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Like precious (ισοτιμον). Late compound adjective (ισος, equal, τιμη, honor, price), here only in N.T. But this adjective (Field) is used in two ways, according to the two ideas in τιμη (value, honor), either like in value or like in honor. This second idea is the usual one with ισοτιμος (inscriptions and papyri, Josephus, Lucian), while πολυτιμος has the notion of price like τιμη in 1:7,19; 2:4,6f . The faith which they have obtained is like in honor and privilege with that of Peter or any of the apostles.
With us (ημιν). Associative-instrumental case after ισοτιμον. Equal to τη ημων (the faith of us).
In the righteousness (εν δικαιοσυνη). Definite because of the preposition εν and the following genitive even though anarthrous. The O.T. sense of δικαιοσυνη applied to God (Ro 1:17 ) and here to Christ.
Of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ (του θεου ημων κα σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου). So the one article (του) with θεου and σωτηρος requires precisely as with του κυριου ημων κα σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου (of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ), one person, not two, in 1:11 as in 2:20; 3:2,18 . So in 1Pe 1:3 we have ο θεος κα πατηρ (the God and Father), one person, not two. The grammar is uniform and inevitable (Robertson, Grammar, p. 786), as even Schmiedel (Winer-Schmiedel, Grammatik, p. 158) admits: "Grammar demands that one person be meant." Moulton (Prol., p. 84) cites papyri examples of like usage of θεος for the Roman emperors. See the same idiom in Tit 2:13 . The use of θεος by Peter as a predicate with Jesus Christ no more disproves the Petrine authorship of this Epistle than a like use in Joh 1:1 disproves the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel and the same use in Tit 2:13 disproves the genuineness of Titus. Peter had heard Thomas call Jesus God (Joh 20:28 ) and he himself had called him the Son of God (Mt 16:16 ).
In the knowledge (εν επιγνωσε). Full (additional, επ) knowledge as in 1:8 (only γνωσις in 1:5,6; 3:18 ), but επιγνωσιν again in 1:3,8; 2:20 . As in Colossians, so here full knowledge is urged against the claims of the Gnostic heretics to special γνωσις.
Of God and of Jesus our Lord (του θεου κα Ιησου του κυριου ημων). At first sight the idiom here seems to require one person as in 1:1, though there is a second article (του) before κυριου, and Ιησου is a proper name. But the text here is very uncertain. Bengel, Spitta, Zahn, Nestle accept the short reading of P and some Vulgate MSS. and some minuscles with only του κυριου ημων (our Lord) from which the three other readings may have come. Elsewhere in II Peter γνωσις and επιγνωσις are used of Christ alone. The text of II Peter is not in a good state of preservation.
Seeing that his divine power hath granted unto us (ως ημιν της θειας δυναμεως αυτου δεδωρημενης). Genitive absolute with the causal particle ως and the perfect middle participle of δωρεω, old verb, to bestow (δωρεα, gift), usually middle as here, in N.T. elsewhere only Mr 15:45 . Αυτου refers to Christ, who has "divine power" (της θειας δυναμεως), since he is θεος ( 1:1). Θειος (from θεος) is an old adjective in N.T. here and verse 4 only, except Ac 17:29 , where Paul uses το θειον for deity, thus adapting his language to his audience as the papyri and inscriptions show. The use of θειος with an imperial connotation is very common in the papyri and the inscriptions. Deissmann (Bible Studies, pp. 360-368) has shown the singular linguistic likeness between 2 Peter 1:3-11 and a remarkable inscription of the inhabitants of Stratonicea in Caria to Zeus Panhemerios and Hecate dated A.D. 22 (in full in C I H ii No. 2715 a b). One of the likenesses is the use of της θειας δυναμεως. Peter may have read this inscription (cf. Paul in Athens) or he may have used "the familiar forms and formulae of religious emotion" (Deissmann), "the official liturgical language of Asia Minor." Peter is fond of δυναμις in this Epistle, and the δυναμις of Christ "is the sword which St. Peter holds over the head of the False Teachers" (Bigg).
All things that pertain unto life and godliness (παντα τα προς ζωην κα ευσεβειαν). "All the things for life and godliness." The new life in Christ who is the mystery of godliness (1Ti 3:16 ). Ευσεβεια with its cognates (ευσεβησ, ευσεβωσ, ευσεβεω) occurs only in this Epistle, Acts, and the Pastoral Epistles (from ευ, well, and σεβομα, to worship).
Of him that called us (του καλεσαντος). Genitive of the articular first aorist active participle of καλεω. Christ called Peter and all other Christians.
By his own glory and virtue (δια δοξης κα αρετης). So B K L, but Aleph A C P read ιδια δοξη κα αρετη (either instrumental case "by" or dative "to"). Peter is fond of ιδιος (own, 1Pe 3:1,5; 2 Peter 2:16,22 , etc.). "Glory" here is the manifestation of the Divine Character in Christ. For αρετη see on 1Pe 2:9 and Php 4:8; 2 Peter 1:5 .
Whereby (δι' ων). Probably the "glory and virtue" just mentioned, though it is possible to take it with παντα τα προς, etc., or with ημιν (unto us, meaning "through whom").
He hath granted (δεδωρητα). Perfect middle indicative of δωρεω, for which see verse 3.
His precious and exceeding great promises (τα τιμια κα μεγιστα επαγγελματα). Επαγγελμα is an old word (from επαγγελλω) in place of the common επαγγελια, in N.T. only here and 3:13. Τιμιος (precious, from τιμη, value), three times by Peter (1Pe 1:7 of faith; 1:19 of the blood of Christ; 2 Peter 1:4 of Christ's promises). Μεγιστα is the elative superlative used along with a positive adjective (τιμια).
That ye may become (ινα γενησθε). Purpose clause with ινα and second aorist middle subjunctive of γινομα.
Through these (δια τουτων). The promises.
Partakers (κοινωνο). Partners, sharers in, for which word see 1Pe 5:1 .
Of the divine nature (θειας φυσεως). This phrase, like το θειον in Ac 17:29 , "belongs rather to Hellenism than to the Bible" (Bigg). It is a Stoic phrase, but not with the Stoic meaning. Peter is referring to the new birth as 1Pe 1:23 (αναγεγεννημενο). The same phrase occurs in an inscription possibly under the influence of Mithraism (Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary).
Having escaped (αποφυγοντες). Second aorist active participle of αποφευγω, old compound verb, in N.T. only here and 2:18-20, with the ablative here (φθορας, old word from φθειρω, moral decay as in 2:12) and the accusative there.
By lust (εν επιθυμια). Caused by, consisting in, lust. "Man becomes either regenerate or degenerate" (Strachan).
Yea, and for this very cause (κα αυτο τουτο δε). Adverbial accusative (αυτο τουτο) here, a classic idiom, with both κα and δε. Cf. κα τουτο (Php 1:29 ), τουτο μεν--τουτο δε (Heb 10:33 ). "The soul of religion is the practical part" (Bunyan). Because of the new birth and the promises we have a part to play.
Adding on your part (παρεισενεγκαντες). First aorist active participle of παρεισφερω, old double compound, to bring in (εισφερω), besides (παρα), here only in N.T.
All diligence (σπουδην πασαν). Old word from σπευδω to hasten (Lu 19:5f. ). This phrase (πασαν σπουδην) occurs in Jude 1:3 with ποιουμενος and on the inscription in Stratonicea (verse 3) with ισφερεσθα (certainly a curious coincidence, to say the least, though common in the Koine).
In your faith (εν τη πιστε υμων). Faith or πιστις (strong conviction as in Heb 11:1,3 , the root of the Christian life Eph 2:8 ) is the foundation which goes through various steps up to love (αγαπη). See similar lists in Jas 1:30; 1Th 1:3; 2Th 1:3f.; Ga 5:22f.; Ro 5:3f.; 8:29f . Hermas (Vis. iii. 8. 1-7) has a list called "daughters" of one another. Note the use of εν (in, on) with each step.
Supply (επιχορηγησατε). First aorist active imperative of επιχορηγεω, late and rare double compound verb (επ and χορηγεω 1Pe 4:11 from χορηγος, chorus-leader, χορος and ηγεομα, to lead), to fit out the chorus with additional (complete) supplies. Both compound and simplex (more common) occur in the papyri. In 1:11 and already in 2Co 9:10; Ga 3:5; Col 2:19 .
Virtue (αρετην). Moral power, moral energy, vigor of soul (Bengel). See 3.
Temperance (την εγκρατειαν). Self-control. Old word (from εγκρατης, εν and κρατος, one holding himself in as in Tit 1:8 ), in N.T. only here, Ac 24:25; Ga 5:23 . The opposite of the πλεονεξια of the heretics.
Patience (την υπομονην). For which see Jas 1:3 .
Godliness (την ευσεβειαν). For which see verse 3.
Love of the brethren (την φιλαδελφιαν). See 1Pe 1:22 .
For if these things are yours and abound (ταυτα γαρ υμιν υπαρχοντα κα πλεοναζοντα). Present active circumstantial (conditional) participles neuter plural of υπαρχω and πλεοναζω (see 1Th 3:12 ) with dative case υμιν, "these things existing for you (or in you) and abounding."
They make you to be (καθιστησιν). "Render" (present active indicative of καθιστημ, old verb, Jas 3:6 ), singular because ταυτα neuter plural.
Knowledge (επιγνωσιν). "Full (additional) knowledge" as in 1:2.
He that lacketh these things (ω μη παρεστιν ταυτα). "To whom (dative case of possession) these things are not (μη because a general or indefinite relative clause)."
Seeing only what is near (μυωπαζων). Present active participle of μυωπαζω, a rare verb from μυωπς (in Aristotle for a near-sighted man) and that from μυεω τους ωπας (to close the eyes in order to see, not to keep from seeing). The only other instance of μυωπαζω is given by Suicer from Ps. Dion. Eccl. Hier. ii. 3 (μυωπασουση κα αποστρεφομενη) used of a soul on which the light shines (blinking and turning away). Thus understood the word here limits τυφλος as a short-sighted man screwing up his eyes because of the light.
Having forgotten (ληθην λαβων). "Having received forgetfulness." Second aorist active participle of λαμβανω and accusative ληθην, old word, from ληθομα, to forget, here only in N.T. See 2Ti 1:5 for a like phrase υπομνησιν λαβων (having received remembrance).
The cleansing (του καθαρισμου). See Heb 1:3 for this word for the expiatory sacrifice of Christ for our sins as in 1Pe 1:18; 2:24; 3:18 . In 1Pe 3:21 Peter denied actual cleansing of sin by baptism (only symbolic). If there is a reference to baptism here, which is doubtful, it can only be in a symbolic sense.
Old (παλα). Of the language as in Heb 1:1 .
Wherefore (διο). Because of the exhortation and argument in verses 5-9.
To make (ποιεισθα). Present middle infinitive of ποιεω, to make for yourselves.
If ye do (ποιουντες). Present active circumstantial (conditional) participle of ποιεω, "doing."
Thus (ουτως). As shown in verse 10.
Shall be supplied (επιχορηγηθησετα). Future passive of επιχορηγεω, for which see verse 5. You supply the virtues above and God will supply the entrance (η εισοδος, old word already in 1Th 1:9 , etc.).
Richly (πλουσιως). See Col 3:16 for this adverb.
Into the eternal kingdom (εις την αιωνιον βασιλειαν). The believer's inheritance of 1Pe 1:4 is here termed kingdom, but "eternal" (αιωνιον feminine same as masculine). Curiously again in the Stratonicea inscription we find της αιωνιου αρχης (of the eternal rule) applied to "the lords of Rome." But this is the spiritual reign of God in men's hearts here on earth (1Pe 2:9 ) and in heaven.
Of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (του κυριου ημων κα σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου). For which idiom see on 1:1.
Wherefore (διο). Since they are possessed of faith that conduces to godliness which they are diligently practising now he insists on the truth and proposes to do his part by them about it.
I shall be ready always (μελλησω αε). Future active of μελλω (Mt 24:6 ), old verb, to be on the point of doing and used with the infinitive (present, aorist, or future). It is not here a periphrastic future, but rather the purpose of Peter to be ready in the future as in the past and now (Zahn).
To put you in remembrance (υμας υπομιμνησκειν). Present active infinitive of υπομιμνησκω, old causative compound (υπο, μιμνησκω, like our suggest), either with two accusatives (Joh 14:26 ) or περ with the thing as here), "to keep on reminding you of those things" (περ τουτων).
Though ye know them (καιπερ ειδοτας). Second perfect active concessive participle of οιδα, agreeing (acc. plural), with υμας. Cf. Heb 5:8 .
In the truth which is with you (εν τη παρουση αληθεια). "In the present truth" (the truth present to you), παρουση present active participle of παρειμ, to be beside one. See Col 1:6 for this use of παρων. Firmly established in the truth, but all the same Peter is eager to make them stronger.
Tabernacle (σκηνωματ). Old word, in literal sense in De 33:18 for the usual σκηνη (Peter's word at the Transfiguration, Mr 9:5 ), earliest use (in N.T. only here, verse 14; Ac 7:46 of the tabernacle of the covenant) in this metaphorical sense of life as a pilgrimage (1Pe 1:1; 2:11 ), though Paul has σκηνος, so in 2Co 5:1,4 . Peter feels the nearness of death and the urgency upon him.
To stir you up (διεγειρειν υμας). Present active infinitive of διεγειρω, late (Arist., Hippocr., Herodian, papyri), perfective (δια = thoroughly) compound, to wake out of sleep (Mr 4:39 ), "to keep on rousing you up."
Cometh swiftly (ταχινη εστιν). Late adjective (Theocritus, LXX, inscription), in N.T. only here and 2:1. It is not clear whether ταχινος means soon or speedy as in Isa 59:7 and like ταχυς in Jas 1:19 , or sudden, like ταχυς in Plato (Republ. 553 D). Either sense agrees with the urgent tone of Peter here, whether he felt his death to be near or violent or both.
Signified unto me (εδηλωσεν μο). First aorist active indicative of δηλοω, old verb (from δελος), as in 1Pe 1:11 . Peter refers to the incident told in Joh 21:18f. , which he knew by personal experience before John wrote it down.
At every time (εκαστοτε). As need arises, old adverb, here alone in N.T.
After my decease (μετα την εμην εξοδον). For εξοδος meaning death see Lu 9:31 , and for departure from Egypt (way out, εξ, οδος) see Heb 11:22 , the only other N.T. examples. Here again Peter was present on the Transfiguration mount when the talk was about the "exodus" of Jesus from earth.
That ye may be able (εχειν υμας). Literally, "that ye may have it," the same idiom with εχω and the infinitive in Mr 14:8; Mt 18:25 . It is the object-infinitive after σπουδασω (I will give diligence, for which see verse 10).
To call these things to remembrance (την τουτων μνημην ποιεισθα). Present middle infinitive of ποιεω (as in verse 10). Μνημη is an old word (from μναομα), here alone in N.T. This idiom, like the Latin mentionem facere, is common in the old writers (papyri also both for "mention" and "remembrance"), here only in N.T., but in Ro 1:20 we have μνειαν ποιουμα (I make mention). Either sense suits here. It is possible, as Irenaeus (iii. I. I) thought, that Peter had in mind Mark's Gospel, which would help them after Peter was gone. Mark's Gospel was probably already written at Peter's suggestion, but Peter may have that fact in mind here.
We did not follow (ουκ εξακολουθησαντες). First aorist active participle of εξακολουθεω, late compound verb, to follow out (Polybius, Plutarch, LXX, papyri, inscriptions as of death following for any Gentile in the temple violating the barrier), with emphatic negative ουκ, "not having followed." See also 2:2 for this verb.
Cunningly devised fables (σεσοφισμενοις μυθοις). Associative instrumental case of μυθος (old term for word, narrative, story, fiction, fable, falsehood). In N.T. only here and the Pastoral Epistles (1Ti 1:4 , etc.). Perfect passive participle of σοφιζω, old word (from σοφος), only twice in N.T., in causative sense to make wise (2Ti 3:15 ), to play the sophist, to invent cleverly (here) and so also in the old writers and in the papyri. Some of the false teachers apparently taught that the Gospel miracles were only allegories and not facts (Bigg). Cf. 2:3 for "feigned words."
When we made known unto you (εγνωρισαμεν υμιν). First aorist active indicative of γνωριζω, to make known unto you. Possibly by Peter himself.
The power and coming (την δυναμιν κα παρουσιαν). These words can refer (Chase) to the Incarnation, just as is true of επιφανεια in 2Ti 1:10 (second coming in 1Ti 6:14 ), and is true of παρουσια (2Co 7:6 of Titus). But elsewhere in the N.T. παρουσια (technical term in the papyri for the coming of a king or other high dignitary), when used of Christ, refers to his second coming (2 Peter 3:4,12 ).
But we were eye-witnesses (αλλ' εποπτα γενηθεντες). First aorist passive participle of γινομα, "but having become eye-witnesses." Εποπτα, old word (from εποπτω like εποπτευω in 1Pe 2:12; 3:2 ), used of those who attained the third or highest degree of initiates in the Eleusinian mysteries (common in the inscriptions). Cf. αυτοπτης in Lu 1:2 .
Of his majesty (της εκεινου μεγαλειοτητος). Late and rare word (LXX and papyri) from μεγαλειος (Ac 2:11 ), in N.T. only here, Lu 9:43 (of God); Ac 19:27 (of Artemis). Peter clearly felt that he and James and John were lifted to the highest stage of initiation at the Transfiguration of Christ. Emphatic εκεινου as in 2Ti 2:26 .
For he received (λαβων γαρ). Second aorist active participle nominative singular of λαμβανω, "he having received," but there is no finite verb, anacoluthon, changing in verse 19 (after parenthesis in 18) to εχομεν βεβαιοτερον rather than εβεβαιωσεν.
When there came such a voice to him (φωνης ενεχθεισης αυτω τοιασδε). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle feminine singular of φερω (cf. 1Pe 1:13 ), repeated ενεχθεισαν in verse 18. Φωνη (voice) is used also of Pentecost (Ac 2:6 ). Τοιοσδε (classical demonstrative) occurs here alone in the N.T.
From the excellent glory (υπο της μεγαλοπρεπους δοξης). "By the majestic glory." Μεγαλοπρεπης, old compound (μεγας, great, πρεπε, it is becoming), here only in N.T., several times in O.T., Apocr. (II Macc. 8:15), adverb in the inscriptions. Probably a reference to νεφελη φωτεινη (bright cloud, shekinah) in Mt 17:5 . The words given here from the "voice" agree exactly with Mt 17:5 except the order and the use of εις ον rather than εν ω. Mark (Mr 9:7 ) and Luke (Lu 9:35 ) have ακουετε. But Peter did not need any Gospel for his report here.
This voice (ταυτην την φωνην). The one referred to in verse 17.
We heard (ηκουσαμεν). First aorist active indicative of ακουω, a definite experience of Peter.
Brought (ενεχθεισαν). "Borne" as in verse 17.
When we were with him (συν αυτω οντες). Present active participle of ειμ, "being with him."
In the holy mount (εν τω αγιω ορε). Made holy by the majestic glory. See Eze 28:14 for "holy mount of God," there Sinai, this one probably one of the lower slopes of Hermon. Peter's account is independent of the Synoptic narrative, but agrees with it in all essentials.
The word of prophecy (τον προφητικον λογον). "The prophetic word." Cf. 1Pe 1:10 , a reference to all the Messianic prophecies.
Made more sure (βεβαιοτερον). Predicate accusative of the comparative adjective βεβαιος (2 Peter 1:10 ). The Transfiguration scene confirmed the Messianic prophecies and made clear the deity of Jesus Christ as God's Beloved Son. Some with less likelihood take Peter to mean that the word of prophecy is a surer confirmation of Christ's deity than the Transfiguration.
Whereunto (ω). Dative of the relative referring to "the prophetic word made more sure."
That ye take heed (προσεχοντες). Present active participle with νουν (mind) understood, "holding your mind upon" with the dative (ω).
As unto a lamp (ως λυχνω). Dative also after προσεχοντες of λυχνος, old word (Mt 5:15 ).
In a dark place (εν αυχμηρω τοπω). Old adjective, parched, squalid, dirty, dark, murky, here only in N.T., though in Aristotle and on tombstone for a boy.
Until the day dawn (εως ου ημερα διαυγαση). First aorist active subjunctive of διαυγαζω with temporal conjunction εως ου, usual construction for future time. Late compound verb διαυγαζω (Polybius, Plutarch, papyri) from δια and αυγη, to shine through, here only in N.T.
The day-star (φωσφορος). Old compound adjective (φως, light, φερω, to bring), light-bringing, light-bearer (Lucifer) applied to Venus as the morning star. Our word φοσφορυς is this word. In the LXX εωσφορος occurs. Cf. Mal 4:2; Lu 1:76-79; Re 22:16 for "dawn" applied to the Messiah.
Knowing this first (τουτο πρωτον γινωσκοντες). Agreeing with ποιειτε like προσεχοντες in verse 19.
No prophecy of Scripture (πασα προφητεια ου). Like the Hebrew lo-kol, but also in the papyri as in 1Jo 2:21 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 753).
Is (γινετα). Rather "comes," "springs" (Alford), not "is" (εστιν).
Of private interpretation (ιδιας επιλυσεως). Ablative case of origin or source in the predicate as with γνωμης in Ac 20:3 and with του θεου and εξ ημων in 2Co 4:7 . "No prophecy of Scripture comes out of private disclosure," not "of private interpretation." The usual meaning of επιλυσις is explanation, but the word does not occur elsewhere in the N.T. It occurs in the papyri in the sense of solution and even of discharge of a debt. Spitta urges "dissolved" as the idea here. The verb επιλυω, to unloose, to untie, to release, occurs twice in the N.T., once (Mr 4:34 ) where it can mean "disclose" about parables, the other (Ac 19:39 ) where it means to decide. It is the prophet's grasp of the prophecy, not that of the readers that is here presented, as the next verse shows.
For (γαρ). The reason for the previous statement that no prophet starts a prophecy himself. He is not a self-starter.
Came (ηνεχθη). First aorist passive indicative of φερω (verses 17f. ).
By the will of man (θεληματ ανθρωπου). Instrumental case of θελημα. Prophecy is of divine origin, not of one's private origination (ιδιας επιλυσεως).
Moved by the Holy Ghost (υπο πνευματος αγιου φερομενο). Present passive participle of φερω, moved from time to time. There they "spoke from God." Peter is not here warning against personal interpretation of prophecy as the Roman Catholics say, but against the folly of upstart prophets with no impulse from God.
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