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8:1 Soon afterwards [en tōi kathexēs]. In 7:11 we have [en tōi hexēs]. This word means one after the other, successively, but that gives no definite data as to the time, only that this incident in 8:1-3 follows that in 7:36-50). Both in Luke alone. That [kai]. One of Luke’s idioms with [kai egeneto] like Hebrew wav.Went about [diōdeuen]. Imperfect active of [diodeuō], to make one’s way through [dia, hodos], common in late Greek writers. In the N.T. here only and Ac 17:1. Through cities and villages [kata polin kai kōmēn]. Distributive use of [kata] (up and down). The clause is amphibolous and goes equally well with [diōdeuen] or with [kērussōn] (heralding) [kai euaggelizomenos] (evangelizing, gospelizing). This is the second tour of Galilee, this time the Twelve with him.
8:2 Which had been healed [hai ēsan tetherapeumenai]. Periphrastic past perfect passive, suggesting that the healing had taken place some time before this tour. These women all had personal grounds of gratitude to Jesus. From whom seven devils (demons) had gone out [aph’ hēs daimonia hepta exelēluthei]. Past perfect active third singular for the [daimonia] are neuter plural. This first mention of Mary Magdalene describes her special cause of gratitude. This fact is stated also in Mr 16:9 in the disputed close of the Gospel. The presence of seven demons in one person indicates special malignity (Mr 5:9). See Mt 17:45 for the parable of the demon who came back with seven other demons worse than the first. It is not known where Magdala was, whence Mary came.
8:3 Joanna [Iōana]. Her husband [Chuzā], steward [epitropou] of Herod, is held by some to be the nobleman [basilikos] of Joh 4:46-53 who believed and all his house. At any rate Christ had a follower from the household of Herod Antipas who had such curiosity to see and hear him. One may recall also Manaen (Ac 13:1), Herod’s foster brother. Joanna is mentioned again with Mary Magdalene in Lu 24:10). Who ministered unto them [haitines diēkonoun autois]. Imperfect active of [diakoneō], common verb, but note augment as if from [dia] and [akoneō], but from [diakonos] and that from [dia] and [konis] (dust). The very fact that Jesus now had twelve men going with him called for help from others and the women of means responded to the demand. Of their substance [ek tōn huparchontōn autais]. From the things belonging to them. This is the first woman’s missionary society for the support of missionaries of the Gospel. They had difficulties in their way, but they overcame these, so great was their gratitude and zeal.
8:4 By a parable [dia parabolēs]. Mr 4:2 says “in parables” as does Mt 13:3. This is the beginning of the first great group of parables as given in Mr 4:1-34 and Mt 13:1-53. There are ten of these parables in Mark and Matthew and only two in Lu 8:4-18 (The Sower and the Lamp, 8:16) though Luke also has the expression “in parables” (8:10). See Mt 13 and Mr 4 for discussion of the word parable and the details of the Parable of the Sower. Luke does not locate the place, but he mentions the great crowds on hand, while both Mark and Matthew name the seaside as the place where Jesus was at the start of the series of parables.
8:5 His seed [ton sporon autou]. Peculiar to Luke. Was trodden under foot [katepatēthē]. First aorist passive indicative of [katapateō]. Peculiar to Luke here. Of the heavens [tou ouranou]. Added in Luke.
8:6 Upon the rock [epi tēn petran]. Mr 4:5 “the rocky ground” [epi to petrōdes], Mt 13:5 “the rocky places. As soon as it grew [phuen]. Second aorist passive participle of [phuō], an old verb to spring up like a sprout. Withered away [exēranthē]. First aorist passive indicative of [zērainō], old verb, to dry up. Moisture [ikmada]. Here only in the N.T., though common word.
8:7 Amidst the thorns [en mesōi tōn akanthōn]. Mr 4:7 has [eis] (among) and Mt 13:7 has [epi] “upon.” Grew with it [sunphueisai]. Same participle as [phuen] above with [sun-] (together). Choked [apepnixan]. From [apopnigō], to choke off as in Mt 13:7. In Mr 4:7 the verb is [sunepnixan] (choked together).
8:8 A hundredfold [hekatonplasiona]. Luke omits the thirty and sixty of Mr 4:8; Mt 13:8. He cried [ephōnei]. Imperfect active, and in a loud voice, the verb means. The warning about hearing with the ears occurs also in Mr 4:9; Mt 13:9.
8:9 Asked [epērōtōn]. Imperfect of [eperōtaō] [epi] and [erōtaō] where Mr 4:10 has [ērōtōn] (uncompounded imperfect), both the tense and the use of [epi] indicate eager and repeated questions on the part of the disciples, perhaps dimly perceiving a possible reflection on their own growth. What this parable might be [tis hautē eiē hē parabolē]. A mistranslation, What this parable was (or meant). The optative [eiē] is merely due to indirect discourse, changing the indicative [estin] (is) of the direct question to the optative [eiē] of the indirect, a change entirely with the writer or speaker and without any change of meaning (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1043f.).
8:10 The mysteries [ta mustēria]. See for this word on Mt 13:11; Mr 4:11. Part of the mystery here explained is how so many people who have the opportunity to enter the kingdom fail to do so because of manifest unfitness. That [hina]. Here Mr 4:11 also has [hina] while Mt 13:13 has [hoti] (because). On the so-called causal use of [hina] as here equal to [hoti] see discussion on Mt 13:13; Mr 4:11. Plummer sensibly argues that there is truth both in the causal [hoti] of Matthew and the final [hina] of Mark and Matthew. “But the principle that he who hath shall receive more, while he who hath not shall be deprived of what he seemeth to have, explains both the [hina] and the [hoti]. Jesus speaks in parables because the multitudes see without seeing and hear without hearing. But He also speaks in parable in order that they may see without seeing and hear without hearing.” Only for “hearing” Luke has “understand” [suniōsin], present subjunctive from a late omega form [suniō] instead of the [-mi] verb [suniēmi].
8:11 Is this [estin de hautē]. Means this. Jesus now proceeds to interpret his own parable. The seed is the word of God [ho sporos estin ho logos tou theou]. The article with both subject and predicate as here means that they are interchangeable and can be turned round: The word of God is the seed. The phrase “the word of God” does not appear in Matthew and only once in Mark (Mr 7:13) and John (Joh 10:35), but four times in Luke (5:1; 8:11, 21; 11:28) and twelve times in Acts. In Mr 4:14 we have only “the word.” In Mr 3:31 we have “the will of God,” and in Mt 12:46 “the will of my Father” where Lu 8:21 has “the word of God.” This seems to show that Luke has the subjective genitive here and means the word that comes from God.
8:12 Those by the wayside [hoi para tēn hodon]. As in Mr 4:15; Mt 13:19 so here the people who hear the word = the seed are discussed by metonymy. The devil [ho diabolos]. The slanderer. Here Mr 4:15 has Satan. From their heart [apo tēs kardias autōn]. Here Mark has “in them.” It is the devil’s business to snatch up the seed from the heart before it sprouts and takes root. Every preacher knows how successful the devil is with his auditors. Mt 13:19 has it “sown in the heart.” That they may not believe and be saved [hina mē pisteusantes sōthōsin]. Peculiar to Luke. Negative purpose with aorist active participle and first aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive. Many reasons are offered today for the failure of preachers to win souls. Here is the main one, the activity of the devil during and after the preaching of the sermon. No wonder then that the sower must have good seed and sow wisely, for even then he can only win partial success.
8:13 Which for a while believe [hoi pros kairon pisteuousin]. Ostensibly they are sincere and have made a real start in the life of faith. They fall away [aphistantai]. Present middle indicative. They stand off, lose interest, stop coming to church, drop out of sight. It is positively amazing the number of new church members who “stumble” as Mr 4:17 has it [skandalizontai], do not like the pastor, take offence at something said or done by somebody, object to the appeals for money, feel slighted. The “season of trial” becomes a “season of temptation” [en kairōi peirasmou] for these superficial, emotional people who have to be periodically rounded up if kept within the fold.
8:14 They are choked [sunpnigontai]. Present passive indicative of this powerfully vivid compound verb [sunpnigō] used in Mr 4:19; Mt 13:22, only there these worldly weeds choke the word while here the victims themselves are choked. Both are true. Diphtheria will choke and strangle the victim. Who has not seen the promise of fair flower and fruit choked into yellow withered stalk without fruit “as they go on their way” [poreuomenoi]. Bring no fruit to perfection [ou telesphorousin]. Compound verb common in the late writers [telos, phoreō]. To bring to completion. Used of fruits, animals, pregnant women. Only here in the N.T.
8:15 In an honest and good heart [en kardiāi kalēi kai agathēi]. Peculiar to Luke. In verse 8 the land [gēn] is called [agathēn] (really good, generous) and in verse 15 we have [en tēi kalēi gēi] (in the beautiful or noble land). So Luke uses both adjectives of the heart. The Greeks used [kalos k’ agathos] of the high-minded gentleman. It is probable that Luke knew this idiom. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It is not easy to translate. We have such phrases as “good and true,” “sound and good,” “right and good,” no one of which quite suits the Greek. Certainly Luke adds new moral qualities not in the Hellenic phrase. The English word “honest” here is like the Latin honestus (fair, noble). The words are to be connected with “hold fast” [katechousin], “hold it down” so that the devil does not snatch it away, having depth of soil so that it does not shrivel up under the sun, and is not choked by weeds and thorns. It bears fruit [karpophorousin], an old expressive verb, [karpos] and [phoreō]. That is the proof of spiritual life. In patience [en hupomonēi]. There is no other way for real fruit to come. Mushrooms spring up overnight, but they are usually poisonous. The best fruits require time, cultivation, patience.
8:16 When he hath lighted a lamp [luchnon hapsas]. It is a portable lamp [luchnon] that one lights [hapsas] aorist active participle of [haptō], to kindle, fasten to, light). With a vessel [skeuei], instrumental case of [skeuos]. Here Mr 4:21 has the more definite figure “under the bushel” as has Mt 5:15. Under the bed [hupokatō klinēs]. Here Mr 4:21 has the regular [hupo tēn klinēn] instead of the late compound [hupokatō]. Ragg notes that Matthew distributes the sayings of Jesus given here by Lu 8:16-18; Mr 4:21-25 concerning the parable of the lamp and gives them in three separate places (Mt 5:15; 10:26; 13:12). That is true, but it does not follow that Mark and Luke have bunched together separate sayings or that Matthew has scattered sayings delivered only on one occasion. One of the slowest lessons for some critics to learn is that Jesus repeated favourite sayings on different occasions and in different groupings just as every popular preacher and teacher does today. See on Mr 4:21 for further discussion of the lamp and stand. May see the light [Blepōsin to phōs]. In Mt 5:16 Jesus has it “may see your good works.” The purpose of light is to let one see something else, not the light. Note present subjunctive [blepōsin], linear action “Jesus had kindled a light within them. They must not hide it, but must see that it spreads to others” (Plummer). The parable of the lamp throws light on the parable of the sower.
8:17 That shall not be known [ho ou mē gnōsthēi]. Peculiar to Luke. First aorist passive subjunctive of [ginōskō] with the strong double negative [ou mē]. See on Mr 4:22 for discussion of [krupton] and [apokruphon].
8:18 How ye hear [pōs akouete]. The manner of hearing. Mr 4:24 has “what ye hear” [ti akouete], the matter that is heard. Both are supremely important. Some things should not be heard at all. Some that are heard should be forgotten. Others should be treasured and practised. For whosoever hath [Hos an gar echēi]. Present active subjunctive of the common verb [echō] which may mean “keep on having” or “acquiring.” See on Mr 4:25 for discussion. Thinketh he hath [dokei echein], or seems to acquire or to hold. Losses in business illustrate this saying as when we see their riches take wings and fly away. So it is with hearing and heeding. Self-deception is a common complaint.
8:19 His mother and brethren [hē mētēr kai hoi adelphoi autou]. Mr 3:31-35; Mt 12:46-50 place the visit of the mother and brothers of Jesus before the parable of the sower. Usually Luke follows Mark’s order, but he does not do so here. At first the brothers of Jesus (younger sons of Joseph and Mary, I take the words to mean, there being sisters also) were not unfriendly to the work of Jesus as seen in Joh 2:12 when they with the mother of Jesus are with him and the small group (half dozen) disciples in Capernaum after the wedding in Cana. But as Jesus went on with his work and was rejected at Nazareth (Lu 4:16-31), there developed an evident disbelief in his claims on the part of the brothers who ridiculed him six months before the end (Joh 7:5). At this stage they have apparently come with Mary to take Jesus home out of the excitement of the crowds, perhaps thinking that he is beside himself (Mr 3:21. They hardly believed the charge of the rabbis that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Certainly the mother of Jesus could give no credence to that slander. But she herself was deeply concerned and wanted to help him if possible. See discussion of the problem in my little book The Mother of Jesus and also on Mr 3:31 and Mt 12:46. Come to him [suntuchein]. Second aorist active infinitive of [suntugchanō], an old verb, though here alone in the N.T., meaning to meet with, to fall in with as if accidentally, here with associative instrumental case [autōi].
8:21 These which hear the word of God and do it [hoi ton logon tou theou akouontes kai poiountes]. The absence of the article with “mother” and “brothers” probably means, as Plummer argues, “Mother to me and brothers to me are those who &c.” No one is a child of God because of human parentage (Joh 1:13). “Family ties are at best temporal; spiritual ties are eternal” (Plummer) . Note the use of “hear and do” together here as in Mt 7:24; Lu 6:47 at the close of the Sermon on the Mount. The parable of the sower is almost like a footnote to that sermon. Later Jesus will make “doing” a test of friendship for him (Joh 15:14).
8:22 And they launched forth [kai anēchthēsan]. First aorist passive indicative of [anagō], an old verb, to lead up, to put out to sea (looked at as going up from the land). This nautical sense of the verb occurs only in Luke in the N.T. and especially in the Acts (Ac 13:13; 16:11; 18:21; 20:3,13; 21:1,2; 27:2, 4, 12, 21; 28:10f.).
8:23 He fell asleep [aphupnōsen]. First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of [aphupnoō], to put to sleep, to fall off to sleep, a late verb for which the older Greek used [kathupnoō]. Originally [aphupnoō] meant to waken from sleep, then to fall off to sleep (possibly a medical use). This is the only passage which speaks of the sleep of Jesus. Here only in the N.T. Came down [katebē]. Second aorist active indicative of [katabainō], common verb. It was literally true. These wind storms [lailaps]. So also Mr 4:37) rushed from Hermon down through the Jordan gorge upon the Sea of Galilee and shook it like a tempest (Mt 8:24). Mark’s (Mr 4:37) vivid use of the dramatic present [ginetai] (ariseth) is not so precise as Luke’s “came down.” See on Mt 8:24. These sudden squalls were dangerous on this small lake. They were filling [suneplērounto]. Imperfect passive. It was the boat that was being filled (Mr 4:37) and it is here applied to the navigators as sailors sometimes spoke. An old verb, but in the N.T. used only by Luke (8:23; 9:51; Ac 2:1). Were in jeopardy [ekinduneuon]. Imperfect active, vivid description. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here, Ac 19:27; 1Co 15:30).
8:24 Master, Master [Epistata, epistata]. See on Lu 5:5 for discussion. Mr 4:38 has Teacher [Didaskale], Mt 8:25 has Lord [Kurie]. The repetition here shows the uneasiness of the disciples. We perish [apollumetha]. So in Mr 4:38; Mt 8:25. Linear present middle indicative, we are perishing. The raging of the water [tōi kludoni tou hudatos]. [Kludōn], common Greek word, is a boisterous surge, a violent agitation. Here only in the N.T. save Jas 1:6. [Kuma] (Mr 4:37) is the regular swell or wave. A calm [galēnē]. Only in the parallels in the N.T., though common word. Here Mr 4:39; Mt 8:26 add great [megalē]. That [hoti]. This use of [hoti] as explanatory of the demonstrative pronoun [houtos] occurs in the parallels Mr 4:36; Mt 8:27 and also in Lu 4:36. It is almost result. He commandeth [epitassei]. Peculiar to Luke.
8:26 They arrived [katepleusan]. First aorist active indicative of [katapleō], common verb, but here only in the N.T. Literally, they sailed down from the sea to the land, the opposite of launched forth [anēchthēsan] of verse 22. So we today use like nautical terms, to bear up, to bear down. The Gerasenes [ton Gerasēnōn]. This is the correct text here as in Mr 5:1 while Gadarenes is correct in Mt 8:28. See there for explanation of this famous discrepancy, now cleared up by Thomson’s discovery of Khersa [Gersa] on the steep eastern bank and in the vicinity of Gadara. Over against Galilee [antipera tēs Galilaias]. Only here in the N.T. The later Greek form is [antiperan] (Polybius, etc.). Some MSS. here have [peran] like Mr 5:1; Mt 8:28.
8:27 And for a long time [kai chronōi hikanōi]. The use of the associative instrumental case in expressions of time is a very old Greek idiom that still appears in the papyri (Robertson, Grammar, p. 527). He had worn no clothes [ouk enedusato himation]. First aorist middle indicative, constative aorist, viewing the “long time” as a point. Not pluperfect as English has it and not for the pluperfect, simply “and for a long time he did not put on himself (indirect middle) any clothing.” The physician would naturally note this item. Common verb [enduō] or [endunō]. This item in Luke alone, though implied by Mr 5:15 “clothed” [himatismenon]. And abode not in any house [kai en oikiāi ouk emenen]. Imperfect active. Peculiar to Luke, though implied by the mention of tombs in all three (Mr 5:3; Mt 8:28; Lu 8:27).
8:28 Fell down [prosepesen]. Second aorist active of [prospiptō], to fall forward, towards, prostrate before one as here. Common verb. Mr 5:6 has [prosekunēsen] (worshipped). The Most High God [tou theou tou hupsistou]. Uncertain whether [tou theou] genuine or not. But “the Most High” clearly means God as already seen (Lu 1:32,35,36; 6:35). The phrase is common among heathen (Nu 24:16; Mic 6:6; Isa 14:14). The demoniac may have been a Gentile, but it is the demon here speaking. See on Mr 2:7; Mt 8:29 for the Greek idiom [ti emoi kai soi]. “What have I to do with thee?” See there also for “Torment me not.”
8:29 For he commanded [parēggellen gar]. Imperfect active, correct text, for he was commanding. Often times [pollois chronois]. Or “for a long time” like [chronōi pollōi] of verse 27 (see Robertson, Grammar, p. 537, for the plural here). It had seized [sunērpakei]. Past perfect active of [sunarpazō], to lay hold by force. An old verb, but only in Luke in the N.T. (Lu 8:29; Ac 6:12; 19:29; 27:15). Was kept under guard [edesmeueto]. Imperfect passive of [desmeuō] to put in chains, from [desmos], bond, and that from [deō] to bind. Old, but rather rare verb. Only here and Ac 22:4 in this sense. In Mt 23:4 it means to bind together. Some MSS. read [desmeō] in Lu 8:29. Breaking the bands asunder [diarēssōn ta desma]. Old verb, the preposition [dia] (in two) intensifying the meaning of the simple verb [rēssō] or [rēgnumi], to rend. Was driven [ēlauneto]. Imperfect passive of [elaunō], to drive, to row, to march (Xenophon). Only five times in the N.T. Here alone in Luke and peculiar to Luke in this incident.
8:30 Legion [Legiōn]. See on Mr 5:9.
8:31 Into the abyss [eis tēn abusson]. Rare old word common in LXX from [a] privative and [bath–s] (deep). So bottomless place (supply [chōra]. The deep sea in Ge 1:2; 7:11. The common receptacle of the dead in Ro 10:7 and especially the abode of demons as here and Re 9:1-11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1,3.
8:32 A herd of many swine [agelē choirōn hikanōn]. Word herd [agelē] old as Homer, but in N.T. only here and parallels (Mr 5:11; Mt 8:30). Luke shows his fondness for adjective [hikanos] here again (see verse 27) where Mark has [megalē] and Matthew [pollōn].
8:33 Rushed down the steep [hōrmēsen kata tou krēmnou]. Ablative with [kata] as in Mr 5:13; Mt 8:32 and the same vivid verb in each account, to hurl impetuously, to rush. Were choked [apepnigē]. Second aorist (constative) passive indicative third singular (collective singular) where Mr 5:13 has the picturesque imperfect [epnigonto].
8:34 Saw what had come to pass [idontes to gegonos]. This item only in Luke. Note the neat Greek idiom [to gegonos], articular second perfect active participle of [ginomai]. Repeated in verse 35 and in Mr 5:14. Note numerous participles here in verse 35 as in Mr 5:15.
8:36 He that was possessed with devils (demons) (only two words in Greek, [ho daimonistheis], the demonized). Was made whole [esōthē]. First aorist passive indicative of [sōzō] to save from [sōs] (safe and sound). This is additional information to the news carried to them in verse 34.
8:37 Were holden with great fear [phobōi megalōi suneichonto]. Imperfect passive of [sunechō] with the instrumental case of [phobos]. See a similar use of this vigorous verb in Lu 12:50 of Jesus and in Php 1:23 of Paul.
8:38 From whom the devils (demons) were gone out [aph’ hou exelēluthei ta daimonia]. Past perfect active of [exerchomai], state of completion in the past. Prayed him [edeeito autou]. Imperfect middle, kept on begging.
8:39 Throughout the whole city [kath’ holēn tēn polin]. Mr 5:20 has it “in Decapolis.” He had a great story to tell and he told it with power. The rescue missions in our cities can match this incident with cases of great sinners who have made witnesses for Christ.
8:40 Welcomed [apedexato]. Peculiar to Luke. To receive with pleasure, from [apodechomai], a common verb. For they were all waiting for him [ēsan gar pantes prosdokōntes auton]. Periphrastic imperfect active of prosdokaō, an old verb for eager expectancy, a vivid picture of the attitude of the people towards Jesus. Driven from Decapolis, he is welcomed in Capernaum.
8:41 Was [hupērchen]. Imperfect of [huparchō] in sense of [ēn] as in modern Greek. Common in Luke, and Acts, but not in other Gospels.
8:42 An only daughter [thugatēr monogenēs]. The same adjective used of the widow’s son (7:12) and the epileptic boy (9:38) and of Jesus (Joh 1:18; 3:16). She lay a dying [apethnēsken]. Imperfect active, she was dying. Mt 9:18 has it that she has just died. Thronged [sunepnigon]. Imperfect active of [sumpnigō], to press together, the verb used of the thorns choking the growing grain (Lu 8:14). It was a jam.
8:43 Had spent all her living upon physicians [eis iatrous prosanalōsasa holon ton bion]. First aorist active participle of an old verb [prosanaliskō], only here in the N.T. But Westcott and Hort reject this clause because it is not in B D Syriac Sinaitic. Whether genuine or not, the other clause in Mr 5:26 certainly is not in Luke: “had suffered many things of many physicians.” Probably both are not genuine in Luke who takes care of the physicians by the simple statement that it was a chronic case: could not be healed of any [ouk ischusen ap’ oudenos therapeuthēnai]. He omitted also what Mark has: “and was nothing bettered but rather grew worse.”
8:44 The border of his garment [tou kraspedou tou himatiou]. Probably the tassel of the overgarment. Of the four corners two were in front and two behind. See on Mt 9:20). Stanched [estē]. Second aorist active indicative, stopped at once (effective aorist).
8:45 Press thee and crush thee [sunechousin se kai apothlibousin]. Hold thee together, hold thee in [sunechō], see verse 37). Crush thee [apothlibō] here only in the N.T., a verb used of pressing out grapes in Diodorus and Josephus. Mr 5:31 has [sunthlibō], to press together.
8:46 For I perceived that power had gone forth from me [egō gar egnōn dunamin exelēluthuian ap’ emou]. [Egnōn] is second aorist active indicative of [ginōskō], knowledge by personal experience as here. It is followed by the second perfect active participle [exelēluthuian] in indirect discourse (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1040-42). Jesus felt the sensation of power already gone. Who does not know what this sense of “goneness” or exhaustion of nervous energy means?
8:47 Trembling [tremousa]. Vivid touch of the feeling of this sensitive woman who now had to tell everybody of her cure, “in the presence of all the people” [enōpion pantos tou laou]. She faced the widest publicity for her secret cure.
8:49 From the ruler of the synagogue’s house [para tou archisunagōgou]. The word “house” is not in the Greek here as in Mr 5:35 where [apo] is used rather than [para], as here. But the ruler himself had come to Jesus (Lu 8:41) and this is the real idea. Trouble not [mēketi skulle]. See on Lu 7:6 for this verb and also Mr 5:35; Mt 9:36.
8:50 And she shall be made whole [kai sōthēsetai]. This promise in addition to the words in Mr 5:36. See there for discussion of details.
8:53 Knowing that she was dead [eidotes hoti apethanen]. That she died [apethanen], second aorist active indicative of [apothnēskō].
8:54 Called [ephōnēsen]. Certainly not to wake up the dead, but to make it plain to all that she rose in response to his elevated tone of voice. Some think that the remark of Jesus in verse 52 (Mr 5:39; Mt 9:24) proves that she was not really dead, but only in a trance. It matters little. The touch of Christ’s hand and the power of his voice restored her to life. Maiden [hē pais] rather than Mark’s (Mr 5:41) [to korasion] (vernacular Koinē).
8:55 Her spirit returned [epestrepsen to pneuma autēs]. The life came back to her at once. Be given her to eat [autēi dothēnai phagein]. The first infinitive [dothēnai] is an indirect command. The second [phagein] (second aorist active of [esthiō] is epexegetic purpose.
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