|« Prev||1 Peter 2||Next »|
Putting away therefore (αποθεμενο ουν). Second aorist middle participle of αποτιθημ, old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cleanse defilements (3:21; Jas 1:21 ) or to put off clothing (Ro 13:12; Col 3:5ff.; Eph 4:22 ). Either sense suits here. Therefore (ουν) because of the new birth ( 1:23) and the new life demanded.
Wickedness (κακιαν). This old word, from κακος (evil), in the ancients meant vice of any kind and note πασαν (all) here.
Guile (δολον). Old word (from δελω, to catch with bait), deceit.
Hypocrisies (υποκρισεις). Singular (υποκρισιν) in the best MSS. See 1:22 (ανυποκριτον) and Mr 7:6f. for Christ's denunciation of hypocrites which the disciples did not understand, including Peter (Mt 15:16ff. ).
Envies (φθονους). Genuine here, not φονους (murders), as B has it. For the word see Mt 27:18 .
As newborn babes (ως αρτιγεννητα βρεφη). Βρεφος, old word, originally unborn child (Lu 1:41-44 ), then infant (Lu 2:12 ), here figuratively, like νηπιο. Αρτιγεννητα is a late and rare compound (Lucian, imperial inscription) from αρτ and γενναω, with evident allusion to αναγεγεννημενο in 1:23, probably meaning that they were recent converts, possibly slight proof that the Epistle written before Romans by Paul (Kuhl).
Long for (επιποθησατε). First aorist (constative) active imperative of επιποθεω, old verb for intense yearning (Php 2:26 ).
The spiritual milk which is without guile (το λογικον αδολον γαλα). Γαλα is old word for milk as in 1Co 9:7 and as metaphor in 1Co 3:2 . Αδολος is an old compound (here alone in N.T.) adjective (alpha privative and δολος deceit), unadulterated milk which, alas, is so hard to get. Λογικον is an old adjective in -ικος, from λογος (reason, speech), in N.T. only here and Ro 12:1 , used here with allusion to λογου ( 1:23) and ρημα ( 1:25), "the sincere milk of the word" ("the milk belonging to the word," either the milk which is the word or the milk contained in the word, that is Christ). So Bigg holds. But in Ro 12:1 Paul uses λογικον in the sense of "rational" or "spiritual," and that idea is possible here as Hort holds. In the Pelagia legend (Usener) we have the phrase των λογικων προβατων του Χριστου (the spiritual or rational sheep of Christ).
That ye may grow thereby (ινα εν αυτω αυξηθητε). Purpose clause with ινα and the first aorist passive subjunctive of αυξανω, old and common verb to grow. See this same metaphor in Col 2:19; Eph 4:15 . Peter uses the word of God as the food for growth, especially for babes in Christ, not emphasizing the distinction from solid food (βρωμα) made in 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:13 . Salvation (σωτηριαν) here is final salvation.
If ye have tasted (ε εγευσασθε). Condition of first class with ε and first aorist middle indicative of γευω in figurative sense as in Heb 6:4f . "A taste excites the appetite" (Bengel).
Unto whom (προς ον). The Lord, carrying on the imagery and language of the Psalm.
Coming (προσερχομενο). Present middle participle masculine plural of προσερχομα (προσελθατε in the Psalm) agreeing with the subject of οικοδομεισθε.
A living stone (λιθον ζωντα). Accusative case in apposition with ον (whom, the Lord Christ). There is apparent an intentional contradiction between "living" and "stone." Cf. "living hope" in 1:3 and "living word" in 1:23.
Rejected indeed of men (υπο ανθρωπων μεν αποδεδοκιμασμενον). Perfect passive participle of αποδοκιμαζω, old verb to repudiate after test (Lu 9:22 ), in the accusative case agreeing with λιθον.
But with God (παρα δε θεω). "By the side of God," as he looks at it, in contrast with the rejection "by men" (υπο ανθρωπων).
Elect (εκλεκτον). From Isa 28:6 as in εντιμον (precious, for which see Lu 7:2 ) rather than δοκιμον (proved) expected after αποδεδοκιμασμενον as meaning far more in God's sight, "a pre-eminence of position with" (Hort).
Ye also as living stones (κα αυτο ως λιθο ζωντες). Peter applies the metaphor about Christ as the living stone to the readers, "ye yourselves also."
Are built up a spiritual house (οικοδομεισθε οικος πνευματικος). Present passive indicative second person plural of οικοδομεω, the very verb used by Jesus to Peter in Mt 16:18 (οικοδομησω) of building his church on the rock. If the metaphor of a house of living stones seems "violent" (Vincent), it should be remembered that Jesus employed the figure of a house of believers. Peter just carried it a bit farther and Paul uses a temple for believers in one place (1Co 3:16 ) and for the kingdom of God in general (Eph 2:22 ), as does the author of Hebrews (Heb 3:6 ). This "spiritual house" includes believers in the five Roman provinces of 1:1 and shows clearly how Peter understood the metaphor of Christ in Mt 16:18 to be not a local church, but the church general (the kingdom of Christ).
To be a holy priesthood (εις ιερατευμα αγιον). Late word (from ιερατευω, to serve as priest, Lu 1:8 alone in N.T.), in LXX (Ex 19:6 ), in N.T. only here and verse 9, either the office of priest (Hort) or an order or body of priests. At any rate, Peter has the same idea of Rev 1:6 (ιερεις, priests) that all believers are priests (Heb 4:16 ) and can approach God directly.
To offer up (ανενεγκα). First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of αναφερω, the usual word for offering sacrifices (Heb 7:27 ). Only these are "spiritual" (πνευματικας) as pictured also in Heb 13:15f .
Acceptable (ευπροσδεκτους). Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (ευ, προσ, δεχομα) as in 2Co 6:2 .
It is contained (περιεχε). Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of περιεχω, old verb, to surround, transitive in Lu 5:9 to seize (only other N.T. example). The formula with περιεχε is in Josephus (Ant. XI. 7). This Scripture (εν γραφη) is Isa 28:16 with some changes. Peter had in verse 4 already quoted εκλεκτον and εντιμον. Now note ακρογωνιαιον (a chief corner stone), a word apparently invented by Isaiah (from ακρος, highest, and γωνιαιος, Attic word for corner stone). Paul in Eph 2:20 uses the same word, making Christ the chief corner stone (the only other N.T. example). In Isaiah the metaphor is rather a foundation stone. Peter and Paul make it "the primary foundation stone at the structure" (W. W. Lloyd).
On him (επ' αυτω). That is, "on it" (this corner stone, that is, Christ).
Shall not be put to shame (ου μη καταισχυνθη). Strong negatives ου μη with first aorist passive subjunctive of καταισχυνω, old verb, to put to shame (Ro 5:5 ).
The preciousness (η τιμη). Or "the honour." Explanation of εντιμον and ου μη καταισχυνθη and only true "for you which believe" (τοις πιστευουσιν ethical dative of articular present active participle of πιστευω to believe).
But for such as disbelieve (απιστουσιν δε). Dative present active participle again of απιστεω, opposite of πιστευω (Lu 24:11 ).
Was made the head of the corner (εγενηθη εις κεφαλην γωνιας). This verse is from Ps 118:22 with evident allusion to Isa 28:16 (κεφαλην γωνιασ=ακρογωνιαιον). See Mt 21:42; Mr 12:10; Lu 20:17 , where Jesus himself quotes Ps 118:22 and applies the rejection of the stone by the builders (ο οικοδομουντες, the experts) to the Sanhedrin's conduct toward him. Peter quoted it also (and applied it as Jesus had done) in his speech at the Beautiful Gate (Ac 4:11 ). Here he quotes it again to the same purpose.
And (κα). Peter now quotes Isa 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed "a stone of stumbling (λιθος προσκομματος) and rock of offence (πετρα σκανδαλου)," quoted also by Paul in Ro 9:32f. , which see for discussion. Προσκομμα (from προσκοπτω, to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while σκανδαλον is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between λιθος (a loose stone in the path) and πετρα (a ledge rising out of the ground).
For they (ο). Causal use of the relative pronoun.
Stumble at the word, being disobedient (προσκοπτουσιν τω λογω απειθουντες). Present active indicative of προσκοπτω with dative case, λογω, and present active participle of απειθεω (cf. απιστουσιν in 2:7) as in 3:1. Τω λογω can be construed with απειθουντες (stumble, being disobedient to the word).
Whereunto also they were appointed (εις ο κα ετεθησαν). First aorist passive indicative of τιθημ. See this idiom in 1Ti 2:7 . "Their disobedience is not ordained, the penalty of their disobedience is" (Bigg). They rebelled against God and paid the penalty.
But ye (υμεις δε). In contrast with the disobedient ones.
A holy nation (εθνος αγιον). Also from Ex 19:6 , but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles).
A people for God's own possession (λαος εις περιποιησιν). The idea here occurs in Ex 19:5; De 7:6; 14:2; 26:18 , where we have λαος περιουσιος as in Tit 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Mal 3:17 we find εις περιποιησιν (for a possession). Περιουσιος λαος is a people over and above the others and περιποιησις is a possession in a special sense (Eph 1:14 ). See Paul's use of περιεποιησατο in Ac 20:28 . The old rendering, "a peculiar people," had this idea of possession, for "peculiar" is from pecus (Latin for flock).
That ye may shew forth (οπως εξαγγειλητε). Purpose clause with οπως, rather than ινα, with the first aorist active subjunctive of εξαγγελλω, old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.
The excellencies (τας αρετας). From Isa 43:21 . Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for "virtue," but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3,5; Php 4:8 ; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isa 42:12 . See Ac 2:11 τα μεγαλεια του θεου (the mighty works of God).
Darkness (σκοτους). Heathenism.
Which in time past (ο ποτε). "Who once upon a time."
No people (ου λαος). This phrase from Hos 2:23 . Note use of ου (not ουδεις) with λαος like Hebrew negative.
Which had not obtained mercy (ο ουκ ελεημενο). Perfect passive articular participle of ελεεω and the emphatic negative ου, with which compare Paul's use of Ho 1; 2 in Ro 9:25 , which may have been known to Peter or not.
But now have obtained mercy (νυν δε ελεηθεντες). Change to first aorist passive participle from "the long antecedent state" to "the single event of conversion which ended it" (Hort).
As sojourners and pilgrims (ως παροικους κα παρεπιδημους). This combination from the LXX (Ge 33:4; Ps 39:13 ). See 1:1 for παρεπιδημος and 1:17 for παροικια and Eph 2:19 for παροικος (only there and here in N.T., Christians whose fatherland is heaven).
To abstain from (απεχεσθα). Present middle (direct) infinitive of απεχω, old verb, to hold back from (1Th 4:3 ). In indirect command (to keep on abstaining from) after παρακαλω (I beseech). With the ablative case των σαρκικων επιθυμιων, the grosser sins of the flesh (for σαρκικος see 1Co 3:3 ) like the list in 4:3.
Which (αιτινες). "Which very ones." Like Latin quippe qui.
War against the soul (στρατευοντα κατα της ψυχης). Present middle indicative of στρατευω, to carry on a campaign (Jas 4:1 ). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Ga 5:16-24 .
That (ινα). Final conjunction with δοξασωσιν (they may glorify, first aorist active subjunctive of δοξαζω, the purpose of the Christians about the Gentiles.
Wherein (εν ω). "In what thing."
By your good works (εκ των καλων εργων). "Out of (as a result of) your good (beautiful) deeds."
Be subject to (υποταγητε). Second aorist passive imperative second person plural of υποτασσω, to subject to, as in 3:22.
Every ordinance of man (παση ανθρωπινη κτισε). Dative case of old and common word κτισις (from κτιζω, to create, to found), act of creation (Ro 1:20 ), a creature or creation (Ro 1:25 ), all creation (Col 1:15 ), an institution as here (in Pindar so). For ανθρωπινος (human) see Jas 3:7 . Peter here approves no special kind of government, but he supports law and order as Paul does (Ro 13:1-8 ) unless it steps in between God and man (Ac 4:20 ).
For the Lord's sake (δια τον κυριον). For Jesus' sake. That is reason enough for the Christian not to be an anarchist (Mt 22:21 ). The heathen were keen to charge the Christians with any crime after Nero set the fashion. "It should not be forgotten that, in spite of the fine language of the philosophers, the really popular religions in Greece and Rome were forms of devil-worship, intimately blended with magic in all its grades" (Bigg).
As supreme (ως υπερεχοντ). Dative singular of present active participle of υπερεχω, old verb (intransitive), to stand out above (to have it over), as in Ro 13:1 . It is not the divine right of kings, but the fact of the king as the outstanding ruler.
Unto governors (ηγεμοσιν). Dative again of ηγεμων, a leader (from ηγεομα, to lead), old and common word (Mt 10:18 ).
As sent by him (ως δι' αυτου πεμπομενοις). Present passive participle of πεμπω. Δι' αυτου is "by God," as Jesus made plain to Pilate; even Pilate received his authority ultimately "from above" (Joh 18:11 ).
For vengeance on evil-doers (εις εκδικησιν κακοποιων). Objective genitive with εκδικησιν, for which see Lu 18:7f .
For praise to them that do well (επαινον αγαθοποιων). Objective genitive again, αγαθοποιος, a late word (Plutarch, Sirach) from αγαθον and ποιεω here only in N.T. Found in a magical papyrus.
By well-doing (αγαθοποιουντας). Present active participle of αγαθοποιεω, only in LXX and N.T. (Mr 3:4 ). In accusative case agreeing with υμας understood, accusative of general reference with φιμοιν, present active infinitive (epexegetic infinitive after το θελημα του θεου, the will of God), late and rare verb (from φιμος muzzle), as in Mt 22:12 .
The ignorance of foolish men (την των αφρονων ανθρωπων αγνωσιαν). Αγνωσια is late and rare word (in the papyri) from alpha privative and γνωσις (knowledge), in N.T. only here and 1Co 15:24 (disgraceful ignorance in both instances). Note alliteration.
And not using your freedom (κα μη εχοντες την ελευθεριαν). "And not holding your liberty" (present active participle of εχω, with usual negative μη with participle.
For a cloke of wickedness (ως επικαλυμμα της κακιας). Επικαλυμμα (from επικαλυπτω Ro 4:7 ) is a rare word (Aristotle, LXX) for veil, here only in N.T. and in figurative sense for pretext to do wickedness under, a thing, alas, that sometimes happens.
But as bondservants of God (αλλ' ως θεου δουλο). Paul's proud title. There is no such thing as absolute freedom (personal freedom), for that is anarchy. Cf. Ro 6:22 "enslaved to God."
Honour all men (παντας τιμησατε). Not with the same honour. Constative use of the aorist imperative.
Love the brotherhood (την αδελφοτητα αγαπατε). Present active imperative of αγαπαω, keep on doing it. Note the abstract αδελφοτης (from αδελφος, brother) in the collective sense, rare save in ecclesiastical literature, though in I Macc. 12:10; IV Macc. 10:3, and in late papyri. It is a word for all Christians.
Fear God (τον θεον φοβεισθε). In both senses of reverence and dread, and keep it up (present middle imperative).
Honour the king (τον βασιλεα τιματε). Keep that up also. A fine motto in this verse.
Servants (ο οικετα). Note article with the class as with ανδρες ( 3:7), though not with γυναικες ( 3:1). Οικετης, old word from οικος (house), means one in the same house with another (Latin domesticus), particularly house servants (slaves) in distinction from the general term δουλος (slave). "Ye domestics." See similar directions to Christian servants (slaves) in Col 3:22-25; Eph 6:5-7; 1Ti 6:1f.; Tit 2:9f . Οικετης in N.T. occurs only here, Lu 16:13; Ac 10:7; Ro 14:4 .
Be in subjection (υποτασσομενο). Present middle participle of υποτασσω, common late compound to subject oneself to one (Lu 2:51 ). Either the participle is here used as an imperative (so in 3:1,7 ) as in Ro 12:16f. , or the imperative εστε has to be supplied (Robertson, Grammar, p. 945).
To your masters (τοις δεσποταις). Dative case of δεσποτης, old word for absolute owner in contrast with δουλος. It is used also of God (Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24,29 ) and of Christ (2 Peter 2:1; Jude 1:4 ). Κυριος has a wider meaning and not necessarily suggesting absolute power.
To the good and gentle (τοις αγαθοις κα επιεικεσιν). Dative case also with the article with class. For επιεικης see on Jas 3:17 . There were slave-owners (masters) like this as there are housekeepers and employers of workmen today. This is no argument for slavery, but only a sidelight on a condition bad enough at its best.
To the froward (τοις σκολιοις). "To the crooked." Old word, also in Lu 3:5; Ac 2:40; Php 2:15 . Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are employers today, like this group. The test of obedience comes precisely toward this group.
For this is acceptable (τουτο γαρ χαρις). "For this thing (neuter singular τουτο, obedience to crooked masters) is grace" (χαρις is feminine, here "thanks" as in Ro 7:25 ). "Acceptable" calls for ευπροσδεκτον ( 2:5), which is not the text here.
If a man endureth griefs (ε υοφερε τις λυπας). Condition of first class with ε and present active indicative of υποφερω, old verb, to bear up under, in N.T. only here, 1Co 10:13; 2Ti 3:11 . Note plural of λυπη (grief).
For conscience toward God (δια συνειδησιν θεου). Suffering is not a blessing in and of itself, but, if one's duty to God is involved (Ac 4:20 ), then one can meet it with gladness of heart. Θεου (God) is objective genitive. For συνειδησις (conscience) see on Ac 23:1; 1Co 8:7 . It occurs again in 1Pe 3:16 .
Suffering wrongfully (πασχων αδικως). Present active participle of πασχω and the common adverb αδικως, unjustly, here alone in N.T. This is the whole point, made clear already by Jesus in Mt 5:10-12 , where Jesus has also "falsely" (ψευδομενο). See also Lu 6:32-34 .
For what glory (ποιον γαρ κλεος). Qualitative interrogative (what kind of glory). "What price glory?" Κλεος is old word from κλεω (καλεω, to call), report, praise, glory, here only in N.T.
If ye shall take it patiently (ε υπομενειτε). First-class condition with ε and future active indicative of υπομενω, for which see Jas 1:12 . Same condition also in next sentence (αλλ' ε, etc.).
When ye sin (αμαρτανοντες). Present active participle of αμαρτανω (continued repetition).
And are buffeted for it (κα κολαφιζομενο). Present passive participle of κολαφιζω, late word (from κολαφος fist), only in N.T. (cf. Mt 26:67 ) and ecclesiastical writers. Repeated action again. No posing as a martyr allowed here. Christians do sometimes deserve persecution, as Jesus implied (Mt 5:10-12 ).
When ye do well (αγαθοποιουντες). Present active participle of αγαθοποιεω as in verse 15.
And suffer for it (κα πασχοντες). Present active participle of πασχω (verse 19). No "for it" in the Greek here or in the previous sentence.
This is acceptable with God (τουτο χαρις παρα θεω). "This thing (neuter) is thanks (verse 19) by the side of (παρα) God (as God looks at it)."
For hereunto were ye called (εις τουτο γαρ εκληθητε). First aorist indicative of καλεω, to call. They were called to suffer without flinching (Hort), if need be.
Because (οτ). The fact that Christ suffered (επαθεν) lifts their suffering to a new plane.
Leaving you an example (υμιν υπολιμπανων υπογραμμον). Present active participle of the late Ionic verb υπολιμπανω (in the papyri) for the common υπολειπω, to leave behind (under), here only in N.T. Hυπογραμμος is also a late and rare word (from υπογραφω, to write under), a writing-copy for one to imitate, in II Macc. 2:28; Philo, Clement of Rome, here only in N.T. Clement of Alex. (Strom. V. 8. 49) uses it of the copy-head at the top of a child's exercise book for the child to imitate, including all the letters of the alphabet. The papyri give many examples of υπογραφη and υπογραφω in the sense of copying a letter.
That ye should follow his steps (ινα επακολουθησητε τοις ιχνεσιν αυτου). Purpose clause with ινα and first aorist active subjunctive of επακολουθεω, old verb, to follow closely upon, with the associative-instrumental (1Ti 5:10,24 ) or the locative here. Ιχνος is old word (from ικω, to go), tracks, footprints, in N.T. only here, 2Co 12:18; Ro 4:12 . Peter does not mean that Christ suffered only as an example ( 1:18), but he did leave us his example for our copying (1Jo 2:6 ).
Who did no sin (ος αμαρτιαν ουκ εποιησεν). Quotation from Isa 53:9 . He has already expressed the sinlessness of Christ in 1:19. The next clause is a combination of Isa 53:9; Zep 3:13 . For "guile" (δολος) see verse 1.
Reviled not again (ουκ αντελοιδορε). Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of αντιλοιδορεω, late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one papyrus example with compound following the simplex verb as here, Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary), here only in N.T. Idiomatic use of αντ (in turn, return, back).
But committed himself (παρεδιδου δε). Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of παραδιδωμ, to hand over, usually of one to a judge, but here not of another (as the Sanhedrin), but himself (supply εαυτον), for Jesus uses this very idea in Lu 23:46 as he dies. Jesus thus handed himself and his cause over to the Father who judges righteously (τω κρινοντ δικαιως, dative of present active articular participle of κρινω).
Bare our sins (ανηνεγκεν τας αμαρτιας ημων). Second aorist active indicative of αναφερω, common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar. Combination here of Isa 53:12; De 21:23 . Jesus is the perfect sin offering (Heb 9:28 ). For Christ's body (σωμα) as the offering see 1Co 11:24 . "Here St. Peter puts the Cross in the place of the altar" (Bigg).
Upon the tree (επ το ξυλον). Not tree here as in Lu 23:31 , originally just wood (1Co 3:12 ), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Ac 5:30; 10:39 ; and by Paul in Ga 3:13 (quoting De 21:23 ).
Having died unto sins (ταις αμαρτιαις απογενομενο). Second aorist middle participle of απογινομα, old compound to get away from, with dative (as here) to die to anything, here only in N.T.
That we might live unto righteousness (ινα τη δικαιοσυνη ζησωμεν). Purpose clause with ινα and the first aorist active subjunctive of ζαω with the dative (cf. Ro 6:20 ). Peter's idea here is like that of Paul in Ro 6:1-23 , especially verses 2,10f. ).
By whose stripes ye were healed (ου τω μωλωπ ιαθητε). From Isa 53:5 . First aorist passive indicative of ιαομα, common verb to heal (Jas 5:16 ) and the instrumental case of μωλωπς, rare word (Aristotle, Plutarch) for bruise or bloody wound, here only in N.T. Cf. 1:18. Writing to slaves who may have received such stripes, Peter's word is effective.
For ye were going astray like sheep (ητε γαρ ως προβατα πλανωμενο). Brought from Isa 53:6 , but changed to periphrastic imperfect indicative with ητε and present middle participle of πλαναω, to wander away. Recall the words of Jesus in Lu 15:4-7 .
But are now returned (αλλα επεστραφητε). Second aorist passive indicative of επιστρεφω, old verb, to turn, to return (Mt 10:13 ).
Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls (επ τον ποιμενα κα επισκοπον των ψυχων υμων). Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd (Joh 10:11 , and see also Heb 13:20 ). Here alone is Christ called our "Bishop" (overseer). See both ideas combined in Eze 34:11 . Philo calls God Επισχοπος. Jesus is also Αποστολος Heb 3:1 ) and he deserves all other titles of dignity that we can give him.
|« Prev||1 Peter 2||Next »|
►Proofing disabled for this book
► Printer-friendly version