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6:1 Under the yoke [hupo zugon]. As slaves [douloi], bondsmen). Perhaps under heathen masters (1Pe 2:18). For the slave problem, see also Phm 1; Col 3:22; Eph 6:5; Tit 2:9. See Mt 11:29 for Christ’s “yoke” [zugon], from [zeugnumi], to join). Their own masters [tous idious despotas]. That is always where the shoe pinches. Our “despot” is this very Greek word, the strict correlative of slave [doulos], while [kurios] has a wider outlook. Old word only here, Tit 2:9; 2Ti 2:21; 1Pe 2:18 for human masters. Applied to God in Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24, 29 and to Christ in 2Pe 2:1. The name of God [to onoma tou theou]. See Ro 2:24. If the heathen could say that Christian slaves were not as dependable as non-Christian slaves. Negative purpose with [hina mē] and present passive subjunctive [blasphēmētai].
6:2 Let not despise them [mē kataphroneitōsan]. Negative imperative active third plural of [kataphroneō], to think down on. See 4:12. He must not presume on the equality of Christian brotherhood not allowed by the state’s laws. Some of these Christian slaves might be pastors of churches to which the master belonged. For the difficulty of the Christian master’s position, see 1Co 7:22; Phm 1:16. But rather [alla mallon]. Render the Christian Master better service. They that partake of the benefit [hoi tēs energesias antilambanomenoi]. For [euergesias] (genitive case after participle) see Ac 4:9, only other N.T. example of this old word. Present middle participle of [antilambanō], old verb, to take in turn, to lay fast hold of, in N.T. only here, Lu 1:54; Ac 20:35.
6:3 Teacheth a different doctrine [heterodidaskalei]. See 1:3 for this verb, present active indicative here in condition of first class. Consenteth not [mē proserchetai]. Also condition of first class with [mē] instead of [ou]. [Proserchomai] (old verb, to come to, to approach, with dative) is common enough in N.T. (Heb 4:16; 7:25, etc.), but in the metaphorical sense of coming to one’s ideas, assenting to, here only in N.T., but is so used in Philo and Irenaeus (Ellicott). Sound words [hugiainousin logois]. See 1:10 for [hugiainō]. The words of our Lord Jesus Christ [tois tou kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou]. Either subjective genitive (the words from the Lord Jesus, a collection of his sayings in Lock’s opinion like 5:18; Ac 20:35, at least in the Spirit of Jesus as Ac 16:7; 1Co 11:23) or objective genitive about Jesus like 2Ti 1:8; 1Co 1:18. According to godliness [kata eusebeian]. Promoting (designed for) godliness as in Tit 1:1.
6:4 He is puffed up [tetuphōtai]. Perfect passive indicative of [tuphoō], for which see 3:6. Knowing nothing [mēden epistamenos]. Present middle participle of [epistamai]. Ignorance is a frequent companion of conceit. Doting [nosōn]. Present active participle of [noseō], to be sick, to be morbid over, old word, only here in N.T. Disputes of words [logomachias]. Our “logomachy.” From [logomacheō] (2Ti 2:14), and that from [logos] and [machomai], to fight over words, late and rare word, here only in N.T. See Plato (Tim. 1085 F) for “wars in words” [machas en logois]. Whereof [ex hōn]. “From which things.” Surmisings [huponoiai]. Old word from [huponoeō], to surmise, to suspect (Ac 25:18), only here in N.T. All these words are akin (envy, [phthonos], strife, [eris], railings or slanders, [blasphēmiai], all products of an ignorant and conceited mind.
6:5 Wranglings [diaparatribai]. Late and rare (Clem. of Alex.) double compound [dia], mutual or thorough, [paratribai], irritations or rubbings alongside). “Mutual irritations” (Field). Corrupted in mind [diephtharmenōn ton noun]. Perfect passive participle of [diaphtheirō], to corrupt, genitive case agreeing with [anthrōpōn] (of men) and retaining the accusative [ton noun]. Bereft of the truth [apesterēmenōn tēs alētheias]. Perfect passive participle of [apostereō], old verb (1Co 6:8) with the ablative case after it [alētheias]. A way of gain [porismon]. Late word from [porizō], to provide, to gain. Only here in N.T. “Rich Christians.” Predicate accusative with [einai] (indirect assertion) in apposition with [eusebeian], the accusative of general reference.
6:7 Brought into [eisēnegkamen], second aorist active stem with first aorist ending, common in the Koinē), carry out [exenegkein], second aorist active infinitive). Note play on the prepositions [eis-] and [ex-].
6:8 Food [diatrophas]. Plural, supports or nourishments (from [diatrephō], to support). Old word, here only in N.T. Covering [skepasmata]. Plural, “coverings.” Late word from [skepazō], to cover. Here only in N.T. We shall be content [arkesthēsometha]. First future passive of [arkeō], to be content. Old word. See 2Co 12:9. This is the [autarkeia] of verse 6. There with [toutois]. Associative instrumental case, “with these.”
6:9 Desire to be rich [boulomenoi ploutein]. The will [boulomai] to be rich at any cost and in haste (Pr 28:20). Some MSS. have “trust in riches” in Mr 10:24. Possibly Paul still has teachers and preachers in mind. Fall into [empiptousin eis]. See on 3:6 for [en — eis] and 3:7 for [pagida] (snare). Foolish [anoētous]. See Ga 3:1, 3. Hurtful [blaberas]. Old adjective from [blaptō], to injure, here alone in N.T. Drown [buthizousin]. Late word (literary Koinē) from [buthos] (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T. only here and Lu 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the issue “in destruction and perdition” [eis olethron kai apōleian]. Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The combination only here, but for [olethros], see 1Th 5:3; 2Th 1:9; 1Co 5:5 and for [apōleia], see 2Th 2:3; Php 3:19.
6:10 The love of money [hē philarguria]. Vulgate, avaritia. Common word (from [philarguros], 2Ti 3:12, and that from [philos, arguros], only here in N.T. Refers to verse 9 [boulomenoi ploutein]. A root of all kinds of evil [riza pantōn tōn kakōn]. A root [riza]. Old word, common in literal (Mt 3:10) and metaphorical sense (Ro 11:11-18). Field (Ot. Norv.) argues for “the root” as the idea of this predicate without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus [tēn philargurian einai mētropolin pantōn tōn kakōn], where “metropolis” takes the place of “root.” Surely men today need no proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime for money. Reaching after [oregomenoi]. Present middle participle of [oregō] (see 3:1) with genitive [hēs] (which). Have been led astray [apeplanēthēsan]. First aorist passive indicative of [apoplanaō], old compound verb, in N.T. only here and Mr 13:22. Have pierced themselves through [heautous periepeiran]. First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of late compound [peripeirō], only here in N.T. Perfective use of [peri] (around, completely to pierce). With many sorrows [odunais pollais]. Instrumental case of [odunē] (consuming, eating grief). In N.T. only here and Ro 9:2.
6:11 O man of God [ō anthrōpe theou]. In N.T. only here and 2Ti 3:17, there general and here personal appeal to Timothy. Cf. De 33:1; 1Sa 2:27. Flee [pheuge], follow after [diōke]. Vivid verbs in present active imperative. The preacher can not afford to parley with such temptations. Meekness [praupathian]. Late compound from [praupathēs], in Philo about Abraham, here only in N.T.
6:12 Fight the good fight [agōnizou ton kalon agōna]. Cognate accusative with present middle imperative of [agōnizō], Pauline word (1Co 9:25; Col 1:29). Lay hold on [epilabou]. Second (ingressive) aorist middle imperative of [epilambanō], “get a grip on.” See same verb with genitive also in verse 19. Thou wast called [eklēthēs]. First aorist passive of [kaleō] as in 1Co 1:9; Col 3:15. The good confession [tēn kalēn homologian]. Cognate accusative with [hōmologēsas] (first aorist active indicative of [homologeō], the public confession in baptism which many witnessed. See it also in verse 13 of Jesus).
6:13 Who quickeneth all things [tou zōogonountos ta panta]. Present active participle of [zōogoneō] [zōogonos], from [zōos, genō], late word to give life, to bring forth alive, in N.T. only here and Ac 7:19. See 1Sa 2:6. Before Pontius Pilate [epi Pontiou Peilatou]. Not “in the time of,” but “in the presence of.” Witnessed [marturēsantos]. Note [martureō], not [homologeō] as in verse 12. Christ gave his evidence as a witness to the Kingdom of God. Evidently Paul knew some of the facts that appear in Joh 18.
6:14 That thou keep [tērēsai se]. First aorist active infinitive of [tēreō], with accusative of general reference [se] in indirect command after [paraggellō]. Without spot [aspilon]. Late adjective [a] privative, [spilos], spot, Eph 5:27). In inscription and papyri. Without reproach [anepilēmpton]. See 3:2; 5:7. Until the appearing [mechri tēs epiphaneias]. “Until the epiphany” (the second epiphany or coming of Christ). Late word in inscriptions for important event like the epiphany of Caligula, in the papyri as a medical term. In 2Th 2:18 we have both [epiphaneia] and [parousia]. See Tit 2:13; 2Ti 1:10; 4:1, 8.
6:15 In its own times [kairois idiois]. Locative case. May be “in his own times.” See 2:6. Clearly not for us to figure out. Who is the blessed and only Potentate [ho makarios kai monos dunastēs]. “The happy and alone Potentate.” [Dunastēs], old word, in N.T. only here, Lu 1:52; Ac 8:27 (the Eunuch). See 1:11 for [makarios]. The King of kings [ho basileus tōn basileuontōn]. “The King of those who rule as kings.” Oriental title. So with “Lord of lords.” See Re 10:16.
6:16 Who only hath immortality [ho monos echōn athanasian]. “The one who alone has immortality.” [Athanasia] [athanatos], [a] privative and [thanatos], old word, in N.T. only here and 1Co 15:53f. Domitian demanded that he be addressed as “Dominus et Deus noster.” Emperor worship may be behind the use of [monos] (alone) here. Unapproachable [aprositon]. See Ps 104:2. Late compound verbal adjective [a] privative, [pros, ienai], to go). Here only in N.T. Literary Koinē word. Nor can see [oude idein dunatai]. See [aoraton] in Col 1:15 and also Joh 1:18; Mt 11:27. The “amen” marks the close of the doxology as in 1:17.
6:17 In this present world [en tōi nun aiōni]. “In the now age,” in contrast with the future. That they be not high-minded [mē hupsēlophronein]. Present active infinitive with negative in indirect command after [paraggelle], “not to be high-minded.” Only instance of the word save some MSS. of Ro 11:20 (for [mē hupsēlaphronei] and a scholion on Pindar. Have their hope set [ēlpikenai]. Perfect active infinitive of [elpizō]. On the uncertainty of riches [epi ploutou adēlotēti]. Literary Koinē word [adēlotēs], only here in N.T. A “vigorous oxymoron” (White). Cf. Ro 6:4. Riches have wings. But on God [all’ epi theōi]. He alone is stable, not wealth. Richly all things to enjoy [panta plousiōs eis apolausin]. “A lavish emphasis to the generosity of God” (Parry). [Apolausis] is old word from [apolauō], to enjoy, in N.T. only here and Heb 11:25.
6:18 That they do good [agathoergein]. Late word [agathos], [ergō], in N.T. only here and Ac 14:17. Rich in good works [ploutein en ergois kalois]. See Lu 12:21 “rich toward God” and Mt 6:19f. for “treasures in heaven.” Ready to distribute [eumetadotous]. Late and rare verbal [eu, meta, didōmi]. Free to give, liberal. Only here in N.T. Willing to communicate [koinōnikous]. Old adjective, ready to share, gracious, liberal again. Only here in N.T. See Ga 6:6; Php 4:15.
6:19 Laying up in store [apothēsaurizontas]. Late literary word [apo] and [thēsaurizō], only here in N.T. Same paradox as in Mt 6:19f., “laying up in store” by giving it away. Which is life indeed [tēs ontōs zōēs]. See 5:3 for [ontōs]. This life is merely the shadow of the eternal reality to come.
6:20 Guard that which is committed unto thee [tēn parathēkēn phulaxon]. “Keep (aorist of urgency) the deposit.” [Parathēkēn] (from [paratithēmi], to place beside as a deposit, 2Ti 2:2), a banking figure, common in the papyri in this sense for the Attic [parakatathēkē] (Textus Receptus here, 2Ti 1:12, 14). See substantive also in 2Ti 1:12, 14. Turning away from [ektrepomenos]. Present middle participle of [ektrepō], for which see 1:6; 5:15. Babblings [kenophōnias]. From [kenophōnos], uttering emptiness. Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:16. Oppositions [antitheseis]. Old word [anti, thesis], antithesis, only here in N.T. Of the knowledge which is falsely so called [tēs pseudōnumou gnōseōs]. “Of the falsely named knowledge.” Old word [pseudēs, onoma]. Our “pseudonymous.” Only here in N.T.
6:21 Have erred [ēstochēsan]. First aorist active indicative of [astocheō]. See 1:6 for this word.
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