] is first aorist passive of [anaptō], to set fire to, to kindle, to make blaze. Probably Luke means the conflagration to come by his death on the Cross for he changes the figure and refers to that more plainly.
12:50 I have a baptism [baptisma de echō]. Once again Jesus will call his baptism the baptism of blood and will challenge James and John to it (Mr 10:32f.; Mt 20:22f.). So here. “Having used the metaphor of fire, Christ now uses the metaphor of water. The one sets forth the result of his coming as it affects the world, the other as it affects himself. The world is lit up with flames and Christ is bathed in blood” (Plummer). And how I am straitened [kai pōs sunechomai]. See this same vivid verb [sunechomai] in Lu 8:37; Ac 18:5; Php 1:23 where Paul uses it of his desire for death just as Jesus does here. The urge of the Cross is upon Jesus at the moment of these words. We catch a glimpse of the tremendous passion in his soul that drove him on. Till it be accomplished [heōs hotou telesthēi]. First aorist passive subjunctive of [teleō] with [heōs hotou] (until which time), the common construction for the future with this conjunction.
12:51 But rather division [all’ ē diamerismon]. Peace at any price is not the purpose of Christ. It is a pity for family jars to come, but loyalty to Christ counts more than all else. These ringing words (Lu 12:51-53) occur in Mt 10:34-36 in the address to the Twelve for the Galilean tour. See discussion of details there. These family feuds are inevitable where only part cleave to Christ. In Matthew we have [kata] with the genitive whereas in Luke it is [epi] with the dative (and accusative once).
12:54 To the multitudes also [kai tois ochlois]. After the strong and stirring words just before with flash and force Jesus turns finally in this series of discourses to the multitudes again as in verse 15. There are similar sayings to these verses 54-59 in Mt 16:1f; 5:25f. There is a good deal of difference in phraseology whether that is due to difference of source or different use of the same source (Q or Logia) we do not know. Not all the old MSS. give Mt 16:2,3. In Matthew the Pharisees and Sadducees were asking for a sign from heaven as they often did. These signs of the weather, “a shower” [ombros], Lu 12:54) due to clouds in the west, “a hot wave” [kausōn], verse 55) due to a south wind [noton] blowing, “fair weather” [eudia], Mt 16:2) when the sky is red, are appealed to today. They have a more or less general application due to atmospheric and climatic conditions.
12:56 To interpret this time [ton kairon touton dokimazein]. To test [dokimazein] as spiritual chemists. No wonder that Jesus here calls them “hypocrites” because of their blindness when looking at and hearing him. So it is today with those who are willfully blind to the steps of God among men. This ignorance of the signs of the times is colossal.
12:57 Even of yourselves [kai aph’ heautōn]. Without the presence and teaching of Jesus they had light enough to tell what is right [to dikaion] and so without excuse as Paul argued in Ro 1-3.
12:58 Give diligence to be quit of him [dos ergasian apēllachthai ap’ autou]. Second aorist active imperative [dos] from [didōmi]. [Apēllachthai], perfect passive infinitive of [apallassō] an old verb common, but only twice in the N.T. (here and Ac 19:12). Used here in a legal sense and the tense emphasizes a state of completion, to be rid of him for good. Hale thee [katasurēi]. Drag down forcibly, old verb, only here in the N.T. To the officer [tōi praktori]. The doer, the proctor, the exactor of fines, the executor of punishment. Old word, only here in the N.T.
12:59 Till thou have paid [heōs apodōis]. Second aorist active subjunctive of [apodidōmi], to pay back in full. The last mite [to eschaton lepton]. From [lepō], to peel off the bark. Very small brass coin, one-eighth of an ounce. In the N.T. only here and Lu 21:2; Mr 12:42 (the poor widow’s mite) which see.
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