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Chapter 6

6:1 On a sabbath [en sabbatōi]. This is the second sabbath on which Jesus is noted by Luke. The first was Lu 4:31-41. There was another in Joh 5:1-47. There is Western and Syrian (Byzantine) evidence for a very curious reading here which calls this sabbath “secondfirst” [deuteroprōtōi]. It is undoubtedly spurious, though Westcott and Hort print it in the margin. A possible explanation is that a scribe wrote “first” [prōtōi] on the margin because of the sabbath miracle in Lu 6:6-11. Then another scribe recalled Lu 4:31 where a sabbath is mentioned and wrote “second” [deuterōi] also on the margin. Finally a third scribe combined the two in the word [deuteroprōtōi] that is not found elsewhere. If it were genuine, we should not know what it means. Plucked [etillon]. Imperfect active. They were plucking as they went on through [diaporeuesthai]. Whether wheat or barley, we do not know, not our “corn” (maize). Did eat [ēsthion]. Imperfect again. See on Mt 12:1f.; Mr 2:23f. for the separate acts in supposed violence of the sabbath laws. Rubbing them in their hands [psōchontes tais chersin]. Only in Luke and only here in the N.T. This was one of the chief offences. “According to Rabbinical notions, it was reaping, threshing, winnowing, and preparing food all at once” (Plummer). These Pharisees were straining out gnats and swallowing camels! This verb [psōchō] is a late one for [psaō], to rub.

6:3 Not even this [oude touto]. This small point only in Luke. What [ho]. Literally, which. Mr 2:25; Mt 12:3 have [ti] (what).

6:4 Did take [labōn]. Second aorist active participle of [lambanō]. Not in Mark and Matthew. See Mt 12:1-8; Mr 2:23-28 for discussion of details about the shewbread and the five arguments in defence of his conduct on the sabbath (example of David, work of the priests on the sabbath, prophecy of Ho 6:6, purpose of the sabbath for man, the Son of Man lord of the sabbath). It was an overwhelming and crushing reply to these pettifogging ceremonialists to which they could not reply, but which increased their anger. Codex D transfers verse 5 to after verse 10 and puts here the following: “On the same day beholding one working on the sabbath he said to him: Man, if you know what you are doing, happy are you; but if you do not know, cursed are you and a transgressor of the law.”

6:6 On another sabbath [en heterōi sabbatōi]. This was a second [heteron], as it often means), but not necessarily the next, sabbath. This incident is given by all three synoptics (Mr 3:1-6; Mt 12:9-14; Lu 6:6-11. See Matt. and Mark for details. Only Luke notes that it was on a sabbath. Was this because Luke as a physician had to meet this problem in his own practise? Right hand [hē dexia]. This alone in Luke, the physician’s eye for particulars.

6:7 The scribes and the Pharisees [hoi grammateis kai hoi Pharisaioi]. Only Luke here though Pharisees named in Mt 12:14 and Pharisees and Herodians in Mr 3:6. Watched him [paretērounto auton]. Imperfect middle, were watching for themselves on the side [para]. Mr 3:2 has the imperfect active [paretēroun]. Common verb, but the proposition [para] gave an extra touch, watching either assiduously like the physician at the bedside or insidiously with evil intent as here. Would heal [therapeusei]. But the present active indicative [therapeuei] may be the correct text here. So Westcott and Hort. That they might find out how to accuse him [hina heurōsin katēgorein autou]. Second aorist active subjunctive of [heuriskō] and the infinitive with it means to find out how to do a thing. They were determined to make a case against Jesus. They felt sure that their presence would prevent any spurious work on the part of Jesus.

6:8 But he knew their thoughts [autos de ēidei tous dialogismous autōn]. In Luke alone. Imperfect in sense, second past perfect in form [ēidei] from [oida]. Jesus, in contrast to these spies (Plummer), read their intellectual processes like an open book. His hand withered [xēran tēn cheira]. Predicate position of the adjective. So in Mr 3:3. Stand forth [stēthi]. Luke alone has this verb, second aorist active imperative. Mr 3:3 has Arise into the midst [egeire eis to meson]. Luke has Arise and step forth into the midst [egeire kai stēthi eis to meson]. Christ worked right out in the open where all could see. It was a moment of excitement when the man stepped forth [estē] there before them all.

6:9 I ask you [eperōtō humās]. They had questions in their hearts about Jesus. He now asks in addition [ep’] an open question that brings the whole issue into the open. A life [psuchēn]. So the Revised Version. The rabbis had a rule: Periculum vitae pellit sabbatum.But it had to be a Jew whose life was in peril on the sabbath. The words of Jesus cut to the quick. Or to destroy it [ē apolesai]. On this very day these Pharisees were plotting to destroy Jesus (verse 7).

6:10 He looked round about on them all [periblepsamenos]. First aorist middle participle as in Mr 3:5, the middle voice giving a personal touch to it all. Mark adds “with anger” which Luke here does not put in. All three Gospels have the identical command: Stretch forth thy hand [exteinon tēn cheira sou]. First aorist active imperative. Stretch out, clean out, full length. All three Gospels also have the first aorist passive indicative [apekatestathē] with the double augment of the double compound verb [apokathistēmi]. As in Greek writers, so here the double compound means complete restoration to the former state.

6:11 They were filled with madness [eplēsthēsan anoias] First aorist passive (effective) with genitive: In 5:26 we saw the people filled with fear. Here is rage that is kin to insanity, for [anoias] is lack of sense [a] privative and [nous], mind). An old word, but only here and 2Ti 3:9 in the N.T. Communed [dielaloun], imperfect active, picturing their excited counsellings with one another. Mr 3:6 notes that they bolted out of the synagogue and outside plotted even with the Herodians how to destroy Jesus, strange co-conspirators these against the common enemy. What they might do to Jesus [ti an poiēsaien Iēsou]. Luke puts it in a less damaging way than Mr 3:6; Mt 12:14. This aorist optative with [an] is the deliberative question like that in Ac 17:18 retained in the indirect form here. Perhaps Luke means, not that they were undecided about killing Jesus, but only as to the best way of doing it. Already nearly two years before the end we see the set determination to destroy Jesus. We see it here in Galilee. We have already seen it at the feast in Jerusalem (Joh 5:18) where “the Jews sought the more to kill him.” John and the Synoptics are in perfect agreement as to the Pharisaic attitude toward Jesus.

6:12 He went out into the mountains to pray [exelthein auton eis to oros proseuxasthai]. Note [ex-] where Mr 3:13 has goeth up [anabainei]. Luke alone has “to pray” as he so often notes the habit of prayer in Jesus. He continued all night [ēn dianuktereuōn]. Periphrastic imperfect active. Here alone in the N.T., but common in the LXX and in late Greek writers. Medical writers used it of whole night vigils. In prayer to God [en tēi proseuchēi tou theou]. Objective genitive [tou theou]. This phrase occurs nowhere else. [Proseuchē] does not mean “place of prayer” or synagogue as in Ac 16:13, but the actual prayer of Jesus to the Father all night long. He needed the Father’s guidance now in the choice of the Apostles in the morning.

6:13 When it was day [hote egeneto hēmera]. When day came, after the long night of prayer. He chose from them twelve [eklexamenos ap’ autōn dōdeka]. The same root [leg] was used for picking out, selecting and then for saying. There was a large group of “disciples” or “learners” whom he “called” to him [prosephōnēsen], and from among whom he chose (of himself, and for himself, indirect middle voice [eklexamenos]. It was a crisis in the work of Christ. Jesus assumed full responsibility even for the choice of Judas who was not forced upon Jesus by the rest of the Twelve. “You did not choose me, but I chose you,” (Joh 15:16) where Jesus uses [exelexasthe] and [exelexamēn] as here by Luke. Whom also he named apostles [hous kai apostolous ōnomasen]. So then Jesus gave the twelve chosen disciples this appellation. Aleph and B have these same words in Mr 3:14 besides the support of a few of the best cursives, the Bohairic Coptic Version and the Greek margin of the Harclean Syriac. Westcott and Hort print them in their text in Mr 3:14, but it remains doubtful whether they were not brought into Mark from Lu 6:13 where they are undoubtedly genuine. See Mt 10:2 where the connection with sending them out by twos in the third tour of Galilee. The word is derived from [apostellō], to send (Latin, mitto) and apostle is missionary, one sent. Jesus applies the term to himself [apesteilas], Joh 17:3) as does Heb 3:1. The word is applied to others, like Barnabas, besides these twelve including the Apostle Paul who is on a par with them in rank and authority, and even to mere messengers of the churches (2Co 8:23). But these twelve apostles stand apart from all others in that they were all chosen at once by Jesus himself “that they might be with him” (Mr 3:14), to be trained by Jesus himself and to interpret him and his message to the world. In the nature of the case they could have no successors as they had to be personal witnesses to the life and resurrection of Jesus (Ac 1:22). The selection of Matthias to succeed Judas cannot be called a mistake, but it automatically ceased. For discussion of the names and groups in the list see discussion on Mt 10:1-4; Mr 3:14-19.

6:16 Which was the traitor [hos egeneto prodotēs]. Who became traitor, more exactly, [egeneto], not [ēn]. He gave no signs of treachery when chosen.

6:17 He came down with them [katabas met’ autōn]. Second aorist active participle of [katabainō], common verb. This was the night of prayer up in the mountain (Mr 31:3; Lu 6:12) and the choice of the Twelve next morning. The going up into the mountain of Mt 5:1 may simply be a summary statement with no mention of what Luke has explained or may be a reference to the elevation, where he “sat down” (Mt 5:1), above the plain or “level place” [epi topou pedinou] on the mountain side where Jesus “stood” or “stopped” [estē]. It may be a level place towards the foot of the mountain. He stopped his descent at this level place and then found a slight elevation on the mountain side and began to speak. There is not the slightest reason for making Matthew locate this sermon on the mountain and Luke in the valley as if the places, audiences, and topics were different. For the unity of the sermon see discussion on Mt 5:1f. The reports in Matthew and Luke begin alike, cover the same general ground and end alike. The report in Matthew is longer chiefly because in Chapter 5, he gives the argument showing the contrast between Christ’s conception of righteousness and that of the Jewish rabbis. Undoubtedly, Jesus repeated many of the crisp sayings here at other times as in Luke 12, but it is quite gratuitous to argue that Matthew and Luke have made up this sermon out of isolated sayings of Christ at various times. Both Matthew and Luke give too much that is local of place and audience for that idea. Mt 5:1 speaks of “the multitudes” and “his disciples.” Lu 6:17 notes “a great multitude of his disciples, and a great number of the people from all Judea and Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon.” They agree in the presence of disciples and crowds besides the disciples from whom the twelve apostles were chosen. It is important to note how already people were coming from “the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon” “to hear him and to be healed [iathēnai], first aorist passive of [iaomai] of their diseases.”

6:18 With unclean spirits [apo pneumatōn akathartōn]. In an amphibolous position for it can be construed with “troubled,” (present passive participle [enochloumenoi] or with “were healed” (imperfect passive, [etherapeuonto]. The healings were repeated as often as they came. Note here both verbs, [iaomai] and [therapeuō], used of the miraculous cures of Jesus. [Therapeuō] is the verb more commonly employed of regular professional cures, but no such distinction is made here.

6:19 Sought to touch him [ezētoun haptesthai autou]. Imperfect active. One can see the surging, eager crowd pressing up to Jesus. Probably some of them felt that there was a sort of virtue or magic in touching his garments like the poor woman in Lu 8:43f. (Mr 5:23; Mt 9:21. For power came forth from him [hoti dunamis par’ autou exērcheto]. Imperfect middle, power was coming out from him. This is the reason for the continual approach to Jesus. And healed them all [kai iāto pantas]. Imperfect middle again. Was healing all, kept on healing all. The preacher today who is not a vehicle of power from Christ to men may well question why that is true. Undoubtedly the failure to get a blessing is one reason why many people stop going to church. One may turn to Paul’s tremendous words in Php 4:13: “I have strength for all things in him who keeps on pouring power into me” [panta ischuō en tōi endunamounti me]. It was at a time of surpassing dynamic spiritual energy when Jesus delivered this greatest of all sermons so far as they are reported to us. The very air was electric with spiritual power. There are such times as all preachers know.

6:20 And he lifted up his eyes [kai autos eparas tous opthalmous autou]. First aorist active participle from [epairō]. Note also Luke’s favourite use of [kai autos] in beginning a paragraph. Vivid detail alone in Luke. Jesus looked the vast audience full in the face. Mt 5:2 mentions that “he opened his mouth and taught them” (began to teach them, inchoative imperfect, [edidasken]. He spoke out so that the great crowd could hear. Some preachers do not open their mouths and do not look up at the people, but down at the manuscript and drawl along while the people lose interest and even go to sleep or slip out. Ye poor [hoi ptōchoi]. The poor, but “yours” [humetera] justifies the translation “ye.” Luke’s report is direct address in all the four beatitudes and four woes given by him. It is useless to speculate why Luke gives only four of the eight beatitudes in Matthew or why Matthew does not give the four woes in Luke. One can only say that neither professes to give a complete report of the sermon. There is no evidence to show that either saw the report of the other. They may have used a common source like Q (the Logia of Jesus) or they may have had separate sources. Luke’s first beatitude corresponds with Matthew’s first, but he does not have “in spirit” after “poor.” Does Luke represent Jesus as saying that poverty itself is a blessing? It can be made so. Or does Luke represent Jesus as meaning what is in Matthew, poverty of spirit? The kingdom of God [hē basileia tou theou]. Mt 5:3 has “the kingdom of heaven” which occurs alone in Matthew though he also has the one here in Luke with no practical difference. The rabbis usually said “the kingdom of heaven.” They used it of the political Messianic kingdom when Judaism of the Pharisaic sort would triumph over the world. The idea of Jesus is in the sharpest contrast to that conception here and always. See on Mt 3:2 for discussion of the meaning of the word “kingdom.” It is the favourite word of Jesus for the rule of God in the heart here and now. It is both present and future and will reach a glorious consummation. Some of the sayings of Christ have apocalyptic and eschatological figures, but the heart of the matter is here in the spiritual reality of the reign of God in the hearts of those who serve him. The kingdom parables expand and enlarge upon various phases of this inward life and growth.

6:21 Now [nun]. Luke adds this adverb here and in the next sentence after “weep.” This sharpens the contrast between present sufferings and the future blessings. Filled [chortasthēsesthe]. Future passive indicative. The same verb in Mt 5:6. Originally it was used for giving fodder [chortos] to animals, but here it is spiritual fodder or food except in Lu 15:16; 16:21. Luke here omits “and thirst after righteousness.” Weep [klaiontes]. Audible weeping. Where Mt 5:4 has “mourn” [penthountes]. Shall laugh [gelasete]. Here Mt 5:4 has “shall be comforted.” Luke’s words are terse.

6:22 When they shall separate you [hotan aphorisōsin humās]. First aorist active subjunctive, from [aphorizō], common verb for marking off a boundary. So either in good sense or bad sense as here. The reference is to excommunication from the congregation as well as from social intercourse. Cast out your name as evil [exbalōsin to onoma humōn hōs ponēron]. Second aorist active subjunctive of [ekballō], common verb. The verb is used in Aristophanes, Sophocles, and Plato of hissing an actor off the stage. The name of Christian or disciple or Nazarene came to be a byword of contempt as shown in the Acts. It was even unlawful in the Neronian persecution when Christianity was not a religio licita.For the Son of man’s sake [heneka tou huiou tou anthrōpou]. Jesus foretold what will befall those who are loyal to him. The Acts of the Apostles is a commentary on this prophecy. This is Christ’s common designation of himself, never of others save by Stephen (Ac 7:56) and in the Apocalypse (Re 1:13; 14:14). But both Son of God and Son of man apply to him (Joh 1:50,52; Mt 26:63f.). Christ was a real man though the Son of God. He is also the representative man and has authority over all men.

6:23 Leap for joy [skirtēsate]. Old verb and in LXX, but only in Luke in the N.T. (here and 1:41, 44). It answers to Matthew’s (Mt 5:12) “be exceeding glad.” Did [epoioun]. Imperfect active, the habit of “their fathers” (peculiar to both here). Mt 5:12 has “persecuted.” Thus they will receive a prophet’s reward (Mt 1:41.

6:24 But woe unto you that are rich [Plēn ouai humin tois plousiois]. Sharp contrast [plēn]. As a matter of fact the rich Pharisees and Sadducees were the chief opposers of Christ as of the early disciples later (Jas 5:1-6). Ye have received [apechete]. Receipt in full [apechō] means as the papyri show. Consolation [paraklēsin]. From [parakaleō], to call to one’s side, to encourage, to help, to cheer.

6:25 Now [nun]. Here twice as in verse 21 in contrast with future punishment. The joys and sorrows in these two verses are turned round, measure for measure reversed. The Rich Man and Lazarus (Lu 16:19-31) illustrate these contrasts in the present and the future.

6:26 In the same manner did their fathers [ta auta epoioun hoi pateres autōn]. Literally, their fathers did the same things to the false prophets. That is they spoke well [kalōs], finely of false prophets. Praise is sweet to the preacher but all sorts of preachers get it. Of you [humas]. Accusative case after words of speaking according to regular Greek idiom, to speak one fair, to speak well of one.

6:27 But I say unto you that hear [Alla humin legō tois akouousin]. There is a contrast in this use of [alla] like that in Mt 5:44. This is the only one of the many examples given by Mt 5 of the sharp antithesis between what the rabbis taught and what Jesus said. Perhaps that contrast is referred to by Luke. If necessary, [alla] could be coordinating or paratactic conjunction as in 2Co 7:11 rather than adversative as apparently here. See Mt 5:43f. Love of enemies is in the O.T., but Jesus ennobles the word, [agapaō], and uses it of love for one’s enemies.

6:28 That despitefully use you [tōn epēreazontōn humās]. This old verb occurs here only in the N.T. and in 1Pe 3:16, not being genuine in Mt 5:44.

6:29 On the cheek [epi tēn siagona]. Mt 5:39 has “right.” Old word meaning jaw or jawbone, but in the N.T. only here and Mt 5:39, which see for discussion. It seems an act of violence rather than contempt. Sticklers for extreme literalism find trouble with the conduct of Jesus in Joh 18:22f. where Jesus, on receiving a slap in the face, protested against it. Thy cloke [to himation], thy coat [ton chitōna]. Here the upper and more valuable garment [himation] is first taken, the under and less valuable [chitōn] last. In Mt 5:40 the process (apparently a legal one) is reversed. Withhold not [mē kōlusēis]. Aorist subjunctive in prohibition against committing an act. Do not hinder him in his robbing. It is usually useless anyhow with modern armed bandits.

6:30 Ask them not again [mē apaitei]. Here the present active imperative in a prohibition, do not have the habit of asking back. This common verb only here in the N.T., for [aitousin] is the correct text in Lu 12:20). The literary flavour of Luke’s Koinē style is seen in his frequent use of words common in the literary Greek, but appearing nowhere else in the N.T.

6:31 As ye would [kathōs thelete]. In Mt 7:12 the Golden Rule begins: [Panta hosa ean thelēte]. Luke has “likewise” [homoiōs] where Matthew has [houtōs]. See on Matthew for discussion of the saying.

6:32 What thank have ye? [poia h–min charis estin;]. What grace or gratitude is there to you? Mt 5:46 has [misthon] (reward).

6:33 Do good [agathopoiēte]. Third-class condition, [ean] and present subjunctive. This verb not in old Greek, but in LXX. Even sinners [kai hoi hamartōloi]. Even the sinners, the article distinguishing the class. Mt 5:46 has “even the publicans” and 5:47 “even the Gentiles.” That completes the list of the outcasts for “sinners” includes “harlots” and all the rest.

6:34 If ye lend [ean danisēte]. Third-class condition, first aorist active subjunctive from [danizō] (old form [daneizō] to lend for interest in a business transaction (here in active to lend and Mt 5:42 middle to borrow and nowhere else in N.T.), whereas [kichrēmi] (only Lu 11:5 in N.T.) means to loan as a friendly act. To receive again as much [hina apolabōsin ta isa]. Second aorist active subjunctive of [apolambanō], old verb, to get back in full like [apechō] in 6:24. Literally here, “that they may get back the equal” (principal and interest, apparently). It could mean “equivalent services.” No parallel in Matthew.

6:35 But [plēn]. Plain adversative like [plēn] in verse 24. Never despairing [mēden apelpizontes]. [Mēden] is read by A B L Bohairic and is the reading of Westcott and Hort. The reading [mēdena] is translated “despairing of no man.” The Authorized Version has it “hoping for nothing again,” a meaning for [apelpizō] with no parallel elsewhere. Field (Otium Nor. iii. 40) insists that all the same the context demands this meaning because of [apelpizein] in verse 34, but the correct reading there is [elpizein], not [apelpizein]. Here Field’s argument falls to the ground. The word occurs in Polybius, Diodorus, LXX with the sense of despairing and that is the meaning here. D and Old Latin documents have nihil desperantes, but the Vulgate has nihil inde sperantes (hoping for nothing thence) and this false rendering has wrought great havoc in Europe. “On the strength of it Popes and councils have repeatedly condemned the taking of any interest whatever for loans. As loans could not be had without interest, and Christians were forbidden to take it, money lending passed into the hands of the Jews, and added greatly to the unnatural detestation in which Jews were held” (Plummer). By “never despairing” or “giving up nothing in despair” Jesus means that we are not to despair about getting the money back. We are to help the apparently hopeless cases. Medical writers use the word for desperate or hopeless cases. Sons of the Most High [huoi Hupsistou]. In 1:32 Jesus is called “Son of the Highest” and here all real children or sons of God (Lu 20:36) are so termed. See also 1:35, 76 for the use of “the Highest” of God. He means the same thing that we see in Mt 5:45,48 by “your Father.” Toward the unthankful and evil [epi tous acharistous kai ponērous]. God the Father is kind towards the unkind and wicked. Note the one article with both adjectives.

6:36 Even as your Father [kathōs ho patēr humōn]. In Mt 5:48 we have [hōs ho patēr humōn]. In both the perfection of the Father is placed as the goal before his children. In neither case is it said that they have reached it.

6:37 And judge not [kai mē krinete]. [] and the present active imperative, forbidding the habit of criticism. The common verb [krinō], to separate, we have in our English words critic, criticism, criticize, discriminate. Jesus does not mean that we are not to form opinions, but not to form them rashly, unfairly, like our prejudice. Ye shall not be judged [ou mē krithēte]. First aorist passive subjunctive with double negative ou [], strong negative. Condemn not [mē katadikazete]. To give judgment [dikē, dixazō] against [kata] one. [] and present imperative. Either cease doing or do not have the habit of doing it. Old verb. Ye shall not be condemned [ou mē katadikasthēte]. First aorist passive indicative again with the double negative. Censoriousness is a bad habit. Release [apoluete]. Positive command the opposite of the censoriousness condemned.

6:38 Pressed down [pepiesmenon]. Perfect passive participle from [piezō], old verb, but here alone in the N.T., though the Doric form [piazō], to seize, occurs several times (Joh 7:30,32,44). Shaken together [sesaleumenon]. Perfect passive participle again from common verb [saleuō]. Running over [huperekchunnomenon]. Present middle participle of this double compound verb not found elsewhere save in A Q in Joe 2:24. [Chunō] is a late form of [cheō]. There is asyndeton here, no conjunction connecting these participles. The present here is in contrast to the two preceding perfects. The participles form an epexegesis or explanation of the “good measure” [metron kalon]. Into your bosom [eis ton kolpon humōn]. The fold of the wide upper garment bound by the girdle made a pocket in common use (Ex 4:6; Pr 6:27; Ps 79:12; Isa 65:6f.; Jer 32:18). So Isa 65:7: I will measure their former work unto their bosom. Shall be measured to you again [antimetrēthēsetai]. Future passive indicative of the verb here only in the N.T. save late MSS. in Mt 7:2. Even here some MSS. have [metrēthēsetai]. The [anti] has the common meaning of in turn or back, measured back to you in requital.

6:39 Also a parable [kai parabolēn]. Plummer thinks that the second half of the sermon begins here as indicated by Luke’s insertion of “And he spake [eipen de] at this point. Luke has the word parable some fifteen times both for crisp proverbs and for the longer narrative comparisons. This is the only use of the term parable concerning the metaphors in the Sermon on the Mount. But in both Matthew and Luke’s report of the discourse there are some sixteen possible applications of the word. Two come right together: The blind leading the blind, the mote and the beam. Matthew gives the parabolic proverb of the blind leading the blind later (Mt 15:14). Jesus repeated these sayings on various occasions as every teacher does his characteristic ideas. So Luke 6:40; Mt 10:24, Lu 6:45; Mt 12:34f. Can [Mēti dunatai]. The use of [mēti] in the question shows that a negative answer is expected. Guide [hodēgein]. Common verb from [hodēgos] (guide) and this from [hodos] (way) and [hēgeomai], to lead or guide. Shall they not both fall? [ouchi amphoteroi empesountai;]. [Ouchi], a sharpened negative from [ouk], in a question expecting the answer Yes. Future middle indicative of the common verb [empiptō]. Into a pit [eis bothunon]. Late word for older [bothros].

6:40 The disciple is not above his master [ouk estin mathētēs huper ton didaskalon]. Literally, a learner (or pupil) is not above the teacher. Precisely so in Mt 10:24 where “slave” is added with “lord.” But here Luke adds: “But everyone when he is perfected shall be as his master” [katērtismenos de pās estai hōs ho didaskalos autou]. The state of completion, perfect passive participle, is noted in [katērtismenos]. The word is common for mending broken things or nets (Mt 4:21) or men (Ga 6:1). So it is a long process to get the pupil patched up to the plane of his teacher.

6:41 Mote [karphos] and beam [dokon]. See on Mt 7:3-5 for discussion of these words in this parabolic proverb kin to several of ours today.

6:42 Canst thou say [dunasai legein]. Here Mt 7:4 has wilt thou say [ereis]. Beholdest not [ou blepōn]. Mt 7:4 has “lo” [idou]. Thou hypocrite [hupokrita]. Contrast to the studied politeness of “brother” [adelphe] above. Powerful picture of blind self-complacence and incompetence, the keyword to argument here.

6:44 Is known [ginōsketai]. The fruit of each tree reveals its actual character. It is the final test. This sentence is not in Mt 7:17-20, but the same idea is in the repeated saying (Mt 7:16, 20): “By their fruits ye shall know them,” where the verb epignōsesthe means full knowledge. The question in Mt 7:16 is put here in positive declarative form. The verb is in the plural for “men” or “people,” [sullegousin]. See on Mt 7:16. Bramble bush [batou]. Old word, quoted from the LXX in Mr 12:26; Lu 20:37 (from Ex 3:6) about the burning bush that Moses saw, and by Stephen (Ac 7:30,35) referring to the same incident. Nowhere else in the N.T. “Galen has a chapter on its medicinal uses, and the medical writings abound in prescriptions of which it is an ingredient” (Vincent). Gather [trugōsin]. A verb common in Greek writers for gathering ripe fruit. In the N.T. only here and Re 14:18f. Grapes [staphulēn]. Cluster of grapes.

6:45 Bringeth forth [propherei]. In a similar saying repeated later. Mt 12:34f. has the verb [ekballei] (throws out, casts out), a bolder figure. “When men are natural, heart and mouth act in concert. But otherwise the mouth sometimes professes what the heart does not feel” (Plummer).

6:46 And do not [kai ou poieite]. This is the point about every sermon that counts. The two parables that follow illustrate this point.

6:47 Hears and does [akouōn kai poiōn]. Present active participles. So in Mt 7:24. (Present indicative.) I will show you [hupodeixō humin]. Only in Luke, not Matthew.

6:48 Digged and went deep [eskapsen kai ebathunen]. Two first aorist indicatives. Not a hendiadys for dug deep. [Skaptō], to dig, is as old as Homer, as is [bathunō], to make deep. And laid a foundation [kai ethēken themelion]. That is the whole point. This wise builder struck the rock before he laid the foundation. When a flood arose [plēmmurēs genomenēs]. Genitive absolute. Late word for flood, [plēmmura], only here in the N.T., though in Job 40:18. Brake against [proserēxen]. First aorist active indicative from [prosrēgnumi] and in late writers [prosrēssō], to break against. Only here in the N.T. Mt 7:25 has [prosepesan], from [prospiptō], to fall against. Could not shake it [ouk ischusen saleusai autēn]. Did not have strength enough to shake it. Because it had been well builded [dia to kalōs oikodomēsthai autēn]. Perfect passive articular infinitive after [dia] and with accusative of general reference.

6:49 He that heareth and doeth not [ho de akousas kai mē poiēsas]. Aorist active participle with article. Particular case singled out (punctiliar, aorist). Like a man [homoios estin anthrōpōi]. Associative instrumental case after [homoios] as in verse 47. Upon the earth [epi tēn gēn]. Mt 7:26 has “upon the sand” [epi tēn ammon], more precise and worse than mere earth. But not on the rock. Without a foundation [chōris themeliou]. The foundation on the rock after deep digging as in verse 48. It fell in [sunepesen]. Second aorist active of [sunpiptō], to fall together, to collapse. An old verb from Homer on, but only here in the N.T. The ruin [to rēgma]. The crash like a giant oak in the forest resounded far and wide. An old word for a rent or fracture as in medicine for laceration of a wound. Only here in the N.T.

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