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Chapter 1

1:1 According to the commandment [kat’ epitagēn]. A late Koinē word (Polybius, Diodorus), but a Pauline word also in N.T. This very idiom (“by way of command”) in 1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8; Ro 16:26; 1Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. Paul means to say that he is an apostle under orders. Of God our Saviour [theou sōtēros hēmōn]. Genitive case with [epitagēn]. In the LXX [sōtēr] (old word from [sōzō] for agent in saving, applied to deities, princes, kings, etc.) occurs 20 times, all but two to God. The Romans called the emperor “Saviour God.” In the N.T. the designation of God as Saviour is peculiar to Lu 1:47; Jude 1:25; 1Ti 1:3; 2:3; 4:10; Tit 1:3; 2:10; 3:4. In the other Epistles Paul uses it of Christ (Php 3:20; Eph 5:23) as in 2Ti 1:10. In 2Pe 1:1 we have “our God and Saviour Jesus Christ” as in Tit 2:13. Our hope [tēs elpidos hēmōn]. Like Col 1:27. More than the author and object of hope, “its very substance and foundation” (Ellicott).

1:2 True [gnēsiōi]. Legitimate, not spurious. Old word from [ginomai], but Pauline only in N.T. (Php 4:3; 2Co 8:8; Tit 1:4). In Php 2:20 the adverb [gnēsiōs] occurs and of Timothy again. Christ Jesus [Christou Iēsou]. So twice already in verse 1 and as usual in the later Epistles (Col 1:1; Eph 1:1).

1:3 As I exhorted [kathōs parekalesa]. There is an ellipse of the principal clause in verse 4 (so do I now not being in the Greek). To tarry [prosmeinai]. First aorist active infinitive of [prosmenō], old verb, attributed by Luke to Paul in Ac 13:43. That thou mightest charge [hina paraggeilēis]. Subfinal clause with [hina] and the first aorist active subjunctive of [paraggellō], old verb, to transmit a message along [para] from one to another. See 2Th 3:4, 6, 10. Lock considers this idiom here an elliptical imperative like Eph 4:29; 5:33. Certain men [tisin]. Dative case. Expressly vague (no names as in 1:20), though Paul doubtless has certain persons in Ephesus in mind. Not to teach a different doctrine [mē heterodidaskalein]. Earliest known use of this compound like [kakodidaskalein] of Clement of Rome. Only other N.T. example in 6:3. Eusebius has [heterodidaskalos]. Same idea in Ga 1:6; 2Co 11:4; Ro 16:17. Perhaps coined by Paul.

1:4 To give heed [prosechein]. With [noun] understood. Old and common idiom in N.T. especially in Luke and Acts (Ac 8:10ff.). Not in Paul’s earlier Epistles. 1Ti 3:8; 4:1, 13; Tit 1:14. To fables [muthois]. Dative case of old word for speech, narrative, story, fiction, falsehood. In N.T. only 2Pe 1:16; 1Ti 1:4; 4:7; Tit 1:14; 2Ti 4:4. Genealogies [genealogiais]. Dative of old word, in LXX, in N.T. only here and Tit 3:9. Endless [aperantois]. Old verbal compound (from [a] privative and [perainō], to go through), in LXX, only here in N.T. Excellent examples there for old words used only in the Pastorals because of the subject matter, describing the Gnostic emphasis on aeons. Questionings [ekzētēseis]. “Seekings out.” Late and rare compound from [ekzēteō] (itself Koinē word, Ro 3:11 from LXX and in papyri). Here only in N.T. Simplex [zētēsis] in Ac 15:2; 1Ti 6:4; Tit 3:9; 2Ti 2:23. A dispensation [oikonomian]. Pauline word (1Co 9:17; Col 1:25; Eph 1:9; 3:9; 1Ti 1:4), Lu 16:2-4 only other N.T. examples. In faith [en pistei]. Pauline use of [pistis].

1:5 The end [to telos]. See Ro 6:21; 10:4 for [telos] (the good aimed at, reached, result, end). Love [agapē]. Not “questionings.” Ro 13:9. “Three conditions for the growth of love” (Parry): “Out of a pure heart” [ek katharas kardias], O.T. conception), “and a good conscience” [kai suneidēseōs agathēs], for which see Ro 2:25), “and faith unfeigned” [kai pisteōs anupokritou], late compound verbal in 2Co 6:6; Ro 12:9).

1:6 Having swerved [astochēsantes]. First aorist active participle of [astocheō], compound Koinē verb (Polybius, Plutarch) from [astochos] [a] privative and [stochos], a mark), “having missed the mark.” In N.T. only here, 6:21; 2Ti 2:18. With the ablative case [hōn] (which). Have turned aside [exetrapēsan]. Second aorist passive indicative of [ektrepō], old and common verb, to turn or twist out or aside. In medical sense in Heb 12:13. As metaphor in 1Ti 1:6; 6:20; 2Ti 4:4. Vain talking [mataiologian]. Late word from [mataiologos], only here in N.T., in the literary Koinē.

1:7 Teachers of the law [nomodidaskaloi]. Compound only in N.T. (here, Lu 5:17; Ac 5:34) and ecclesiastical writers. Though they understand [noountes]. Concessive participle of [noeō], old verb (Eph 3:4,20). Neither what [mēte ha]. Relative [ha] (which things). Nor whereof [mēte peri tinōn]. Here the interrogative [tinōn] used in sense of relative [hōn]. It may be regarded as the use of an indirect question for variety (Parry). They confidently affirm [diabebaiountai]. Present middle indicative of the common Koinē compound, in N.T. only here and Tit 3:8.

1:8 If a man use it lawfully [ean tis autōi chrētai]. Condition of third class with [ean] and present middle subjunctive of [chraomai] with instrumental case.

1:9 Is not made for [ou keitai]. The use of [keitai] for [tetheitai] (perfect passive of [tithēmi] is a common enough idiom. See the same point about law in Ga 18-23; Ro 13:13. For “knowing this” [eidōs touto] see Eph 5:5. Unruly [anupotaktois]. Dative (like all these words) of the late verbal [a] privative and [hupotassō]. In N.T. only here, Tit 1:6,10; Heb 2:8. Ungodly [asebesi]. See Ro 4:5; 5:6. Sinners [hamartōlois]. See Ro 3:7. Unholy [anosiois]. Common word [a] privative and [hosios]. In N.T. only here and 2Ti 3:2). Profane [bebēlois]. Old word from [bainō], to go, and [bēlos], threshold. See Heb 12:16. Murderers of fathers [patrolōiais]. Late form for common Attic [patralōiais] (from [patēr], father, and [aloiaō], to smite) only here in N.T. Murderers of mothers [mētrolōiais]. Late form Attic [mētralōiais]. Only here in N.T. Manslayers [andraphonois]. Old compound [anēr], man, [phonos], murder). Only here in N.T.

1:10 For abusers of themselves with men [arsenokoitais]. Late compound for sodomites. In N.T. only here and 1Co 6:9. Men-stealers [andrapodistais]. Old word from [andrapodizō] (from [anēr], man, [pous], foot, to catch by the foot), to enslave. So enslavers, whether kidnappers (men-stealers) of free men or stealers of the slaves of other men. So slave-dealers. By the use of this word Paul deals a blow at the slave-trade (cf. Philemon). Liars [pseustais]. Old word, see Ro 3:4. False swearers [epiorkois]. Old word [epi, orkos], oath). Perjurers. Only here in N.T. For similar lists, see 1Co 5:11; 6:9f.; Ga 5:19f.; Ro 1:28f.; 13:13; Col 3:5; Eph 5:5; 2Ti 3:2f. The sound doctrine [tēi hugiainousēi didaskaliāi]. Dative case after [antikeitai], for which verb see Ga 5:17 for the conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. “The healthful [hugiainō], old word for being well, as Lu 5:31; 3Jo 1:2, in figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals) teaching.” See Tit 1:9; 2Ti 4:3.

1:11 Of the blessed God [tou makariou theou]. Applied to God only here and 6:15, but in Tit 2:13 [makarios] occurs with [elpis] (hope) of the “epiphany of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ.” Which was committed to my trust [ho episteuthēn egō]. “with which [ho] accusative retained with first aorist passive verb [episteuthēn] I was entrusted.”

1:12 I thank [charin echō]. “I have gratitude to.” Common phrase (Lu 17:9), not elsewhere in Paul. That enabled me [tōi endunamōsanti me]. First aorist active articular participle of [endunamoō]. Late verb, but regular Pauline idiom (Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph 6:10; 1Ti 1:12; 2Ti 4:17). Appointing me to his service [themenos eis diakonian]. Second aorist middle participle. Pauline phrase and atmosphere (Ac 20:24; 1Co 3:5; 12:18, 28; 2Co 3:6; 4:1; Col 1:23; Eph. 3:7; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 4:5, 11).

1:13 Before [to proteron]. Accusative of general reference of the articular comparative, “as to the former-time,” formerly, as in Ga 4:13. Though I was [onta]. Concessive participle agreeing with [me]. Blasphemer [blasphēmon]. Old word either from [blax] (stupid) and [phēmē], speech, or from [blaptō], to injure. Rare in N.T. but Paul uses [blasphēmeō], to blaspheme in Ro 2:24. Persecutor [diōktēs]. So far found only here. Probably made by Paul from [diōkō], which he knew well enough (Ac 22:4, 7; 26:14f.; Ga 1:13, 23; Php 3:6; 2Ti 3:12). Injurious [hubristēn]. Substantive, not adjective, “an insolent man.” Old word from [hubrizō], in N.T. only here and Ro 1:30. I obtained mercy [eleēthēn]. First aorist passive indicative of [eleeō], old verb. See 2Co 4:1; Ro 11:30f. Ignorantly [agnoōn]. Present active participle of [agnoeō], “not knowing.” Old verb (Ro 2:4). In a blindness of heart. In unbelief [en apistiāi]. See Ro 11:20,25.

1:14 Abounded exceedingly [huperepleonasen]. Aorist active indicative of the late and rare (So 5:19 and in Herond.) compound [huperpleonazō] (here alone in N.T.), in later ecclesiastical writers. The simplex [pleonazō] Paul used in Ro 5:20; 6:1 and the kindred [hupereperisseusen] used also with [hē charis]. Paul is fond of compounds with [huper]. For “faith in Christ Jesus” see Ga 3:26, for “faith and love in Christ Jesus” as here, see 2Ti 1:13.

1:15 Faithful is the saying [pistos ho logos]. Five times in the Pastorals (1Ti 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; Tit 3:8; 2Ti 2:11). It will pay to note carefully [pistis, pisteuō, pistos]. Same use of [pistos] (trustworthy) applied to [logos] in Tit 1:9; Re 21:5; 22:6. Here and probably in 2Ti 2:11 a definite saying seems to be referred to, possibly a quotation [hoti] of a current saying quite like the Johannine type of teaching. This very phrase (Christ coming into the world) occurs in Joh 9:37; 11:27; 16:28; 18:37. Paul, of course, had no access to the Johannine writings, but such “sayings” were current among the disciples. There is no formal quotation, but “the whole phrase implies a knowledge of Synoptic and Johannine language” (Lock) as in Lu 5:32; Joh 12:47. Acceptation [apodochēs]. Genitive case with [axios] (worthy of). Late word (Polybius, Diod., Jos.) in N.T. only here and 4:9. Chief [prōtos]. Not [ēn] (I was), but [eimi] (I am). “It is not easy to think of any one but St. Paul as penning these words” (White). In 1Co 15:9 he had called himself “the least of the apostles” [elachistos tōn apostolōn]. In Eph 3:8 he refers to himself as “the less than the least of all saints” [tōi elachistoterōi pantōn hagiōn]. On occasion Paul would defend himself as on a par with the twelve apostles (Ga 2:6-10) and superior to the Judaizers (2Co 11:5f.; 12:11). It is not mock humility here, but sincere appreciation of the sins of his life (cf. Ro 7:24) as a persecutor of the church of God (Ga 1:13), of men and even women (Ac 22:4f.; 26:11). He had sad memories of those days.

1:16 In me as chief [en emoi prōtōi]. Probably starts with the same sense of [prōtos] as in verse 15 (rank), but turns to order (first in line). Paul becomes the “specimen” sinner as an encouragement to all who come after him. Might shew forth [endeixētai]. First aorist middle subjunctive (purpose with [hina] of [endeiknumi], to point out, for which see Eph 2:7 (same form with [hina]. Longsuffering [makrothumian]. Common Pauline word (2Co 6:6). For an ensample [pros hupotupōsin]. Late and rare word (in Galen, Sext. Emp., Diog. Laert., here only in N.T.) from late verb [hupotupoō] (in papyri) to outline. So substantive here is a sketch, rough outline. Paul is a sample of the kind of sinners that Jesus came to save. See [hupodeigma] in 2Pe 2:6.

1:17 This noble doxology is a burst of gratitude for God’s grace to Paul. For other doxologies see Ga 1:5; Ro 11:36; 16:27; Php 4:20; Eph 3:21; 1Ti 6:16. White suggests that Paul may have often used this doxology in his prayers. Lock suggests “a Jewish liturgical formula” (a needless suggestion in view of Paul’s wealth of doxologies seen above). For God’s creative activity (King of the ages) see 1Co 10:11; Eph 2:7; 3:9, 11. Incorruptible [aphthartōi]. As an epithet of God also in Ro 1:23. Invisible [aoratōi]. Epithet of God in Col 1:15. The only God [monōi theōi]. So Ro 16:27; Joh 5:44; 17:3. For ever and ever [eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn]. “Unto the ages of ages.” Cf. Eph 3:21 “of the age of the ages.”

1:18 I commit [paratithemai]. Present middle indicative of old and common verb, to place beside [para] as food on table, in the middle to entrust (Lu 12:48) and used by Jesus as he was dying (Lu 23:46). Here it is a banking figure and repeated in 2Ti 2:2. According to the prophecies which went before on thee [kata tas proagousas epi se prophēteias]. Intransitive use of [proagō], to go before. When Timothy first comes before us (Ac 16:2) “he was testified to” [emartureito] by the brethren. He began his ministry rich in hopes, prayers, predictions. That by them thou mayest war the good warfare [hina strateuēi en autais tēn kalēn strateian]. Cognate accusative [strateian], old word from [strateuō], in N.T. only here and 2Co 4:4) with [strateuēi] (second person singular middle present subjunctive of [strateuō], old verb chiefly in Paul in N.T., 1Co 9:7; 2Co 10:3). As if in defensive armour.

1:19 Holding faith and a good conscience [echōn pistin kai agathēn suneidēsin]. Possibly as a shield (Eph 6:16) or at any rate possessing (Ro 2:20) faith as trust and a good conscience. A leader expects them of his followers and must show them himself. Having thrust from them [apōsamenoi]. First aorist indirect middle participle of [apōtheō], to push away from one. Old verb (see Ro 11:1f.). Made shipwreck [enauagēsan]. First aorist active indicative of [nauageō], old verb from [nauagos] (shipwrecked, [naus], ship, [agnumi], to break), to break a ship to pieces. In N.T. only here and 2Co 11:25. Concerning the faith [peri tēn pistin]. Rather, “concerning their faith” (the article here used as a possessive pronoun, a common Greek idiom).

1:20 Hymenaeus [Humenaios]. The same heretic reappears in 2Ti 2:17. He and Alexander are the chief “wreckers” of faith in Ephesus. Alexander [Alexandros]. Probably the same as the one in 2Ti 4:14, but not the Jew of that name in Ac 19:33, unless he had become a Christian since then. I delivered unto Satan [paredōka tōi Satanāi]. See this very idiom [paradounai tōi Satanāi] in 1Co 5:5. It is a severe discipline of apostolic authority, apparently exclusion and more than mere abandonment (1Th 2:18; 1Co 5:11; 2Co 2:11), though it is an obscure matter. That they might be taught not to blaspheme [hina paideuthōsin mē blasphēmein]. Purpose clause with [hina] and first aorist passive subjunctive of [paideuō]. For this use of this common late verb, see 1Co 11:32; 2Co 6:9.

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