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Chapter 23

23:1 Looking steadfastly [atenisas]. See on this word 1:10; 3:12; 6:15; 7:55; 13:9. Paul may have had weak eyes, but probably the earnest gaze was to see if he recognized any faces that were in the body that tried Stephen and to which he apparently once belonged. I have lived before God [pepoliteumai tōi theōi]. Perfect middle indicative of [politeuō], old verb to manage affairs of city [polis] or state, to be a citizen, behave as a citizen. In the N.T. only here and Php 1:27. The idea of citizenship was Greek and Roman, not Jewish. “He had lived as God’s citizen, as a member of God’s commonwealth” (Rackham). God [theōi] is the dative of personal interest. As God looked at it and in his relation to God. In all good conscience unto this day [pasēi suneidēsei agathēi achri tautēs tēs hēmeras]. This claim seems to lack tact, but for brevity’s sake Paul sums up a whole speech in it. He may have said much more than Luke here reports along the line of his speech the day before, but Paul did not make this claim without consideration. It appears to contradict his confession as the chief of sinners (1Ti 1:13-16). But that depends on one’s interpretation of “good conscience.” The word [suneidēsis] is literally “joint-knowledge” in Greek, Latin (conscientia) and English “conscience” from the Latin. It is a late word from [sunoida], to know together, common in O.T., Apocrypha, Philo, Plutarch, New Testament, Stoics, ecclesiastical writers. In itself the word simply means consciousness of one’s own thoughts (Heb 10:2), or of one’s own self, then consciousness of the distinction between right and wrong (Ro 2:15) with approval or disapproval. But the conscience is not an infallible guide and acts according to the light that it has (1Co 8:7, 10; 1Pe 2:19). The conscience can be contaminated (Heb 10:22, evil [ponērās]. All this and more must be borne in mind in trying to understand Paul’s description of his motives as a persecutor. Alleviation of his guilt comes thereby, but not removal of guilt as he himself felt (1Ti 1:13-16). He means to say to the Sanhedrin that he persecuted Christians as a conscientious (though mistaken) Jew (Pharisee) just as he followed his conscience in turning from Judaism to Christianity. It is a pointed disclaimer against the charge that he is a renegade Jew, an opposer of the law, the people, the temple. Paul addresses the Sanhedrin as an equal and has no “apologies” (in our sense) to make for his career as a whole. The golden thread of consistency runs through, as a good citizen in God’s commonwealth. He had the consolation of a good conscience (1Pe 3:16). The word does not occur in the Gospels and chiefly in Paul’s Epistles, but we see it at work in Joh 8:9 (the interpolation 7:53-8:11).

23:2 Ananias [Hananias]. Not the one in Lu 3:2; Joh 18:13; Ac 4:7, but the son of Nebedaeus, nominated high priest by Herod, King of Chalcis, A.D. 48 and till A.D. 59. He was called to Rome A.D. 52 to answer “a charge of rapine and cruelty made against him by the Samaritans, but honourably acquitted” (Page). Though high priest, he was a man of bad character. Them that stood by him [tois parestōsin autōi]. Dative case of second perfect participle of [paristēmi], to place, and intransitive. See the same form in verse 4 [parestōtes]. To smite him on the mouth [tuptein autou to stoma]. See on 12:45; 18:17. Cf. the treatment of Jesus (Joh 18:22). Ananias was provoked by Paul’s self-assertion while on trial before his judges. “The act was illegal and peculiarly offensive to a Jew at the hands of a Jew” (Knowling). More self-control might have served Paul better. Smiting the mouth or cheek is a peculiarly irritating offence and one not uncommon among the Jews and this fact gives point to the command of Jesus to turn the other check (Lu 6:29 where [tuptō] is also used).

23:3 Thou whited wall [toiche kekoniamene]. Perfect passive participle of [koniaō] (from [konia], dust or lime). The same word used in Mt 23:27 for “whited sepulchres” [taphoi kekoniamenoi] which see. It is a picturesque way of calling Ananias a hypocrite, undoubtedly true, but not a particularly tactful thing for a prisoner to say to his judge, not to say Jewish high priest. Besides, Paul had hurled back at him the word [tuptein] (smite) in his command, putting it first in the sentence [tuptein se mellei ho theos] in strong emphasis. Clearly Paul felt that he, not Ananias, was living as a good citizen in God’s commonwealth. And sittest thou to judge me? [Kai su kathēi krinōn me?] Literally, “And thou (being what thou art) art sitting [kathēi], second person singular middle of [kathēmai], late form for [kathēsai], the uncontracted form) judging me.” Cf. Lu 22:30. [Kai su] at the beginning of a question expresses indignation. Contrary to the law [paranomōn]. Present active participle of [paranomeō], old verb to act contrary to the law, here alone in the N.T., “acting contrary to the law.”

23:4 Of God [tou theou]. As God’s representative in spite of his bad character (De 17:8f.). Here was a charge of irreverence, to say the least. The office called for respect.

23:5 I wist not [ouk ēidein]. Second past perfect of [oida] used as an imperfect. The Greek naturally means that Paul did not know that it was the high priest who gave the order to smite his mouth. If this view is taken, several things may be said by way of explanation. The high priest may not have had on his official dress as the meeting was called hurriedly by Lysias. Paul had been away so long that he may not have known Ananias on sight. And then Paul may have had poor eyesight or the high priest may not have been sitting in the official seat. Another way of explaining it is to say that Paul was so indignant, even angry, at the command that he spoke without considering who it was that gave the order. The Greek allows this idea also. At any rate Paul at once recognizes the justice of the point made against him. He had been guilty of irreverence against the office of high priest as the passage from Ex 22:18 (LXX) shows and confesses his fault, but the rebuke was deserved. Jesus did not threaten (1Pe 2:23) when smitten on the cheek (Joh 18:22), but he did protest against the act and did not turn the other cheek.

23:6 But when Paul perceived [gnous de ho Paulos]. Perceiving (second aorist ingressive of [ginōskō]. Paul quickly saw that his cause was ruined before the Sanhedrin by his unwitting attack on the high priest. It was impossible to get a fair hearing. Hence, Vincent says, “Paul, with great tact, seeks to bring the two parties of the council into collision with each other.” So Alford argues with the motto “divide and conquer.” Farrar condemns Paul and takes 24:21 as a confession of error here, but that is reading into Paul’s word about the resurrection more than he says. Page considers Luke’s report meagre and unsatisfactory. Rackham thinks that the trial was already started and that Paul repeated part of his speech of the day before when “the Sadducees received his words with ostentatious scepticism and ridicule: this provoked counter-expressions of sympathy and credulity among the Pharisees.” But all this is inference. We do not have to adopt the Jesuitical principle that the end justifies the means in order to see shrewdness and hard sense in what Paul said and did. Paul knew, of course, that the Sanhedrin was nearly evenly divided between Pharisees and Sadducees, for he himself had been a Pharisee. I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees [Egō Pharisaios eimi huios Pharisaiōn]. This was strictly true as we know from his Epistles (Php 3:5). Touching the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question [peri elpidos kai anastaseōs nekrōn krinomai]. This was true also and this is the point that Paul mentions in 24:21. His failure to mention again the fact that he was a Pharisee throws no discredit on Luke’s report here. The chief point of difference between Pharisees and Sadducees was precisely this matter of the resurrection. And this was Paul’s cardinal doctrine as a Christian minister. It was this fact that convinced him that Jesus was the Messiah and was “the very centre of his faith” (Page) and of his preaching. It was not a mere trick for Paul to proclaim this fact here and so divide the Sanhedrin. As a matter of fact, the Pharisees held aloof when the Sadducees persecuted Peter and the other apostles for preaching resurrection in the case of Jesus and even Gamaliel threw cold water on the effort to punish them for it (Ac 5:34-39). So then Paul was really recurring to the original cleavage on this point and was able to score a point against the Sadducees as Gamaliel, his great teacher, had done before him. Besides, “Paul and Pharisaism seem to us such opposite ideas that we often forget that to Paul Christianity was the natural development of Judaism” (Page). Paul shows this in Ga 3; Ro 9-11.

23:7 When he had so said [touto autou lalountos]. Genitive absolute of present participle (Westcott and Hort) rather than aorist [eipontos]. While he was saying this. A dissension [stasis]. This old word for standing or station (Heb 9:8) from [histēmi], to place, we have seen already to mean insurrection (Ac 19:40 which see). Here it is strife as in 15:2. Was divided [eschisthē]. See on 14:4.

23:8 There is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit [mē einai anastasin mēte aggelon mēte pneuma]. Infinitive with negative [] in indirect assertion. These points constitute the chief doctrinal differences between the Pharisees and the Sadducees. Both [amphotera]. Here used though three items of belief are mentioned as in 19:16 where the seven sons of Sceva are thus described. This idiom is common enough in papyri and Byzantine Greek (Robertson, Grammar, p. 745).

23:9 Strove [diemachonto]. Imperfect middle of [diamachomai], old Attic verb, to fight it out (between, back and forth, fiercely). Here only in the N.T. It was a lively scrap and Luke pictures it as going on. The Pharisees definitely take Paul’s side. And what if a spirit hath spoken to him or an angel? [ei de pneuma elalēsen autōi ē aggelos?]. This is aposiopesis, not uncommon in the N.T., as in Lu 13:9; Joh 6:62 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1203). See one also in Ex 32:32.

23:10 When there arose a great dissension [pollēs tēs ginomenēs staseōs]. Present middle participle (genitive absolute). Literally, “dissension becoming much.” Lest Paul should be torn in pieces by them [mē diaspasthēi ho Paulos]. First aorist passive subjunctive of [diaspaō], to draw in two, to tear in pieces, old verb, in the N.T. only here and Mr 5:4 of tearing chains in two. The subjunctive with [] is the common construction after a verb of fearing (Robertson, Grammar, p. 995). The soldiers [to strateuma]. The army, the band of soldiers and so in verse 27. To go down [kataban]. Second aorist active participle of [katabainō], having gone down. Take him by force [harpasai]. To seize. The soldiers were to seize and save Paul from the midst of [ek mesou] the rabbis or preachers (in their rage to get at each other). Paul was more of a puzzle to Lysias now than ever.

23:11 The night following [tēi epiousēi nukti]. Locative case, on the next (following) night. The Lord [ho kurios]. Jesus. Paul never needed Jesus more than now. On a previous occasion the whole church prayed for Peter’s release (12:5), but Paul clearly had no such grip on the church as that, though he had been kindly welcomed (21:18). In every crisis Jesus appears to him (cf. Ac 18:9). It looked dark for Paul till Jesus spoke. Once before in Jerusalem Jesus spoke words of cheer (22:18). Then he was told to leave Jerusalem. Now he is to have “cheer” or “courage” [tharsei]. Jesus used this very word to others (Mt 9:2, 22; Mr 10:49). It is a brave word. Thou hast testified [diemarturō]. First aorist middle indicative second person singular of [diamarturomai], strong word (see on 22:18). Must thou [se dei]. That is the needed word and on this Paul leans. His hopes (19:21) of going to Rome will not be in vain. He can bide Christ’s time now. And Jesus has approved his witness in Jerusalem.

23:12 Banded together [poiēsantes sustrophēn]. See on 19:40 (riot), but here conspiracy, secret combination, binding together like twisted cords. Bound themselves under a curse [anethematisan heautous]. First aorist active indicative of [anathematizō], a late word, said by Cremer and Thayer to be wholly Biblical or ecclesiastical. But Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, p. 95) quotes several examples of the verb in an Attic cursing tablet from Megara of the first or second century A.D. This proof shows that the word, as well as [anathema] (substantive) from which the verb is derived, was employed by pagans as well as by Jews. Deissmann suggests that Greek Jews like the seven sons of Sceva may have been the first to coin it. It occurs in the LXX as well as Mr 14:71 (which see and Luke 21:5); Ac 23:12, 14, 21. They placed themselves under an anathema or curse, devoted themselves to God (cf. Le 27:28f.; 1Co 16:22). Drink [pein=piein]. Second aorist active infinitive of [pinō]. For this shortened form see Robertson, Grammar, p. 343. Till they had killed [heōs hou apokteinōsin]. First aorist active subjunctive of [apokteinō], common verb. No reason to translate “had killed,” simply “till they should kill,” the aorist merely punctiliar action, the subjunctive retained instead of the optative for vividness as usual in the Koinē (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 974-6). Same construction in verse 14. King Saul took an “anathema” that imperilled Jonathan (1Sa 14:24). Perhaps the forty felt that the rabbis could find some way to absolve the curse if they failed. See this verse repeated in verse 21.

23:13 More than forty [pleious tesserakonta]. Without “than” [ē] as in verse 21; 24:11 and often in the ancient Greek. Conspiracy [sunōmosian]. Old word from [sunomnumi], to swear together. Only here in the N.T.

23:14 Came to the chief priests and the elders [proselthontes tois archiereusin kai tois presbuterois]. The Sanhedrin, just as Judas did (Lu 22:4). With a great curse [anathemati]. This use of the same word as the verb repeated in the instrumental case is in imitation of the Hebrew absolute infinitive and common in the LXX, the very idiom and words of De 13:15; 20:17, an example of translation Greek, though found in other languages (Robertson, Grammar, p. 531). See on Lu 21:5 for the distinction between [anathema] and [anathēma]. Jesus had foretold: “Whoso killeth you will think that he doeth God service” (Joh 16:2).

23:15 Ye [humeis]. Emphatic. Signify [emphanisate]. First aorist active imperative of [emphanizō]. Make plain from [emphanēs], chiefly in Acts. Repeated in verse 22. The authority is with the chiliarch not with the Sanhedrin, but he had appealed to the Sanhedrin for advice. As though ye would judge of his case more exactly [hōs mellontas diaginōskein akribesteron ta peri autou]. [Hōs] with the participle gives the alleged reason as here. So also in verse 20. [Diagnoskō], old verb to distinguish accurately, only here in N.T. and 24:22. Or ever come near [pro tou eggisai auton]. “Before the coming near as to him.” [Pro] and the genitive of the articular infinitive of [eggizō] with accusative of general reference. We are ready to slay him [hetoimoi esmen tou anelein auton]. Genitive of purpose of the articular infinitive after the adjective [hetoimoi] (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1061). [Anelein], second aorist active of [anaireō].

23:16 Their lying in wait [tēn enedran]. Old word from [en] (in) and [hedra] (seat), ambush. In N.T. only here and 25:3. Accusative object of [akousas]. He came [paragenomenos]. Second aorist middle participle of [paraginomai]. It may mean, “having come upon them” and so discount their plot, a graphic touch. Vincent thinks that some Pharisee, since Paul was a Pharisee and so a member of the “guild,” told his nephew of the plot. Perhaps, and perhaps not. Told Paul [apēggeilen tōi Paulōi]. This nephew is not known otherwise. He may be a student here from Tarsus as Paul once was. Anyhow he knows what to do when he catches on to the conspirators. He had enough address to get into the barracks where Paul was. He ran the risk of death if discovered.

23:17 Called unto him [proskalesamenos]. First aorist participle indirect middle, calling to himself. Paul laid his plans as energetically as if Jesus had not promised that he would see Rome (23:11). Bring [apage]. “Take away.”

23:18 Paul the prisoner [ho desmios Paulos]. Bound [desmios] to a soldier, but not with two chains (21:33), and with some freedom to see his friends as later (28:16), in military custody (custodia militaris). This was better than custodia publica (public custody), the common prison, but more confining. Who hath something to say to thee [echonta ti lalēsai soi]. Same idiom as in verse 17, 19, but [lalēsai] here instead of [apaggeilai].

23:19 Took him by the hand [epilabomenos tēs cheiros autou]. Kindly touch in Lysias, ut fiduciam adolescentis confirmaret (Bengel). Note genitive with the second aorist middle (indirect, to himself) of [epilambanō] as in Lu 8:54 with [kratēsas] which see. How old the young man [neanias] was we do not know, but it is the very word used of Paul in 7:58 when he helped in the killing of Stephen, a young man in the twenties probably. See also 20:9 of Eutychus. He is termed [neaniskos] in verse 22. Asked him privately [kat’ idian epunthaneto]. Imperfect middle, began to ask (inchoative).

23:20 The Jews [hoi Ioudaioi]. As if the whole nation was in the conspiracy and so in verse 12. The conspirators may have belonged to the Zealots, but clearly they represented the state of Jewish feeling toward Paul in Jerusalem. Have agreed [sunethento]. Second aorist middle indicative of [suntithēmi], old verb to join together, to agree. Already this form in Lu 22:5 which see. See also Joh 9:22; Ac 24:9. To bring down [hopōs katagagēis]. Very words of the conspirators in verse 15 as if the young man overheard. Second aorist active subjunctive of [katagō] with [hopōs] in final clause, still used, but nothing like so common as [hina] though again in verse 23 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 985). As though thou wouldest inquire [hōs mellōn punthanesthai]. Just as in verse 15 except that here [mellōn] refers to Lysias instead of to the conspirators as in verse 15. The singular is used by the youth out of deference to the authority of Lysias and so modifies a bit the scheming of the conspirators, not “absurd” as Page holds.

23:21 Do not therefore yield unto them [Su oun mē peisthēis autois]. First aorist passive subjunctive of [peithō], common verb, here to be persuaded by, to listen to, to obey, to yield to. With negative and rightly. Do not yield to them (dative) at all. On the aorist subjunctive with [] in prohibitions against committing an act see Robertson, Grammar, pp. 851–4. For there lie in wait [enedreuousin gar]. Present active indicative of [enedreuō], old verb from [enedra] (verse 16), in the N.T. only here and Lu 11:54 which see. Till they have slain him [heōs hou anelōsin auton]. Same idiom as in verse 12 save that here we have [anelōsin] (second aorist active subjunctive) instead of [apokteinōsin] (another word for kill), “till they slay him.” Looking for the promise from thee [prosdechomenoi tēn apo sou epaggelian]. This item is all that is needed to put the scheme through, the young man shrewdly adds.

23:22 Tell no man [mēdeni eklalēsai]. Indirect command (oratio obliqua) after [paraggeilas] (charging) with first aorist active infinitive of [eklaleō] (in ancient Greek, but here only in N.T.), but construction changed to direct in rest of the sentence (oratio recta) as in 1:4, “that thou hast signified these things to me” [hoti tauta enephanisas pros eme]. Same verb here as in verse 15. This change is common in the N.T. (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1047).

23:23 Two [tinas duo]. “Some two” as in Lu 7:19, indicating (Page) that they were not specially chosen. Soldiers [stratiōtas], horsemen [hippeis], spearmen [dexiolabous]. The three varieties of troops in a Roman army like the cohort of Lysias (Page). The [stratiōtai] were the heavy-armed legionaries, the [hippeis] belonged to every legion, the [dexiolaboi] were light-armed supplementary troops who carried a lance in the right hand [dexios], right, [lambanō], to take). Vulgate, lancearios. At the third hour of the night [apo tritēs hōras tēs nuktos]. About nine in the evening.

23:24 Provide beasts [ktenē parastēsai]. Change from direct to indirect discourse just the opposite of that in verse 22. Beasts [ktēnē]. For riding as here or for baggage. See on Lu 10:34. Asses or horses, but not war-horses. Since Paul was chained to a soldier, another animal would be required for baggage. It was also seventy miles and a change of horses might be needed. The extreme precaution of Lysias is explained in some Latin MSS. as due to fear of a night attack with the result that he might be accused to Felix of bribery. Luke also probably accompanied Paul. To bring safe [hina diasōsōsin]. Final clause with [hina] and the first aorist active subjunctive of [diasōzō], old verb, to save through [dia] to a finish. Eight times in the N.T. (Mt 14:36; Lu 7:3; Ac 23:24; 27:43,44; 28:1,4; 1Pe 3:20). Unto Felix the governor [pros Phēlika ton hēgemona]. Felix was a brother of Pallas, the notorious favourite of Claudius. Both had been slaves and were now freedmen. Felix was made procurator of Judea by Claudius A.D. 52. He held the position till Festus succeeded him after complaints by the Jews to Nero. He married Drusilla the daughter of Herod Agrippa I with the hope of winning the favour of the Jews. He was one of the most depraved men of his time. Tacitus says of him that “with all cruelty and lust he exercised the power of a king with the spirit of a slave.” The term “governor” [hēgemōn] means “leader” from [hēgeomai], to lead, and was applied to leaders of all sorts (emperors, kings, procurators). In the N.T. it is used of Pilate (Mt 27:2), of Felix, (Ac 23:24,26,33; 24:1), of Festus (26:30).

23:25 And he wrote [grapsas]. First aorist active participle of [graphō], agreeing with the subject (Lysias) of [eipen] (said) back in verse 23 (beginning). After this form [echousan ton tupon touton]. Textus Receptus has [periechousan]. The use of [tupon] (type or form) like exemplum in Latin (Page who quotes Cicero Ad Att. IX. 6. 3) may give merely the purport or substantial contents of the letter. But there is no reason for thinking that it is not a genuine copy since the letter may have been read in open court before Felix, and Luke was probably with Paul. The Roman law required that a subordinate officer like Lysias in reporting a case to his superior should send a written statement of the case and it was termed elogium. A copy of the letter may have been given Paul after his appeal to Caesar. It was probably written in Latin. The letter is a “dexterous mixture of truth and falsehood” (Furneaux) with the stamp of genuineness. It puts things in a favourable light for Lysias and makes no mention of his order to scourge Paul.

23:26 Most excellent [kratistōi]. See on Lu 1:3 to Theophilus though not in Ac 1:1. It is usual in addressing men of rank as here, like our “Your Excellency” in 24:3 and Paul uses it to Festus in 26:25. Greeting [chairein]. Absolute infinitive with independent or absolute nominative [Klaudios Lusias] as is used in letters (Ac 15:23; Jas 1:1) and in countless papyri (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1092).

23:27 Was seized [sullēmphthenta]. First aorist passive participle of [sullambanō]. Rescued him having learned that he was a Roman [exeilamen mathōn hoti Romaios estin]. Wendt, Zoeckler, and Furneaux try to defend this record of two facts by Lysias in the wrong order from being an actual lie as Bengel rightly says. Lysias did rescue Paul and he did learn that he was a Roman, but in this order. He did not first learn that he was a Roman and then rescue him as his letter states. The use of the aorist participle [mathōn] from [manthanō] after the principal verb [exeilamen] (second aorist middle of [exaireō], to take out to oneself, to rescue) can be either simultaneous action or antecedent. There is in Greek no such idiom as the aorist participle of subsequent action (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1112-14). Lysias simply reversed the order of the facts and omitted the order for scourging Paul to put himself in proper light with Felix his superior officer and actually poses as the protector of a fellow Roman citizen.

23:28 To know [epignōnai]. To know fully, [epi], second aorist active infinitive. They accused him [enekaloun autōi]. Imperfect active indicative, were accusing him (dative), repeating their charges.

23:29 Concerning questions of their law [peri zētēmata tou nomou autōn]. The very distinction drawn by Gallio in Corinth (Ac 18:14f.). On the word see on 15:2. But to have nothing laid to his charge worthy of death or of bonds [mēden de axion thanatou ē desmōn echonta enklēma]. Literally, “having no accusation (or crime) worthy of death or of bonds.” This phrase here only in the N.T. [Egklēma] is old word for accusation or crime from [egkaleō] used in verse 28 and in the N.T. only here and 25:16. Lysias thus expresses the opinion that Paul ought to be set free and the lenient treatment that Paul received in Caesarea and Rome (first imprisonment) is probably due to this report of Lysias. Every Roman magistrate before whom Paul appears declares him innocent (Gallio, Lysias, Felix, Festus).

23:30 When it was shown to me that there would be a plot [mēnutheisēs moi epiboulēs esesthai]. Two constructions combined; genitive absolute [mēnutheisēs epiboulēs], first aorist passive participle of [mēnuō] and future infinitive [esesthai] as if [epiboulēn] accusative of general reference used) in indirect assertion after [mēnuō] (Robertson, Grammar, p. 877). Charging his accusers also [paraggeilas kai tois katēgorois]. First aorist active participle of [paraggellō] with which compare [mathōn] above (verse 27), not subsequent action. Dative case in [katēgorois]. Before thee [epi sou]. Common idiom for “in the presence of” when before a judge (like Latin apud) as in 24:20, 21; 25:26; 26:2. What happened to the forty conspirators we have no way of knowing. Neither they nor the Jews from Asia are heard of more during the long five years of Paul’s imprisonment in Caesarea and Rome.

23:31 As it was commanded them [kata to diatetagmenon autois]. “According to that which was commanded them,” perfect passive articular participle of [diatassō]. By night [dia nuktos]. Through the night, travelling by night forty miles from Jerusalem to Antipatris which was founded by Herod the Great and was on the road from Jerusalem to Caesarea, a hard night’s ride.

23:33 And they [hoitines]. Which very ones, the cavalry, the horsemen of verse 31. Delivered [anadontes]. Second aorist active participle of [anadidōmi], old verb to give up, to hand over, here only in the N.T. Presented Paul also [parestēsan kai ton Paulon]. First aorist active (transitive, not second aorist intransitive) indicative of [paristēmi], common verb to present or place beside. What would Paul’s friends in Caesarea (Philip and his daughters) think of the prophecy of Agabus now so quickly come true.

23:34 When he had read it [anagnous]. Second aorist active participle of [anaginōskō], to know again, to read. Of what province he was [ek poias eparcheias estin]. Tense of [estin] (is) retained in indirect question. [Poias] is strictly “of what kind of” province, whether senatorial or imperial. Cilicia, like Judea, was under the control of the propraetor of Syria (imperial province). Paul’s arrest was in Jerusalem and so under the jurisdiction of Felix unless it was a matter of insurrection when he could appeal to the propraetor of Syria.

23:35 I will hear thy cause [diakousomai]. “I will hear thee fully” [dia]. When—are come [paragenōntai]. Second aorist middle subjunctive of [paraginomai] with temporal conjunction [hotan], indefinite temporal clause of future time (Robertson, Grammar, p. 972), “whenever thine accusers come.” In Herod’s palace [en tōi praitōriōi]. The Latin word [praetorium]. The word meant the camp of the general, then the palace of the governor as here and Mt 27:27 which see, and then the camp of praetorian soldiers or rather the praetorian guard as in Php 1:13.

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