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6:1 Right [dikaion]. In Col 3:20 it is [euareston] (well-pleasing).
6:2 Which [hētis]. “Which very” = “for such is.” The first commandment with promise [entolē prōtē en epaggeliāi]. [En] here means “accompanied by” (Alford). But why “with a promise”? The second has a general promise, but the fifth alone (Ex 20:12) has a specific promise. Perhaps that is the idea. Some take it to be first because in the order of time it was taught first to children, but the addition of [en epaggeliāi] here to [prōtē] points to the other view.
6:3 That it may be well with thee [hina eu soi genētai]. From Ex 20:12, “that it may happen to thee well.” And thou mayest live long on the earth [kai esēi makrochronios epi tēs gēs]. Here [esēi] (second person singular future middle) takes the place of [genēi] in the LXX (second person singular second aorist middle subjunctive). [Makrochronios] is a late and rare compound adjective, here only in N.T. (from LXX, Ex 20:12).
6:4 Provoke not to anger [mē parorgizete]. Rare compound, both N.T. examples (here and Ro 10:19) are quotations from the LXX. The active, as here, has a causative sense. Parallel in sense with [mē erethizete] in Col 3:21. Paul here touches the common sin of fathers. In the chastening and admonition of the Lord [en paideiāi kai nouthesiāi tou kuriou]. [En] is the sphere in which it all takes place. There are only three examples in the N.T. of [paideia], old Greek for training a [pais] (boy or girl) and so for the general education and culture of the child. Both papyri and inscriptions give examples of this original and wider sense (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). It is possible, as Thayer gives it, that this is the meaning here in Eph 6:4. In 2Ti 3:16 adults are included also in the use. In Heb 12:5, 7, 11 the narrower sense of “chastening” appears which some argue for here. At any rate [nouthesia] (from [nous, tithēmi], common from Aristophanes on, does have the idea of correction. In N.T. only here and 1Co 10:11; Tit 3:10.
6:5 With fear and trembling [meta phobou kai tromou]. This addition to Col 3:22.
6:6 But as servants of Christ [all’ hōs douloi Christou]. Better “slaves of Christ” as Paul rejoiced to call himself (Php 1:1). Doing the will of God [poiountes to thelēma tou theou]. Even while slaves of men.
6:7 With good will [met’ eunoias]. Not in Col. Old word from [eunoos], only here in N.T. as [eunoeō] is in N.T. only in Mt 5:25.
6:8 Whatsoever good thing each one doeth [hekastos ean ti poiēsēi agathon]. Literally, “each one if he do anything good.” Condition of third class, undetermined, but with prospect. Note use here of [agathon] rather than [adikon] (one doing wrong) in Col 3:25. So it is a reward [komisetai] for good, not a penalty for wrong, though both are true, “whether he be bond or free” [eite doulos eite eleutheros].
6:9 And forbear threatening [anientes tēn apeilēn]. Present active participle of [aniēmi], old verb, to loosen up, to relax. “Letting up on threatening.” [Apeilē] is old word for threat, in N.T. only here and Ac 4:29; 9:1. Both their Master and yours [kai autōn kai humōn ho kurios]. He says to “the lords” [hoi kurioi] of the slaves. Paul is not afraid of capital nor of labour. With him [par’ autōi]. “By the side of him (God).”
6:10 Finally [tou loipou]. Genitive case, “in respect of the rest,” like Ga 6:17. D G K L P have the accusative [to loipon] (as for the rest) like 2Th 3:1; Php 3:1; 4:8. Be strong in the Lord [endunamousthe en kuriōi]. A late word in LXX and N.T. (Ac 9:22; Ro 4:20; Php 4:13), present passive imperative of [endunamoō], from [en] and [dunamis], to empower. See 1:10 for “in the strength of his might.” Not a hendiadys.
6:11 Put on [endusasthe]. Like 3:12. See also 4:24. The whole armour [tēn panoplian]. Old word from [panoplos] (wholly armed, from [pan, hoplon]. In N.T. only Lu 11:22; Eph 6:11,13. Complete armour in this period included “shield, sword, lance, helmet, greaves, and breastplate” (Thayer). Our “panoply.” Polybius gives this list of Thayer. Paul omits the lance (spear). Our museums preserve specimens of this armour as well as the medieval coat-of-mail. Paul adds girdle and shoes to the list of Polybius, not armour but necessary for the soldier. Certainly Paul could claim knowledge of the Roman soldier’s armour, being chained to one for some three years. That ye may be able to stand [pros to dunasthai humās stēnai]. Purpose clause with [pros to] and the infinitive [dunasthai] with the accusative of general reference [humās] and the second aorist active infinitive [stēnai] (from [histēmi] dependent on [dunasthai]. Against [pros]. Facing. Another instance of [pros] meaning “against” (Col 2:23). The wiles of the devil [tas methodias tou diabolou]. See already 4:14 for this word. He is a crafty foe and knows the weak spots in the Christian’s armour.
6:12 Our wrestling is not [ouk estin hēmin hē palē]. “To us the wrestling is not.” [Palē] is an old word from [pallō], to throw, to swing (from Homer to the papyri, though here only in N.T.), a contest between two till one hurls the other down and holds him down [katechō]. Note [pros] again (five times) in sense of “against,” face to face conflict to the finish. The world-rulers of this darkness [tous kosmokratoras tou skotous toutou]. This phrase occurs here alone. In Joh 14:30 Satan is called “the ruler of this world” [ho archōn tou kosmou toutou]. In 2Co 4:4 he is termed “the god of this age” [ho theos tou aiōnos toutou]. The word [kosmokratōr] is found in the Orphic Hymns of Satan, in Gnostic writings of the devil, in rabbinical writings (transliterated) of the angel of death, in inscriptions of the Emperor Caracalla. These “world-rulers” are limited to “this darkness” here on earth. The spiritual hosts of wickedness [ta pneumatika tēs ponērias]. No word for “hosts” in the Greek. Probably simply, “the spiritual things (or elements) of wickedness.” [Ponēria] (from [ponēros] is depravity (Mt 22:18; 1Co 5:8). In the heavenly places ([en tois epouraniois]. Clearly so here. Our “wrestling” is with foes of evil natural and supernatural. We sorely need “the panoply of God” (furnished by God).
6:13 Take up [analabete]. Second aorist active imperative of [analambanō], old word and used [analabōn] of “picking up” Mark in 2Ti 4:11. That ye may be able to withstand [hina dunēthēte antistēnai]. Final clause with [hina] and first aorist passive subjunctive of [dunamai] with [antistēnai] (second aorist active infinitive of [anthistēmi], to stand face to face, against). And having done all to stand [kai hapanta katergasa menoi stēnai]. After the fight (wrestle) is over to stand [stēnai] as victor in the contest. Effective aorist here.
6:14 Stand therefore [stēte oun]. Second aorist active imperative of [histēmi] (intransitive like the others). Ingressive aorist here, “Take your stand therefore” (in view of the arguments made). Having girded your loins with truth [perizōsamenoi tēn osphun humōn en alētheiāi]. First aorist middle participle (antecedent action) of [perizōnnuō], old verb, to gird around, direct middle (gird yourselves) in Lu 12:37; but indirect here with accusative of the thing, “having girded your own loins.” So [endusamenoi] (having put on) is indirect middle participle. The breast-plate of righteousness [ton thōraka tēs dikaiosunēs]. Old word for breast and then for breastplate. Same metaphor of righteousness as breastplate in 1Th 5:8.
6:15 Having shod [hupodēsamenoi]. “Having bound under” (sandals). First aorist middle participle of [hupodeō], old word, to bind under (Mr 6:9; Ac 12:8, only other N.T. example). With the preparation [en hetoimasiāi]. Late word from [hetoimazō], to make ready, only here in N.T. Readiness of mind that comes from the gospel whose message is peace.
6:16 Taking up [analabontes]. See verse 13. The shield of faith [ton thureon tēs pisteōs]. Late word in this sense a large stone against the door in Homer, from [thura], door, large and oblong (Latin scutum), [aspis] being smaller and circular, only here in N.T. To quench [sbesai]. First aorist active infinitive of [sbennumi], old word, to extinguish (Mt 12:20). All the fiery darts [panta ta belē ta pepurōmena]. [Belos] is an old word for missile, dart (from [ballō], to throw), only here in N.T. [Pepurōmena] is perfect passive participle of [puroō], old verb, to set on fire, from [pur] (fire). These darts were sometimes ablaze in order to set fire to the enemies’ clothing or camp or homes just as the American Indians used to shoot poisoned arrows.
6:17 The helmet of salvation [tēn perikephalaian tou sōtēriou]. Late word [peri, kephalē], head, around the head), in Polybius, LXX, 1Th 5:8; Eph 6:17 alone in N.T. Which is the word of God [ho estin to rēma tou theou]. Explanatory relative [ho] referring to the sword [machairan]. The sword given by the Spirit to be wielded as offensive weapon (the others defensive) by the Christian is the word of God. See Heb 4:12 where the word of God is called “sharper than any two-edged sword.”
6:18 At all seasons [en panti kairōi]. “On every occasion.” Prayer is needed in this fight. The panoply of God is necessary, but so is prayer.
“Satan trembles when he sees
The weakest saint upon his knees.”
6:19 That utterance may be given unto me [hina moi dothēi logos]. Final clause with [hina] and first aorist passive subjunctive of [didōmi], to give. See a like request in Col 4:3. Paul wishes their prayer for courage for himself.
6:20 For which I am an ambassador in chains [huper hou presbeuō en halusei]. “For which mystery” of the gospel (verse 19). [Presbeuō] is an old word for ambassador (from [presbus], an old man) in N.T. only here and 2Co 5:20. Paul is now an old man [presbutēs], Phm 1:9) and feels the dignity of his position as Christ’s ambassador though “in a chain” [en halusei], old word [halusis], from [a] privative and [luō], to loosen). Paul will wear a chain at the close of his life in Rome (2Ti 1:16). In it [en autōi]. In the mystery of the gospel. This is probably a second purpose [hina], the first for utterance [hina dothēi], this for boldness [hina parrēsiasōmai], first aorist middle subjunctive, old word to speak out boldly). See 1Th 2:2. See Col 4:4 for “as I ought.”
6:21 That ye also may know [hina eidēte kai humeis]. Final clause with [hina] and second perfect subjunctive active of [oida]. For Tychicus, see Col 4:7f.
6:22 That ye may know [hina gnōte]. Second aorist active subjunctive of [ginōskō]. Just as in Col 4:8 he had not written [hina eidēte] in verse 21. Our state [ta peri hēmōn]. “The things concerning us,” practically the same as [ta kat’ eme] of verse 21. See both phrases in Col 4:7, 8.
6:23 Love and faith [agapē meta pisteōs]. Love of the brotherhood accompanied by faith in Christ and as an expression of it.
6:24 In uncorruptness [en aphtharsiāi]. A never diminishing love. See 1Co 15:42 for [aphtharsia].
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