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3:1 When we could no longer forbear [mēketi stegontes]. [Stegō] is old verb to cover from [stegē], roof (Mr 2:4), to cover with silence, to conceal, to keep off, to endure as here and 1Co 9:12; 13:7. In the papyri in this sense (Moulton and Milligan’s Vocabulary). [Mēketi] usual negative with participle in the Koinē rather than [ouketi]. We thought it good [ēudokēsamen]. Either literary plural as in 2:18 or Paul and Silas as more likely. If so, both Timothy and Silas came to Athens (Ac 17:15f.), but Timothy was sent (we sent, [epempsamen], verse 2) right back to Thessalonica and later Paul sent Silas on to Beroea or Thessalonica (verse 5, I sent, [epempsa]. Then both Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia to Corinth (Ac 18:5). Alone [monoi]. Including Silas. God’s minister [diakonon tou theou]. See on Mt 22:13 for this interesting word, here in general sense not technical sense of deacon. Some MSS. have fellow-worker [sunergon]. Already apostle in 2:7 and now brother, minister (and possibly fellow-worker).
3:3 That no man be moved [to mēdena sainesthai]. Epexegetical articular infinitive in accusative case of general reference. [Sainō] is old word to wag the tail, to flatter, beguile and this sense suits here (only N.T. example). The sense of “moved” or troubled or disheartened is from [siainesthai] the reading of F G and found in the papyri. We are appointed [keimetha]. Present middle, used here as passive of [tithēmi]. We Christians are set hereunto [eis touto] to be beguiled by tribulations. We must resist.
3:4 We told you beforehand [proelegomen humin]. Imperfect active, we used to tell you beforehand. Old verb, rare in N.T. (only in Paul). That we are to suffer persecution [hoti mellomen thlibesthai]. [Mellō] and present passive infinitive. Not mere prediction, but God’s appointed will as it turned out in Thessalonica.
3:5 That I might know [eis to gnōnai]. Paul’s common idiom (verse 2), [eis to] and the infinitive of purpose (second aorist ingressive active of [ginōskō], come to know). Lest by any means the tempter had tempted you [mē pōs epeirasen humās ho peirazōn]. Findlay takes this as a question with negative answer, but most likely negative final clause with [mē pōs] about a past action with aorist indicative according to the classic idiom as in Ga 2:2 [mē pōs—edramon] and Ga 4:11 after verb of fearing (Robertson, Grammar, p. 988). It is a fear that the thing may turn out to be so about the past. Should be [genētai]. Here the usual construction appears (aorist subjunctive with [mē pōs] about the future.
3:6 Even now [arti]. Just now, Timothy having come [elthontos Timotheou], genitive absolute). Why Silas is not named is not clear, unless he had come from Beroea or elsewhere in Macedonia. Glad tidings of [euaggelisamenou]. First aorist middle participle of the verb for evangelizing (gospelizing). Good remembrance [mneian]. Same word used by Paul 1:2. Longing to see us [epipothountes hēmās idein]. Old and strong verb, [epi-], directive, to long after. Mutual longing that pleased Paul (“we also you”).
3:7 Over you [eph’ humin]. [Epi] with the locative, the basis on which the “comfort” rests. In [epi]. Locative case again with [epi]. Distress [anagkēi]. Physical necessity, common sense in late Greek, choking [agchō, angor], and crushing trouble [thlipsis, thlibō].
3:8 If ye stand fast [ean humeis stēkete]. Condition of first class, [ean] and present active indicative (correct text, not [stēkēte] subj.) of [stēkō], late form from perfect [hestēka] of [histēmi], to place.
3:9 Render again unto God [tōi theōi antapodounai]. Second aorist active infinitive of double compound verb [ant-apodidōmi], to give back [apo] in return for [anti]. Old verb rare in N.T., but again in 2Th 1:6. For you [peri humōn]. Around (concerning) you, while in verse 2 [huper] (over is used for “concerning your faith.”)For [epi]. Basis again as cause or ground for the joy. Wherewith we joy [hēi chairomen]. Probably cognate accusative [hēn] with [chairomen] attracted to locative [charāi] (Mt 2:10).
3:10 Exceedingly [huperekperissou]. Double compound adverb, only in 1Th 3:10; 5:13 (some MSS. [-ōs]. Like piling Ossa on Pelion, [perissōs], abundantly, [ek perissou], out of bounds, [huperekperissou], more than out of bounds (overflowing all bounds). And perfect [kai katartisai]. First aorist active articular infinitive of purpose [eis to idein—kai] of [katartizō], to mend nets (Mt 4:21) or men (Ga 6:1) repair. Chiefly late. That which is lacking in [ta husterēmata]. The shortcomings, the lacks or left-overs (Col 1:24). From [hustereō] [husteron], to be late.
3:11 Our God and Father himself [autos ho theos kai patēr hēmōn]. Note one article with both substantives for one person. And our Lord Jesus [kai ho Kurios hēmōn Iēsous]. Separate article here with [Iēsous]. In Tit 2:13; 2Pe 1:1 only one article (not two) treating “our God and Saviour Jesus Christ” as one just like “our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ” in 2Pe 1:11; 2:20; 3:18. Direct our way [kateuthunai tēn hodon hēmōn]. First aorist optative (acute accent on penult, not circumflex first aorist active infinitive) of [kateuthunō], old verb to make straight path. Singular verb also, though both God and Christ mentioned as subject (unity in the Godhead). Apart from [mē genoito] (may it not come to pass) the optative in a wish of the third person is found in N.T. only in 1Th 3:11, 12; 5:23; 2Th 2:17; 3:5, 16; Ro 15:5, 13.
3:12 The Lord [ho Kurios]. The Lord Jesus. Paul prays to Christ. Make you to increase [humas pleonasai]. First aorist active optative (wish for future) of [pleonazō], late verb from [pleon] (more), to superabound. And abound [perisseusai]. First aorist active optative (wish for future) of [perisseuō] from [perissos], old verb, to be over (common in N.T.). It is hard to see much difference between the two verbs.
3:13 To the end he may stablish [eis to stērixai]. Another example of [eis] and the articular infinitive of purpose. Same idiom in 3:2. From [stērizō], from [stērigx], a support. Unblameable [amemptous]. Old compound adjective [a] privative and verbal of [memphomai], to blame). Rare in N.T. Predicate position here. Second coming of Christ again.
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